<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Location of national parks...
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 Macaya biosphere reserve area...
 Resume (French summary)
 Introduction
 Chapter I: The concept of national...
 Chapter II: Organizational...
 Chapter III: Parc National Pic...
 Chapter IV: Macaya biosphere...
 Chapter V: A proposed biosphere...
 Chapter VI: Species recovery...
 Chapter VII: Project summary, action...
 Literature cited and selected bibliography...
 Flora
 Fauna
 Maps
FLAG DLOC UFLAC


STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065152/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stewardship plan for the national parks and natural areas of Haiti
Physical Description: viii, 331 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Woods, Charles A
Sergile, Florence E
Ottenwalder, Jose Alberto
Florida Museum of Natural History
USAID/Haiti
Publisher: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: National parks and reserves -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Parc national Pic Macaya (Haiti)   ( lcsh )
Parc national La Visite (Haiti)   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 281-304).
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles A. Woods, Florence E. Sergile, Jose Alberto Ottenwalder.
General Note: Rev. of: Stewardship plan for the national parks of Haiti / by Charles A. Woods and Lawrence Harris. 1986.
General Note: "Prepared for USAID/Haiti"--T.p. verso.
General Note: Summary in French.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27606598
System ID: UF00065152:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title 1
        Title 2
    Location of national parks in Haiti
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Table of Contents
        Contents 1
        Contents 2
        Contents 3
        Contents 4
        Contents 5
        Contents 6
        Contents 7
    Macaya biosphere reserve area photos
        Unnumbered ( 12 )
    Resume (French summary)
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chapter I: The concept of national parks and biosphere reserves in Haiti
        Page 7
        Introduction
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Terminology
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Conservation strategy in Haiti
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Actions of the government of Haiti in conservation
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
    Chapter II: Organizational plan
        Page 21
        Objectives
            Page 21
        Special concerns
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Parcs nationaux naturels d'Haiti
                Page 23
                Page 24
            Organization of Parcs Haiti
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
                Responsibilities of Parcs Haiti
                    Page 29
                Implementation and development
                    Page 30
                Operations
                    Page 31
                Public use
                    Page 32
                Environmental stewardship
                    Page 32
                Monitoring and evaluation
                    Page 33
        Budget for Parcs Haiti
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
    Chapter III: Parc National Pic Macaya
        Page 45
        Location
            Page 46
        Size and natural boundaries
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Access
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Major features
            Page 52
            Geology
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
            Soils
                Page 56
            Floristics
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
            Butterflies
                Page 61
            Land molluscs
                Page 62
            Herpetofauna
                Page 62
                Page 63
            Birds
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
            Mammals
                Page 67
                Page 68
            Paleobiology
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
            Paleoclimates
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
        Critical regions and topics of special concern
            Area
                Page 82
            Special concerns
                Page 83
        Zones and areas of Parc Macaya
            Recreation
                Page 84
                Page 85
            Special permit area
                Page 86
            Biological preserve
                Page 87
            Restoration
                Page 88
            Maintenance and service
                Page 89
            Security and information
                Page 89
            Education
                Page 90
            Research
                Page 91
        Plan for Parc Macaya
            Administration
                Page 92
            Maintenance
                Page 93
            Security
                Page 93
            Recreation and tourism
                Page 94
            Education and interpretation
                Page 95
            Public Relations
                Page 96
            Research
                Page 97
            Conservation goals
                Page 97
                Page 98
            Ten year plan
                Page 99
                Page 100
    Chapter IV: Macaya biosphere reserve
        Introduction
            Page 101
        Conservation strategy
            Page 102
            Natural resources management plan
                Page 102
            History of biosphere reserve concept
                Page 103
            Goals and objectives of biosphere reserve
                Page 104
            Establish of an ideal biosphere reserve
                Page 104
            Some biosphere reserve programs of the Caribbean area
                Page 105
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
        Macaya biosphere reserve
            Page 110
            Units in biosphere reserve concept
                Page 109
            Current status and recent changes in the biogeophysical environment
                Formon
                    Page 111
                    Page 112
                Riviere trois sources
                    Page 113
                Pa Lan Kont
                    Page 114
                Deglacis region
                    Page 115
                    Page 116
                    Page 117
                    Page 118
                Rak Bwa habitat at Sous Bois/Portal formon
                    Page 119
                    Page 120
        Local guides association
            Page 121
            Conclusions
                Page 121
                Page 122
                Existing trails in the region of the planned biosphere reserve
                    Page 123
                    Page 124
                    Page 125
        Overview of the target zones
            Page 126
        Geology
            Page 126
            Page 127
        Soils
            Page 128
            Page 129
        Implementation of the planned Macaya biosphere reserve
            Recommended land uses
                Page 130
                Page 131
            Land use zones
                Page 132
                Page 133
            Specific recommendations for formon
                Page 134
                Page 135
        Current environmental conditions in the Macaya area
            Page 136
            Page 137
        Summary
            Page 138
    Chapter V: A proposed biosphere reserve for the Citadelle area of Northern Haiti
        Henry Christophe Biosphere reserve: the antilles 2000 modality northern Haiti in the context of protected areas
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Northern Haiti in the context of protected areas
            Page 141
        Criteria for selection of the Henry Christophe biosphere reserve
            Page 141
            Page 142
        Targeted conservation units
            Description of the units
                The Le Borgne unit
                    Page 143
                    Page 144
                The les Mornes du cap unit
                    Page 145
                La Citadelle unit
                    Page 146
                The Tete Grande Riviere du Nord unit
                    Page 147
                The Bassin Zim unit
                    Page 148
            Zoning
                Page 149
                Page 150
        Organization of the Henry Christophe biosphere reserve project
            Page 151
            Page 152
        Ownership of the resources
            Page 153
        Complexity of relationships
            Page 153
        Activities involved in the project
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
        Proposed organizational structures and possible alternatives
            Alternative I: ISPAN* plan
                Page 157
                Page 158
            Alternative II: Land and environment plan
                Page 159
                Page 160
            Alternative III: Outreach plan
                Page 161
                Page 162
        Integrated ten-year plan for the Henry Christophe biosphere reserve
            Page 163
            Page 164
        Conclusions
            Conservation Plan: Antilles 2000 modality
                Page 165
            Administrative management plan
                Page 166
            Projections: Implementation of Antilles 2000 plan versus laissez-faire
                Page 167
                Page 168
    Chapter VI: Species recovery plans
        Introduction
            Page 169
            Page 170
        Recovery plan for the massif de la Hotte Solenodon
            Introduction
                Page 171
                Page 172
            Description
                Page 173
                Page 174
            Life history
                Page 175
                Page 176
            Fossils and historical information
                Page 177
                Page 178
            Causes for decline
                Page 179
            Conservation efforts
                Page 179
            Problem analysis and recovery strategies
                Page 180
            Finding and monitoring Solenodons
                Page 180
                Habitat
                    Page 181
                Diseases and parasites
                    Page 182
                Small population size
                    Page 182
                    Page 183
                    Page 184
            Recovery
                Objective
                    Page 185
                Stepdown outline
                    Page 185
                    Page 186
                Recovery narrative
                    Page 187
                    Page 188
                    Page 189
                    Page 190
                    Page 191
                    Page 192
                    Page 193
                    Page 194
                    Page 195
        Recovery plan for the black-capped petrel
            Introduction
                Page 196
            Taxonomy
                Page 197
            Description
                Page 197
            Historical range
                Page 198
            Present distribution
                Page 199
            Status
                Page 199
            Habitat
                Page 200
            Life history
                Page 201
                Page 202
                Page 203
            Predation, diseases, and parasites
                Page 204
            Reasons for decline and present threats
                Page 205
                Page 206
            Conservation measures taken
                Page 207
            Recovery Objective
                Stepdown Outline
                    Page 208
                Recovery narrative
                    Page 209
                    Page 210
                    Page 211
        Recoveryplan for the white-winged warbler
            Introduction
                Taxonomy
                    Page 212
                Description
                    Page 213
            Historical range
                Page 213
            Present distribution
                Page 214
            Status of the species
                Page 214
            Habitat
                Page 214
            Life history
                Page 215
            Food and feeding behavior
                Page 216
            Predation, diseases and parasites
                Page 216
            Reasons for decline and present threats
                Page 216
            Recovery
                Recovery objective
                    Page 217
                Stepdown outline
                    Page 218
                Recovery narrative
                    Page 218
                    Page 219
                    Page 220
                    Page 221
        Recovery plan for the Hispaniolan Crossbill
            Introduction
                Taxonomy
                    Page 222
                Description
                    Page 223
            Historical range
                Page 223
            Present distribution
                Page 223
            Status
                Page 224
            Habitat
                Page 224
            Life history
                Page 225
            Reasons for decline and present threats
                Page 226
            Conservation measures taken
                Page 227
            Recovery objective
                Page 227
                Stepdown outline
                    Page 228
                Recovery narrative
                    Page 229
                    Page 230
                    Page 231
                    Page 232
    Chapter VII: Project summary, action plan, and view to the future
        Summary of national parks and biosphere reserves in Haiti
            Location
                Page 233
                Page 234
            Purpose
                Page 235
            Resources
                Page 236
                Page 237
                Page 238
            Management
                Zones
                    Page 239
            Construction controls
                Page 240
            Roads
                Page 240
        Administration
            Suggested annual budget
                Page 241
            Routine maintenance schedule
                Page 241
            Infrastructure
                Page 242
                Page 243
                Page 244
            Personnel
                Page 245
            Logistics
                Page 245
        Interpretation and research
            Interpretation
                Page 246
                Page 247
            Research
                Page 248
        Park headquarters and stations
            Location
                Page 249
                Page 250
            Type and construction
                Page 251
        Integration of the parks with region
            Jobs
                Page 252
            Watershed management
                Page 252
            Model programs
                Page 253
        Recommend training programs
            Individuals
                Page 254
            Location and training
                Page 254
            Specific courses and topics
                Page 254
        Concluding comments on Parcs Haiti and biosphere reserves
            Page 255
            Page 256
        The proposed World Bank project and the environmental protection service
            Page 257
        Objectives and strategy of the proposed World Bank project
            Objectives
                Page 258
            Strategy
                Page 259
                Page 260
        Major project components of the proposed World Bank project
            National land use assessment
                Page 261
            Forest resources inventory
                Page 262
            Creation of a new national parc and additional forest reserves
                Page 263
            Management of national parks
                Page 264
                Page 265
                Page 266
                Page 267
            Identification of the new national park and forest reserves
                Page 268
            Preservation of endangered species
                Page 269
            Phasing of the SPE project
                Page 269
        MacArthur foundation conservation project “Bridge”
            Page 270
        Summary of proposed MacArthur foundation activities
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
        Personnel supported by the MacArthur foundation grant
            Page 276
        Facilities to be used by MacArthur foundation grant
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
    Literature cited and selected bibliography on natural resources and conservation in Haiti
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
    Flora
        Endemic flora of Parc National La Visite
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
        Endemic flora of Parc National la Visite
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
    Fauna
        Butterflies of the national parks of Haiti
            Page 314
        Land mollusks of the National Parks of Haiti
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
        Annotated list of amphibians and reptiles known from the Massif de la Hotte and adjacent areas
            Page 318
            Page 319
        Annotated list of amphibians and reptiles known from the Massif de la Selle and adjacent mountain areas
            Page 320
            Page 321
        Status and conservation index of 18 Haitian birds
            Page 322
        Endemic birds of Hispaniola
            Page 323
        Comparison of summary bird data between la Visite and Parc Macaya
            Page 324
        Complete list of the mammals of Haiti
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
        Introduced free-living mammals of Haiti
            Page 328
        Historical mammal diversity in West Indian Islands
            Page 329
        Endemic land mammals of the Massif de la Hotte and Massif de la Selle
            Page 330
        Fossil and recent land mammals from Trouing Jeremie #5
            Page 331
    Maps
        Macaya biosphere reserve functional zones - 1989
            Page 332
        Proposed management plan - 1992
            Page 333
        Parc National la Visite
            Page 334
Full Text







STEWARDSHIP PLAN

FOR

THE NATIONAL PARKS

AND NATURAL AREAS

OF

HAITI



by
Charles A. Woods
Florence E. Sergile
Jose Alberto Ottenwalder

Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

1992






UIIVER5JTY OF FLORTRA I .rT.PIES







Reserve de
la Biosphere









AMACAYk


Prepared for USAID/Haiti under contract number
521-0191-A-00-7107



This volume is printed on Recycled Paper.









ilie de la Tortue
LOCATION OF NATIONAL PARKS IN HAITI rt-de-Px PARC NATIONAL HISTORIUE
Jearbe LACITADELLE, SANS SOUCI, RAMIERS
M61e *DEPARTEMENT DU lonie Cris,-...
SanNicol s O 'j, '--.
LEGEND a r i-ien..
alei NORD OUEST(. /
Town r / C") .ne Liberti. v-
own itadelle
Plaisance r *Gde. Riv.du Nord ,
I------- Rivers -DEPARTEMENT *3l
SGolfe W E ( ..
Mountains \ "-- '." ""
Sde la NORD i .-
'-,DEPA Et ENT
Highways Gde. Saline -"sAiii ...

Goniave A: p,
IStl -Ra .. .iAnche\ ^' -

-. Verrette- ^.L'ART[pONITE
Pes" -l -'eTha.
Ddiu-ehomorid-e-
Montrouis I:. -e
I LaChapelle I
Anse-Ae dU5t Lona
<_ c V alets -, Mirebalai5, -, ,.:. : ,
Arcahai DEPAR NT. .
,Jeremie Grande .o
'-a -l ycayemite Por-a cr.'.O .ES L '. L,::,:.'.-
Dame Marie 0 aymite 5 ,,o o, CP
Ansed'Hainault o Pestel Veau one

"7W ; --f .. '
Cap Carcasse .Tlburon mp Perrin "' '" ... ;" .
S- -.Aquin" 04 *; .. 0
Les MA Port-A-Piment Bainegot Sa

PARC NATI NAL Las Cayes PARC NATIONAL
PIC MACAYA ( e-Vach, MORNE LA VISITED :
I I~ I I Pi es Pedernales.
Pte.-a-Gravois 0 10 30 fOkm













Dedication

This volume is dedicated to Michel Aubry, who lost
his life while following his, and our, dream of a nation-
al park at Pic Macaya.











Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all of our co-workers of the University of Florida Macaya Biosphere Reserve
Project who participated in various aspects of this project, and who contributed so much under very
difficult conditions. Some of our colleagues who contributed valuable ideas and much-needed assistance
were Paul Monaghan, Micki Swisher, Jenness McBride, Paul Paryski and John Hermanson. We acknow-
ledge and appreciate the support of Edmond Magny and Louis Buteau of MARNDR and Albert
Mangones of ISPAN. We also acknowledge with appreciation our associates at USAID, particularly
Michelet Fontaine, Larry Harms, Catherine McIntyre, Kevin Mullally, and Charles-Emile Philoctete. We
are very grateful to those many Haitians who assisted us as we did field work. And, we are grateful for the
assistance of the following people in producing this volume: Beth Ramey for editing and layout, and Laurie
Walz and Linda Chandler for artwork. Of course, none of the work would have been possible without the
support of Missy Woods.
We would like to thank especially Michael Jenkins and the John and Catherine MacArthur Foundation.
The MacArthur Foundation Grant to Charles Woods and the University of Florida is the single bright
spot in an otherwise very difficult time in the history of conservation in Haiti. Without this grant, the
Macaya Biosphere Reserve Project would have completely floundered. It is difficult to be optimistic about
the conservation of natural resources in Haiti, and the preservation of the rare and endemic flora and
fauna of the Pic Macaya area. However, with the help of the MacArthur Foundation, and the flexibility
that this grant provides us, we are optimistic that some important parts of the plan presented here can be
implemented.









Table of Contents



Resume (French summary)................................................ ..................

Introduction................................................................................................1

Chapter I The Concept of National Parks and
Biosphere Reserves in Haiti
Introduction......................................................................................... 7
Terminology .......................................... ................ ..........................9
Conservation Strategy in Haiti ...................................... ....... ....... 11
Actions of the Government of Haiti in Conservation........................ 17

Chapter II Organizational Plan
Objectives ............................................................................................ 21
Special Concerns ..................................................................................21
Pares Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti ........................................ ...23
Organization of Pares Haiti .................................................... .....25
Responsibilities of Pares Haiti ............................................ ....29
Implementation and Development................................ ....30
Operations........................................ ............ ...............................31
Public Use ...................................... ..............................................32
Environmental Stewardship....................................................32
Monitoring and Evaluation.............................................. ......33
Budget for Pares Haiti .................................. ......................... ........34

Chapter III Pare National Pic Macaya................... .......................45
Location ...............................................................................................46
Size and Natural Boundaries ............................................................47
Access ................................................................................................... 50
Major Features.................................................... .............................52
Geology..........................................................................................53
S oils .......................................................................................................56
F loristics ...............................................................................................57
B butterflies .............................................................................................61
Land Molluscs .................................................................. ................. 62
Herpetofauna ................................................... .... .................. 62
B irds ......................................................................................................64









M am m als ..............................................................................................67
Paleobiology.........................................................................................69
Paleoclimates .....................................................................................76
Critical Regions and Topics of Special Concern
A areas .............................................................................................. 82
Special Concerns ....................................... ........................................83
Zones and Areas of Parc Macaya
Recreation....................................................................................84
Special Permit Area ................................... .....................................86
Biological Preserve .........................................................................87
Restoration................................................................................... 88
Maintenance and Service ..............................................................89
Security and Information...............................................................89
Education .....................................................................................90
Research .......................................................................................91
Plan for Parc Macaya
Administration.............................................................................92
Maintenance.................................................................................93
Security ...........................................................................................93
Recreation and Tourism......................... .....................................94
Education and Interpretation....................................................95
Public Relations...........................................................................96
Research .......................................................................................97
Conservation Goals...........................................................................97
Ten Year Plan ......................................... ....................................99

Chapter IV Macaya Biosphere Reserve
Introduction ................................................................................................ 101
Conservation Strategy............................................................................. 102
Natural Resources Management Plan.............................................. 102
History of Biosphere Reserve Concept .........................................103
Goals and Objectives of Biosphere Reserve................................. 104
Establishment of an Ideal Biosphere Reserve.............................. 104
Some Biosphere Reserve Programs of the Caribbean Area......... 105
Macaya Biosphere Reserve Parcs Haiti and the
Concept of "Biosphere Reserves" ...................................................107
Organization of Parcs Haiti and other GOH
Units in Biosphere Reserve Concept........................................ 109
Current Status and Recent Changes
in the Biogeophysical Environment...........................................111









F orm on ............................................................................................ 111
Riviere Trois Sources .................................................................. 113
Pa Lan Kont .................................................................................. 114
Deglacis Region.............................................................................. 115
Rak Bwa Habitat at Sous Bois/Portal Formon ........................119
Local Guides Association ................................................... ........121
Conclusions ......................................................................................... 121
Existing Trails in the Region of the Planned
Biosphere Reserve ...................................................................... 123
Overview of the Target Zones
Physical factors ............................................................................. 126
G eology............................................................................................ 126
Soils ..................................................................................................128
Implementation of the Planned Macaya Biosphere Resersve......130
Recommended Land Uses.......................................................... 130
Land Use Zones .................................................................... ... 132
Specific recommendations for Formon....................................... 134
Current Envrionmental conditions in the Macaya area ............... 136
Sum m ary........................................................................................ 138

Chapter V A Proposed Biosphere Reserve for the
Citadelle Area of Northern Haiti
Henry Christophe Biosphere Reserve: the Antilles 2000 Modality... 139
Northern Haiti in the Context of Protected Areas............................. 141
Criteria for Selection of the Henry Christophe Biosphere Reserve.. 141
Targeted Conservation Units................................................................. 143
Descriptions of the Units ................................................................. 143
The Le Borgne Unit ..................................................................... 143
The Les Mornes du Cap Unit..................................................... 145
La Citadelle Unit........................................................................... 146
The Tete Grande Riviere du Nord Unit.................................. 147
The Bassin Zim Unit................................................................... 148
Z oning................................................................................................... 149
Organization of the Henry Christophe
Biosphere Reserve Project .............................................................. 151
Ownership of the Resources .................................................................. 153
Complexity of Relationships .................................................................. 153
Activities Involved in the Project.......................................................... 154
Proposed Organizational Structures and Possible Alternatives......... 157









Alternative I: ISPAN Plan ............................................................ 157
Alternative II: Land and Environment Plan ................................ 159
Alternative III: Outreach Plan ....................................................... 161
Integrated Ten-Year Plan for the Henry Christophe
Biosphere Reserve ............................................................................ 163
Conclusions ................................................................................................165
Conservation Plan: Antilles 2000 M odality................................... 165
Adm inistrative M anagem ent Plan.................................................. 166
Projections: Implementation of Antilles 2000 plan
versus laissez-faire........................................................................ 167

Chapter VI Species Recovery Plans
Introduction................................................................................................ 169
Recovery Plan for the Massif de la Hotte Solenodon........................ 171
Introduction .......................................... ................ .............................171
D description .......................................................................................... 173
Life H history ......................................................................................... 175
Fossils and H historical Inform ation ...................................................177
Causes for D decline ............................................................................ 179
Conservation Efforts........................................................................ 179
Problem Analysis and Recovery Strategies................................... 180
Finding and M monitoring Solenodons................................................ 180
H habitat ............................................................................................. 181
D diseases and Parasites................................................................. 182
Sm all population size........................................ ........................ 182
R ecovery...................................................................................... 185
Objective .......................................................................................... 185
Stepdown Outline ........................................................................... 185
Recovery Narrative...................................................................... 187
R recovery Plan for the Black-Capped Petrel.......................................... 196
Introduction ......................................................................................... 196
Taxonomy ............................................................................................. 197
D description .......................................................................................... 197
H historical Range................................................................................ 198
Present distribution............................................................................. 199
Status ............................................................................................... 199
H habitat ............................................................................ ..........200
Life H history .......................................................... ........................201
Predation, D diseases and Parasites................................................ 204
Reasons for D decline and Present Threats ..................................... 205









Conservation Measures Taken..................................................216
Recovery .........................................................................................217
Recovery Objective ..................................... .................................217
Stepdown Outline............................ .........................................218
Recovery Narrative................................... .................................218
Recovery Plan for the Hispaniolan Crossbill
Introduction
Taxonomy ...................................................................................222
Description.................................................................................223
Historical Range.............................................................................223
Present Distribution.......................................................................223
Status ................................................................................................224
Habitat ............................................................................................ 224
Life History .....................................................................................225
Reasons for Decline and Present Threats .....................................226
Conservation Measures Taken.................................... ............ 227
Recovery Objective ....................................................................... 227
Stepdown Outline .. ................................................................... 228
Recovery Narrative ...................................................................229

Chapter VII Project Summary, Action Plan, and
View to the Future
Summary of National Parks and Biosphere Reserves in Haiti ...........233
Location ..........................................................................................233
Purpose ........................................................................................... 235
Resources .....................................................................................236
Management ................................................................................239
Z ones................................................................................................239
Construction Controls ...................................................................240
R oads .............................................................................................. 240
Administration.......................................... .........................................241
Suggested Annual Budget .............................................................241
Routine Maintenance Schedule ......................................................241
Infrastructure ......................................... ............................................242
Personnel............................................ ..........................................245
Logistics .......................................................................................... 245
Interpretation and Research..................................................................246
Interpretation...............................................................................246
R research ......................................................................................... 248
Park Headquarters and Stations..........................................................249









L location ................................................................................................ 249
Type and Construction ............................................................251
Integration of the Parks with Region.................. ......................252
Jobs ........................................................................................................252
Watershed Management .............................................................252
M odel Program s................................... .........................................253
Recommended Training Programs ........................................... .....253
Individuals .................................................................................... 253
Location and Training ..................................................................253
Specific Courses and Topics ....................................................254
Concluding Comments on Parcs Haiti and Biosphere Reserves........255
The Proposed World Bank Project and The Environmental
Protection Service ................................... ........................................257
Objectives and Strategy of the Proposed World Bank Project ...........258
O objectives ...................................................................................... 258
Strategy .......................................................................................... 259
Major Project Components of the Proposed World Bank Project.....261
National Land Use Assessment .......................................... .....261
Forest Resources Inventory...............................................................262
Creation of a New National Park and
Additional Forest Reserves ........................................... .....263
Management of National Parks...............................................264
Identification of the New National Park and Forest Reserves.....268
Preservation of Endangered Species ..............................................269
Phasing of the SPE Project .........................................................269
MacArthur Foundation Conservation Project "Bridge".....................270
Summary of Proposed MacArthur Foundation Activities.................271
Personnel Supported by the MacArthur Foundation Grant.............276
Facilities to be used by MacArthur Foundation Grant........................277

Literature Cited and Selected Bibliography on Natural
Resources and Conservation in Haiti........................................ ...281

Appendix I Flora
Endemic Flora of Parc National Pic Macaya.......................................305
Endemic Flora of Parc National La Visite ..........................................310

Appendix II Fauna
Butterflies of the National Parks of Haiti ..............................................314
Land Mollusks of the National Parks of Haiti.......................................315









Annotated List of Amphibians and Reptiles known from the
Massif de la Hotte and Adjacent Areas .........................................318
Annotated List of Amphibians and Reptiles known from the
Massif de La Selle and Adjacent Mountain Areas .......................320
Status and Conservation Index of 18 Haitian Birds............................322
Endemic Birds of Hispaniola................................................................. 323
Comparison of Summary Bird Data between
La Visite and Parc Macaya...................... .................................324
Complete List of the Mammals of Haiti ................................................325
Introduced Free-living Mammals of Haiti.........................................328
Historical Mammal Diversity in West Indian Islands ........................329
Endemic Land Mammls of the Massif de la Hotte
and M assif de la Selle ........................................................ ...........330
Fossil and Recent Land Mammals from Trouing Jeremie #5 ...........331

Appendix III Maps
Macaya Biosphere Reserve Functional Zones 1989........................332
Proposed Management Plan 1992 .................................. ........... 333
Pare N national La Visite............................ ...........................................334








Ridge of Formon
Pic Le Ciel Ravine in need of
reforestation

Morne Cavalierf


























Tete Ravine Macaya

Formon























Macaya Biosphere Reserve Area

1992










RESUME


GESTION ET CONSERVATION DES AIRES PROTEGEES EN HAITI
Ce volume resume l'historique de la conservation en Haiti et le plan de
gestion des parcs nationaux pr6sent6 au gouvernement haltien en 1986. II
propose un systhme de gestion et d'administration des aires r6serv6es, deux
modules de reserves de la biosphere et des alternatives a court et moyen terme.
Il est, cependant, recommand6 au lecteur de se r6f6rer aux figures, aux
appendices et au texte anglais pour de plus amples details.

Historique des aires prot6g6es
Le concept de protection des aires naturelles en Haiti remote a 1926.
II est 6troitement li6 a la protection des reserves forestieres et des bassins
versants. La 16gislation concernant la protection des resources naturelles et des
zones r6serv6es est copieuse, code rural de 1962, lois du 17 aofit 1955, du 7 avril
1958, du 28 mai 1968, d6crets du 18 mars 1968, 31 mars 1971, d6crets-lois du 23
juin 1937, du 27 juin 1944. La creation des parcs nationaux naturels des mornes
la Visite et Macaya date du d6cret du 23 juin 1983. Ce dernier remanie celui du
18 mars 1968 concerant la creation de huit parcs nationaux et sites naturels et
d6finit les responsabilit6s du MARNDR vis a vis de ces dix parcs. Les objectifs
des zones r6serv6es ou parcs nationaux ne sont pas d6finis done leur gestion et
administration creent d'importants problemes. Elles sont partag6es entire deux
institutions a budget restreint. Entre 1983 et 1988, les parcs 6taient sous
Administration conjointe de 1'ISPAN et du MARNDR qui n'ont pu se
concentrer sur le programme de conservation des parcs nationaux naturels faute
de moyens. A cette meme epoque, le Mus6e d'Histoire Naturelle de la Floride a
travaill6 sous contract de 1'USAID pour compl6ter les inventaires biophysiques,
d6velopper un plan de gestion pour les parcs nationaux du Morne la Visite et du
Pic Macaya et un programme national de conservation.
Les objectifs du programme de parcs nationaux naturels en Haiti sont: 1)
La protection des conditions et processus 6coloqgiques naturels; 2) la
promotion du patrimoine natural national et son unique valeur; 3) le
d6veloppement de programmes touristiques. Le programme de conservation
des parcs nationaux devrait etre d6velopp6 dans les plus brefs dl6ais car la flore
et la faune du pays se d6t6riorent A un rythme alarmant.

Objectifs des parcs nationaux
Les objectifs des parcs nationaux en Haiti n'ont jamais 6t6 d6finis. Le
d6cret du 23 juin 1983 6numere les responsabilit6s du MARNDR comme suit:

a) prot6ger les conditions 6cologiques des parcs et sites naturels;
b) entreprendre l'inventaire des esp6ces animals et v6g6tales des
parcs et sites naturels;
c) 6tudier les caract6ristiques des especes end6miques de haute
valeur scientifique ainsi que celles des facteurs physiques: g6ologie, sols,
climats et autres des parcs et sites naturels;



i








d) identifier les aires naturelles terrestres ou maritimes du
territoire national pr6sentant des caract6ristiques 6cologiques unique ou
sp6ciales et qui m6ritent d'etre d6clar6es parcs ou sites naturels;
e) preserver les parcs et sites naturels de toute d6t6rioration
physique;
f) autoriser et sup6rviser dans les aires des parcs et sites
naturelles tous travaux de recherche entrepris par la communaut6
scientifique;
g) diffuser toutes informations relatives aux parcs et sites naturels;
h) offrir les facilities d'acces et autres commodit6s aux visiteurs.

Un programme d'6tablissement d'aires prot6g6es doit d6finir tout
d'abord le but de chacun de ces spaces car leur objectif determine leur plan de
gestion. La synth6se des responsabilit6s remises au MARNDR r6sument les
objectifs des parcs nationaux naturels comme suit:
1. La protection des conditions etprocessus ecologiques naturels. Le
b6n6fice de ces actions est: A) la preservation des bassins versants, done
l'aml6ioration de la quality de vie de tous les Haitiens dans les aires
adjacentes aux parcs nationaux; b) la preservation de la diversity des
esp6ces naturelles done du patrimoine national natural.
2. La promotion du patrimoine national nature. Ses
b6n6fices sont: a) l'enrichissement des connaissances des citroyens
haitiens sur les caract6ristiques unique de leur pays; b) la possibility que
de sages decisions soient prises pour le d6veloppement et l'utilisation
durable des resources naturelles a long terme.
3. Le d6veloppement de programmes touristiques et r6cr6atifs qui
prendrait advantage de la situation et de la beauty unique des parcs et des
caract6rirstiques sp6ciales comme la flore, la faune ou la g6ologie. Il est
certain que les HB'tiens tireraient parti des parcs au niveau regional et
national sans abimer leur quality si le plan de gestion est d6velopp6 et
6tabli.

Administration des pares nationaux et reserves naturelles
Ce plan propose une unit administrative, "Parcs Nationaux Naturel
d'HaTti" ou Pares Haiti, pour g6rer toutes les divisions fonctionnelles d'un
programme global de conservation. Cette organisation aurait a sa tate un
directeur et serait sous la tutelle d'un seul ministere. Pares Haiti serait en
charge des sites naturels de6j identifies par le gouvernement, proposerait
d'autres sites unique plagess, grottes, paysages unique, jardin botanique etc.) et
travaillerait en 6troite collaboration avec le MARNDR, 1'ISPAN et d'autres
institutions concern6es.
Pares Haiti devrait 8tre une institution autonome qui mettrait sur pied
un programme de conservation fontionnel pour Haiti. Elle serait supervise par
un conseil, le Conseil Consultatif des Pares Nationaux (CCPN) form des
directeurs de I'ISPAN, des Ressources Naturelles du MARNDR, de l'Office
National du Tourisme, du president de la Soci6t6 Audubon Haiti, d'un citoyen
haitien dument int6ress6 a la conservation, d'un repr6sentant d'une organisation
international de conservation et du directeur de Pares Haiti qui serait le



ii








president et coordonateur de ce conseil. Les membres se r6uniraient au moins
une fois l'an pour discuter des programmes et de leur d6veloppement qui serait
effectu6 avec le personnel propose dans le tableau ci-dessous.

PARCS NATIONAUX NATURELS D'HAITI
(PARCS HAITI)

Bureau Central
Directeur
Assistant Directeur en Education et R6cr6ation
Assistant Directeur en Conservation et Recherhe
Secr6taire-comptable
Secr6taire-biblioth6caire
Chauffeur
Messager
Gardien

Pare La Visite Pare Macaya
Superviseur de Parc Superviseur de Pare
Gardien Gardien
Cuisiniere Cuisiniere
Agents de Parcs (7) Agents de Pares (7)
Ouvriers (15) Ouvriers (15)


Deux alternatives sont proposees pour la creation immediate de Pare
Haiti. La premiere pr6voit un contract avec une institution international de
conservation qui s'occuperait du programme en employant et entrainant des
Haitiens sur une p6riode de cinq ans. La deuxieme suggere, comme le project de
la Banque Mondiale, d'utiliser le personnel du Service de Protection de
1'Environnement du MARNDR. Cependant, il est recommand6 que Pares Haiti
n'ait qu'un seul directeur.
Les responsabilit6s de Pares Haiti sont les suivantes: Ex6cution du plan
de gestion, fonctionnement de Pares HaYti, usage publique, gestion de
l'environnement des parcs, observation et evaluation des caract6ristiques
naturelles, et d6veloppement des programmes 6ducatifs. Ces diff6rentes
activities seraient entreprises par le directeur et ces assistants pendant 1) la phase
d'ex6cution qui comprendrait la revision du plan de gestion, les appeals d'offres et
embauchages,et 2) la phase de fonctionnement qui engloberait la coordination
entire diff6rentes institutions, les presentations et les relations publiques, la
supervision du budget et la coordination sur le terrain. Le budget quinquenal de
ces operations est de 12.573.950 gourdes et comprend l'installation, les
constructions, les salaires et les operations.

Les pares nationaux en Haiti
Le Pare National Pic Macaya
I1 est situ6 dans le massif de la Hotte, A 36 km au nord'ouest de la ville
des Cayes. On y accede difficilement, par la seule route voiturable de Ducis-Le



iii








PrAtre-Platons. Il s'6tend autour de deux montagnes dominantes, le morne
Formond (2219 m) et le Morne Macaya (2347 m).et inclut de profondes ravines,
d'autres mornes de formation karstique et volcanique et des forts de pins et de
feuillus riches en especes end6miques. Son climate accuse des precipitations de
plus de 3000mm/an due aux aliz6s, aux vents d'est et aux nord6s. Le pare
constitute le chateau d'eau de la Grande Ravine du Sud, la riviere de 1'Acul, de
Port-a-Piment, des Roseaux et de la riviere Glace, don't la stability est affected
par le d6boisement excessif en "faveur" de cultures non-rentables. Ce parc est
grandement menace par une poign6e de paysans qui mettent en jeu la vie de
milliers de gens en aval.
Le d6cret du 23 juin propose arbitrairement une surface de 2.000 ha,
cependant elle devrait etre de 7.500 ha et comprendraient les regions et
caract6ristiques suivantes (Appendix III. Reserve de la Biosphere de Macaya.
Proposed management plan):
1) Le morne Macaya (2.347 m), le morne Formon (2.219 m), le pic le
Ciel (2.170 m), Civette (1.533 m) et Grande Plaine (1.900 m) zones de recharge
de la nappe phr6atique et sources de 5 rivieres. Ces zones devraient rester
bois6es car elles accusent des pentes de plus de 60%, retiennent des milliards de
tonnes de sols et protegent les systemes d'irrigation en aval. La rehabilitation de
ces zones sera extremement cofteuse a la nation haftienne, car d'acc6s difficiles.
2) Bois Formond, Bois Durand situ6 entire la crete du morne Cavalier
(1570 m), Sous Bois et les planes de Durand et Formond. Zone de recharge de
la nappe phr6atique et d'importance capital car particulierement riche en
esp6ces end6miques animals (oiseaux, agouti, reptiles et amphibiens) et
v6g6tales (orchid6es, sapotilliers, ml6astomes, calbassiers).
3) Mare Cochon/Diquillon de formation karstique et riche en esp6ces
end6miques. Habitat unique et essential des nez longs (Solenodon paradoxus).
Cette surface de 7,500 ha ne repr6sente 0.27% du territoire national, et le
minimum requis pour un programme de conservation de la region qui content le
plus haut taux d'end6misme de File et constitute le chateau d'eau des milliers
d'hectares des regions en aval.

Goologie
La g6ologie de la region de Macaya est complex et se situe entire le
Cr6tac6 inf6rieur et le R6cent. Elle est caract6ris6e par deux formations, celle
de Macaya compose de roches calcaires a topographie karstique et celle de
Dumisseau caract6ris6e par un conglom6rat de roches volcaniques basaltiques,
de turbidites calcaires, de cherts, de gres siliceux, et par un relief tres accidents
avec des gorges 6troites. Ce sont des zones a fort ruissellement. De nombreuses
failles traversent le pare du nord au sud et d'autres de l'est a l'ouest. La plus
important faille qui spare le morne de Formond de celui de Macaya date du
Miocene et traverse une bonne parties de la presqu'ile du sud et le parc via la
Grande Ravine du Sud. Des affleurements de basaltes peuvent etre observes
jusqu'a 1600 m sur le morne Formond. La plupart des g6ologistes pensent que
la formation Macaya superpose celle de Dumisseau.

Sols
Les formations g6ologiques r6gissent la composition des sols de la region
qui varient entire des oxisols et des ultisols a pH l6gerement acide ou neutre. La
plaine de Formond et le "Rak Bois" Formond comporte de profound oxisols a pH
neutre, tandis que celle de Durand, les mornes vers Cavalier, la zone de Kay



iv








Tilus, du Morne Formond et de Trois Sources ont des ultisols. Ces sols sont tr6s
suceptibles A l'6rosion et sont d6ja menac6s dans beaucoup de regions.

Flore
La flore du pare comporte pres de 500 especes de plants vasculaires
don't 102 fougeres (3 end6miques), 99 especes de mousses et 49 especes
d'h6patiques, 1 conifere end6mique, 141 orchid6es (38 end6miques du massif de
la Hotte et 58 de l'ile d'Haiti), 367 autres plants a fleurs (55 end6miques du
massif de la Hotte, 18 du Massif de la Hotte et de la Selle, 39 de l'ile). Trois
especes sur dix sont end6miques de Macaya. Un bon nombre de ces especes
sont sensibles a la deforestation et risquent de disparaltre malgr6 leur potential
sylvicole, medicinal et ornemental non encore exploit (Appendix I). Ces
plants sont groupies dans la fort de pins, des forces de feuillus, des bosquets
denses, et/ou fragments, des jardins en jachere a l'int6rieur des zones
6cologiques de Holdridge. La fort tres humide de montagne de basse altitude
se situe dans la region de la plaine de Formond et des "rak bois"
Formond/Durand, la fort tres humide de la zone sous-tropicale au nord du pic
Macaya. Les crates des mornes Formond et Macaya sont du type de fort tres
humide de montagne. Les regions du haut de la Grande Ravine du Sud et de
Diquillon sont des forces pluvieuses de montagne de basse altitude et finalement
la fort pluvieuse de la zone sous tropical se situe dans la region du plateau de
Mare Cochon vers Catiche.

Faune
Le pare national de Macaya compete 11 especes de papillons don't le
Calisto loxias connu seulement de cette region. Cinquante sept especes de
mollusques ont 6t6 collects en 1983 don't 2 nouveaux genres, 27 nouvelles
especes, 23 end6miques. L'erpetologie de la zone compete 18 amphibiens et 14
reptiles (analyses en course .
La faune- aviaire d'Haiti est riche et comporte 73 esp&ces d'oiseaux don't
24 end6miques. Un grand nombre de migrateurs nichent uniquement dans les
forces montagneuses d'Haiti comme le "Chat-huant", diablotin ou petrel
(Pterodoma hasitata). Le pare national Macaya compete 65 especes don't le
Caleqon Rouge (Temnotrogan roseigaster), le kat Je Sid (Phaenicopohilus
poliocephalus), le Ti Chit Kat Je (Xenoligea montana) et le colibri (Tudus
angustrirostris). Les analyses d'enquetes confirment qu'onze especes sont
vuln6rables a cause de la degradation de leur habitat et menac6s d'extinction.
Des programmes de retablissement et de conservation sont urgents, ils seront
difficiles mais pas impossible. La disparition d'especes entraine tout un
d6s6quilibre qui affected grandement les homes A court et a long terme.
Les mammif6res terrestres endemiques du pare ne sont qu'au nombre de
deux. Ce sont I'agouti ou zagouti (Plagiodontia aedium) et le nez long ou nen
long (Solenodon paradoxus). L'agouti est un rongeur nocture qui vit dans des
crevasses de formation karstique bois6e ou se r6fugie entire les racines de gros
arbres particulierement le bois tremble (Didymopanax tremulum) dans les
montagnes aux environs de 2.200 m d'altitude. II se nourrit d'6corce de jeunes
branches, de rameaux, de feuilles et de fruits de bois tremble, d'avocat marron
(Persea anomala), de lamandier (Prunus sp.). Cependant, il est consid6r6
comme un fliau, puisqu'il s'attaque aux racines de malanga, d'igname, de
patates, aux parties v6g6tales des pois noirs, au mais quand ces cultures sont
6tablies pres de ces sites naturels. II boit tres peu d'eau, done l'obtient
probablement de sa nouriture. Les agoutis sont de passables grimpeurs et
utilisent leur queue semi-prehensile pour se mouvoir de branches en branches.



v








Ils ont une vie assez longue, mais un taux de reproduction bas. Les femelles
donnent naissance a un seul petit par port6e apres une gestation de plus de
quatre mois. La couleuvre endormie (Epicrates striatus), les chiens et les chats
marronss" sont ces plus grands pr6dateurs. II a toujours 6t6 un animal rare, et
est encore vivant grace a son comportement secret, cependant si sa niche
6cologique est d6truite, il a de fortes chances de disparaitre.
Le nez long est un insectivore sylvestre nocturne qui vit dans les crevasses
des formations karstiques de la region de Catiche et Duchity, entire 500 et 1.000
m d'altitude II se nourrit d'escargots, de centipedes, de scorpions, de petits
vert6br6s et d'oeufs d'anolis, grenouilles, oiseaux. Le taux de f6condit6 est
faible. La femelle donne naissance a 2 petits par an. La gestation est de plus de
90 jours. La couleuvre endormie (Epicrates striatus), la chouette ou fris6 (Tyto
alba), les chiens et les chats marronss", la mangouste sont ses pr6dateurs. I1 est
tres vulnerable car mauvais grimpeur et pas aussi alerte que l'agouti. I1 est tres
rare dans les limits du parc et disparaitra dans les 10 ans a venir si de gros
efforts de conservation ne sont pas entrepris.

Paldontologie
La faune des fantomes du pass est abondante. Elle comptait 25
esp6ces, il y a 20.000 ans. Des fossils trouv6s dans les depressions (touings)
documentent la presence de 5 insectivores, 13 rongeurs, 1 sai (singe), 4 als et 1
m6gath6rium (paresseux de l'ordre des 6dent6s). Les fouilles ont revel6es que
les mammiferes collects dans la region de Formond vivaient depuis le
Pleistocene sup6rieur et l'Holocene inf6rieur.

Gestion et utilisation de 1'espace
La gestion du parc national Macaya comprendrait les volets suivants sur
des spaces bien sp6cifiques: 1) la r6cr6ation ouvertes aux tourists; 2)
l'enrichissement oi se d6roulent les expositions pour l'information du public sur
le parc; 3) la preservation biologique qui repr6sente l'activit6 la plus important
du programme de conservation; 4) la r6g6n6ration qui permet la restauration
des systemes naturels; 5) la recherche qui comprend des stations
climatologiques et laboratoires; 6) les gu6rites de s6curit6 et d'information; 7)
les zones d'utilisation sp6ciale qui ne peuvent etre visit6es qu'avec un permit; 8)
les zones de service et d'entretien oi sont places les depots et oi le personnel
fait la mise en place pour les diff6rents programmes.
Le plan de gestion du Parc National Pic Macaya est divise en neuf
themes: 1) 1'Administration don't serait responsible un superviseur de parc; 2)
l'entretien qui serait entrepris par une 6quipe a plein temps; 3) la s6curit6
assure par des agents de parcs entrain6s; 4) la recreation et le tourism; 5)
l'enrichissement et l'interpretation; 6) les relations publiques; 7) la recherche;
8) le plan quiquenal de conservation qui comprend la preservation des systemes
existants et leur r6g6n6ration dans les aires critiques, la preservation de la faune
et de la flore, la stabilisation des bassins versants, des aires 6rod6es et la
r6g6n6ration des forts; 9) le plan d6cennal qui comprend le bornage du parc et
des zones r6serv6es, les appeals d'offres, l'emploi et la formation du personnel
n6cessaire, la construction des gu6rites de s6curit6, d'autres centres d'accueil
dans les regions de la Guinaud6e, D6glacis, Trois Sources, l'6tablissement des
plan de conservation et de preservation, le d6veloppement des attractions pour
tourists, la pose d'affiches et panneaux, les recherches sur les especes
end6miques, l'amelioration et entretien des structures et des routes de
p6n6tration.



vi








Pare National La Visite
Il est situ6 A 22 km de Port-au-Prince dans le Massif de la Selle. L'acces
est diffile via la route de Furcy et Ka Jacques (55Km) ou encore par la route de
Jacmel-Marigot-Seguin (150 Km et plus de 6 heures de route en jeep). I1 s'6tend
tout au long de la crete de ce massif entire le morne d'Enfer (1.900 m) et le
morne Kadeneau(2.155 m). Le point le plus haut du pare est la borne de 2.282
m du Morne Cabaio. Le d6cret du 23 juin 1983 propose 2.000 ha. Le bornage
official du pare n'a pas encore 6t6 entrepris, cependant les limits naturelles du
parc entourent une surface de plus de 4.500 ha. Le morne d'Enfer est une
extention naturelle du parc qui se trouve dans une aire non habit6e a l'ouest de
la Visite et de la route de reliant Furcy a Seguin. Cette aire devraient &tre
comprise dans le pare car c'est un habitat-refuge pour les esp6ces end6miques.
L'ensemble requis pour la protection efficace des bassins versants et des esp6ces
end6miques (du Morne Kaderneau au Morne d'Enfer) repr6sente 6.300 ha
(Appendix III. Map of la Visite).

Geologie
La g6ologie du parc la Visite reflete celle de l'ile et est constitute de
deux formations. La formation de Neiba compose d'un bloc calcaire de
l'Eocene qui comprend des dolines, des grottes souterraines et des ravines et la
formation Dumisseau du Cr6tac6 sup6rieur qui comprend du basalte et des
olivines. Les limits septentrionales du massif de la Selle accuse une faille.

Flore
La flore du parc la Visite est riche en especes end6miques groupees
dans des forets de pins et de feuillus. Elle compete plus de 300 especes de
plants vasculaires don't 12 d'orchid6es, 3 coniferes et 60 fougeres. Des 262
plants a fleurs collectees en 1983, 60 especes sont endemiques de 1'ile, 40 du
massif de la Selle et 12 du massif de la Selle et de la Hotte.

Faune
Le pare national du Morne la Visite compete 20 especes de papillons
don't le Calisto archebates connu seulement de cette region. Quarante cinq
especes de mollusques ont 6t6 collects en 1983 don't 27 nouvelles especes.
Trois amphibiens et un reptile sont end6miques du massif de la Selle. La faune
aviaire accuse 67 especes d'oiseaux don't 17 end6miques de I'ile. Seul l'agouti
(zagouti) et 4 chiropteres vivent encore dans ce parc. Seize mammiferes
terrestres et 4 chauve-souris ont disparus au course des 1000 dernieres ann6es.

Ressources
Les resources g6ologiques et biologiques sont inventories dans les
rapports des parcs nationaux (G6ologie, flore, papillons, malacologie,
erp6tologie, oiseaux et mamiferes des parcs nationaux). L'analyse de ces
documents indiquent que les parcs nationaux sont de grande importance a cause
de leurs caract6ristiques unique. La g6ologie des deux parcs r6v6lent des
details sur le pass d'Haiti quand les sommets des montagnes 6taient des 6cueils.
Le grand foss6 de la Grande Ravine du Sud entire le morne Formond et le
morne Macaya fait parties d'une immense faille qui coupe en travers la p6ninsule
du sud de Tiburon a la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac.
L'importance de chaque parc est discut6 en matiere d'end6misme. Le
parc Macaya content plus de plants et de mammif6res end6miques que celui
de la Visite, cependant le parc la Visite abrite 2 esp6ces end6miques d'oiseaux



vii









de plus, et deux fois plus de 16pidopteres que le parc Macaya. Beaucoup de
mammif6res don't quinze terrestres et quatre chiropteres ont disparus du parc la
Visite. La perte des mammiferes end6miques dans les deux parcs est dramatique,
mais pas unique. La moyenne des pertes des especes end6miques a travers la
Caraibe pendant les 3000 dernieres ann6es est de 88%. Il est clair cependant que
les pertes a la Visite sont plus importantes que celles a Macaya puisque la Visite
est une zone perturb6e. Une esp6ce end6mique de la region de Macaya a disparue
avant meme qu'elle n'ait 6t6 d6crite. D'immenses efforts pour trouver en de
nouvelles sont rests vains. En effet, cinq. especes ont disparues au course des trente
dernieres ann6es, ce qui coincide avec la perte dramatique des habitats naturels.

Les R6serves de la Biosphere
Une strat6gie qui 6tablirait un programme de conservation des resources
naturelles en Haiti doit combiner d6veloppement durable et conservation pour
satisfaire les besoins d'une population sans endomager les 6cosystemes naturels.
Ceci est possible grace au d6veloppement de reserves de la biosphere. Ce concept
permet de promouvoir et maintenir la balance entire les hommes et le milieu
nature par une utilisation adequate de l'espace. Il semble convenir a la gestion
des aires prot6g6es en Haiti. Une reserve id6ale est composee d'une aire r6serv6e
entour6e de zones fonctionnelles. Dans la region de Macaya, le project de
l'universit6 de Floride a d6velopp6 ce module qui n'est toujours pas official aupres
de 1'UNESCO. Elle consiste en une zone r6serv6e qui est le pare national Macaya,
et des zones fonctionnelles qui comprennent l'agriculture, l'agrosylviculture et
l'61evage, des zones d'utilisation sp6ciale et de forts. Chacune des zones peut etre
g6ree par des organismes diff6rents moyennant une bonne collaboration. Ce serait
le rl6e de Parcs Haiti de prot6ger le pare national et de coordonner les activities de
production avec d'autres organizations.
Il est recommand6 d'inclure les sites naturels d6ja identifies par le
gouvernement dans un syst6me de reserve de la Biosphere. Trois reserves
potentielles existent dans le massif de la Selle (R6serve de la Biosphere de la
Visite), de la Hotte (R6serve de la Biosphere de Macaya) et dans le d6partement
du Nord (R6serve de la Biosphere Henri Christophe). Cette derniere comprend 5
units qui abrite des zones de cooperation tourismm, agriculture, agrosylviculture,
sylviculture, conservation et r6g6n6ration). Ces units sont places dans un
context historique, touristique ou de protection des bassins versants pour allier la
conservation au d6veloppement. Elles sont choisies dans la zone de la Citadelle
Laferriere, du Borgne, de Bassin Zim, des Mornes du Cap et de la source de la
Grande Rivibre du Nord.

Le future des aires proteges en Haiti
La gestion des aires prot6g6es require un plan actif et dynamique et son
execution a long terme qui devra etre implants dans les plus brefs dl6ais,
autrement les 2% de forces et de v6g6tation naturelles qui restent encore au pays
seront rapidement d6truits. Le project de l'universit6 de Floride finance par
I'USAID a fonctionn6 pendant cinq ans et aurait encore beaucoup A faire pour
prot6ger le parc. Plus de 12 sites naturels devraient etre g6rer. Le project de la
Banque Mondiale qui embrasserait un grand volet de conservation et de protection
de l'environnement est en suspend. En attendant qu'il soit implant, I'universit6 de
Floride a obtenu de la Fondation MacArthur un don qui support des activit6s de
conservation et d'6ducation environnementale pendant seulement trois ans. La
conservation des resources, parcs et sites naturels en Haiti est urgente.


viii

























Introduction




This volume is a revision of the Stewardship Plan for the National
Parks of Haiti published in 1986 (Woods and Harris, 1986; Woods,
1986). Those volumes summarize a series of biogeophysical sur-
veys of the national parks of Haiti funded by USAID (contract
number 521-0169-C-00-3083-00), and present an initial plan for
the development of a national park system for Haiti. The volumes
also discuss the initial concept of the Macaya Biosphere Reserve
(MBR) that became the focus of the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID) sponsored project by the
University of Florida in the Macaya area. The Stewardship Plan
and other Biogeophysical Survey Reports are out of print now, and
are difficult to find. This volume revises the original Stewardship Three alternatives are
Plan to take into account the work of the University of Florida proposed for the develop-
Macaya Biosphere Reserve Project (UFMBRP) during the past ment of a national park
five years. We have also included a chapter on the importance of system for Haiti.
developing Species Recovery Plans for use in conserving en-
dangered and threatened species, and a chapter on managing
Natural and Historic sites that are linked in a natural and historic
sense, but disjunct in geography. This volume is intended to be
used in association with The Natural History of Southern Haiti. That
volume summarizes all that is known about the natural patrimony
of southern Haiti, and includes detailed Species Recovery Plans
for three critically endangered species.


1






The University of Florida has been working with USAID, the
Institute de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine National (ISPAN), and the
Minister de l'Agriculture des Ressources Naturelles et du
Developpement Rural (MARNDR) for over fifteen years to
promote the conservation of the natural resources of Haiti. This
work has resulted in a number of scientific publications and reports
documenting the unique natural patrimony of Haiti, and pointing
out the special nature of the Massif de la Hotte. With funding from
USAID/Haiti via contract number 521-0169-C-00-3083-00, the
Florida Museum of Natural History and the University of Florida
completed a biogeophysical inventory of the national parks of
Haiti, and proposed a plan for the administration and stewardship
of these newly-established national parks. With additional funding
from USAID/Haiti via contract number 521-0191-A-00-7107,
some of these plans were initiated under the Macaya Biosphere
Reserve Project. The present volume is a view of what we believe
is the best route for creating a ongoing program in Haiti in general,
and the Macaya area in particular during the next ten years.

Our objectives in this book are to provide recommendations on
how to establish a program of natural resource conservation,
preservation and management in Haiti. We have tried to formulate
our recommendations using the concept of "dynamic" national
parks and biosphere reserves. We use the word dynamic to em-
phasize that any management plan will have to change as political
and economic conditions in Haiti change (we hope improve), and
as the programs designed to administer natural areas mature
during the ongoing process of institution building that must occur
in Haiti during the coming decade. Our analyses and recommen-
dations are focused on the region of the Massif de la Hotte. This
mountainous area is one of the most important sources of water in
Haiti, and many endemic plants and animals are restricted to this
area of high mountain peaks and remote, well forested valleys.

The concept of "dynamic" In recognition of the importance of the Macaya region to the
management is intro- natural patrimony of Haiti, as well as to its role in water conserva-
duced for protected areas tion, a large part of the Massif de la Hotte was placed under the
in Haiti. protection of the Government of Haiti (GOH) as Parc National
Pic Macaya. Legislation which passed in 1983 created Parc Nation-
al Pic Macaya in the Massif de La Hotte and Parc National La Visite
in the Massif de la Selle (Map 1). These are the first national parks
of significant size in Haiti, and therefore have special importance
in the history of the Republic. Our objective is to provide data,
analyses, historical comparisons, recommendations and a plan of
operation that can be used by the GOH, interested International
Organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and
Private Volunteer Organizations (PVOs) in planning, implement-
ing and administering a national parks program, and regional


2






biosphere reserves. The recommendations in this report are based
on our own personal analyses and reflect our experiences in Haiti,
as well as our original ideas for national parks in the area (Woods
and Rosen, 1977).

Our park plan may not be the only viable solution to the question
of how to create a functional program in national parks in Haiti.
We are not sure what the best route to take is because of the many
financial, administrative, social, historical and scientific questions
that have weighed heavily on our minds as we have tried to formu-
late a national park program that is best suited for Haiti. We
sincerely believe, however, that with the assistance of the many
important institutions and programs discussed in our document,
Haiti will be able to create a long-lasting program in the conserva-
tion of natural resources and the protection and promotion of its
natural patrimony. If this is done, water and soil will be available
for future generations of Haitians to use in maintaining the quality
of life in their fragile island nation. The development of programs
such as the ones outlined in this book will also help preserve what
is left of the natural patrimony of Haiti. And that natural
patrimony is truly special, as is outlined in The Natural History of
Southern Haiti. With wise land stewardship, there is a sustainable
future for Haiti. Without land stewardship, the future is a grim one.
On this summer day in 1992, Haiti is at a crossroads. We hope that
this book will be a signpost that will help point the direction
towards a better future for all Haitians, and preserve Haiti's very
special natural heritage.




The Literature on Natural Resources
and Conservation of Haiti
Haiti has a long history of human occupation and alteration of its
diverse ecosystems. Enough is known of the biological diversity of
the country, based on an analysis of fossil vertebrates from cave The natural patrimony of
and sinkhole deposits and of fossil pollen in sediments, to say with Haiti must be protected
certainty that until the time humans arrived on the island between
5000 and 7000 years ago, remarkably diverse floras and faunas were
present in Haiti (Woods, et al., 1986, Woods and Ottenwalder, in
press). Historical accounts indicate that significant elements of
that diverse flora and fauna were present until long after the time
of Columbus, and that many regions of the country were still
forested and contained diverse natural ecosystems into this century
(Wetmore and Swales, 1931; Wetmore and Lincoln, 1933; Wet-
more, unpublished field notes; Ekman, 1926, 1928, unpublished
catalog; Cohen, 1984; Lowenstein, 1984; Woods and Ottenwalder,

3







1993). But it is difficult for most people interested in the natural
resources of Haiti to gain access to this information.

There is a very sparse literature on the natural resources of Haiti
in general. The best body of literature relates to the natural
resources of the Macaya area. This literature is reviewed by Woods
and Sergile in Haiti, A Research Handbook edited by Robert Law-
less (1990). The book is available in most libraries. Another good
review of the early literature related to the natural history of Haiti
can be found in the volumes by David Wetherbee. Two of these
volumes, Zoological Exploration of Haiti for Endemic Species
(1985) and Contributions to the Early History of Botany in
Hispaniola and Puerto Rico (1985) are useful summaries. The
bibliography at the end of this volume lists other publications on
Hispaniola by David Wetherbee. These volumes are not available
in most libraries because they were privately published in very
limited numbers via xerox. A complete set of David Wetherbee's
publications is available at the Florida Museum of Natural History
(FLMNH), and several other major museums and libraries in
North America, including the Museum of Comparative Zoology at
Harvard University.

The first early description of the flora and fauna of the
countryside surrounding Pic Macaya is in the work of Moreau de
Saint-Mery (1797). The three volumes by Moreau de Saint-Mery
provide a comprehensive description of life in Haiti in the late 18th
Century, including discussions of encounters with some animals
such as the Haitian Hutia or "Zagouti." The best early accounts of
the natural history of Macaya are the published works of Erik
Ekman. His two papers "Botanizing in Haiti" (1926) and "Botanical
Excursion in La Hotte, Haiti" (1928) are classic descriptions of the
early part of this century in the Macaya region. Ekman was such a
famous personality of the time that he figures largely in the Haitian
classic The Magic Island by Seabrook (1929). Other fine descrip-
tions of the Macaya area are found in the book by Alexander
Enough is known about Wetmore and Bradshaw Swales (1931) The Birds of Haiti and the
the diversity of Hispaniola Dominican Republic, and its supplemental small publication by
to start a conservation Wetmore and Frederick Lincoln (1933) "Additional Notes on the
program. Birds of Haiti and the Dominican Republic." The introductions to
these volumes include valuable historical summaries and
itineraries of their travels in the Macaya region, and include
photographs of the habitat and area. Philip Darlington's (1935)
account of climbing Pic Macaya is also one of the best early
descriptions of the area and its natural history.

There are few good modern treatments of the flora and fauna of
Macaya. Walter Judd's (1987) "Floristic Study of Morne la Visite
and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti" includes fine descriptions of
the botany of the park and surrounding buffer zone (now the

4



































Dr. Erik Ekman returning from collecting plants in the Pic Macaya
area. Dr. Ekman first visited Haiti in 1917.


MBR), as well asvaluable photographs. And the series of reports
on the USAID/FLMNH Biogeophysical Surveys are important
summaries of ecological conditions in the area as of 1986 (see
Franz and Cordier, Gali and Schwartz, Judd, MacFadden,
Thompson, Woods, Woods and Harris, and Woods and Otten-
walder). The groups that are best documented from the Macaya
area are the reptiles and amphibians. References on these two
groups, as well as other publications on all aspects of natural
resources in Haiti can be found in the review by Woods and Sergile
(1990), and in the The Natural Resource Data Base (Sergile and
Woods, in press). All available references on the flora and fauna
of Haiti are listed in the FLMNH data base, which is also available
on computer disks at the FLMNH on the library bibliographic
system Procite. The compilation of the Haitian Natural Resource
Data Base was part of the USAID/MBR project. As part of com-
pletion of the USAID\UFMBR project, we will make this program
and system available in Haiti.

5









BASIC INFORMATION ON HAITI

Land Area: 27,700 km2
Population: 5,053,792 (1982)
6,500,000 (2006 estimate)
Density: 200 km2 (Total)
700 km2 (Arable Land)
Rate of Growth: 2%
Distribution: 1804: 80% Rural; 20% Urban
1985: 80% Rural; 20% Urban
Literacy: 20-25%
Rural to Urban 10%
Per Capita Income: $320 (1983 Rural and Urban)
$150 Rural
Total Area Farmed: 1,300,000 ha (47% of land area of Haiti)
Farm Size: 71% 1.3 ha (with 3 or more plots)
Slope Factor: 63% of land 20% slope; 29% 10%
Erosion Factor: 6,000 lost to erosion each year
Erosion Problem: 33% of land severely eroded






MACAYA BIOSPHERE RESERVE

Core Area: Parc National Pic Macaya
Established: April 1983 by Presidental Decree
Area: 5500 hectares (Park)
Main Features: Pic Macaya (2347 meters)
Pic Formon (2250 m)

Rivers: Riviere Grande Ravine du Sud
Riviere 1'Acul
Riviere Port-a-Piment
Riviere des Roseaux
Riviere Glace

Biogeophysical Survey (USAID) 1983-1986
Biosphere Reserve Project (USAID) 1987-1990

Area of MBR (January 1989)
Zones of MBR (January 1989)
Core Zone
Multiple Use Zone
Agriforestry Zone
Forestry Zone
Agricultural Zone





6


















CHAPTER I

The Concept of National Parks

and

Biosphere Reserves in Haiti



1. Introduction
This chapter is a review of how national parks came to be in Haiti.
It also presents some of our ideas as to why it has been so difficult
create a national parks infrastructure within the present organiza-
tion of the Government of Haiti. The chapter is a combination of
many ideas first presented in the original Stewardship Plan (Woods
and Harris, 1986), and of our experiences on the MBR Sondeo.
The objective in this chapter is to present the legal framework
around which the creation of the national parks of Haiti took place,
especially Parc National Pic Macaya, as well as our experiences
trying to make the national park work within the context of the
rapidly changing political situation that followed the change in
governments that was begun in 1986 with the fall of Jean Claude
Duvalier. The Macaya Biosphere Reserve Project began at about
the same time as fall of Duvalier, and continued through a series
of political changes that continue to this day. Some of the major
political events which took place in the last decade and which
influenced this project are summarized in the following table (and
placed within a broader summary of Haitian history).


7


















CHAPTER I

The Concept of National Parks

and

Biosphere Reserves in Haiti



1. Introduction
This chapter is a review of how national parks came to be in Haiti.
It also presents some of our ideas as to why it has been so difficult
create a national parks infrastructure within the present organiza-
tion of the Government of Haiti. The chapter is a combination of
many ideas first presented in the original Stewardship Plan (Woods
and Harris, 1986), and of our experiences on the MBR Sondeo.
The objective in this chapter is to present the legal framework
around which the creation of the national parks of Haiti took place,
especially Parc National Pic Macaya, as well as our experiences
trying to make the national park work within the context of the
rapidly changing political situation that followed the change in
governments that was begun in 1986 with the fall of Jean Claude
Duvalier. The Macaya Biosphere Reserve Project began at about
the same time as fall of Duvalier, and continued through a series
of political changes that continue to this day. Some of the major
political events which took place in the last decade and which
influenced this project are summarized in the following table (and
placed within a broader summary of Haitian history).


7







HAITIAN HISTORY


SIGNIFICANT DATES

First Taino Indians 5,000 BC
First Europeans (Columbus) 1492
First French Buccaneers
(Ile de la Tortue) 1625
Treaty of Ryswick 1697
Saint-Domingue
Start of Slave Uprising 1791
Slaves Freed in Saint-Domingue 1793
Toussaint Louverture 1795
French Invasion 1799
Death of Toussaint 1803
Independence of Haiti Jan. 1, 1804
Henry Christophe Rule of North 1808-1820
Haitian Control of All Hispaniola 1822-1843
"Code Rural" of Boyer 1826
Years of Turmoil 1843-1915
U.S. Marine Occupation 1915-1934
Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc) Rule 1957-1971
Jean Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc) 1971-1986
(29 years of Duvalier rule)
National Park at La Visite
Established 5 May 1981
National Park at Pic
Macaya Established 23 Jun 1983
Beginning of the MBR Project 1986
Jean Claude Duvalier Overthrown Feb. 7, 1986
Failed Election & Murders 29 Nov. 1987
U.S. Aid Cut Dec. 1987
Manigat Elected President 17 Jan. 1988
Manigat Deposed, Namphy in Place June 1988
Attack on Father Aristide 11 Sep. 1988
Coup d'Etat & Gen. Avril in Place 17 Sep. 1988
Election of Jean-Bertrand Aristide Dec. 1990
Coup d'Etat Removed
President Aristide 30 Sep. 1991
OAS Embargo against Haiti Nov. 1991
UFMBR Final Macaya
Area Survey 8-16 April 1992
OAS Embargo Strengthened 17 May 1992
End of MBR Project 31 May 1992


8







2. Terminology
Many organizations, individuals and terms are used in the course
of this report. In order to provide a guide to the reader we are
providing a list of the major terms used. When a name for an
institution or organization is used for the first time in the text it is
spelled out completely, but thereafter only the acronym is used.

DMRE Departement des Mines et des Ressources Energetiques
FLMNH Florida Museum of Natural History
GOH Government of Haiti
INAHCA Institut National Haitien de la Culture et des Arts
ISPAN Institut de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine National
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources
UFMBRP Macaya Biosphere Reserve Project of the University of
Florida
MBR Macaya Biosphere Reserve
MARNDR Ministere de 1'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles
et du Developpement Rural [also known as DARNDR and
sometimes as Damien].
MUPANAH Musee du Pantheon National d'Haiti
NCS National Conservation Strategy
NPS National Parks Service of the United States
ONTRP Office National du Tourisme et des Relations Publiques
PC Parks Canada
Pares Haiti Parcs Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti
SPE Service de la Protection de l'Environnement
SAHPE Societe Audubon d'Haiti pour la Protection de 1'-
Environnement
USAID United States Agency for International Development
UNEP United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization
WBP World Bank Environmental and Forestry Project
WCS World Conservation Strategy
WWF World Wildlife Fund


9







The following words are used in the text of this report without
definition. A brief definition of each is provided below.

BIOTIC DIVERSITY. The desired condition of having the
greatest number of compatible species associations in natural
area. The goal of our stewardship plan is the increase species
diversity in the parks, not just to increase the numbers of a few
selected species.
CONSERVATION. The practices and/or customs of man that per-
mit the perpetuation and sustained yield of renewable resour-
ces and the prevention of waste of non-renewable resources.
EDAPHIC FACTOR. A condition or characteristics of the soil,
(physical, chemical or biological) which influences organisms.
ENDANGERED SPECIES. Species in danger of extinction and
whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue operat-
ing.
ENEDMIC SPECIES. A species confined to the island of
Hispaniola or to a region of Hispaniola when so designated.
MIGRATORY SPECIES. Species that regularly move beyond
their regularly occupied geographic location, and in the sense
of this study, species that seasonally depart Hispaniola.
PRESERVATION. The practice of totally protecting a species or
habitat from any exploitation.
RARE SPECIES. Species with small populations, usually local-
ized within restricted geographical areas or habitats, that are
at risk.
RESIDENT SPECIES. Species that do not migrate.
RESTORATION. The act of putting the ecosystems or a specific
unit of the ecosystem (local habitat) back into prior (more
natural) condition. The activity is one element of a
stewardship plan.
SITE EXHIBIT. An exhibit located within the boundaries of the
national park or at a scenic location with a view of the park.
The exhibit is capable of withstanding the effects of weather
with only a shelter to protect it from direct rain.
STEWARDSHIP. The act of working with all aspects of a natural
ecosystem so as to promote and protect its natural integrity.
The word has been chosen to contrast to term management,
which we believe implies an active state of manipulation and
"tinkering." Stewardship in its ideal sense can be passive and
allow the ecosystem to recover and maintain itself without
extensive manipulation. Some restoration activities are part of


10







the process of stewardship.
THREATENED SPECIES. Species likely to become endangered
in the near future if the causal factors continue operating.
NAMES IN HAITIAN CREOLE. Whenever possible the names
for regions and conditions have been designated in Haitian
Creole. The standard spelling and usage follows Valdman
(1981). We have done our best to check the designations and
authenticity of all Creole names with local authorities on a
particular region or subject.


3. Conservation Strategy in Haiti
The national patrimony of Haiti consists of a blend of natural and
cultural history. This "history" consists of physically tangible items
such as endemic species and cultural artifacts as well as intangibles
such as unrecorded folk music, culture and unique vistas and
beautiful landscapes. No single item of natural or cultural history
is any more important than another. All aspects of the national
patrimony are to be cherished and conserved to the degree that
national pride and identity dictate. The Conservation Strategy for
Haiti should: 1) identify these items; 2) formally acknowledge
their existence and worth; 3) follow a standard decision-making
process to determine their disposition. All cultural and natural
history items must or can be conserved, but the process of defini-
tion, deliberation and decision making should not be com-
promised. The Government of Haiti (GOH) should carefully
design and designate the responsibilities of its departments and
institutes so that all elements of the national patrimony are encom-
passed by an administrative unit with a clear mandate for the
evaluation and eventual disposition of a particular kind or class of
patrimony. Several departments and institutes of the GOH are
responsible for various aspects of national patrimony (see table,
page 20). We stress, however, that while overlapping responsibility
for conservation may appear ideal on the surface, it is not ideal in
practice. Disputes regarding authority and perceived respon-
sibility often can develop. We recommend that the GOH reduce
the level of overlap between departments and institutions where
possible and work with each unit of the national organizational
structure to clearly define their areas of responsibility. When it is
not clear which unit has responsibility for all aspects a particular
class of national patrimony, such as in the case of the national
natural patrimony, then the GOH should consider establishing a
new administrative unit.

Many of the cultural and natural history items alluded to above
are not renewable and thus their conservation strategy should be


11






distinct from that of renewable natural resources. A museum piece
or scenic vista can be "used" in the sense that it can be looked at,
appreciated and studied, but actual physical use may quickly
destroy it. Similarly, a forested watershed may be "used" to
precipitate, obtain and moderate clean water supplies, but actual
physical use of the same watershed may destroy it just as surely as
the physical handling of a prized national artifact would destroy the
artifact. For this reason we advise caution in adopting the
philosophy that all natural resources are renewable and thus can
be "developed" for sustained use. The definition of conservation
presently proposed by the IUCN is as follows:

The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may
yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations
while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspira-
tions of future generations.

Note that the emphasis is on management of the human use
rather than on the management of the resource itself. By this
definition, conservation is positive and covers the spectrum of
specific approaches. These include PRESERVATION of resour-
ces such as cultural artifacts and critically rare plants and animals;
MAINTENANCE of resources such as viable populations of na-
tive plants and animals and unspoiled beaches and vistas; SUS-
TAINABLE UTILIZATION of resources such as rich alluvial
plains, forests, and game birds; RESTORATION of resources
such as deforested mountain slopes; and ENHANCEMENT of
A forested watershed resources such as watersheds, forests and upland areas.
may be "used" to
reciitate obtain andIn Haiti the preservation of resources such as endemic species
erate ean watr and the enhancement of resources such as watersheds and forests
moderate clean water
supplies, but actual become a common concern. This is because in most regions of the
supplies, but actual
physical use of the country so much habitat for endemic species has been altered from
same watershed may its natural state that many species of plants and animals have
destroy it just as surely become extinct or have been severely reduced in numbers. The
as the physical ali areas where habitats have been least disturbed are in remote
as the physical handling
of a prized national ar- montane regions. These are the same regions where the water-
tifact would destroy the sheds of some of the major river systems of Haiti are located.
artifact. These areas, such as specific regions of the Massif de la Selle and
Massif de la Hotte of southern Haiti are places where forest cover
remains and endemic species are still present. The objective is to
save important elements of the national natural patrimony by
saving habitats. The habitats that are preserved, maintained, res-
tored or enhanced improve the quality of the ecosystem and
promote water and soil conservation. Therefore, in a country such
as Haiti, where land and resources are limited, the effort to save
important elements of the national natural patrimony is not a
luxury that the country cannot afford, but rather a critical link in
the preservation of its natural resources and especially its soil and

12







water resources. Sites for national parks and conservation areas
must be carefully selected with the aim of preservation of natural
patrimony and conservation of water and soil.

The original idea of the University of Florida on how to develop
a sound conservation strategy for Haiti can be summarized in the
following table:



USUAL STEPS IN DEVELOPING A
CONSERVATION STRATEGY


1). The Biological Phase
Research
Inventories
Recognition of Endemics

2). The Conservation Phase
Proposing Conservation Schemes
Lectures and General Articles
Development of a Conservation
Strategy

3). The National Parks Phase
Legislation
Governmental Action
Long-term Commitment & Ecosystem Stability





The concept of national parks in the Massif de la Hotte region
was pioneered by the University of Florida in close association with
ISPAN and MARNDR. Parc National Pic Macaya has been very
successful in protecting the fragile habitats within the core area of
the Massif de la Hotte (areas on Pic Macaya and Pic Formon above
1600 meters elevation). Two important problems remain to be
resolved. 1). The first is to find an appropriate organization in
Haiti with a GOH mandate and sufficient funding level to take
charge of the administration of the park. During the past decade
both ISPAN and MARNDR expressed sincere interests in the
conservation of soil, water, and natural resources, as well as
protecting the natural patrimony of Pare National Pic Macaya.
Louis Buteau of MARNDR assigned three technicians to the

13






UFMBR project, and he closely monitored the progress of the
conservation plans for the area. MARNDR worked closely with a
team from the World Bank to design a project that would protect
the national parks of Haiti through a strengthened program at the
SPE of MARNDR. Albert Mangones of ISPAN developed a plan
to create a "Division du Patrimoine Naturel," and made an official
proposal to the GOH for the establishment of this division within
ISPAN. But these plans have floundered at the present time.
Albert Mangones retired as Director of ISPAN, and there is no
longer a program to protect the natural patrimony at ISPAN. The
World Bank Environmental and forestry Project (WBP) has been
suspended until the political and economic situation in Haiti sta-
bilizes, and MARNDR does not have the financial base or resour-
ces to assume full and comprehensive responsibility for the
national park at Macaya. So, the question as to what organization
is capable of administering national parks in Haiti is unresolved,
and the national parks program in Haiti is floundering.

The second, and equally important, problem that must be ad-
dressed is the complex role of the local communities in the Massif
de la Hotte region on the natural ecosystem. As the ecologically
fragile areas within the park have become protected, the ecosystem
surrounding the park has come under increased pressure from
people living in the region who are no longer able to exploit the
parklands. We did not anticipate the extent to which this would
happen. It is now clear that an integrated plan for the region must
be developed that goes far beyond the concept of a "Buffer Zone"
as originally proposed in the Stewardship Plan developed by the
University of Florida. It is with this in mind that the University of
Florida, in conjunction with USAID/Haiti, developed a plan to
create a biosphere reserve in the Massif de la Hotte region. The
University of Florida, with funding from USAID/Haiti, worked
The question as to what closely with residents of the Massif de la Hotte region to under-
organization is capable stand their needs and expectations, and to evaluate these criteria
of administering nation- within the framework of wise use of the natural resources and
al parks in Haiti is un- physical features of the Massif de la Hotte area.
resolved, and the
national parks program The UFMBR Project anticipated writing a final plan that would
in Haiti is floundering. have integrated all of these data into an official document following
the guidelines for biosphere reserves from around the world. This
document would formally request that the area including and
surrounding Pic Formon and Pic Macaya be officially recognized
as a World Biosphere Reserve. The plan for the Macaya Biosphere
Reserve when completed would include a series of land use maps
and proposed land use zones, and would recommend specific land
use practices for all areas within the biosphere reserve. Every
attempt would be made to integrate the human and natural resour-
ces of the Macaya area of the Massif de la Hotte into a plan that


14







will improve the quality of life for all concerned. The goal of the
Macaya Biosphere Reserve Project of the University of Florida was
to protect the biological diversity, promote the wise use of renew-
able natural resources, conserve the water and soil, and improve
the quality of life of local residents of the Macaya area through wise
land use policies and innovative interactions between local resi-
dents, concerned Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs), in-
ternational organizations, and the GOH.

The planned Macaya Biosphere Reserve has also floundered.
The economic and political problems in Haiti made it impossible
for a GOH institution to come forth to take full responsibility for
the national park at Macaya. The political conflict between the
United States and Haiti often made it impossible for the UFMBR
project to interact with GOH sponsored organizations like
MARNDR. And the desperate plight of local residents in the
MBR area, made worse by economic hardships created by the
embargo against Haiti in 1992, made it difficult to involve local
residents in a program of mutually planned land stewardship.
These problems made it impossible to develop a program or write
a document requesting official designation of the Macaya area as
a World Biosphere Reserve from UNESCO. So the biosphere
reserve project is floundering.

Desperate peasants in the Macaya area are moving into the
national park to cut wood and make gardens. No GOH organiza-
tion is inplace to prevent this. Local residents in the surrounding
buffer zone are also increasing the rate of habitat destruction. The
reasons for these difficulties are complex. The solutions are even
more complex. But several things are very clear. 1). The idea of
preserving biological diversity in Haiti has to include more than
just a series of biological fortresses designed to keep people out.
2). The GOH is going to need to create some group with a mandate
and interest in preserving natural resources in the country, and the
nucleus of that group barely exists at the GOH level at the present A few desperate
time. 3). The stewardship of fragile lands in remote areas of Haiti peasants are cutting
should include input from local residents, but local residents alone trees and establishing
will not be good stewards of the land because local economic gardens at the expense
conditions in Haiti are so desperate that exploitation of the en- of the nation.
vironment is perceived as a necessity.

This complex situation is best summarized in the following table,
which summarizes the present concept of the University of Florida
as to how to develop a sound conservation strategy in Haiti:






15







STEPS IN DEVELOPING A CONSERVATION
STRATEGY FOR HAITI
Biological Conservation in Haiti: The Macaya Experience

1). The Biological Phase
Research
Inventories

2). The Conservation Phase
Proposing Conservation Schemes
Lectures and General Articles

3). The National Parks Phase
Legislation Passed in 1983


MARNDR & ISPAN Administration

4). The "Reaction" Phase
Redirection of Habitat Exploitation
Emigration
Socio-economic Stres

5). The "Sondeo" Phase
Recognition of Need for Additionallnformation
Design of Sondeo Team
Resolutions of Conflicts
Fieldwork and Writing Report

6). The Biosphere Reserve Plan
Recognition of Limitations of National Parks
Study of Biosphere Reserve Concept
Modification of Classic Biosphere Reserve Outline
Biosphere Reserve-The HaitianModality
Planning and Recognition of MBR as Official Biosphere Reserve

7). The Long-term Conservation Phase
Determination of GOH Role in MBR
Determination of Alternative Funding Sources
Integration of Private, GOH, and International Organizations







16







4. Actions of the Government of Haiti in Conservation
Park National Pic Macaya is located in the Massif de la Hotte, and
is part of the official list of National Parks of Haiti. The back-
ground legislation that established Pare National Pic Macaya, as
well as all legislation relating to national parks in Haiti are
described and discussed below.

The Government of Haiti (GOH) has taken a legislative role in
the past to protect the environmental and natural patrimony of the
Republic by passing laws and decrees. The law of 17 August 1955
(Moniteur number 87, 26 September 1955) regulated cutting,
transporting and selling wood, protected the environment and
created "Zones sous protection" and "Zones reservess" Law Num-
ber Eight (Des Forets) of the Rural Code of Francois Duvalier
(Moniteur number 51, 28 May 1962) passed even stricter legisla-
tion concerning the protection of forest resources and controlled
activities in forest reserves. The decree of 31 March 1971
(Moniteur number 26, 1 April 1971) regulated hunting and
protected nine categories of birds in accordance with the recom-
mendations of the "Convention pour la Protection de la Nature et
la Preservation de la Fauna Sauvage dans l'hemisphere occiden-
tale," which Haiti ratified. In addition to the laws of 1955 and 1962,
protecting the natural forests of the Republic, and the law of 1971,
regulating hunting and protecting certain bird species, the GOH
has passed legislation concerning national parks. The decree of
1968 (Moniteur number 23, 18 March 1968) created "Parcs
Nationaux" and "Sites Naturels" under the joint administration of
MARNDR and the Office National du Tourisme. The sites that
were selected for protection were "Sources Puantes," "Sources
Chaudes," "Sources Cerisier et Plaisance," "Fort Mercredi," "Fort
Jacques," "Fort Alexandre," "la Citadelle," and "lac de Peligre." The
concept was expanded to include natural lands in the "Communi-
que" of 5 May 1981 that appeared in the Nouveau Monde which
discussed establishing the first "Parc Naturel" in Haiti in the area
between Morne La Visite and Morne Kadeneau in the Massif de
la Selle. Laws regarding pro-

The official creation of "Parcs Nationaux Naturels" was by decree tected areas need to be
published in Le Moniteur (number 41, 23 June 1983). The decree enforced.
listed as existing laws: four articles of the Constitution; a 1921 law
on public utilities; a 1926 law on "Forets Nationales Reservees;" a
1940 law concerning "monuments historiques;" a 1958 law organiz-
ing DARNDR; the decree of 1968 naming "Pares Nationaux" and
"Sites Naturels" ; the decree of 1979 creating ISPAN; a 1982 law
on regionalism; a 1982 law on uniform structures; and the decree
of 1982 creating the Musee du Pantheon National d'Haiti
(MUPANAH).


17







The decree of 23 June 1983 continued the protection of the eight
sites discussed above by declaring them to be "Parcs Nationaux
Naturels." In addition, "Parcs Nationaux Naturels" were created at
"Morne La Visite du Massif de la Selle" (2,000 hectares) which
hereafter we will designate as Parc National La Visite and "Morne
Macaya du Massif de la Hotte" (2,000 hectares), which we will
designate as Parc National Pic Macaya.

Article 2 of the decree directs that administrationn general, la
protection et la mise en valeur des parcs et sites naturels terrestres
et maritimes sont a la charge du Departement." The "Departe-
ment" is not identified in Article 2 nor any place in Article 1.

The major responsibilities for the national parks program of Haiti
are listed in Article 3 of the 1983 decree under additional respon-
sibilities of MARNDR. Article 3 is quoted below (Le Moniteur
No.41 1983:458):

"En plus des attributions courantes d6finies dans la
Loi Organique du 7 avril 1958, le D6partement de 1'-
Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles exerce les at-
tributions suivantes ayant trait A la gestion des parcs
et sites naturels;

a) prot6ger les conditions 6cologiques des parcs et
sites naturels.

b) entreprendre l'inventaire des especes animals et
vegetables des parcs et sites naturels.

c) 6tudier les caract6ristiques des especes
end6miques de haute valeur scientifique ainsi que
celles des facteurs physiques: g6ologie, sols, climats
et autres des parcs et sites naturels.

d) identifier les aires naturelles terrestres ou
maritimes du territoire national presentant des
caract6ristiques 6cologiques unique ou sp6ciales et
qui m6ritent d'etre d6clar6es parcs ou sites naturels.

e) preserver les parcs et sites naturels de toute
deterioration physique.

f) autoriser et supervisor dans les aires des parcs et
sites naturels tous travaux de recherche entrepris par
la communaute scientifique.

g) diffuser toutes informations relatives aux parcs et
sites naturels.



18







h) offrir les facilities d'acces et autres commodit6s
aux visiteurs.

Based on these legislative acts, our interpretation of the primary
conservation goals of the GOH are: 1) watershed management; 2)
soil stabilization and conservation; 3) enhanced and sustained
potable water supplies; 4) sustained yield forest products. We
endorse a strong and unwavering commitment to these goals,
which can greatly facilitate the preservation of endemic species,
the maintenance of natural biotic diversity, the development of a
parks-related tourism industry, and the protection of natural
ecological processes. Within the 23 June 1983 GOH National
Parks decree are eight specific goals and responsibilities for the
national parks program:

1). Protect natural ecological conditions and processes.
2). Identify sites possessing a significant element of national
patrimony.
3). Preserve existing parks and potential park sites.
4). Inventory and describe natural plant and animal species.
5). Research and propose necessary management for endemic
species.
6). Research and describe critical processes of the natural ecosys-
tems.
7). Develop an interpretation and education program to inform
the people of Haiti of their patrimony.
8). Develop a recreation and tourism program based on sites of
national patrimony.
The priority rank and relative importance of each of these specific
goals as given above are based on the evaluation of Woods and The official creation of
Harris (1986) in the Stewardship Plan for the National Parks of "Pares Nationaux
Haiti. The rationale for the ranking is simple: protection of the Naturels" was by decree
natural ecological processes and conditions goes furthest to ensure published in Le
achievement of all that follow. On the other hand, the identifica- Moniteur (number 41,
tion and preservation of an endangered species or even an isolated 23 June 1983).
physical site removed from the natural context (ecosystem) is a
last ditch effort that is doomed to failure in most cases. Identifica-
tion, research and interpretation of endemic or even presently
unknown species will be possible only if the natural sites on which
they occur are secured now. To wait is to risk describing the past
rather than the present.

Woods and Harris (1986) synthesized these statements, as well as
many conversations with personnel from the governmental and


19







private sectors of Haiti, into the following list which they believed
represented the purpose of the Parcs Nationaux Naturels program
in Haiti.

1. The protection of natural ecological conditions and processes.
The two most important consequences of these actions are:
A) the preservation of watersheds, thereby improving the
quality of life for all inhabitants of Haiti in areas adjacent to or
under the influence of national parks;

B) the preservation of natural species diversity and therefore
the national natural patrimony.

2. The promotion of the national natural patrimony. The two most
important consequences of this activity are:
A) the education of the citizens of Haiti about the unique
features of their country that make Haiti special;

B) the increased possibility that wise decisions of long-range
importance can be made concerning the utilization and
development of the natural resources of Haiti.

3. The development of a recreation and tourism program that will
take advantage of the unique physical location and beauty of
the parks as well as special features of the flora, fauna or
geology. We believe that it is possible for the citizens of Haiti
to benefit from the parks at both the local and national levels
without damaging the quality of the parks if a careful manage-
ment plan is developed and implemented.



Types of Haitian Patrimony and the GOH Authority Responsible

Type of Heritage: Cultural Geological Agricultural Natural

Examples: Indian Artifacts Marble Fisheries Mountain Caves Ekman's
Colonial Artifacts Quarries Forests View Wildlife Juniper
Art Farms Seashores Mangroves La Selle
Thrush

Approach to Museum Regulaion Soil Not Forest Zoological
Conservation: Monuments Conservation Developed Reserve Garden
Reforestation Botanical
National Garden
Park National
Park

GOH Authority: INAHCA DMRE MARNDR PARCS HAITI


20



















CHAPTER II


Administration Plan for Parks
and Natural Reserves in Haiti


1. Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to recommend a plan to create a
unified program to administrate all units of the National Parks of
Haiti, and to implement sound programs in stewardship, conserva-
tion, education, recreation and public awareness. All of the
"programs" that have been created so far are either on hold, or have
been suspended. Albert Mangones of ISPAN has retired, and
ISPAN is no longer involved with natural resources and natural
patrimony. The World Bank Project with MARNDR has been
suspended. The University of Florida Macaya Biosphere Reserve
Project, which has functioned as a surrogate national parks pro-
gram for the past five years, has expired. So, as of June 1992, no
"program" in national parks exists in Haiti. The primary objective An environmental
of this book, and this chapter in particular, is to provide an outline education program to
on how to rapidly create an effective program to take responsibility develop public aware-
for national parks and protected natural areas in Haiti. ness is urgently needed.

2. Special Concerns
The major concerns about the existing program in national parks
in Haiti that have been expressed by various individuals we have
interviewed during the course of our work on the MBR project are
listed below.




21



















CHAPTER II


Administration Plan for Parks
and Natural Reserves in Haiti


1. Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to recommend a plan to create a
unified program to administrate all units of the National Parks of
Haiti, and to implement sound programs in stewardship, conserva-
tion, education, recreation and public awareness. All of the
"programs" that have been created so far are either on hold, or have
been suspended. Albert Mangones of ISPAN has retired, and
ISPAN is no longer involved with natural resources and natural
patrimony. The World Bank Project with MARNDR has been
suspended. The University of Florida Macaya Biosphere Reserve
Project, which has functioned as a surrogate national parks pro-
gram for the past five years, has expired. So, as of June 1992, no
"program" in national parks exists in Haiti. The primary objective An environmental
of this book, and this chapter in particular, is to provide an outline education program to
on how to rapidly create an effective program to take responsibility develop public aware-
for national parks and protected natural areas in Haiti. ness is urgently needed.

2. Special Concerns
The major concerns about the existing program in national parks
in Haiti that have been expressed by various individuals we have
interviewed during the course of our work on the MBR project are
listed below.




21



















CHAPTER II


Administration Plan for Parks
and Natural Reserves in Haiti


1. Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to recommend a plan to create a
unified program to administrate all units of the National Parks of
Haiti, and to implement sound programs in stewardship, conserva-
tion, education, recreation and public awareness. All of the
"programs" that have been created so far are either on hold, or have
been suspended. Albert Mangones of ISPAN has retired, and
ISPAN is no longer involved with natural resources and natural
patrimony. The World Bank Project with MARNDR has been
suspended. The University of Florida Macaya Biosphere Reserve
Project, which has functioned as a surrogate national parks pro-
gram for the past five years, has expired. So, as of June 1992, no
"program" in national parks exists in Haiti. The primary objective An environmental
of this book, and this chapter in particular, is to provide an outline education program to
on how to rapidly create an effective program to take responsibility develop public aware-
for national parks and protected natural areas in Haiti. ness is urgently needed.

2. Special Concerns
The major concerns about the existing program in national parks
in Haiti that have been expressed by various individuals we have
interviewed during the course of our work on the MBR project are
listed below.




21






1. There is a lack of a tradition of national parks in Haiti, and
therefore the philosophy of "preservation" of the natural
patrimony is a new concept that must be accepted.
2. There are few people in Haiti trained in ecology or natural
resource planning.
3. There are many other priorities in the country, and human
needs should take precedence over long range preservation
and conservation goals.
4. There is no organization in Haiti that is clearly appropriate to
manage the national parks. MARNDR is responsible for
developing a sound program to improve the agricultural poten-
tial and "utilize" the natural resources of the country. ISPAN
is responsible for preservation of the national patrimony with
an emphasis on cultural and historical events, and is no longer
interested in natural resources. The Office of Tourism is
responsible for promoting tourist activities and recreational
facilities.
5. There was conflict between MARNDR and ISPAN (INAHCA
in 1986) in working together during the initial stages of im-
plementing a program in national parks, and the program did
not move ahead as rapidly as expected by international or-
ganizations.
6. There are not enough funds available to support a meaningful
program on national parks within any of the existing GOH
ministries at the present time.
7. The integrated plan for the future development of a national
parks program that was developed by USAID, UFMBRP,
MARNDR, The World Bank, and the MacArthur Foundation
has floundered because of the current political and economic
climate in Haiti. The World Bank Project has been suspended.
The UFMBR Project has expired.
8. The biggest concern of all is that the habitat of the Macaya area
is disappearing at an alarming rate. Something must be done
to protect the national park, and the flora and fauna of the area
in a very short time, or it will be too late.











22







3. Pares Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti
A. Introduction
Our present opinion, based on many years of trying to work with
ISPAN and MARNDR to implement a program on National Parks
in Haiti, is that an effective way to establish a viable program to
protect nature and Haiti's natural patrimony is to create a new
GOH organization that would only be responsible for the preser-
vation of the national natural patrimony. This model follows the
administrative plan for national parks in Canada and the United
States. This organization could (we suggest) be called the "Parcs
Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti," and given the acronym "Pares Haiti."
We have chosen not to designate the program as a department,
service or institution in order to emphasize the independent status
of the new program. We are not sure what ministry the program
should be placed under. There has been a tradition of shifting such
programs from Ministry to Ministry in Haiti, as with the example
of ISPAN. This is not a good situation, so we recommend that one
Ministry be chosen from the options available (Interior and Na-
tional Defense, Finance, MARNDR), or that a new Ministry for
the Environment be created for this and other programs concerned
with the fragile natural environment in Haiti.

The "Parcs Nationaux Naturels," as currently defined by law,
includes eight sites designated in the decree of 18 March 1968 and
reiterated in the decree of 23 June 1983 as well as Pare National
Pic Macaya and Pare National La Visite as described in Article 1
of the 1983 decree. The chief administrative officer of Pares Haiti
should be a "Director" who would be in charge of the supervision
of "all" activities of the organization. A strong rationale for the
creation of Pares Haiti lies in the wording of Article 2 of the decree
of 23 June 1983 which states that administrationn general, la
protection et la mise en valeur des parcs et sites naturels terrestres
et maritimes sont a la charge du Departement." Since the "Depar-
tement" is not named or identified and since we recommend
concentrating all activities under the direction of a "single" ad- Pares Haiti is proposed
ministrative unit, we recommend interpreting the intent of the law to be responsible for the
to be the creation of a program which should be designated as Pares preservation of Haiti's
Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti. In order to have a short attractive natural patrimony.
name for the program that is easy to remember and identify with
we recommend using the name Pares Haiti whenever possible.

Areas of the natural patrimony that should also be included in the
domain of Pares Haiti include marine areas of unique importance,
recreational beaches, scenic areas, caves and sinkholes with unique
elements of the past or present flora and fauna, zoological parks,
botanical gardens and natural biospheres of importance because
of their unique features and influence on surrounding areas. A list


23







of actual areas under the domain of Parcs Haiti is presented below.
We have included all areas mentioned in the law of 1983.



Parcs Nationaux Naturels

(current Law)
Sources Puantes (10 ha)

Source Chaudes (20 ha)

Source Cerisier et Plaisance (10 ha)

Fort Mercredi (5 ha)

Forts Jacques et Alexandre (9 ha)

Lac de Peligre (100 ha)

Parc National la Citadelle (250 ha)

Parc National Pic Macaya (2000 ha)

Parc National La Visite (2000 ha)


Clearly, some aspects of the program in national parks as created
by the decree of 23 June 1983 fall into areas of special concern to
either ISPAN or MARNDR. For example, ISPAN is responsible
for national monuments, and Fort Mercredi, Fort Jacques, Fort
Alexandre, and la Citadelle Laferriere even though they are part
of "Parcs Nationaux Naturels" as legislated in the decree of 1983.
In many aspects of both Parc La Visite and Parc Macaya, forestry,
reforestation, soil conservation and other areas of concern fall into
4400 hectares are set activities usually assigned to MARNDR. Therefore, it would be
aside for national parks. wise to have representatives of both ISPAN and MARNDR on the
This is 0.12% of the land advisory team of Parcs Haiti.
area of Haiti.
area of Haiti. The solution to these areas of overlap will require negotiations
between the various branches of the GOH within the framework
of the decree of 23 June 1983. We recommend as a solution to
these overlapping responsibilities that all activities associated with
the national natural patrimony be the domain of Parcs Haiti, that
national historic sites and national historic parks remain the
responsibility of ISPAN and that activities in the buffer zones
surrounding the parks (such as the agricultural and forestry zones
of the Macaya Biosphere Reserve) be administered by MARNDR
(with an advisory role for Parcs Haiti). Parcs Haiti should work

24







very closely with ISPAN and MARNDR and there should be many
areas where the three programs will interact. These interactions
become a natural association if certain regions, such as the area
around Pare National La Visite and Pare National Pic Macaya are
designated "Biosphere Reserves" (see discussion below). For ex-
ample, we recommend expanding the program at La Citadelle
Laferriere to also become a Biosphere Reserve as discussed in
Chapter V (see Sergile, 1990).


B. Organization of Pares Haiti
The new Pares Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti (hereafter called
Pares Haiti) should be an autonomous unit with direct respon-
sibility for managing the national parks and protecting the national
natural patrimony. For a period of ten years Pares Haiti should
concentrate on establishing a sound program in the conservation
of natural resources and in developing Pare National La Visite and
Parc National Pic Macaya. Parcs Haiti can be created as an or-
ganization by one of three methods (see below), and should imme-
diately begin to assume the responsibility for building a national
parks program and implementing the recommendations outlined
here. Three possible methods for creating Pares Haiti are listed
below:

1. Form a new GOH organization called Pares Nationaux
Naturels d'Haiti (Pares Haiti). This organization, as mentioned
earlier, would not be designated as a department, service or in-
stitute and would not be a part of any existing program. It should
be advised by a higher level authority made up of representatives
from the GOH, private citizens and international organizations.
This board of trustees should be called the National Parks Ad-
visory Council (PANAC). The recommended members of this
authority are: 1) Director of ISPAN; 2) Director of the Direction
des Ressources Naturelles of MARNDR; 3) Director of the Office
of Tourism; 4) President of the Societe Audubon d'Haiti pour la
protection de l'Environnement (SAHPE); 5) a prominent private Pares Haiti would be
citizen of Haiti interested in conservation; 6) a representative of governed by a board of
an international conservation organization; and 7) the Director of trustees.
Pares Haiti (Chairman). This council will be advisory to Pares
Haiti, and all meetings will be chaired by the Director of Pares
Haiti. The Chairman will be responsible for calling all meetings,
and will be the coordinating force behind PANAC.

The National Parks Advisory Council (PANAC) would meet at
least once a year to provide guidance and to help make long range
goals for the parks program that are in the best interest of the
program, their respective organizations, and Haiti.


25







The staff of Parcs Haiti would be hired as soon as possible
following the guidelines in the organizational scheme (below).
The budget for the salaries of Parcs Haiti personnel as well as for
all equipment and operating costs for a five-year period should
come from a contract with an international organization, such as
USAID, to be renegotiated at the end of the five-year period. The
Director of Parcs Haiti would be the responsible person in charge
of the budget.

As many as possible of the five administrative personnel should
be hired from existing individuals within the governmental or
private sectors of Haiti. If it is not possible to fill all administrative
positions with qualified and interested Haitians, then it would be
acceptable to designate one or two of the Assistant Directors from
international organizations on a contract or subcontract basis for a
period of time ranging from two to five years.



Pares Nationaux Naturels d'Haiti
(Parcs Haiti)
Central Office
Director
Assistant Director for Education and Recreation
Assistant Director for Conservation and Research
Secretary/Bookkeeper
Secretary/Librarian
Chauffeur
Commissar
Office Guardian
Pare La Visite Pare Macaya
Park Supervisor Park Supervisor
Headquarters Headquarters
Guardian Guardian
Cook Cook
Park Guards (7) Park Guards (7)
Park Workers (15) Park Workers (15)


Alternative "Parcs Haiti" Strategies
Because of the difficult economic and political conditions now
being faced by Haiti, and because areas in the existing national
parks of Haiti are being destroyed at such an alarming rate, it may
be wise to consider an alternative and more immediate way of
creating Parcs Haiti. The two alternative methods discussed below


26







would have the advantages of creating a national parcs program
rapidly, and with less cost to the already over-stressed national
budget of Haiti. Both are designed to create an independent
program called Parcs Haiti, but in each case it would be over a
longer term, and require more outside assistance from internation-
al funding agencies.

2. The second possible method of forming Parcs Haiti would be
by immediately contracting with an international conservation
organization, and giving them the mandate to run the program in
national parks and train Haitian colleagues over a five- or ten-year
period. Haitian staff would be hired where possible and the pro-
gram would slowly train Haitian counterparts to assume full
responsibility at the end of the contract period. Part of the Haitian
staff could come from the SPE program of MARNDR, which is the
group designated by the World Bank Environmental and Forestry
Project as the organization responsible for national parks and
natural areas.

There are many things to recommend this strategy for creating
Parcs Haiti. One is that the fragile natural areas of Haiti would
receive immediate attention and protection. This is very impor-
tant, since many areas are rapidly being destroyed beyond
recovery. A second important feature is that Haitian colleagues
would receive training by the process of "twinning." They would
learn during the process of actually running the Parcs Haiti pro-
gram. And contracting with a group would be a relatively cost-ef-
fective way to run such a program since a high level of expertise
would be immediately available without costly training, and all
equipment and supplies purchased would remain part of the Parcs
Haiti program. Another advantage of this approach is that the
requirements of the contract can be very specific, so that the
contracting agency would clearly know what is expected of them,
and the GOH would be able to set specific tasks that met the needs
of Parcs Haiti. Special care should be made in selecting the outside
group to do the contract work to make sure that they are ex-
perienced in working in countries like Haiti. It would, in fact, be
most desirable to select an organization that had experience work-
ing in the area of conservation in Haiti.

3. The third method of forming Parcs Haiti would be by utilizing
existing personnel within the SPE. This strategy would follow the
outline of the World Bank Environmental and Forestry Project.
An outline of this project is presented in Chapter VII of this book.
The World Bank Team designing the project selected the SPE as
the GOH unit that should be responsible for national parks. The
SPE could take on the cloak of Parcs Haiti, and, in fact, we would
recommend that they use the name Parcs Haiti. One way to
improve this option would be to add a third Assistant Director to

27







Parcs Haiti who was an international person on a long term contract
basis. This person would have specific assigned responsibilities
within Parcs Haiti, and would also be the overall mentor for the
program. The person would have to be chosen carefully, and have
excellent credentials in international conservation work and con-
servation biology. He or she should have an academic degree,
preferably a Ph.D., in the natural sciences. The World Bank
Project has designated such a person in its project design for SPE.
Care must be taken that the person works for Parcs Haiti, and is
independent of all influence from outside in order to insure that
the person will be truly effective.

The advantage of this approach is that it is already within the
design of the World Bank Environmental and Forestry Project. As
such, there is a well-designed document for SPE to follow which
was created in 1990. The outline for a budget and overall program
are already in place, and only need to be slightly revised.

The disadvantages of this strategy for creating Parcs Haiti are as
follows. 1) The World Bank Environmental and Forestry Project
is currently suspended, and there is no guarantee that it will start
again. 2) SPE is understaffed and undertrained to accomplish the
required goals of Parcs Haiti, and it will take several years to get
up and running at the required level of expertise. The World Bank
Project was designed to use the University of Florida MBR project
as its "twinning" component. The UFMBR project would have
trained the SPE staff during the first year or two of the project in
the area of national parcs management, natural sciences (i.e., the
natural history of Haiti), and especially in the fine points of working
in Parc National Pic Macaya and Parc National La Visite. This is
no longer possible because the UFMBR project expired on May
31, 1992. 3) Parcs Haiti would be totally under the jurisdiction of
MARNDR, which creates potential conflicts between conserva-
tion and natural resource utilization, and is an arrangement that
has not worked well in the past. 4) Parcs Haiti would not qualify
for many kinds of international funding if it was totally a GOH
organization, and there is a good possibility of attracting such
funding for a dynamic, semi-autonomous Parcs Haiti organization.
So, there are some strong negative aspects to proposal number
three. However, it is a viable proposal. It would be made more
viable if an outside NGO could be added to the plan, and if the
long-term goal of the organization was to move Parcs Haiti towards
a semi-autonomous organization outside of the total supervision
of MARNDR.

Whatever the method of establishing Parcs Haiti, an effort should
be made to have a single Director, and an overall basic group of
five administrators. This should be done even if it is necessary to
borrow some staff members from MARNDR. This group of five

28






individuals would be totally responsible for the national parks
program. The Director and two assistants would be assigned to the
Central Office in Port-au-Prince. The other two individuals would
be assigned to the national parks; one would be Park Supervisor
for Parc National La Visite and the other Park Supervisor for Parc
National Pic Macaya. The Central Office of Pares Haiti should be
apart from any GOH unit, especially MARNDR at Damien, so that
it can establish an independent identity and work as a unit. The
new program could still be a part of MARNDR, and a unit of the
World Bank Project when, and if, it is implemented.

We recommend that Parcs Haiti be formed as soon as possible by
a method recommended by the National Parks Advisory Council
(PANAC). The selection of a permanent staff or appropriate
international organization should be completed first. Active dis-
cussions concerning the budget for Parcs Haiti should be initiated
at the earliest possible date so that the scope of the Parcs Haiti
program can be carefully planned. During the next decade Pares
Haiti should continue to function as an autonomous program with
the support and advice of PANAC.



C. Responsibilities of Pares Haiti
The responsibilities of Parcs Haiti are discussed below in five
major categories:

1) Implementation and development of the "stewardship plan;"
2) operation of Parcs Haiti;
3) public use of the parks;
4) environmental stewardship of the parks;
5) monitoring and evaluating the natural features of the parks;
6) developing an educational program for the parks.
The name of the administrator in charge of the duties outlined in We recommend that
each category is presented in parentheses in the following discus- Pares Haiti be formed as
sion. These suggestions are keyed to the organizational scheme soon as possible.
presented earlier in this chapter. The final organization of Pares
Haiti may differ somewhat depending on how the staff is selected
and which plan is followed. For example, it is possible that the
GOH will choose to subcontract part or all of Parcs Haiti out to
an international organization for the first five year period of the
development of the parks. If this is done then we recommend that
the duties of the Director, who should be a Haitian national,
remain as listed in section one of the following discussion. The
international organization could assume responsibilities for the


29







duties outlined in sections two through five. If the GOH decides
to further divide the lines of responsibility, one international or-
ganization could be selected to operate the parks (sections two
through four) under the direction of the Director, while another
institution could undertake the duties outlined in section five to
develop a method of monitoring the status of the most vulnerable
features of the parks, to conduct research and to create an educa-
tional program. We have tried to write the "Plan for Organization
of Parcs Haiti" in such a way that it can be adapted for any of the
several ways of creating Parcs Haiti discussed in this chapter.



1. Implementation and Development (Director)
The Director of Parcs Haiti will be responsible for the overall
program in national parks, the supervision of each Assistant Direc-
tor, the interactions with the other branches of the GOH and the
implementation of the program. The major features of the duties
of the Director in implementing and developing a program in
national parks are listed below.

a. Review the "Stewardship Plan" and "Revised Stewardship Plan"
(this document) for Parcs Haiti and work with the staff and
other branches of the GOH to formulate a final plan.
b. Hire all staff of Parcs Haiti, and supervise and evaluate all
personnel.
c. Coordinate all staff and projects into a unified program with a
clearly-understood mission and well-defined goals.
d. Develop a schedule for the implementation of the "Stewardship
Plan," and coordinate all phases of the work so that the
schedule is maintained.
e. Develop a training program for the staff of Parcs Haiti.
f. Supervise all security forces of Parcs Haiti.
g. Meet regularly with the PANAC and branches of the GOH,
especially MARNDR, to promote cooperation, productive
interactions and the planning and implementation of specific
projects.
h. Meet regularly with international organizations to develop
programs of assistance in technical areas and in seeking addi-
tional funding for Parcs Haiti.
i. Coordinate the duties of "Interns" and volunteers from foreign
institutions.
j. Supervise and manage the budget.


30








k. Present speeches, write articles and in all other ways promote
the concept of Parcs Haiti. As soon as possible, Parcs Haiti
should create a tape and slide presentation of high quality to
use in these presentations.
h. Carefully guide the growth of Parcs Haiti by evaluating all
proposals for additional programs. The Director will have the
responsibility of deciding which features of the national natural
patrimony are in need of being included in Parcs Haiti, and
coordinating feasibility studies. The Director will work with
the staff of Parcs Haiti and outside consultants in reaching a
decision on any proposal based on the overall well-being of
Parcs Haiti, the natural feature under consideration and the
overall interests of the GOH.


2. Operations (Delegated to various staff by the Director)
In the long term, the day to day administration of the overall
program of Parcs Haiti should be conducted by an individual or
office that is responsible for administration and maintenance. This
individual, who could be an Assistant Director for Administration,
would meet regularly with the Director. However, since money
will be tight no matter which of the methods of creating Parcs Haiti
is selected, we recommend that these duties should initially be
carried out by the Director and other staff under the Director. In
this way the Director and support staff will learn how to operate a
national parks program by intensive day by day experience. Some
of these activities are:

a. Coordinating activities with each Park Supervisor.
b. Coordinating activities with volunteer agencies.
c. Coordinating all activities of the staff of the Central Office of
Parcs Haiti.
d. Supervising the use and maintenance of motor vehicles.
e. Supervising the use and maintenance of all equipment and
supplies.
f. Maintaining a Parcs Haiti library and research collection that
would include a series of photographs of specific habitats,
maps, reports, journal articles and books on the natural
patrimony of Haiti and the national parks.





31






3. Public Use (Assistant Director for Education and
Recreation)
All aspects of the use of the park by the public should be super-
vised by an individual or office that is responsible for education,
recreation and tourism. This individual would report to the Direc-
tor on a regular basis. The person would also work closely with the
supervisors of each park and could be responsible for:

a. Designing and posting all signs.
b. Designing access routes and trails.
c. Designing scenic areas.
d. Designing special recreational features.
e. Public relations.
f. Develoing educational exhibits for the parks.
g. Working with hotels, airlines and tourist organizations.
h. Writing a weekly column for newspaper and writing scripts for
release to interested organizations.


4. Environmental Stewardship (Assistant Director for
Conservation and Research)
All aspects of the programs concerned with the conservation of
natural resources within Parcs Haiti and the stewardship of the
resources within the parks themselves should be supervised by an
individual or office responsible for conservation, preservation and
stewardship. This person would meet regularly with the Director
and with each Park Supervisor. They would be one of the major
links between the Central Office of Parcs Haiti and the parks, and
might spend significant periods of time in the field. The person
would be responsible for:

a. Designating all Biological Reserve Zones.
b. Caring for all special concern areas.
c. Representing Parcs Haiti in discussions concerning activities in
the "Buffer Zone."
d. Implementing reforestation and reclamation projects.
e. Working with local land owners near the parks and organizations
in Port-au-Prince to promote land use practices that are ap-
propriate for the areas of the parks.
f. Coordinating activities with MARNDR or area NGOs to
develop a seedling nursery.

32






3. Public Use (Assistant Director for Education and
Recreation)
All aspects of the use of the park by the public should be super-
vised by an individual or office that is responsible for education,
recreation and tourism. This individual would report to the Direc-
tor on a regular basis. The person would also work closely with the
supervisors of each park and could be responsible for:

a. Designing and posting all signs.
b. Designing access routes and trails.
c. Designing scenic areas.
d. Designing special recreational features.
e. Public relations.
f. Develoing educational exhibits for the parks.
g. Working with hotels, airlines and tourist organizations.
h. Writing a weekly column for newspaper and writing scripts for
release to interested organizations.


4. Environmental Stewardship (Assistant Director for
Conservation and Research)
All aspects of the programs concerned with the conservation of
natural resources within Parcs Haiti and the stewardship of the
resources within the parks themselves should be supervised by an
individual or office responsible for conservation, preservation and
stewardship. This person would meet regularly with the Director
and with each Park Supervisor. They would be one of the major
links between the Central Office of Parcs Haiti and the parks, and
might spend significant periods of time in the field. The person
would be responsible for:

a. Designating all Biological Reserve Zones.
b. Caring for all special concern areas.
c. Representing Parcs Haiti in discussions concerning activities in
the "Buffer Zone."
d. Implementing reforestation and reclamation projects.
e. Working with local land owners near the parks and organizations
in Port-au-Prince to promote land use practices that are ap-
propriate for the areas of the parks.
f. Coordinating activities with MARNDR or area NGOs to
develop a seedling nursery.

32






g. Fire control, and controlled burning of certain habitats to
prevent damaging wild fires.
h. Representing Parcs Haiti in the implementation and coordina-
tion of the "Biosphere Reserves" in the areas of the national
parks.
i. Working with the staff of Parcs Haiti and international projects
such as the University of Florida MacArthur Foundation Con-
servation Project, to design, draft, and utilize Species Recovery
Plans for endangered and threatened plants and animals of
Haiti.


5. Monitoring and Evaluation (Assistant Director for
Conservation and Research)
One of the most important aspects of the program in national
parks is monitoring and evaluating the status of the ecosystems
within the parks and the biosphere reserves. This important func-
tion will allow Parcs Haiti to make decisions on land use, recreation
and resource management. As special needs arise information on
the status of the environment of the parks will allow Parcs Haiti to
rapidly adjust policies to accommodate environmental emergen-
cies, such as the continued decline of a particular endemic species
or the sudden increase in the numbers of a pest or predator. The
individual in charge of monitoring and evaluating the environment
would work closely with the Director, other Assistant Directors,
Park Supervisors and international research teams. Ongoing re-
search projects are an important component of the monitoring and
evaluating process. The main responsibilities of this person or
office would be:
One of the most impor-
a. Periodic evaluation of the status of particular features of the tant aspects of the pro-
parks (Black-capped Petrel colonies, etc.). gram in national parks is
b. Coordinate the basic research project on the meteorological monitoring and evaluat-
characteristics of the parks. ing the status of ecosys-
tems within the parks
c. Coordinate with (international researchers) selected projects and the biosphere
that are needed to complete a biogeophysical inventory, reserves.
d. Work with national and international researchers to coordinate
their projects.
e. Review all research proposals to make sure there is a Haitian
counterpart on each research project.
f. Review all applications for research or collecting to determine
if there is a conflict with the principles and policies of the parks.
g. Develop a series of maps of each park.


33






h. Develop a series of air photographs of each park.
i. Be responsible for taking a series of photographs of specific
locations of the parks at the same station over a number of
years to document changes in plant communities.
j. Assist the Director in evaluating other areas that have been
recommended as national parks.



D. Budget for Parcs Haiti (5 years)
A suggested budget for Parcs Haiti has been developed for a five
year period, and is presented in the table at the end of this section
as well as in abbreviated form in the last chapter of this book. The
major budget categories are: 1) cost of setting up the Central Office
and Park Headquarters programs; 2) cost of information, bound-
ary and entrance signs; 3) cost of constructing exhibits; 4) cost of
publications advertising and promoting the parks and for the pub-
lication of basic data (scientific results and new species descrip-
tions); 5) cost of training programs for Parcs Haiti personnel; 6)
cost of research programs; 7) operating expenses for Central
Office; 8) operating expenses for parks and biosphere reserves; 9)
operating and maintenance costs for vehicles; 10) salaries. The
total proposed budget for Parcs Haiti (five years) is $2,514,790.
There is nothing absolute about this budget. We are presenting it
here because we know how hard it is for most institutions to
develop such budgets, and because we have had first-hand ex-
perience working in this area as a result of the UFMBR project.
This budget is intended for planning purposes only, and we do not
guarantee that it is perfect or complete.



Budget justification
1. Set-up costs. The cost of setting up the Central Office and
parks is $132,000 to build the facility and $145,000 for equipment
and supplies. These costs include desks, chairs and basic office
equipment as well as two vehicles. The cost to set up facilities at
each national park is estimated to be $29,100, including the pur-
chase of a vehicle for each park. In addition, a building must be
constructed at La Visite (estimated cost $20,000). A building is
already in place at Macaya. A complete list of all recommended
items is presented in the table at the end of this section.

2. Signs. It is important to place signs at the entrances to the parks
as soon as possible to signal the official status of the parks and to
welcome visitors. These signs should come out of the existing


34






budget. Boundary and information signs should also be posted as
well as signs for nature trails. The signs must be weatherproof,
sturdy and attractive. The road signs, nature trail signs and sup-
plemental signs will cost $8,000. Some signs have already been set
out as part of the final activities of the UFMBR project.

3. Exhibits. As part of the educational program, exhibits should
be available at the Central Office and within each park. These
educational exhibits will make the park experience more meaning-
ful to visitors and will educate park personnel and visitors alike as
to the importance of the parks as component parts of the biosphere
reserves. The exhibits could be designed in Haiti and constructed
in the United States as a subcontract with the Florida Museum of
Natural History or other institution experienced and competent in
the area of natural history graphics. The cost for eight large exhibit
signs is $10,000, with information on both sides so that the mes-
sages can change to introduce variety.

4. Publications. We propose publishing a general purpose
brochure on Parcs Haiti and the national parks at the earliest
possible date. This brochure will explain the purpose of Parcs
Haiti, describe the major features of Parc Macaya and Parc La
Visite including lists of major species, maps of the parks and a
message. It will also present information on how to make contribu-
tions and support Parcs Haiti. The cost of the initial publication is
$6,000. We recommend additional more specific brochures and
small booklets to be published the second and third year of the
budget period at $5,000 each year. In addition, it would be
desirable to publish a book on the National Parks of Haiti. This
book, well-illustrated with photographs, could be sold in Hotels
and bookstores. We believe that it would sell well. A similar very
attractive book has been published of the National Parks of the
Dominican Republic. The estimated cost of this book is $20,000.

We believe that it is very important to make the results of the
parks inventory available as quickly as possible. These "results"
include descriptions of new species, analyses of major plant and
animal associations and specific discussions of the major features
of the parks. We recommend that these results be published as a
single volume of the Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural
History, where other descriptions of the flora and fauna of Haiti
have been published. Each chapter would have a complete
abstract in French. All new species and important new data can
then be made available to Haiti within one year, and be readily
available to students and professionals in Haiti during the training
sessions and development stage of a national parks program. The
recommended budget for this publication is $10,000.



35







Other important publications that should be published as part of
the Pares Haiti program are:

The Natural History of Haiti
Useful Trees of Haiti
The Mammals of Haiti
The Birds of Haiti

Some of these books are already underway. Their publication has
also been designated as a high priority activity by the University of
Florida MacArthur Foundation Project (see description of this
project in Chapter VII). The MacArthur Foundation Project will
be able to assist Pares Haiti in the publication of some of these
books, and places a high priority on having these books, booklets,
and conservation posters available in Haiti. We feel that one of the
largest problems in Haiti is the general lack of knowledge about
the importance of the natural resources and natural patrimony of
the country.

It is anticipated that a second scientific publication will be ap-
propriate at the end of the five-year budget period. This publica-
tion would include the results of research over the five-year period
and would include Haitian counterparts as authors. We have
budgeted $10,000 for this second scientific publication.

5. Conservation Posters. Six conservation posters should be
produced as part of the Pares Haiti conservation and education
program. These conservation posters are listed below.

A Color Poster on "Connaitre et Proteger la Richesse Naturelle
d'Haiti" has already been completed as part of the UF MBR
project;

A Color companion poster to the above is needed that provides
detailed information on each species;

A Color Poster based on a painting by a famous Haitian artist
should be produced that will depict both the native flora and fauna
of Haiti and the fanciful plants and animals that normally are part
of traditional Haitian paintings. We hope that this painting
(poster) will become an instant success, and start a new movement
in Haitian art whereby Haitian artists will include more native
animals of the country in their paintings. The planning for this
project is already underway as part of the MacArthur Foundation
Project.

A Black and White Poster concentrating on biological conserva-
tion in the Pic Macaya Area is needed, and is currently being
planned as part of the MacArthur Foundation Project.


36







A Black and White Poster concentrating on biological conserva-
tion in the La Visite area is needed.

A Color Poster on recreational activities in the National Parks
will be needed when tourism in the parks becomes possible.

The first of these posters, "Connaitre et Proteger la Richeses
Naturelle d'Haiti," has already been completed, and 6,000 copies
will be distributed in Haiti in the fall of 1992. The poster is
displayed on the cover of this book. The cost was shared by USAID
and the MacArthur Foundation. We designed the poster, and it
was painted by Laurie Walz. Subsequent posters could be done in
the same way at the Florida Museum of Natural History, at another
international institution, or within Haiti.

The estimated total production cost of each color poster is $8,000.
The cost of production of the black and white posters is $3,000
each. The total budget of Parcs Haiti over the next five years for
posters should be $30,000.

We also recommend that a coloring book be produced based on
the "Connaitre et Proteger la Richess Naturelle du Haiti" poster.
This simple coloring book would have a color representation of the
poster on the cover, and include pages with the outline of each
plant of animal. Each page would have a simplified message
concerning the particular plant or animal. These coloring books
would be distributed free to schools throughout Haiti as part of the
Parcs Haiti Environmental Education Project. The estimated cost
of this booklet is $10,000.

6. Environmental Education Program. One of the important
activities that Parcs Haiti should be involved with is Environmental
Education. This can be accomplished by lectures and involvement
with schools. It can also be accomplished on site using the local
exhibits, conservation posters, etc. Many of these items are Part of Haiti conservation
budgeted above. An additional budget of $10,000 year should be poster, "Connaitre et
Proteger la Richesse
set aside for Environment Education. Naturelle d'Haiti." This
snake is Uromacer
7. TIraining programs. We believe that the most economical way frenatus, "La Madeleine,"
to run a training program is to make use of seminars, workshops the proposed national
and training sessions in Haiti. Each two week session would be snake of Haiti.
conducted by an international expert or team. We have budgeted
$3,000 for each session and recommended four sessions per year
($12,000). During the second year we recommend that the Direc-
tor participate in the national parks seminar and visit several mayor
institutions (such as the University of Florida) which have interna-
tional conservation programs $5,000). The research programs (see
following item) can also be incorporated into the training
programs.


37







8. Research Programs. We believe that research is one of the
most important components of a developing program in national
parks. The data generated from selected research projects will be
used in making management-related decisions and in building the
recreation and education programs. Parcs Haiti personnel should
be included in all research projects and therein receive valuable
training that will be specific to natural science in Haiti. We propose
spending 6.5 % of the budget, or $165,000 on research for a five
year period. The recommended research projects are listed below
with their duration and total cost in parentheses.

A). Composition of major plant associations (5 years; $30,000).
B). Growth and regeneration of endemic plants (5 years; $30,000).
C). Habitat requirements of the endangered species of endemic
mammals (5 years; 30,000).
D). Biology of the Black-capped Petrel (3 year; $30,000).
E). Regular inventories of park avifaunas (5 years; $10,000).
F). Baseline Meteorological studies (5 years; $5,000).
G). Distribution and habitat requirements of Invertebrates (5
years; $15,000).
H). Habitat requirements for endemic herpetofauna (3 years;
$15,000).
Total Research Budget $165,000
One major goal of these research projects is to create Species
Recovery Plans for endangered species in Haiti. The concept of
Species Recovery Plans is discussed in detail in Chapter VI of this
book, and Preliminary Species Recovery Plans are presented for
three species in Southern Haiti in The Natural History of Southern
Haiti (Woods and Ottenwalder, in press). The availability of
Species Recovery Plans is essential if Parcs Haiti is going to be able
to make comprehensive plans for conservation in Haiti. They will
provide the data base that will be necessary for Parcs Haiti to live
up to its obligation to advise the GOH on the complex questions
that arise in planning for sustainable development on an island
where resources are limited and conservation and development
are frequently at odds.

9. Operating Central Office. The specific estimated costs of
running the Central Office are listed at the end of this section. We
believe that it is very important to have a well-organized Central
Office to tie together all aspects of the parks program. Since the
parks program will also coordinate the activities of the biosphere
reserves associated with each park, the Central Office will become
a meeting place for many people and ideas. It will quickly become

38







the crossroads of all conservation activities in Haiti and the clearin-
ghouse for most information on the natural ecosystems of the
country. The total estimated cost of the office is $32,000 per year
or $160,000 over a five year period. On top of this is the cost of
renting or building the Port-au-Prince Parcs Haiti facility.

Our estimate is that it would cost $25,000 per year to rent a
reasonable building for a Central Office. It would be cheaper in
the long run to construct a new building. The decision as to which
strategy to follow, and where to locate the building should be made
by the Director of Parcs Haiti in conjunction with the National
Parks Advisory Council.

10. Operating Parks. The estimated costs for the operation of
the parks is $28,450 each or $56,900 per year. The cost of operating
the parks over a five year period would be $284,500.

11. Operating Vehicles. We propose purchasing four vehicles for
use in the parks. Two vehicles are for use in the Central Office.
One of which will function in the capital and the other will come
and go to the parks. All of the vehicles should have 4-wheel drive.
Two vehicles will operate in the parks and transport the Park
Supervisors back and forth between the parks and the Central
Office. The estimated annual cost for operating the four vehicles
each year is $20,400 for a total cost of $102,000 over five years.
Individual items are listed below.

12. Salaries. The salaries of the three administrators and five
support staff of the Central Office are listed below. We have done
our best to estimate salaries that are fair and provide incentives
and a sense of pride, but at the same time are not out of line with
other salaries. These determinations will need to be revised by the
Director of Parcs Haiti and the Advisory Council for National
Parks.

















39







Specific Budget Explanation
Setting up Main Office in Port-au-Prince

ESTIMATED # ITEM COST


Office set-up
1 Office Typewriter 500
1 Portable Typewriter 350
1 Computer System 5,000
Computer Software 1,000
12 File Cabinets 2,500
10 Desks 3,500
10 Desk Chairs 1,000
1 Conference Table 800
20 Chairs 800
2 Storage Cabinets 800
10 Book cases 1,000
4 Map cases 800
1 Drafting Table 500
1 Drafting equipment 250
4 Air Conditioners 2,000
3 Audiovisual Equipment 1,500
1 Videocamera 3,000
3 Tape Recorders 750
1 Copy Machine 1,000
3 Cameras 750
1 Radiocommunications 12,000
2 Vehicles 32,000
Other Miscellaneous 2,000

Total $73,800














40







Park Set-up (each)

ESTIMATED # ITEM COST

1 Typewriter 350
1 Woodstove 500
1 Storage Cabinet 400
1 Chainsaw 350
1 Generator 2,500
4 Guns (shotguns)* 500
4 Altimeters + pocket
transects 1,000
Field Furniture 500
Shovels, picks, etc. 1,000
1 Gas stove 500
1 Gas Refrigerator 500
1 Toilet 100
2 Sinks 200
Solar generator 2,000
Hardware 200
1 Vehicle (pick-up) 16,000
1 Motorcycle 1,500
Field Equipment 1,000

Subtotal $29,100 Times two = $58,200






Building Construction and/or Rental

Parcs Haiti Headquarters $125,000
Parc Macaya Headquarters (Done)
Parc La Viste Headquarters 20,000
Total $145,000

*This type of gun is useful for research (to collect seeds in high elevation trees).







41







Signs
2 4'x8' Entrance sign $2,000 *
60 Information signs 3,000 *
2 4'x8' Roadside exhibits 2,000
50 nature trail signs 1,000

Total $8,000



Exhibits
4 Double side exhibit panels $10,000


Publications and Posters
1 volume Scientific Results I 10,000
1 volume Scientific Results II 10,000
5000 Information Brochure 5,000
Park booklets 5,000
Park booklets 5,000
Natural History of Haiti 10,000
Birds of Haiti 10,000
Mammals of Haiti 10,000
Useful Trees of Haiti 10,000
Conservation Posters 30,000
Conservation
Coloring Book 10,000
1 volume National Parks of Haiti Book 20,000

Total $135,000


Environmental Education Supplement
$10,000

Training programs
20 Two week training sessions (3,000 each) 60,000
(five year period)
1 Special parks seminar and
visits for Director 5,000


Total $65,000


42







Research
8 Research projects (see discussion in Budget Summary)

Total $165,000


Operating Central Office*
per year 5 years

Telephone 2,500 12,500
Lights + electricity 4,500 22,500
Supplies 6,000 30,000
Incidentals 6,000 30,000
Per diem pool 10,000 50,000
International travel 3,000 15,000

Total year 5 year

$32,000 $160,000
Rent not included

Operating each Park
Per Year Total

Uniforms $ 350 $1,750
Per diem
(Park Supervisors) 3,600 18,000
Park Maintenance 24,000 120,000
Supplies 500 2,500

Total $28,450 $142,250
(x 2 for Combined
Parks) $56,900 $284,500













43







Operating four Vehicles
Year Total

Maintenance and tires $8,000 $40,000
Gas 12,000 60,000
License and insurance 400 2,000

Total $20,000 $102,000


Salaries
Per Year Total

1. Director Salary 30,000
Expenses 4,000
2. Assistant Director #1 Salary 20,000
Expenses 3,000
2. Assistant Director #2 Salary 20,000
Expenses 3,000
5. Secretary 7,000
6. Secretary-Librarian 6,500
7. Chauffeur 7,000
8. Commissar 4,000
9. Guardian 2,500
10. Park Supervisor #1 Salary 15,000
Expenses 2,000
10. Park Supervisor #1 Salary 15,000
Expenses 2,000
12. Headquarters Guardian #1 2,500
13. Headquarters Guardian #2 2,000
14. Park Guardians 3,500 each x 14 49,200
15. Park Workers 1,500 each x 30 45,000

TOTAL $239,700 $1,298,290

*Note: We have added a 4% salary increase each year.

Total cost of setting up and running Parcs Haiti for five years is
estimated to be
approximately $2,514,790.





44
























CHAPTER III


Parc National Pic Macaya


This chapter reviews the history, physical features, natural his-
tory, and management plans for the national park in the Massif de
la Hotte that is known as Parc National Pic Macaya. This national
park was the focus of activities of the University of Florida Macaya
Biosphere Reserve Project, and is considered a Core Zone of the
Macaya Biosphere Reserve. The area was being severely degraded
at the time the national park was established. The activities of the
UFMBR project nearly stopped the cutting of pine trees, and
reduced the numbers of black bean gardens in the park. The
project was also able to reduce the number of domestic animals in
the park. The south boundary of the park was fenced as part of the
MBR activities, and some reforestation was underway. As of 1991,
the steep slopes of the park were beginning to return to forest
cover.
This chapter should be viewed in context with Chapter VII, which
presents a plan for the future. As of June, 1992, the park is clearly
threatened. At the time of our final survey of conditions in the
region in April, 1992, the park was once again being rapidly
degraded. The fence had been torn down in places. We saw a
number of peasants entering the park with hoes and machettes.
Animals were being grazed well inside the park boundary. We
found one young, healthy cow with its rear leg nearly cut off. The
cow had been eating plants in a newly-planted garden on a steep

45







slope in the park, and the "owner" of the garden had cut the hind
leg of the cow, which was dying, in retribution. This event sums up
the current status of the park perfectly. Not only is the park being
openly violated, but it was being violated with a sense of despera-
tion. The competition for resources in the region is reaching a new
level that makes the continued existence of the park questionable.
So, the impression of Haiti at a crossroads is nowhere more vividly
apparent than at Parc National Pic Macaya. The park is estab-
lished, well-documented, and on the verge of becoming a model
for the conservation of natural resources in Haiti. Until 1991, there
was a sense of optimism about its future. As of 1992, the park is
under attack and on the verge of total collapse. We hope that this
in-depth discussion of Parc National Pic Macaya will not be its
obituary.







F~~~- .;,- ,,
7, tf .







Parc National Pic Macaya




Section 1. Location
The area designated as Parc National Pic Macaya is located on
the Massif de la Hotte at the crest of the mountains where several
major rivers originate (see Map of Macaya Biosphere Reserve,
Appendix III). The park lies at latitude 18 21' N and 74 01'W. The
crest of the mountains divides the Departement du Sud (Arrondis-
sement des Coteaux) in the south from the Departement de la
Grande Anse (Arrondissement de Jeremie) in the north. The most
characteristic feature of the park is Pic Macaya with an elevation
of 2,347 meters. Pic Macaya is located 36 kilometers northwest of
the city of Les Cayes and 195 kilometers west of Port-au-Prince.


46







Section 2. Size and Natural Boundaries
The "communique" in the Nouveau Monde (5 May 1981) men-
tioned the creation of "parcs naturels" in the Massif de la Selle and
Massif de la Hotte, but did not mention the specific location or
boundaries of the park in the La Hotte region. The decree of 23
June 1983 creating the national park in the Massif de la Hotte
designated the size of the park at Macaya to be 2,000 hectares. The
communique signed by Dr. Roger Lafontant and Frantz Flambert
on 15 January 1985 declared the Macaya area as a "zone protegee,"
but did not set the specific boundaries of the preserve. The size of
the park was described as 2,000 hectares with a 10,000 hectares
buffer zone in an internal document between MARNDR and
USAID entitled "Fiche de Projet en Cours." Our original recom-
mendation for the size of a national park around Pic Macaya was
3,000 hectares (Woods and Rosen, 1977). In correspondence be-
tween the Florida Museum of Natural History and USAID, a
preliminary boundary for Pare National Pic Macaya was recom-
mended as comprising 5,500 hectares. This proposal was accepted
by ISPAN (at that time, under INAHCA) and MARNDR, and was
used by MARNDR in conjunction with the recommendations of
Florence Sergile, who was at that time the Parks Coordinator in
the Direction des Ressources Naturelles (MARNDR), to deter-
mine the boundaries of the park by the boundary survey team from
MARNDR. Because the original survey of the park was flawed
and needs to be redone, we now recommend that the size of the
park should be expanded to 7,500 hectares. The specific areas to
be included and the justifications for doing so are discussed below.

The natural boundaries of Pare National Pic Macaya have been
defined based on the results of the various inventory teams and the
final reports of these investigations. Analyses of the inventories of
the most significant geological, botanical, zoological and recrea-
tional features of the Pic Macaya region indicate that all of the
following features should be included within the territorial limits
of the park.



Pic Macaya (2,347 meters)
water generation and recharge zone
unique broadleaved and pine forest communities
nesting location for Black-capped Petrels
soil conservation zone because of its steep slopes
recreation area (wilderness setting)





47







Pic Formon (2,219 meters) and
Pic Le Ciel (2,170 meters)
-unique broadleaved and pine forest communities
-possible Black-capped Petrel nesting area
-water generation and recharge zone
-soil conservation zone
-virgin forest zone


"Bwa Formon"
(The karst hills between Morne Cavalier [1,570 meters] and
Sous Bois, including the forest covered area below Morne
Cavalier and along rim of the Plain of Formon to 1,000 meters).

-many species of endemic orchids
-important habitat for the Zagouti (Plagiodontia)
-especially rich avifauna
-numerous endemic species
"Gran Ravin" of the
Ravine du Sud
(from 1,919 meters in the saddle between Pic Macaya and Pic
Formon eastward down the Gran Ravin to 500 meters elevation).
-numerous endemic species
-water conservation
-soil conservation because of steep sides, and numerous natural
landslides


East-West Ridge of Pic Macaya
-unique Pine Forest with giant old growth trees
-water conservation zone because of abundant rainfall and cloud-
combing phenomenon of tall pine trees
-deep layer of sphagnum moss acts as a sponge in retaining water
-possible additional nesting areas for Black-capped Petrels
-numerous endemic species
-wildest area of Haiti


East-West Ridge of Pic Formon
-unique elfin broadleaved forest
-water conservation (wettest area in Haiti)
-possible nesting Petrels


48







Plain of Mare Cochon 1,200-1,400 meters elevation NE of
Macaya
-only habitat with Solenodon
-rich broadleaved forest being rapidly deforested
-exceptional number of endemic species
-soil conservation
-region not currently in park, but designated as highest conserva-
tion priority for inclusion


Upper area of Riviere Trois Sources
(in the steep ravine between Pic Macaya and Pic Formon)
-easy access via new UNICORS\COSAR road
-very vulnerable to exploitation, which would destroy Petrel nest-
ing area
-southwestern exposure, which would do irreparable damage to
soils if deforested

Each of the above features will be discussed in greater detail in
the section on the "major features" of the park, and has been
described in elaborate detail in this document. All of the features
are part of a natural ecosystem that ranges in elevation from 900
to 2,347 meters. If Pare Macaya were to include all of these areas
it would be a 5,000 hectares "block" of terrain that would contain
Pic Formon and Pic Macaya at their watersheds. Pare Macaya
would also include a 500 hectare peninsula of land that stretches
southward from Pic Le Ciel and include the forested karst hills
around the western and southwestern boundaries of the plains of
Formon and Durand that are rich in important sinkholes and have
several small ponds. The park should also include 2,000 hectares
NE of the ridge of Pic Macaya in the areas of Diquillon and Mare
Cochon. All of this park of 7,500 hectares should be protected
from environmental degradation of all kinds including all agricul-
ture and deforestation. The flora and fauna of Pare National Pic
Macaya contain more endemic species than any other known area
of Hispaniola. This is the absolute minimum size that the park
should be to adequately protect the flora and fauna of the area.
This size is also essential if the species of Solenodon described in
the Solenodon Species Recovery Plan are to be saved from extinc-
tion. One of these species is a living fossil that occurs only in the
Pic Macaya area.







49







Section 3. Access to Pare Macaya
Access to Parc National Pic Macaya is difficult. There are several
ways to enter the park, but only one is practicable. That route is
via the city of Les Cayes where there are several hotels that would
be suitable for tourist accommodations. Les Cayes is 196
kilometers by road west of Port-au-Prince and the journey takes
less than four hours to drive on a paved all-weather highway. From
Les Cayes the route is a gravel road to the town of Le Duc. Beyond
Le Duc the road becomes rough and crosses the Riviere l'Acul
three times before passing through the town of Le Pretre. Beyond
Le Pretre the road is very rough and climbs the escarpment by a
series of switch backs from the valley of the Riviere l'Acul up to
the southwestern margin of the Plain of Formon at Les Platons.
This is a picturesque area where there is a fortification (Citadelle
Des Platons) and splendid views of the eastern Massif de la Hotte
(ridges of Pic Formon). The trip from Les Cayes to Les Platons in
33 kilometers and takes about two hours to drive.

From Les Platons the road is very rough. The route passes
through Marche Sous Bois, and then the extensive karst hills that
are still forest covered and which are known locally as "Bwa For-
mon." The boundary marker for the southern edge of the park is
located beside the trail in Bwa Formon 100 meters before the road
finally passes out onto the flat, fertile Plain of Formon at "Portal
Formon," a collection of houses and large fields in a region desig-
nated on the map (Edition 2-AMS, Sheet 5370-1, 1:50,000) as Nan
Seille. Nobody in the region currently recognizes the name Nan
Seille, and all use the name Formon or Portal Formon. The route
from Les Platons is ten kilometers long. At "Portal Formon" the
visitor looks northward to see Morne Cavalier and Pic Le Ciel to
the west of the ridge of Formon orientated in an east-west direc-
tion. From "Portal Formon" two trails can be used to pass through
the park. The road continues on to the Park Headquarters and
main facility at Caye Michel (named in honor of our colleague on
the MBR project Michel Aubry, who died in an accident crossing
the Riviere l'Acul).

The first mountain trail in the park passes directly northward and
ascends the ridge of Formon via a series of gardens known as "Kay
Ogil" until it passes over the top of the massif at 1,850 meters
elevation. The trail then descends into the "Gran Ravin" to a
settlement of gardens known as "Deglacis." The area at "Deglacis"
is 1,030 meters in elevation, and is located beside the Ravine du
Sud in the bottom of the "Gran Ravin."

The second trail passes northeast across the upper Plain of For-
mon and through a karst zone to the Plain of Durand. On the Plain



50







of Durand is a region of sinkholes, ponds and streams. The karst
hills south of the Plain of Durand are known as "Bwa Durand." All
of this area should be in the park. The trail then ascends a ridge
east of Morne Cavalier to the crest of the mountain at 2,000 meters
elevation. At this point three routes are possible: a) a newly cut
trail that follows the ridge to the east to intersect the first trail at
1,800 meters elevation; b) the old trail which passes northward and
descends into the upper "Gran Ravin" where it eventually joins the
dry streambed of the Ravine du Sud at 1,550 meters elevation; c)
a newly cut trail that cuts off to the west of the trail and ascends the
ridge of Formon. The trail to the west passes across one peak
(called by local woodsmen "Le Ciel"). The top of Pic Le Ciel is
somewhat cleared, and a magnificent view of Pic Macaya is possible
from there by climbing a low pine tree in the clearing. This area
serves as an excellent camp site. The trail continues on from this
2,170 meter peak across a narrow ridge to 2,219 meter Pic Formon
which is covered with broadleaved forest capped with a few tower-
ing pines. The trail then descends northward along the ridge that
connects Pic Formon with Pic Macaya. This connecting ridge is
known locally as "Pa Lan Kont." After passing over a small well-
forested peak at 1,919 meters in the center of the ridge which we
designate as 'Tete Ravine" the trail steeply ascends the south ridge
(shoulder) of Pic Macaya. This trail passes near rocky ledges in
places and is quite dangerous and steep. The trail eventually levels
off at the shoulder (2,200 meters) below the summit before steeply
climbing to the summit. A camp has been cleared near the summit
of Macaya at 2,335 meters. The summit is 50 meters west of the
camp site at 2,347 meters, and is marked by chunks of cement
(probably part of the old benchmark) wedged into the stump of a
fallen pine.

This is the only practical route to take into the interior of the park.
However, there are two other ways of getting into the interior of
the park. One is by hiking into the north side of Pic Macaya from
the east via the towns of Duchity or Beaumont. However, the route
crosses steep ravines and the trail to the summit of Pic Macaya has
not been cleared. It is currently possible to travel only as far as
"Zapoti," a clearing at 1,216 meters two kilometers north of Pic
Macaya. The northern route, therefore, is not suitable as the
primary access to the national park even though this is the histori-
cal route of access to Macaya that was followed by Wetmore and
Darlington. A new road that is being built westward from Duchity
will make the above route into the interior of Pare Macaya more
feasible, and will open the area to potential exploitation and
deforestation. This road was half completed in April 1992, and it
is anticipated that it will be completed to quite near the north side
of Pic Macaya by the end of the year.



51






Another route into the interior of Parc Macaya is via a new road
that has been constructed by UNICORS\COSAR through the
town of Rendel to hear the Riviere Trois Sources. This road passes
deep into the heart of the park, and makes it very vulnerable to
exploitation. The forests in the area are being cleared for coffee,
and the ridge of Pic Formon is being rapidly deforested. This road
provides access to the interior of the park in two ways. From the
end of the road it is possible to walk east up the Riviere Trois
Sources to just below the ridge connecting Pic Macaya and Pic
Formon. It is also possible to gain access to the north ridge of Pic
Macaya, and hike up the north trial to the summit. This is the old
traditional route to the top taken by Ekman and Wetmore, al-
though they gained access to this trail from the north side. A
comprehensive discussion of the routes to the top of Pic Macaya is
in Chapter II in The Natural History of Southern Haiti (Woods and
Ottenwalder, in press).

Now that the trail has been cleared across Pic Formon from the
south, the route from Les Platons should be considered the primary
access to Parc National Pic Macaya. If the road between Les
Platons, Sous Bois and Portal Formon were to be improved, this
would provide easy access to Parc National Pic Macaya that would
be suitable for tourists. However the route would require major
supervision to prevent habitat exploitation. The route from Les
Platons provides many picturesque vistas of Parc National as it
traverses the broad plain and crosses the karst hills.


Section 4.
Major features of Pare Macaya
The following section summarizes all of the reports of the
biogeophysical inventory. An attempt has been made to review the
most important features of Parc Macaya, and to provide a synthesis
of the information that is necessary for planning as well as under-
standing the significance of Parc Macaya. Each original report
stands on its own and should be consulted for detailed information
concerning Parc Macaya. These topics are discussed in much
greater detail in the volume The Natural History of Southern Haiti
(Woods and Ottenwalder, in press), and there is some overlap with
information presented in that book. We feel that it is important to
have this information in the Stewardship Plan, however, since it
may be used as a reference volume on its own.






52







A. The Geology of Parc National Pic Macaya
The interpretation of the structural geology of Parc Macaya is
complicated by the extensive weathering of the outcrops and the
dense vegetation cover of most sections of the park. There are
numerous faults, some trending east-west along the Grande
Ravine du Sud and others north-south in the Macaya Formation.

One of the most significant geological features of Parc Macaya is
the extensive karst topography that occurs along the areas of low
relief east and south of Morne Cavalier. Karst is also exposed
along the ridges between 1,800-2,000 meters east of Pic Formon
and along the ridge between Pic Formon and Pic Macaya. Most
exposures of karst in the park are associated with the karstt hills"
that cover the edge of the Plain of Formon, which are really cones
of karst. Low areas are frequently doline collapses or sinkholes.
Steep-sided solution pipes and sinkholes are often encountered on
the Plain of Formon and Plain of Durand. Even though the area
receives abundant rainfall, most water quickly enters the subsur-
face hydrologic cycle via the extensive joint system and larger scale
solution features (flowing into caves).

The main body of the park is composed of two tall peaks, Pic
Formon and Pic Macaya. They are separated by an active east-west
trending fault system that forms the "Gran Ravin" and the Ravine
du Sud east of the ridge connecting Pic Formon and Pic Macaya
indicate active vertical uplift in the region. The upper surfaces of
both mountains are covered with deep rich soils that support a
dense forest. These soils are highly oxidized, reddish laterites.
There is a thick layer of humus formed by decomposing vegetation.

The long fault that originated in the Miocene passes through
much of the Southern Peninsula and crosses Parc Macaya via the
"Gran Ravin." The evidence of active vertical tectonics in the One of the most sig-
region is found in the steep slopes of the ravine, the numerous talus nificant features of Pare
deposits that flow out onto the bottom of the ravine and flat areas Macaya is the extensive
on the slopes above, and the frequent occurrence of massive karst topography that
landslides, occurs along the areas
of low relief east and
The rocks of the park are from two formations. Most rocks are south of Morne Cavalier.
limestones of the Macaya Formation. These massive limestones
are characterized by numerous veins of calcite. Most rocks are
fine-grained and light grey in color. Occasional rocks that are
greyish-brown or even darker in color are encountered. This rock
formation is very old, probably originating in the late Cretaceous
70 to 80 million years ago. During this time, the western portion
of what is now the Southern Peninsula, and the Parc National Pic
Macaya was a back-arc basin that may have been detached from
northern Haiti and located hundreds of kilometers to the west of


53







its present position.

The second formation found in the park is the "Demisseau For-
mation." This is the same formation that is found in Parc National
La Visite north of the La Selle Escarpment. It is a deep-water
deposit consisting of basaltic volcanics (lava flowing under the
ocean surface), turbidites, limestones, cherts and siliceous
sandstones. Rocks derived from this formation are exposed at
1,150 meters in the stream basin of the Grande Ravine du Sud.
Other outcrops of basalt can be observed at 1,400-1,600 meters
elevation along the southern slope of the ridge of Formon. Most
workers believe that the Demisseau Formation underlies the
Macaya Formation, and is therefore older.

Both the Macaya and Demisseau formations were formed in the
deep ocean in the ancient Caribbean Sea. This sea became shallow
in the area of what is now the peninsula of Haiti in the early
Tertiary. During the middle Tertiary (Miocene) a major tectonic
left-lateral fault developed. Since this time there have been con-
tinued lateral and vertical tectonic events that have shaped the land
as we see it today. The late Tertiary and Quaternary (the last nine
million years) has been characterized by the formation of karst
landforms and lateritic soils. If Hispaniolawere separated into two
islands as some geologists believe, then the Southern Peninsula
would have joined the rest of Haiti about nine million years ago.

S million years Karst topography predominates east and south of Morne Cavalier
St rtiand between 1,800 and 2,000 meters elevations east of Pic Formon
ago the western portion
of what is now the and along the ridge between Pic Formon and Pic Macaya. Ex-
Southern Peninsula of posure of karst is associated with the karst hills covering the edge
Haiti, in g te aa of the plain of Formon and the plain of Durand, the "rak bwa."
Haiti, including the area
of Par National Pic Solution pipes and sinkholes are common on the plain of Formon
S warc and on the plain of Durand as well. Exposure of blocks of lime-
Macaya, was a back-arc
basin that may have stone stand like monuments on the surface.
basin that may have
been detached from The limestone varies in hardness and fracturing and may not be
northern Haiti and lo- able to be treated as a single formation. Water penetration through
cated hundreds of cracks and fissures and consequent runoff will be associated with
kilometers to the west of these differences. Below the limestone lies a complex that was
its present position. formed under the sea in the late Cretatian period.

Basalt exists as pillow lavas, dikes and other thin strata intruded
into the basement rock. This basement rock is composed of deep
water marine limestone, shale and other sedimentary rocks veined
with calcite.

When weathered, these rocks are highly erodible. The most
notable feature caused by this erosion in the park area can be seen
in the undercutting of the rock under the limestone of the Demis-


54







seau formation, causing the great cliffs of the massif. Differences
in topography are reflections of the predominate underlying
material. Those areas underlain with limestone are usually
rounded on the ridges and in the ravines. Soils and rock are usually
more stable on these materials. On the other hand, where the
sedimentary/basaltic rock is found, ridges are sharp, and "V-
shaped" ravines are common, as the material is highly erodible.

Based on the predominant geological formations in the area,
three general types of topography can be defined. These cor-
respond to some degree to current land use patterns and are also
an important element in developing a land use plan for the future.

1) The first type consists of very steep, upper slopes. Such lands
are in some cases utilized today for agriculture, particularly in
the Trois Sources area. They are not, however, generally ap-
propriate for agricultural land use. It is recommended that
long-term planning move toward a system in which use of these
lands is restricted to conservation purposes and/or very limited
use of natural resources (e.g., selective exploitation of native
vegetation).
2) The second type consists of moderately sloping to steep
hillsides, and corresponds in large part to the karst outcrop-
pings, known locally as rak bwa. While some farmers are
presently almost entirely dependent on these areas for agricul-
tural production, most farmers who utilize the rak bwa also
have access to more productive lands at lower elevations
and/or with lower slopes. These rak bwa lands are highly
variable. In some cases they are appropriate for limited
agricultural use (particularly agroforestry), but in other cases
extreme degradation has already occurred, limiting their utility
in the future. In the latter case, rehabilitation is critical--that
is, systems must be devised which can improve the quality of
these lands. The forces that shaped
geological conditions in
3) Finally, much of the area consists of formations which are quite Haiti are still at work in
appropriate for intensive, sustained agricultural production. the region of the
These lands include the nearly level plains (such as Durand) Macaya Biosphere
and gently sloping hillsides. Most of these lands are in agricul- Reserve.
tural production today and should continue to be used for
agriculture in the future. Conservation agricultural practices
should be developed which can assist farmers in making the
most productive use of such lands.
The forces that shaped geological conditions in Haiti are still at
work in the region of the Macaya biosphere Reserve. One of the
best places in all Hispaniola to stand and appreciate the forces of
geological events in action is in the upper Grande Ravine du Sud
at 1,600 meters elevation.

55







B. The Soils of the Macaya Region
In the central portion of the Plain of Formon the soils are deep
oxisols formed on predominantly limestone parent rock. These
soils are dark red and deep with moderate fertility levels. Soil pH
is nearly neutral. Lower down the slope, the soil changes to a
brown Ultisol formed on the non-limestone rock. Because slopes
are not severe, the soils are relatively deep and somewhat fertile
with nitrogen and phosphorus being the most commonly deficient
nutrients. The pH of these soils is slightly acid.

On the slopes of the upper area of Durand, the soils are relatively
deep and coarse-textured ultisols that may be formed on the col-
luvium and alluvium that has washed downslope from underneath
the Demisseau Formation. Some explosive volcanics of a later
geologic era may have also contributed to the parent material of
these soils. The soils are less weathered and the coarse texture
leaves them drought and dryer than surrounding soils.

Toward Kay Tilus and the ridge of Formon, the steep slopes have
been cleared, exposing the ultisols. Severe erosion is in process,
but farming continues in spite of landslide and landslip on nearly
all of the deforested slopes.

On areas of rak bwa, a large portion of the soil surface is covered
by limestone rock formations and strewn rocks, but the soils are
nonetheless deep and fertile oxisols. Production is severely limited
by the portion of the soil surface not covered with rock.

Across the escarpment toward Cavalier, the soils are
predominantly brown ultisols. On the upper slopes below the
Soils in the entire region market of Sous Bois, the soils are relatively recently cleared and
are extremely variable hence moderately deep. Because of the nature of the soil, how-
and form a mosaic of ever, they are subject to erosion and may rapidly degrade. Because
intermixed soil types in of the limestone on the rak bwa above them, they retain a neutral
some areas which will pH. Lower on the valley floor, the ultisols have been cultivated
require extremely care- much longer, and even with less slope they are eroded moderately.
ful attention when
agricultural land use is To the west of the Park in the areas near the UNICORS\COSAR
suggested. complex, the soils follow the same pattern of ultisol formation.
Cleared land is showing signs of erosion and in some areas the
plinthite subsoil is at the surface. High up the Port-a-Piment river
clearing and fire during the last ten years has caused severe
avalanche hazard that should be addressed immediately.

The three predominant soil types described above coincide to
some degree with the major topographical features of the region.
However, it must be stressed that soils in the entire region are
extremely variable and form a mosaic of intermixed soil types in
some areas which will require extremely careful attention when

56







agricultural land use is suggested.

In general, the oxisols occupy the nearly flat plains and very lowest
slopes in the region. They are much more prevalent in the Formon
area than in the Trois Sources area. While they do offer problems
of fertility, their structure is excellent and they are highly resistant
to erosion, in addition to occupying the least erodible sites. Inten-
sive agricultural production on these soils should be possible.

Deep ultisols occupy many of the intermediate slopes, including
large portions of the rak bwa area. These soils are much more
susceptible to erosion than the oxisols and must be treated with
great care. In many cases, current land use will not be sustainable
on these soils, especially when it occurs on steep slopes. These soils
should, over the long term, receive the greatest attention regarding
appropriate agricultural and/or non-agricultural land use practices.
These soils have also been highly degraded in many areas and will
require rehabilitation if they are to prove productive in the future.

The upper slopes are occupied in many cases by thinner Ultisols,
even more susceptible to erosion than those occupying the lower
slopes and rak bwa. These soils are very prevalent in the Trois
Sources zone, and contribute to the very severe erosion problems
that are so visible in that area. In the vast majority of cases,
prolonged agricultural production will not be possible on these
soils. It should be noted that the upper slopes show extreme
variability in soil type and that generalization is difficult. Further
study of these soils is critical, particularly in areas of intensive
utilization.



C. Floristic Features of the Macaya Area
The vegetation of Pare National Pic Macaya in the Massif de la
Hotte consists of an extremely diverse moist broadleaved forest
growing on and around areas of exposed limestone at the lower
elevations of the park and extending upward to about 1,250 meters
elevation. Above 1,250 meters a complex mosaic of habitats exist
ranging from moist, dense cloud forest to occasional open, savan-
na-like pine forest (best developed above 1,600 meters). Human-
caused disturbance is extensive below 1,600 meters.

Judd (1986:7-10) divides the vegetation in the Macaya region into
two major types. The first is an extremely diverse wet forest on
limestone. This is equivalent to Holdridge's (Sedwitz and Canet,
1972) "foret tres humide de Montagne de basse altitude" and
ranges upward to about 1,250 meters elevation. The second forest
type described by Judd is a complex mosaic of pine and cloud forest
formations. Local edaphic factors such as soil, exposure, local

57







precipitation amounts, wind patterns, as well as part of the history
of the region (i.e., fire, cutting, hurricanes) influence what type of
forest will grow in a particular locality. Because it is difficult to
speak of the park in specific terms within the general forest types
mentioned above, we have subdivided the forest types with several
subunits.

The lower "wet forest on limestone" is subdivided into four types
of habitat.

1) Mature broadleaved forest (Creole name "Rak Bwa Woch").
This is a typical forest of the karst hills on the edge of the Plain
of Formon. The species composition is described by Judd
(1986:9-10).
2) Fragmented broadleaved forest (Creole name "Bwa Raje
Woch"). This is a small patch of the preceding forest type or
one that has been dramatically altered by selective cutting.
3) Abandoned gardens or areas of early succession (Creole name
"Raje"). Grassy areas on the Plain of Formon or in the foothills
below 1,300 meters.
4) Gardens (Creole name "Jadin"). Garden planted in cleared
areas within the "Rak Bwa Woch" or on the Plain of Formon.
The complex of forest types above 1,300 meters elevation have
been subdivided into the following units.

1) Pine forest (Creole name "Bwa pen"). This forest type is
described by Judd (1986:7). It is similar to the pine forest in
La Visite except it is much moister and has many more broad-
leaved plants in the understory.
2) Successional pine forest (Creole name "Bwa pen Raje"). Young
stands ofPinus occidentalis with blackberries (Rubus spp.) and
braken ferns.
3) Mature hardwood forest or "cloud forest" (Creole name "Rak
Bwa"). This forest has few or no overstory pines, and usually
has large and conspicuous individual Didymopanax tremulum
trees (called "Bwa Tramble"). The understory is a diverse array
of small trees and shrubs such as Garrya fadyenii, Myrsine
coriacea, Brunellia comocladiifolia and the important wild
avocado Persea anomala. The climbing bamboo Arthros-
tylidium haitiense ("liane a scie") grows up in sunny spots and
makes many areas of this habitat almost impenetrable.
4) Fragmented hardwood forest (Creole name "Bwa Raje"). Small
patches of "Rak Bwa," or hillsides where the typical "Rak Bwa"
has been modified by fire or wind damage so that only a few
species are present. In these disturbed zones, the climbing

58







bamboo often grows up and over all of the fallen vegetation.
5) Abandoned gardens or areas of early succession (Creole name
"Raje").
6) Gardens (Creole name "Jadin").
The above designations in conjunction with the discussion and
species lists available in Judd (1986) allow us to understand the fine
grain distribution of vegetation types and associated flora found in
various regions of the park. A further indication of the importance
of Parc Macaya is demonstrated by examining the ecological map
of Haiti prepared by L.R. Holdridge for the Organization of
American States (Sedwitz and Canet, 1972). The map shows five
vegetation formations occurring within the boundaries of the park
and associated buffer zone. These formations are determined on
the basis of elevation, precipitation, evaporation, and climate. The
five formations are described below. The French name for the
formation is given as presented on the map by Holdridge (Sedwitz
and Canet, 1972). The English name is taken from Holdridge
(1947:138) in the work on the pine forests of Haiti in which he
developed his now famous system for classifying vegetation types.
The presence of five vegetation formations in one small region is
an indication of the ecological importance of Parc National Pic
Macaya. Some of these formations are associated with abundant
rainfall, further pointing out the significance of the park in water
conservation (see plate 6 in Atlas d'Haiti, Lasserre et al., 1985).

1) Foret tres humide de Montagne de basse altitude (Fth-Mb)
Tropical lower montane wet forest formation.
-Precipitation 2,000-4,000 mm.
-Plain of Formon, foothills of massif and karst hills.

2) Foret tres humide de la zone Sous-Tropicale (Fth-S)
Subtropical wet forest formation.
-Precipitation 2,000-4,000 mm.
-Valley of Riviere des Roseaux and north face of Pic Macaya.

3) Foret tres humide de Montagne (Fth-M)
Tropical Montane wet forest formation.
-Precipitation, 2000-4,000 mm.
-Upper ridge and peak of Formon and Macaya.

4) Foret pluvieuse de Montagne de basse altitude (Fp-Mb)
Tropical lower montane rain forest formation.
-Precipitation over 4,000 mm.
-Upper "Gran Ravin" and Ravine du Sud and the plain east of
Macaya towards Catiche and Duchity (Mare Cochon).



59







5) Foret pluvieuse de la zone Sous-Tropicale (Fp-S)
Subtropical rain forest formation.
-Precipitation over 4,000 mm.
-Lower area of Ravine of Ravine du Sud and along the edge of
the plateau of Mare Cochon towards Catiche where the road
from Cayes to Jeremie crosses over to the top of the plateau.

A total of 463 species of vascular plants (including 359 flowering
plants, 1 conifer, 102 ferns and fern allies) were collected in Macaya
National Park. These belong to 263 genera in 109 families. The
largest families (excluding the Orchidaceae) include the Melas-
tomataceae (34 species), Asteraceae (30), Polypodiaceae s. str.
(22), Piperaceae (19), Rubiaceae (19), Urticaceae s. lat. (19),
Dryopteridaceae (17), Poaceae (15), Solanaceae (13),
Bromeliaceae (12), and Myrtaceae (12). The total vascular flora
includes 130 species endemic to Hispaniola (28% of the flora of
the park). Of these, 69 are endemic to the Massif de la Hotte (15%
of park flora). The degree of endemism among the flowering
plants was slightly greater, with 124 endemic species (34%). Of
these, 68 (about 19%) are endemic to the Massif de la Hotte. Only
six percent of the fern and fern allies of Macaya are endemic.
Families with large numbers of endemic species include Melas-
tomataceae (26), Urticaceae (12), Asteraceae (15), Solanaceae (7),
and Myrtaceae (6). A total of 99 species of mosses and over 49
species of liverworts were collected in Parc Macaya. Very few of
these are endemic.

The species of special concern (endangered species) in Parc
National Pic Macaya as determined by Dr. Walter Judd of the
University of Florida include a number of endemics with ranges
restricted to the Massif de la Hotte.

Species that are especially susceptible to disturbance are listed
below:

There are at least 133 Myrsine magnoiifolia
Meliosoma abbreviata
species in 42 genera of Melosoma abbreviate
orchids in Parc National Calycogonium torbecianum
Pic Macaya. Tabebuia conferta
Brunfelsia picardae


D. The Orchids of Parc National Pic Macaya
There are at least 133 species in 42 genera of orchids in Parc
National Pic Macaya. Of these, 38 are endemic to the Massif de la
Hotte (often the park area itself) and 58 are endemic to Hispaniola.
The most important habitats for orchids are the mesic broadleaved
forests of the karst hills along the edge of the Plain of Formon


60







between 950-1,150 meters elevation. Many of the orchids in this
area are small and inconspicuous, but nonetheless scientifically
important.

The diversity of orchids growing in the upper areas of the park is
considerably less than the incredible diversity found in the forests
of the karst hills. Only 40 species were found on a flat basin below
the ridge of Formon at 1,550 meters elevation, and even fewer
orchids were found at higher elevations in the park.

The diversity of orchids in Pare National Pic Macaya is truly
phenomenal. The presence of 133 species of 42 genera in an area
of less than ten square kilometers is extraordinary, especially when
it is realized that Hispaniola has fewer than 350 orchids recorded
for the entire island. This means that almost 40% of all the orchids
of the island occur in Parc Macaya. Almost all of these occur in the
broadleaved forests of the Plain of Formon. The region of Pare
Macaya, and especially the region including the karst hills and
Morne Cavalier (Bwa Formon and Bwa Durand) is a piece of
ecology so valuable that it must be preserved.



E. The Macaya Biosphere and its Butterflies
Eleven species of butterflies are known from Pare National Pic
Macaya, which is almost half the number of species known to occur
in Pare La Visite (20, and possibly 21). The two parks have six
species in common. One species, Calisto loxias is known only from
the Massif de la Hotte. The genus Calisto is predominantly an
upland group, often restricted to one mountain massif. It is not
surprising, therefore, that a member of this genus is apparently
endemic to the Pare National Pic Macaya region while another is
endemic to the Pare National La Visite.

The reason so many more butterflies occur in the Pare National
La Visite region than in Parc National Pic Macaya is unresolved. Eleven species of but-
Several species missing from Pare National Pic Macaya are terflies are known from
widespread in Hispaniola, and it is surprising that they are not Parc National Pic
found in the Macaya area. One explanation is clearly that Parc Macaya.
National Pic Macaya is more isolated than Pare National La Visite.
This appears to be one of the main explanations for why five
endemic birds that are common in La Visite do not occur in
Macaya. A second possible explanation may relate to the more
complete forest cover in the Pare Macaya region, which may reduce
the chance occurrence of lowland forms. A list of the species of
butterflies found in each park is presented in Appendix II.




61







F Parc National Pic Macaya and its Land Mollusks
Fifty seven species of land snails were reported from Parc Macaya
(Thompson, 1986). Of these, 23 are endemic species that are
known only from the immediate area of the park. Twenty-seven
new species (two of which represent new genera) were collected
in Parc Macaya.

The large number of new endemic taxa is an indication of the
importance of the habitats included within the boundaries of Parc
Macaya. The most important habitat for land snails in Parc Macaya
is the "Bwa Formon" region along the escarpment at the edge of
the Plain of Formon. This middle elevation region (1,000 meters)
is one of the few such undisturbed habitats left in Haiti. The higher
elevations of the park are more depauperate in the number of
species; however, nearly all species occurring in habitats above
1,800 meters are locally endemic. See Appendix II, "Land Mol-
lusks of the National Parks of Haiti," which lists all of the land snails
known to occur in Parc Macaya.


G. The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Macaya
Biosphere Reserve
There are at least 28 amphibians and 33 reptiles in the Massif de
la Hotte. This list and the analysis below do not take into con-
sideration those taxa whose distributions are confined to coastal
and low elevations sites (under 700 meters), and undescribed or
unidentified taxa found during recent explorations. At least two of
the new taxa are unique frogs from the ridge of Formon in the
vicinity of Pic Le Ciel, Pic Formon and the north slope down to
approximately 1,650 meters. This species is now under study by
Fifty-seven species of Blair Hedges, Richard Thomas, and Richard Franz and will be
land snails have been described in a separate publication.
reported from Parc Na-
tional Pic Macaya. Collections from the study area include 18 frogs, 11 lizards, and
5 snakes. These represent approximately 58% of the taxa
There are at least 28 am- presented in the Appendix. In general, Parc National Pic Macaya
phibians and 33 reptiles includes a mixture of both wide-ranging and highly-restrictive
in the Massif de la Hotte. species. The wide-ranging amphibians and reptiles are usually well
represented in collections from lower elevations, while the restric-
tive ones are confined to specific habitats and/or certain altitudes.
The greatest species richness occurs at elevations under 1,300
meters. As one ascends in elevation, the number of species
decreases markedly until there are but three species on Pic Macaya
(elevation 2,347 meters). Within the proposed park area (between
1,600 and 2,347 meters) eight species were found. Five were
restricted to mid- and high-elevation sites, while three were wide-
ranging. Only Eleutherodactylus ventrilineatus and the two un-


62







F Parc National Pic Macaya and its Land Mollusks
Fifty seven species of land snails were reported from Parc Macaya
(Thompson, 1986). Of these, 23 are endemic species that are
known only from the immediate area of the park. Twenty-seven
new species (two of which represent new genera) were collected
in Parc Macaya.

The large number of new endemic taxa is an indication of the
importance of the habitats included within the boundaries of Parc
Macaya. The most important habitat for land snails in Parc Macaya
is the "Bwa Formon" region along the escarpment at the edge of
the Plain of Formon. This middle elevation region (1,000 meters)
is one of the few such undisturbed habitats left in Haiti. The higher
elevations of the park are more depauperate in the number of
species; however, nearly all species occurring in habitats above
1,800 meters are locally endemic. See Appendix II, "Land Mol-
lusks of the National Parks of Haiti," which lists all of the land snails
known to occur in Parc Macaya.


G. The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Macaya
Biosphere Reserve
There are at least 28 amphibians and 33 reptiles in the Massif de
la Hotte. This list and the analysis below do not take into con-
sideration those taxa whose distributions are confined to coastal
and low elevations sites (under 700 meters), and undescribed or
unidentified taxa found during recent explorations. At least two of
the new taxa are unique frogs from the ridge of Formon in the
vicinity of Pic Le Ciel, Pic Formon and the north slope down to
approximately 1,650 meters. This species is now under study by
Fifty-seven species of Blair Hedges, Richard Thomas, and Richard Franz and will be
land snails have been described in a separate publication.
reported from Parc Na-
tional Pic Macaya. Collections from the study area include 18 frogs, 11 lizards, and
5 snakes. These represent approximately 58% of the taxa
There are at least 28 am- presented in the Appendix. In general, Parc National Pic Macaya
phibians and 33 reptiles includes a mixture of both wide-ranging and highly-restrictive
in the Massif de la Hotte. species. The wide-ranging amphibians and reptiles are usually well
represented in collections from lower elevations, while the restric-
tive ones are confined to specific habitats and/or certain altitudes.
The greatest species richness occurs at elevations under 1,300
meters. As one ascends in elevation, the number of species
decreases markedly until there are but three species on Pic Macaya
(elevation 2,347 meters). Within the proposed park area (between
1,600 and 2,347 meters) eight species were found. Five were
restricted to mid- and high-elevation sites, while three were wide-
ranging. Only Eleutherodactylus ventrilineatus and the two un-


62







described frogs appear to be endemic to the proposed park itself.

Expansion of the park boundaries would increase the number of
species present in the park. Inclusion of Morne Cavalier and south
slopes of Pic Formon and Pic Macaya add an additional seven taxa
(Eleutherodactylus nortoni, Celestus costatus costatus,Anolis coeles-
tinus coelestinus, Chamaelinorops barbouri, Leiocephalus
melanochlorus melanochlorus, Antilliophis parvifrons parvifrons,
Darlingtonia haetiana haetiana). Inclusion of portions of the upper
Plain of Formon, the karst hills to Sous Bois, and Grande Ravine
du Sud add 15 more taxa (Eleutherodactylus chlorophenax,
Eleutherodactylus lamprotes, Eleutherodactylus wetmorei wetmorei,
Hyla heilprini, Hyla pulchrilineata, Hyla vasta, Osteopilus
dominicensis, Celestes stenurus stenurus, Anolis cybotes cybotes,
Anolis dolichocephalus sarmenticola, Anolis monticola quadrisar-
tus, Anolis ricordi leberi, Epicrates gracilus hapalus, Epicrates
striatus exagistus, Uromacer catesbyi catesbyi). Inclusion of portions
of the north slope of Pic Macaya including areas near Castillon
(Mare Cochon) adds at least 16 more taxa (*Eleutherodactylus
audanti audanti, *Eleutherodactylus abbotti, *Eleutherodactylus
eunaster, *Eleutherodactylus glaphycompus, *Eleutherodactylus
heminota, *Eleutherodactylus hypostenor, *Eleutherodactylus inop-
tatus, *Eleutherodactylus pictissimus pictissimus, *Eleutherodac-
tylus sciagraphus, Eleutherodactylus semipalmatus, Sphaeodactylus
elasmorhynchus, *Anolis darlingtoni,Anolis distichus suppar,Anolis
dolichocephalus dolichocephalus, Anolis monticola monticola,
Anolis ricordi viculus), and probably others (* = those taxa that
may eventually be found in one of the other proposed areas of
inclusion, ** = those taxa known to occur at lower elevations just
outside of the park boundaries).
Many of the amphibians
Many of the amphibians and reptiles listed above occur in very and reptiles occur in
specific habitats. Those species occurring at elevations above very specific habitats.
1,300 meters are found in mesic broadleaved and wet pine forest.
Species found below 1,300 meters are associated with wet forests The creation of a park
and limestone. Both of these habitat types provide cool and humid within the Massif de la
environments for their inhabitants. Data suggest that when condi- Hotte is absolutely es-
tions become more arid through deforestation and agriculture, sential for the survival of
many of the species disappear from the surface with some taking the region's her-
refuge in sinkholes and caves. Other species are probably extir- petofauna.
pated. It is also apparent that certain species (Eleutherodactylus
oyrhynchus, Osteopilus dominicensis, Anolis coelestinus, Anolis dis-
tichus, Leiocephalus melanochlorus, Celestus costatus, Celestus
stenurus, Darlingtonia haetiana) are apparently able to thrive under
those new conditions, and in some cases spread. This has probably
enabled certain "weed" species to follow trails where the forest
canopy has been removed into areas that were previously unin-
habited by them. Franz and Cordier (1986) believe that


63







Eleutherodactylus oxyrhynchus andAnolis distichus used these cor-
ridors to gain access to high altitude sites on Pic Formon, Pic
Macaya and the ridge connecting these two parks. The intrusion
of exotic species probably adversely affects resident species.

The creation of a park within the Massif de la Hotte is absolutely
essential for the survival of the region's herpetofauna. The region
is an important center for endemism in southern Hispaniola and
contains over 30 restricted species and subspecies. In addition,
there are at least 15 other taxa which are also found in the Massif
de la Selle area but are missing from intervening lowlands.

To preserve portions of the Massif de la Hotte means to provide
sanctuary for approximately 30% of amphibian and reptile species
known from Hispaniola (including 17 species which are found
nowhere else in the world).


H. The Birds of Pic Macaya
A complete list of all bird species of Parc National Pic Macaya is
presented in Chapter IV of the book on the Natural History of
Southern Haiti. There are fewer resident bird species in Macaya
because of the absence of five endemics that do not occur west of
the Jacmel-Fauche depression ("Bond's line"): the Black-crowned
Palm Tanager, Ground Warbler, Hispaniolan Parakeet, Palm Crow
and La Selle Thrush. The group of year-round residents is an
assemblage of species that are found in a variety of habitats, mostly
associated with the mesic broadleaved forest (lower montane rain
forest of Holdridge). This habitat occurs throughout the higher
elevations of the Macaya region, while in the "Gran Ravin" sub-
tropical rain forest occurs (Holdridge map, 1972 in OAS report on
Haiti). This habitat does not occur in La Visite because less rain
Falls in the Massif de La Selle than in the Macaya region (OAS
Holdridge map, Sedwitz and Canet, 1972; Atlas d'Haiti, Lasserre
I et al., 1985).

The pattern of isolation observed in Parc Macaya may be the
result of ecological conditions rather than the geographical
Hisaniolan Troon remoteness of the area. Indeed, Macaya is not very distant from
the Massif de la Selle, since the mesic broadleaved forest of Morne
D'Enfer is only 175 kilometers distant from a similar forest on the
ridge of Pic Macaya. The test of the ecological hypothesis would
be if species from La Visite began to spread into Macaya as the
habitat there is altered by human activities. This has not occurred
in the case of species such as the Black-crowned Palm Tanager,
Ground Warbler or La Selle Thrush which are closely associated
with mesic broadleaved forest, the habitat that is being destroyed


64







in the Macaya region. However, the White-winged Crossbill and
Antillean Siskin showed up in the Macaya region for the first time
during the course of this study. These birds are associated with
open areas and mature pines. The expansion of their range into
Parc Macaya may be the result of increased destruction of the mesic
forest in the Macaya region that has been documented by Cohen
(1984). The loss of the mesic forest is followed by rapid regenera-
tion of pine, making the area more suitable for species such as the
crossbill and siskin. Large flocks of crossbills were present from
1982 through the last survey in November 1985. The transition is
not complete, however, since Hispaniolan Parakeets and Palm
Crows, two other species that do well in the open pine habitats of
La Visite have not yet spread to Macaya. Should these two species
spread into the Macaya region it would be a further indication that
Macaya has been isolated by its abundant rainfall and rich, dense
mesic forest. Therefore, the appearance of crossbills and siskins
in the Macaya area, which at first thought seems to be a good sign
since the species are important Antillean endemics, maybe instead
a reflection of the distribution of the rich mesic broadleaved forest
that covered the region until the last two decades (Cohen, 1984).
More research is necessary to clarify this question.

The list of resident birds is swelled by the addition of migrant
species that arrive in late September and stay until April. This
brings the total number of species found in the Macaya region to
65; two less species than found in Parc National La Visite. The
difference in the number of bird species, however, is largely the ,
result of the fewer number of endemics that occur in western Haiti.
The difference in the number of species would be even more
dramatic if it were not for the presence of the lower area of Parc
National Pic Macaya in the region of the Plain of Formon at 1,000
meters elevation. The broadleaved forests of the karst hills along
the edge of the Plain of Formon have a number of bird species that
are characteristic of lower elevations (Broad-billed Tody, Logger-
head Kingbird, Mango Hummingbird), as well almost all of the
species found in high montane regions (except for the White-
winged Crossbill and Antillean Siskin). This mid-montane forest
is the habitat that has been severely deforested in most parts of
Haiti. It is the most important and vulnerable of all the habitats in Narrow-billed Tody
Pare National Pic Macaya, as is readily apparent when the number
of species found in this small subregion (500 hectares) of the park
is compared with the list of species occurring in the rest of the park
(7,000 hectares). On the Plain of Formon and the adjacent karst
hills, 51 species occur, while in the montane zone of the park at
about 1,300 meters elevation, 47 species occur (see Appendix II).

The total number of individual birds is greater in Parc National
La Visite than in Parc National Pic Macaya. During the winter


65







census period, on La Visite an average of 242 birds were seen per
day, while in Macaya an average of only 151 birds were observed.
A reason for this difference may be that in the open ruinate ("Raje")
areas of La Visite during the winter months, huge flocks of migrant
warblers feed in abandoned corn fields and gardens. Some of these
mixed flocks (mostly Yellow-rumped Warblers, Palm Warblers and
Cape May Warblers) number over 300 individual birds. These
flocks inflate the data on bird numbers, but are not a true reflection
of species richness. It is true that the area of Pare National Pic
Macaya above 1,500 meters has fewer species than Pare National
La Visite (see Appendix II). This is in part a reflection of the
greater percentage of land area in La Visite above 1,500 meters, as
well as the reduced number of endemics in Macaya (see previous
discussion). However, the combination of the very important mid-
montane habitats of the Plain of Formon with the high montane
forests of Pic Formon and Pic Macaya create a combined ecosystem
in Pare Macaya that is richer in bird species than is the case in Pare
La Visite.

The presence of breeding Black-capped Petrels on the south face
of Pic Macaya is an important new observation. The small colony
of petrels on Macaya was discovered for the first time in January,
1984, and surveyed in detail in January, 1985. An additional colony
may exist on the northwest face of Pic Formon. The presence of
Black-capped Petrels in Pare Macaya adds special significance to
the park since the species has been eliminated from most islands
in the Antilles. The birds are nesting in burrows at about 2,200
meters elevation at the transition zone between wet broadleaved
forest and scrubby second growth which occurrs where fires and
The presence of breed- erosion have disturbed the steep mountainside. Many rock slides
ing Black-capped further disturb the habitat below 2,200 meters. The zone where
Petrels on the south the petrels nest is especially vulnerable to damage from below by
face of Pic Macaya is an fire as it sweeps up the mountain and kills the vegetation that
important new observa- provides cover for the petrels and protects the steep mountainside
tion. from further erosion. The open areas that occur following fires
also expose the petrels to predation by dogs, cats and mongooses.
An additional colony Cats and mongooses now occur on the peak of Macaya where the
may exist on the density of Black and Norway rats is very high. All of these real and
northwest face of Pic potential problems mean that the colony of breeding Black-capped
Formon. Petrels is "threatened." Because the colony is small and the habitat
has been badly damaged by fires that have swept over the area since
1978, the status of the colony will be changed to "endangered" if
any more habitat is lost. The area below the petrel colony should
be totally protected.

No gardens, ajupas, fires or deforestation should be allowed from
the base of the mountain or on either side of the connecting ridge
between Pic Formon and Pic Macaya. Since this is in the area of


66







land claimed by the coffee cooperative (UNICORS) and several
private individuals, great care must be taken to work with in-
dividuals and institutions in the area to insure that the petrel colony
is protected.



I. The Mammals of Macaya Biosphere Reserve Area
There were originally eighteen species of land mammals occur-
ring on the Plain of Formon and the higher montane areas of Pic
Formon and Pic Macaya (see Chapter V of the book on the Natural
History of Southern Haiti). The remains of these species were
recorded in sinkholes on the upper Plain of Durand near Morne
Cavalier as well as from a sinkhole on the ridge of Pic Macaya.
These eighteen taxa were distributed between two rodents similar
to the zagouti, two hutias of the kind kept by Indians as a domestic
species, one giant hutia, one small zagouti-like form, and one new
genus and species of rodent found no place else in Hispaniola (for
a total of six rodents). In addition there were five insectivores, one
monkey and as many as five ground sloths. Of these eighteen
endemic land mammals, only one survives in abundance within the
boundaries of the park today. This is Plagiodontia aedium, the
"zagouti." It survives in the karst hills along the edge of the Plain
of Formon and Plain of Durand, but does not occur in higher -,
montane areas of the park where there are few areas of exposed
rocks or large trees with cavities where the zagouti can find shelter. Plagiodontia aedium

The other surviving mammal, Solenodon paradoxus, is very rare
within the boundaries of the park. It is most abundant in mid-
elevation forested regions (500-1,000 meters). It has been
eliminated from most areas of the Plain of Formon by deforesta-
tion and because so many dogs are found in the region. Dogs kill
large numbers of Solenodon, and this species, unlike the zagouti,
has a difficult time surviving in areas where dogs and people are .-:
abundant, even when large blocks of karst are available where the 1
animals can take refuge in rock crevices. Plagiodontia can escape ..
from dogs and people by climbing into trees or running into rock "
crevices, but Solenodon is less wary and more frequently killed. e 'sY_ --
Solenodon continues to survive in the Parc Macaya region only in
the mesic forest east of Pic Macaya and west of Catiche and Duchity Solenodon paradoxus
(Mare Cochon area). If dogs and cats were controlled within the
park, especially in the "Gran Ravin" area which is adjacent to the
area where Solenodon is still found, then it is possible that the
species will become more abundant in the region of Parc National
Pic Macaya.

Plagiodontia and Solenodon are both abundant in the remote area
east of the main ridge of Pic Macaya (designated Diquillon and


67







Mare Cochon on 1:50,000 topographic maps). This habitat is
similar to the karst hills along the edge of the Plains of Formon and
Durand that have been included within the boundaries of the park.
Based on the results of the mammal survey (as well as the survey
of the herpetofauna), we recommend that the park boundaries be
expanded an additional 2,000 hectares to the northeast to include
the Mare Cochon region--the most important habitat for mammals
that remains in the vicinity of either natural park. In addition, we
recommend that a buffer zone be created beyond this zone where
coffee can be grown, but from which dogs and cats are eliminated
and where mesic broadleaved forest can return in a large block.
An examination of the ecological maps by Holdridge (Sedwitz and
Canet, 1972) and in the Atlas d'Haiti (Lasserre et al., 1985) reveals
that this broad rough plateau is at about 1,200 meters elevation, in
the area of Haiti with the most abundant precipitation. Plagiodon-
tia and Solenodon thrive in this zone of mesic broadleaved forest
(much of which has been cut or burned), karst exposures and
abundant rainfall.

The 14 species of bats recorded from area of the Macaya Bio-
sphere Reserve represent more than twice the number of taxa
collected in Pare La Visite during the period of the Biogeophysical
Survey. Four bat species were collected in Pare La Visite. An
examination of cave and sinkhole deposits, however, indicate that
eight bat species are known to have occurred in the Pare La Visite
area during the past several thousand years. The reason why fewer
bats now occur in Pare La Visite than occurred there in the recent
past or occur in Pare Macaya cannot be resolved with certainty.
Some of the possible reasons are: 1) the disturbance of bats in the
La Visite region by peasants burning the forest in ravines at the
Of the original 18 mouth of caves in order to plant gardens in the rich, mesic ravine
species of land mam- habitats; 2) the general deforestation of the La Visite area; 3) the
mals occurring in the greater proportion of land area in La Visite that is above 1,500
park area, only meters elevation which makes the habitat less suitable for
Plagiodontia aedium frugivorous bat species. It is clear from the above data, however,
survives in abundance, that Pare Macaya is currently much more important to the preser-
The other surviving vation of bat species than is Pare La Visite. Pare Macaya is also
mamm a Solenodon more important for terrestrial mammals. Indeed, in terms of the
paradoxus, is very rare. conservation of all of the remaining endemic mammals of Haiti,
the area of Pare National Pic Macaya including the Plain of Formon
and the Mare Cochon region to the east of Pic Macaya is the most
important region in all of Haiti. If this region can be protected
from further deforestation and the "quality" of the habitat im-
proved (regeneration of the mesic broadleaved forest, removal of
domestic and feral dogs and cats), then Solenodon paradoxus,
Plagiodontia aedium and a number of bat species have a good
chance of surviving in the country and being part of the natural
ecosystem for decades to come. Research on the status of


68







Plagiodontia and Solenodon including specific studies on their
habitat requirements and the impact of dogs, cats, mongooses,
Black Rats and Norway Rats is necessary to insure that proper data
is available for use in wise management decisions.


J. Paleobiology of the Macaya Biosphere Reserve Area
Studies in Paleobiology in the MBR Area
Between February, 1978, and May, 1984, excavations were made
in a hillside rock shelter located at 250 meters elevation two
kilometers SSW of Camp Perrin. Trou Woch Sa Wo is the local
Creole name for the location, and translates as, "the hole in the
rock that is up there." Because the site is a rock shelter, it is called
in Creole a 'Trou Woch" as opposed to a cave ("Kaven") or a
sinkhole ('Trouing"). This locality is the same site referred to as
Caverne Sa Wo in MacPhee and Woods (1982). The bones occur
in dry red paleosols intermixed with medium-sized rocks and
speleothems.

Between February and August, 1984, excavations were made in a
series of sinkholes on the Plain of Formon and the Plain of Durand
across from the Headquarters of the Macaya Biosphere Reserve
Project. These sinkholes are located in the western margin of a
plateau that lies at the southern base of the Massif de La Hotte at
the edge of Parc National Pic Macaya. The sinkholes have steep
sides and served as natural traps for the fauna living in the region.
The bones occur intermixed with large rocks that have accumu-
lated in the center of the sinkholes and in the paleosols along the
margin of the central rock piles as well as at the outer margins of
the sinkholes. The most important sinkhole in this region is lo-
cated in the Jeremie district of the upper plateau, and is designated Extensive excavations
as'Trouing Jeremie #5." This sinkhole is 1,275 meters in elevation, have been made in
The main shaft opening is 2.5 meters in diameter and the sinkhole three important loca-
is 16.5 meters deep. There are no indications of owls or other tions: Trou Woch Sa
predators having used this sinkhole, and there is no sign of human Wo, Trouing Jeremie
use or disturbance. All of the bones in this sinkhole are presumed #5, and Trouing Lan
to have accumulated there after animals fell through the opening Genti #1.
and were killed on the rocks below or died after having been
trapped in the sinkhole.

In July, 1984, excavations were made in sinkholes along the
northern slopes of the ridges east of Pic Macaya in the center of
Pare National Pic Macaya. This area of abundant rainfall extends
from Pic Macaya (elevation 2,347 meters) eastward as a narrow
series of heavily forested ridges. The ridges lie north of the deep
Ravine du Sud that separates Pic Formon from Pic Macaya. There
is an extensive karst plateau stretching to the northeast of these

69







ridges at approximately 1,200 meters, just as the Plateau de Formon
stretches southeast of Pic Formon. The most important sinkhole
investigated on the ridges of Pic Macaya is 'Trouing Lan Genti #1,"
located at 1,365 meters in elevation.


The La Hotte Zagouti, the Unique Mammal of Macaya
The endemic La Hotte Zagouti (Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei) is
known from Trou Woch Sa Wo, Trouing Jeremie #1, Trouing
Jeremie #5 and Trouing Lan Genti #1. This region ranges in
altitude from 300 meters at Sa Wo to 1,365 meters at Lan Genti.
It is not clear whether the natural distribution of R. lemkei included
the lowland drier site at Sa Wo or if owls carried the remains of the
rodent to the cave.

Fossil remains of R. lemkei are abundant on the Plain of Formon,
an area of abundant rainfall (exceeding 3,000 mm annually), dense
forests, steep ravines, numerous areas of exposed limestone, and
the tributaries of four major rivers (Woods and Harris, 1986). The
known area of distribution includes the watersheds for the Riviere
LAcul and Ravine du Sud, and extends over an area of 120 square
kilometers. The presence of a few remains of R. lemkei in Trouing
Lan Genti #1 on the north side of the Ravine du Sud and at the
edge of a broad plain northeast of the Pic Macaya suggests that R.
lemkei may have inhabited this plain also. The plain is very similar
in geology and ecology to the Plain of Formon and is associated
with the Riviere Glace. It is located west of the old road that
connects Les Cayes, Camp Perrin, Duchity and Beaumont to
Jeremie on the north coast of the southern peninsula. In the
Catiche and Duchity areas of this plain (called "Plaine Martin" near
Catiche), Solenodon paradoxus is still present and Plagiodontia
aedium is abundant (Woods, 1976, 1981, 1983, 1981). Excavations
of several caves and sinkholes near Duchity and Beaumont have
not indicated the presence of Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei. However,
based on the similarity of habitat of the region with the Plain of
Formon and the presence of R. lemkei in Trouing Lan Genti # 1 at
the western edge of the Plaine Martin and adjacent areas, we
Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei predict that R. lemkei may also have been found in this area.



Other Fossil Mammals found in the MBR Area
The most common mammal is the "Zagouti," Plagiodontia aedium
(20.1%) followed by the Black Rat, Rattus rattus (13.9%); the La
Hotte Zagouti, Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei (12.3%); two Small Is-
land Shrews, Nesophontes paramicrus and N. hypomicrus (com-
bined, 11.5%); the "Quemi," Plagiodontia velozi (9.0%); the

70







"Mohuy" or Haitian Spiny Rat, Brotomys voratus (8.2%); the Even-
toothed Hutia, Hexolobodon phenax (7.4%); several species of
megalonychid ground sloths (5.7%); Giant Island Shrews,
Solenodon paradoxus and S. marcanoi (combined, 4.1%); the In-
dian Hutias, Isolobodonportoricensis (4.1%), and Isolobodon mon-
tanus (1.6%); the House Mouse, Mus musculus (0.8%); and the
Haitian Monkey (.08%) preliminarily referred to the same taxon
as "Saimiri" berensis (see MacPhee and Woods, 1982). The com-
mon names in quotes are based on known names for the species
(Woods et al., 1986). No remains of cats or of the mongoose
(Herpestes auropunctatus) were found in Trouing Jeremie #5.

The top four centimeters is composed of mucky black soils rich
in organic matter. Rats and mice appear to be restricted to this
upper zone. Nesophontes, Solenodon, Brotomys, Plagiodontia
aedium, and P velozi occur together with rats and mice in the upper
organic layer. At the bottom of the organic layer Rhizoplagiodontia
lemkei is very abundant, and remains abundant throughout the
deeper layers which are composed of very wet reddish-orange
clays. The other common mammals in the deeper layers are
Plagiodontia velozi, P aedium, Hexolobodon phenax, and
megalonychid sloths, although all of the endemic mammals dis-
cussed above are found in the clay layer. Plagiodontiavelozi is more
common in Trouing Jeremie #5 than it is in any other sinkhole or
cave analyzed in Hispaniola, suggesting either that the region was
the center of distribution of this taxon or that the Plain of Formon
represents more optimal habitat for the taxon than the other sites
examined, all of which are in more xeric regions.

The mammalian fauna of Pic Macaya at Trouing Lan Genti #1 is Nesophontes paramicrus
composed of Plagiodontia velozi (a nearly perfect cranium with
attached mandibles), Hexolobodon phenax, Isolobodon por-
toricesis, megalonychid sloths, and a few remains of
Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei. Some mammalian remains found in Nesophontes hypomicrus
Camp Perrin at Trou Woch Sa Wo are distributed in the gray,
powdery top 15 cm of sediment. These remains include well-
preserved specimens of Isolobodon portoricensis, Rattus rattus and YZJ
Nesophontes paramicrus. There were occasional pieces of carbon Nesophontes zamirus
in this layer and a few remains of humans. Below the top powdery
stratum are paleosols of red sand and clay in which bones are
unevenly distributed in several zones extending 200 cm below the
surface to the rocky cave floor. The endemic mammals found in
the deeper strata are: 1) Brotomys voratus (extremely common);
2) Plagiodontia aedium; Plagiodontia ipnaeum (or small individuals
of P velozi); P velozi (isolated teeth); Isolobodon portoricensis;
Isolobodon montanus; Hexolobodon phenax; magalonychid sloths;
Nesophontes paramicrus; N. hypomicrus; N. zamicrus; Solenodon
paradoxus; S. marcanoi and "Saimiri" bemensis (see MacPhee and


71







Woods, 1982).

Trouing Jeremie #5 in the western Plain of Formon has more
specimens of Rhizoplagiodontia lemkei in it than does Trou Woch
Sa Wo. In addition, this sinkhole also has more specimens of
Plagiodontia velozi and megalonychid sloths. Brotomys voratus and
Isolobodon portoricensis are more common in Trou Woch Sa Wo
than in the sinkhole locations. These differences may be the result
of the selection of smaller prey by hunting giant barn owls in the
Sa Wo region, or may be the result of ecological differences such
as forest cover, precipitation, or elevation. The long history of
human occupation in the valley of the Ravine du Sud near Camp
Perrin could account for the larger endemic mammals having been
hunted out by Indians long before the same mammals disappeared
from the remote Plain of Formon.

The mammalian fauna of the Trou Woch Sa Wo/Plain of For-
mon/Massif de la Hotte area appears to differ from the known
mammalian faunas of the Massif de la Selle in several important
ways.

1. Solenodonparadoxus and S. marcanoi are more abundant than
from any other known fossil locality in Hispaniola. The only
other known locality where S. marcanoi is abundant is Cueva
Rancho de la Guardia on the north slope of the Sierra Neiba
in the Dominican Republic at 850 meters elevation, also an
area of abundant rainfall and heavy forest cover.
2. The large wide-toothed rodents Quemisia gravis and Plagiodon-
The long history of tia araeum are not found in western Haiti. An extremely large
human occupation in morph of P. araeum is found on the flat plateau of the western
the valley of the Ravine Massif de la Selle. This area is now a pine savanna and is drier
du Sud could account than the massif de la Hotte. A smaller morph of R araeum is
for the larger endemic found in lowland areas west of Port-au-Prince and on Ile de la
mammals having been Gonave, both of which are dry regions. The type locality for R
hunted out by Indians araeum is Cueva Rancho de la Guardia (Ray, 1964). Quemisia
long before the same gravis also appears to be restricted to drier regions and is
mammals disappeared known only from the type locality near Saint Michel de 1'-
from the remote Plain of Atalaye at the edge of the broad dry central plateau of northern
Formon. Haiti.
3. Primates are more common in the Trou Woch Sa Wo/Plain of
Formon/Massif de la Hotte region than anywhere else in
Hispaniola. The only other reported locations with primate
remains are from a kitchen midden at Rio Naranjo Abajo on
the south shore of Samana Bay in the Dominican Republic
where Miller (1929b) reported finding the distal end of a tibia
he was able to identify only as "Cercopithecus? sp.?," and the
type locality for "Saimiri" bemensis at Cueva Berna in the
eastern Dominican Republic near the mouth of the Rio Yuma

72







(Rimoli, 1977). I have found remains of "Saimiri" bemensis in
a sinkhole near Morne la Visite in the western Massif de la
Selle. In far western Haiti, however, a dentary fragment was
found at Trou Woch Sa Wo (MacPhee and Woods, 1982) and
numerous remains of primates that appear to be of the same
taxon have been found in several sinkholes on the Plain of
Formon.
4. Rhizoplagiodontia appears to be restricted to the Trou Woch Sa
Wo/Plain of Formon/Massif de la Hotte area.
5. A large apparently extinct diploglossine lizard, tentatively iden- P _.-
tified as Diploglossus sp., is restricted to the Plain of Formon
region.

;-- I




Origin of Fossils Collected in the Macaya Area
The vertebrate fauna of Trouing Jeremie #5 is presumed to have
accumulated in the sinkhole by natural means, most likely by
having fallen directly into the sinkhole. The evidence that a num- .
ber of the sinkholes in the Jeremie area served as series of pit traps ,
over the last several thousand years comes from the composition K
and taphonomy of the associated fauna. Plagiodontia aedium, the ---
extant capromyid rodent known in Haiti as the "Zagouti" or "Rat
Cayes," is still common in adjacent karst areas that are covered with Plagiodontia aedium
a broadleaved forest composed of numerous trees that now rarely often feeds on the
exceed 25 cm in diameter. This habitat is found within 100 meters ground in areas of karst
of Trouing Jeremie #5. where it is difficult to
move around because
Plagiodontia aedium feeds on bark, leaves, and buds of trees in of massive blocks f
the areas of karst where it is difficult to move around on the ground i mest n e. Rodent s
because of the massive blocks of limestone, but often feeds on the es
foraging in these areas
ground and in gardens along the edge of these rocky areas (pers. for g id exposed to the
obs.). The habitat adjacent to Trouing Jeremie #5, and the series od e eoeto the
of nine other sinkholes that are part of the Jeremie sinkhole system, dang s of fainhol te
is composed of pockets of soil near rocky exposures. Rodents openings of sinkholes.
foraging in these areas would be exposed to the danger of falling
into the openings of the sinkholes. Several of the sinkholes in the
Jeremie system had the bones of Plagiodontia aedium on the
surface of the rocks below. The bones were closely associated, and
in one case still had fur and some flesh attached. In other cases,
completely associated skeletons of Plagiodontia aedium were
found in side chambers or pockets above the margin of the
sinkholes at floor level. We believe the animals fell into the
sinkholes and crawled into the chambers to die at a later time.

73







Other evidence that indicates that much if not all of the fauna in
Jeremie #5 fell into the sinkhole comes from the lack of bones of
predators such as barn owls in the deposit. In addition, the follow-
ing evidence supports the hypothesis that this sinkhole served as a
natural trap: 1) the remains of ground sloths were common in the
sinkhole deposits; 2) a large sample of fossils gathered in the top
few centimeters of the deposit produced a number of nearly intact
crania of capromyid rodents and many mandibles where both the
left and right rami were closely associated; 3) the remains of a large
ground lizard (Diploglossus sp.) were common (3% of the sample
of bones discussed above), and many of these remains were articu-
lated; 4) no owl pellets were found in the sinkhole.

The Camp Perrin area to the east of Trouing Jeremie #5 is one
of steep limestone cliffs and rolling hills at an elevation of 250
meters. The current rainfall at Camp Perrin is 2,271 mm per year,
with over 5,000 mm falling in some areas of the Massif de la Hotte
five kilometers to the northwest (Sedwitz and Canet, 1972). The
natural forest cover in the area has been destroyed, but rainfall and
evaporation data indicate that the natural forest should be very
humid subtropical forest (Fth-S) at Camp Perrin (Sedwitz and
Canet, 1972).

Few human artifacts are present in Trou Woch Sa Wo, and much
'4 of the deposit is presumed to have been accumulated by raptors,
/ probably barn owls. Barn owls have been shown to take prey in
excess of their immediate needs and to discard surplus items near
7. 7 the nest site (Wallace, 1950). Barn owls can, therefore, accumulate
large numbers of animal remains from a wide area around a cave.
.- 'The hunting range of the barn owl (Tyto alba) is unknown. Barred
owls (Strix varia), however, require 231 hectares in which to live
.... (Fuller et al., 1974), move up to 1.5 kilometers in their normal
search for food, and have been shown to move as far as 2.5
kilometers (Fuller et al., 1974). Barn owls probably have a greater
hunting range than barred owls, because they are restricted in their
A modern Barn owl (Tyto natural roost sites to hollow trees, rocky crevices, and caves. These
alba) portrayed on a card sites are limited in number and distribution in Hispaniola. It is not
which is handed out in the uncommon to see several barn owls using the same cave as a roost
search for owls, caves, and in Haiti. Barn owls are probably territorial; however, Smith et al.
fossil mammals. The fossil (1974) have shown that the ranges of barn owls can overlap.
drawn here is the Small Is-
land shrew. Therefore, it is probable that in Hispaniola the two extant species
of barn owl (Tyto alba and Tyto glaucops) have ranges that overlap,
and that they hunt over areas that take them farther than 2.5
kilometers from the cave in which they roost during the day. The
two species can inhabit the same cave in Haiti (pers. obs.).

Zagouties (Plagiodontia aedium) are still locally abundant less
than two kilometers from Trou Woch Sa Wo in the area of Camp

74







Perrin and in the nearby mountains to the northwest. Remains of
this rodent have not been found in recent cave, deposits at Trou
Woch Sa Wo or in owl pellets found in nearby areas, presumably
because T alba and Tglaucops are not large enough to take rodents
the size of the Zagouti, which often exceed 1,500 grams in body
weight. The faunal assemblage is therefore presumed to have been
accumulated by a larger raptor. An analysis of the faunal remains
indicates that Trou Woch Sa Wo was also inhabited by a large barn
owl, the now extinct Tyto ostologa. The remains of this large raptor
are common in caves throughout Hispaniola and are often as-
sociated with deposits containing concentrations of large rodents,
some of which were of individuals several times the body size of
the Zagouti (Plagiodontia aedium). This giant barn owl presumab-
ly hunted over an even wider area than present day barn owls T
alba and T glaucops and, therefore, ranged beyond 2.5 kilometers
from Trou Woch Sa Wo. Within four kilometers of Trou Woch Sa
Wo are open areas along rivers, streams, and ponds, as well as forest
edges on the nearby steep mountains, characterized by abundant
rainfall and dense forest cover.



Dates of Fossils Collected in the MBR Area
The surface paleosol of Trou Woch Sa Wo was gray and fluffy with
numerous shells of land snails. The gray, snail-rich layer was
deepest at the base of a tall limestone block, along the west wall of
the cave, which is the lowest area of the cave. The paleosols in
deeper layers of the cave varied from brown mixtures of sand and
clays nearer the surface to red paleosols near the base rock. The
red paleosols were richest in bone, with the largest concentrations F
Fossils of the mam-
of bony material found around rocks, where bones appear to have mlin f ollete
been concentrated during deposition or subsequent changes in the main au coc
position of sediments. The dates obtained through Carbon 14 at Trou Woch Sa Wo
analysis of broken appendicular elements gathered at specific were nt divid ino
levels in the cave indicate ages varying from 3,715 + 175 years distinct stratio graphic
before the present (yBP) 100 cm below the surface in the red bone zones. The various taxa
rich sediments to 10,320 + 170 yBP in the deepest bone-bearing were randomly as-
layers near the apparent bedrock of the cave, which slants westward soited i all b e
at a 45 degree angle. The deepest layers are generally older than most special layers.
more superficial zones; however, the deepest layer is slightly
younger (9660 + 140 yBP) than the next most superficial zone (#5
= 10,320 + 170 yBP). This indicates that some reorganization of
the material may have occurred after deposition, or that a minor
discrepancy occurred in the Carbon 14 dates. The former is sup-
ported by the generally fragmented nature of the larger bones. The
mammalian fauna is not divided into distinct stratigraphic zones,
and the various taxa are randomly associated in all but the most
superficial layers.

75