• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Abstract
 Resumen
 Introduction
 Acknowledgements
 Endangered species
 Plant communities in Parc National...
 Plant communities in Parc National...
 Management of vegetation
 The checklists
 Literature cited
 Appendix
 Index to families
 Three new angiosperms from Parc...






Group Title: Journal - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station - Journal Series no. 7652
Title: Floristic study of Morne la Visite and Pic Macaya national parks, Haiti
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065151/00001
 Material Information
Title: Floristic study of Morne la Visite and Pic Macaya national parks, Haiti
Series Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Alternate Title: Three new angiosperms from Parc national Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti
Physical Description: 149 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Judd, Walter S
Skean, J. D
Judd, Walter S
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Botany -- Haiti -- Parc national Morne la Visite   ( lcsh )
Botany -- Haiti -- Parc national Pic Macaya   ( lcsh )
Parc national Morne la Visite (Haiti)   ( lcsh )
Parc national Pic Macaya (Haiti)   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies and index.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Summaries in Spanish.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
Statement of Responsibility: Walter S. Judd. Three new angiosperms from Parc national Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti / Walter S. Judd and James D. Skean, Jr.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065151
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17525610
lccn - 88620489
issn - 0071-6154 ;

Table of Contents
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Resumen
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Acknowledgements
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Endangered species
        Page 9
    Plant communities in Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Plant communities in Parc National Morne la visite, Massif de la Selle
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Management of vegetation
        Page 28
    The checklists
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Vascular plants collected in Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
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        Vascular plants collected in Parc National Morne la Visite, Massif de la Selle, Haiti
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
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        Mosses and liverworts collected in Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti
            Page 108
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        Mosses and liverworts collected in Parc National, Morne la Visite, Massif de la Selle, Haiti
            Page 120
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    Literature cited
        Page 127
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    Appendix
        Page 130
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    Index to families
        Page 133
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    Three new angiosperms from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti
        Page 137
        Introduction, acknowledgements
            Page 138
        Lobelia hotteana (Campanulaceae)
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Ossaea woodsii (Melastomataceae)
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        Miconia macayana (Melastomataceae)
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        Literature cited
            Page 148
            Page 149
Full Text






FLORISTIC STUDY OF MORNE LA VISIT AND
PIC MACAYA NATIONAL PARKS, HAITI1


Walter S. Judd2 \


lVo.
ABSTRACT .

SCIENCtel
A floristic and vegetational survey of two recently established nation aVl n the
poorly known mountains of southern Haiti, i.e. Pare National Pic Macaya (in the Massif de La
Hotte) and Pare National Morne La Visite (in the Massif de La Selle), clearly documents the
rich and highly endemic nature of the tracheophyte (especially angiosperm) flora of the parks,
and confirms E.L. Ekman's early reports of the region's flora. This study resulted in the
recollection of most of the region's described endemic species, along with the discovery of
several new angiosperms, i.e. Wallenia formonensis, Ilex blancheana, Micropholis polita
subsp. hotteana, Mecranium revolutum, Meriania parvifolia, M. brevipedunculata, Miconia
macayana, Ossaea woodsii, Lobelia hotteana, Salvia sp., Rhvtidophvllum sp., Pilea sp., and
Ditta sp. One new combination, Garcinia barkeriana, is made.
A total of 470 species of tracheophytes (including 367 angiosperms, but excluding
orchids), 99 mosses, and 63 liverworts was collected in Pare National Pic Macaya, and of
these, 136 vascular plants (ca 29%) are endemic to Hispaniola. The vegetation of the park
may be divided into two major types. A very diverse wet forest on limestone occurs from ca
800 to 1250 m alt. At higher elevations this forest is replaced by a complex mosaic of pine
forest and cloud forest, both of which contain many local endemics.
A total of 325 species of tracheophytes (including 262 angiosperms, but excluding
orchids), 76 mosses, and 19 liverworts was collected in Pare National Morne La Visite, and of
these, 112 vascular plants (ca 34%) are endemic to Hispaniola. The plant communities
occurring in the La Visite region may be placed in two general categories: pine forest and
cloud forest. The former occupies the bowl-shaped plateau of the Massif de La Selle while
the latter occurs on the steep more or less north facing slopes along the edge of the plateau
and in the major ravines dissecting it.




SThis paper is Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 7652.
The author is an Associate Professor of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611.

JUDD, W.S. 1987. Floristic Study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti.
Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci. 32(1):1-136.






2 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)


The forests of both parks are being despoiled by cutting and burning by the local
inhabitants. Protection of the forested localities remaining in the parks is mandatory to
preserve the region's many endemic species and natural beauty.



RESUME



Se present un studio floristico y de vegetaci6n de dos parques nacionales reci6n
establecidos en las serranias poco conocidas del sur de Haiti, o sean Pare National Pic
Macaya (en el Massif de La Hotte) y Pare National Morne La Visite (en el Massif de La
Selle). El studio document nitidamente la riqueza y la endemicidad de las traque6fitas
(esp. las angiospermas) de los parques y confirm los informes antiguos de E.L. Ekman sobre
la flora de la region. En el muestreo se recolectaron la mayoria de las species end6micas
descritas, y a la vez se encontraron varias angiospermas nuevas, o sean Wallenia formonensis,
Ilex blancheana, Micropholis polita ssp. hotteana, Mecranium revolutum, Meriania parvifolia,
M. brevipedunculata, Miconia macayana, Osaea woodsii, Lobelia hotteana, Salvia sp.,
Rhytidophyllum sp., Pilea sp., y Ditta sp. Se public una combinaci6n nueva, Garcinia
barkeriana.
En el Pare National Pic Macaya se han colectado un total de 470 species de
traque6fitas (incluyendo 367 angiospermas, pero excluyendo las orquideas), 99 musgos y 63
hepiticas, y de estas, 136 traque6fitas (aprox. 29%) son end6micas de Hispaniola. La
vegetaci6n del parque se puede dividir en dos tipos principles. Una selva hiimeda en piedra
caliza muy diverse se encuentra de aprox. 800 a 1250 metros de altura. A mayores alturas
esta selva se reemplaza por un mosaico complejo de pinar y selva nebulosa, ambas con
muchas species end6micas locales.
En el Pare National Morne La Visite se han colectado un total de 325 species de
traqu6fitas (incluyendo 262 angiospermas, pero excluyendo las orquideas), 76 musgos y 19
hepaticas, y de estas, 112 traque6fitas (aprox. 34%) son end6micas de Hispaniola. Las
comunidades vegetables de la region de La Visite pueden clasificarse en dos categories
generals: pinar y selva nebulosa. La primera se encuentra en la meseta c6ncava de Massif
de La Selle, mientras que la segunda se encuentra en las laderas empinadas nortefas por el
borde de la meseta y en las barrancas principles de la meseta.
Las selvas de ambos parques estan sujetas a tala y quema por los moradores de la
region. Es obligatorio proteger los sitios selvaticos que quedan en los parques para conservar
las muchas species end6micas y la belleza natural de la region.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 3





TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ................................................................................................................ ....... ........... 3
A know ledgem ents ........................................................................................ ............................... 7
Endangered Species ..................................................................................................................... 9
Plant Communities in Pare National Pic Macaya
M assif de L a H otte ........................................................................ ........................... 10
Plant Communities in Pare National Morne La Visite,
M assif de La Selle ....................................................................... .............................. 17
M anagem ent of Vegetation ............................................. .......................................... ....... ...... 28
The Checklists .................. .................................................................................................................29
Vascular Plants Collected in Pare National
Pic Macaya, Massif de La Hotte........................................................................32
Vascular Plants Collected in Pare National
Morne La Visite, Massif de La Selle.......................... ............................. 76
Mosses and Livorworts Collected in Pare
National Pic Macaya, Massif de La Hotte............................................................ 108
Mosses and Livorworts Collected in Pare
National, Morne La Visite, Massif de
L a Selle .......................................................................................................... ............ 20
L literature C ited...................................................................................... ......................... .......... 127
A appendix ................................................................................................ ..................................... 130
Index to F am ilies................................................................................... ....................................133







INTRODUCTION



The island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles includes peaks of the
highest elevations in the Caribbean, and its mountainous areas are covered
with cloud forests, high to low elevation Pinus occidentalis forests, wet forests
on limestone, and sclerophyllous thickets. Thus, the island's flora is quite
diverse (see Urban 1920-21, 1923; Barker and Dardeau 1930; Ciferri 1936;
Moscoso 1943; Howard 1973). In spite of this diversity, some areas of'
Hispaniola have been collected relatively poorly. No complete Flora of either






4 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

tracheophytes (i.e. vascular plants) or bryophytes (i.e. mosses, liverworts,
hornworts) exists, although available currently are a generic Flora, i.e. La
Flore D'Haiti (Barker and Dardeau 1930), a checklist of seed plants, i.e.
Catalogus florae Domingensis (Moscoso 1943; with supplement, Jim6nez
1966), and treatments for certain groups, i.e. Flora of Hispaniola: part 1.
Celastrales, Rhamnales, Malvales, Thymeleales, Violales (Liogier 1981) and
La Flora de la Espafiola II, III, and IV (Liogier 1983, 1985, 1986). Urban's
Flora Domingensis (1920-21) and Pteridophyta Domingensis (1925) are also
useful. In addition, important information on the vascular flora of the island
is contained in a series of papers by Urban (1921, 1926a, 1926b, 1927, 1928,
1929a, 1929b, 1930, 1931a, 1931b) and Christensen (1938) based on the
collections of Erik L. Ekman, and in Urban's Symbolae Antillanae (1898-
1928). A preliminary list of mosses of Hispaniola has been published (Buck
and Steere 1983); other useful papers dealing with Hispaniolan bryophytes
include Mtiller (1898), Williams (1930), Theriot (1944), Arnell (1956), Crum
and Steere (1958), Crum (1965), and Judd (1980). Relatively few
tracheophyte or bryophyte groups occurring in Hispaniola have been
monographed recently and there is a great need for increased monographic
study of neotropical groups. Vascular Floras of the island are being prepared
simultaneously by Alain H. Liogier (of the Botanic Garden of the University
of Puerto Rico, at Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico) and by Thomas A. Zanoni (of
the Jardin BotAnico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) and
contributors; William R. Buck (of the New York Botanical Garden) is
working on a bryophyte flora of the West Indies. A very useful annotated
bibliography of the flora and vegetation of Hispaniola is given by Zanoni,
Long,and McKiernan (1984).
The diverse and highly endemic tracheophyte and bryophyte floras of
the high elevations of the mountains of southern Haiti are among the most
poorly known of the island of Hispaniola, and two Haitian national parks, i.e.
Parc National Pic Macaya (in the Massif de La Hotte) and Parc National
Morne La Visite (in the Massif de La Selle) have been established recently in
this region (Fig. 1).
The area designated as Parc National Morne La Visite is located 22 km
south of Port-au-Prince in the area of latitude 18 20' 30" N and longitude 72
20' W. The park is situated along the crest of the Massif de La Selle between
Morne d'Enfer (1900 m) and Morne Kadeneau (2155 m). The highest spot in
the park is Pic Cabaio (2282 m). The boundaries of the park have not been
officially designated, but the official size of the park is 2000 hectares (Woods
1986). Access to the park is via the mountain road from Port-au-Prince via
Furcy and Ca Jacques, a distance of ca 55 km, and normally takes ca 4 hrs to
drive. Parc National Pic Macaya is located 36 km northwest of Les Cayes and
195 km west of Port-au-Prince at latitude 18" 21' N and 74 01' W. The park






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 5



730 A





.. . .. ....... ....... ..
8 ~
C 9



\7 1 1'' 13


0 10 so 10 1



Figure 1. Map of Haiti (western portion of Hispaniola) showing location of two national
parks. A. Massif de la Hotte with box delimiting region in which Pare National Pic Macaya is
located: 1, Pic Macaya (2347 m); 2, Tete Ravine (location of "Saddle Camp," ca 1900 m); 3,
Pic Formon (2219 m); 4, Pic lo Ciel (2170 m); 5, Morne Cavalier (ca 1550 m); 6, Ville Formon;
7, Riviere Ravine du Sud, forming "Gran Ravine" in park; 8, Riviere de Port-au-Piment; 9,
Riviere l'Acul; dashed line=1700 m contour line; dotted line=region surveyed in floristic study.
B. Massif de la Selle with box delimiting region in which Pare National Morne la Visite is
located: 1, Seguin; 2, Park Headquarters; 3, Riviere Blanche; 4, lower cascade; 5, upper
cascade; 6, Morne d'Enfer (1920 m); 7, Morne F6 Noir (1945 m); 8, Morne Nacel (ca 1900
m); 9, Morne la Visite (2170 m); 10, Morne Cabaio (2282 m); 11, Morne Bellfontaine (2242
m); 12, Tete Opaque (2269 m); 13, Morne Kadeneau (2155 m); 6-13, peaks along La Selle
Escarpment; dotted line=region surveyed in floristic study; double lines=roads.


is situated around the two dominant mountains of the region, Pic Formon
(2219 m) and Pic Macaya (2347 m), and includes the large and steep ravine
between these two mountains that serves as the headwaters of the Riviere
Ravine du Sud. The park also includes the rocky plain south of Pic Formon
(Plaine de Formon and Plaine de Deron--mainly agricultural areas) as well as
the karst hills along the southern boundaries of these plains, i.e. Bois
Formon. Exact park boundaries have not been established; the official size of
the park is 2000 hectares (Woods 1986). Access to Pare National Pic Macaya
is difficult. The journey is via the route to the southwest from Port-au-Prince
passing through Les Cayes. Beyond Les Cayes the route is via a gravel road






6 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

to Le Duc and then a rough dirt road to Le Pretre that crosses the Riviere
l'Acul. From Le Pretre the route ascends to the plateau of the Plaine de
Formon by a series of sharp switchbacks to the town of Les Platons. At this
point it is necessary to hike for ca 10 km across the southern edge of the
Plaine de Formon through Marche Sous Bois to Ville Formon, an
agricultural community just south of the park, although a poor quality dirt
road has been constructed recently from Les Platons to Ville Formon. Since
1983 both parks have been under the administration of the Institut National
Haitien de la Culture et des Arts (INAHCA) and the Ministere de
l'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles et du Developpement Rural
(MARNDR).
This preliminary floristic study of the two parks was undertaken as part
of a larger study of the systematic biology, ecology, and geology of these parks
by the Florida State Museum (see Woods and Harris 1986; MacFadden
1986).
The first botanist in the Morne Formon/Pic Macaya region (Parc
National Pic Macaya, Massif de La Hotte) was probably L. C. Richard (Dod
pers. comm.), who collected in the area in the late 1700s. The next and most
important plant collectors in the Morne Formon/Pic Macaya region were Erik
L. Ekman and Henry D. Barker, who visited and collected in the area from
December 1926 to January 1927, and climbed Morne Formon; the results of
this fascinating excursion are presented in an article by Ekman (1928). The
many new species resulting from their collections were described mainly by
Ignatius Urban or Urban and Ekman. The valuable field work of Ekman and
Barker in the Massif de La Hotte is commemorated in the names of several
distinctive endemics of this region (see lists). A xerographic copy of Ekman's
field notes (University of Florida herbarium, FLAS, library; original set at
Swedish Museum of Natural History, S) has also been studied, and reveals
(along with Ekman's published account) a fairly detailed picture of the flora
of the region as it existed in the 1920s. Erik Ekman again collected in the
high elevations of the Massif de La Hotte and climbed Pic Macaya from the
north (Morne La Hotte, above Les Roseaux) in September 1928. Leslie R.
Holdridge (former Division Manager, Pine Forest Project, Haiti) botanized
on Morne Macaya (to near the peak) in February 1941. The natural history
of the Massif de La Hotte is outlined by Dod (1984), who comments briefly
on the distinctive and highly endemic flora of the region. Donald D. Dod (of
the Jardin BotAnico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) has
botanized in the region on several occasions between 1981 and 1984 and has
prepared a report on the indigenous orchids (Dod and Judd 1986).
Erik L. Ekman was also the most important plant collector in the Morne
La Visite/Pic Cabaio region (Parc National Morne La Visite, Massif de La
Selle). Ekman botanized in this region on several occasions in 1917 and the
1920s. Others who collected either in localities now within the La Visite park






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 7

or in adjacent regions include: W. Buch, Padre E. Christ, and Padre L.
Picarda; see Moscoso (1943) for brief outlines of their activities. More
recently (Nov. 1982) W. Buck, T. Zanoni, and M. Mejia also have collected in
this area. The work of these botanists is commemorated in the names of
many plants occurring in the Massif de La Selle (see list). A brief description
of Ekman's collecting experiences in the Massif de La Selle has been
published (Ekman 1926), and additional information on the diverse and
highly endemic flora of this region is present in Ekman's personal field notes
(S, copy at FLAS, library). Holdridge's (1947) and Marie-Victorin's (1943)
accounts of the similar pine forests of the Morne des Commissaires are also
of interest.
From a study of published accounts of the flora of the localities now
contained in the Pic Macaya and Morne La Visite National Parks, and from
Ekman's personal field notes, it appears that most of the members of the
vascular flora present in the 1920s still occur within (or adjacent to) the two
national parks--despite the extensive human-caused disturbances in some
localities. Noteworthy species collected in these areas by Ekman (unpubl.
field notes) but not recollected in this floristic study are listed in Tables 1 and
2. It should be noted that these lists are not complete but stress endemic
and/or conspicuous woody taxa. Additional collecting in the parks will likely
reveal the presence of these, as well as other, species.
In addition, two endemic bryophytes described from the high elevations
of the Massif de La Hotte have not been recollected; these are:
Hymenostomum castaneum Crum and Steere and Campylopus haitensis Th6r.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Special thanks are due the fellow members of the project who assisted in collecting
plant specimens, especially James D. Skean, Jr., Fred Thompson, Richard Franz, Donald
Dod, Charles Woods, Richard Baird, and Daniel Cordier. I also wish to thank Charles
Woods and Paul Paryski for their assistance in locating geographical localities and important
historical references.
I thank Carroll E. Wood, Jr., Michael Canoso, and Walter Kittredge for their
assistance during my visit to the Harvard University Herbaria in order to identify problematic
Haitian collections. I sincerely appreciate the hospitality of Dr. and Mrs. Richard A. Howard
during my stay in the Boston area. I also thank the curators of the herbarium of the New
York Botanical Garden and the herbarium of the Swedish Museum of Natural History for
their loan of comparative material for certain species. Thanks are also due to Kent D.
Perkins, registrar of the University of Florida Herbarium, for his help in processing specimen
loans and gifts, and to Norris H. Williams, Keeper of the University of Florida Herbarium, for
making available the herbarium computing facilities. Richard A. Howard, John H. Beaman,







8 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)






Table 1. Noteworthy seed plants not recollected in Parc National Morne La Visite



Apium graveolens, Callicarpa selleana, Calyptranthes temifolia, Catesbaea ekmaniana, Cestrum
dolichopus, Cleyera vaccinioides, Coccothrinax montana, Cordia anisodonta, Eupatorium
selleanum, Herodontia mikanioides, lex cubana, Liabum subacaule, L. selleanum, Ossaea
limon, Passiflora ekanii, Peperomia cabaianum, P. ramosa, Pilea cardiophylla, P. diandra,
Proustia stenophylla, Rhynchospora aristata, Salvia tippenhaueri, Scolosanthus selleanus, Senecio
constanzae, Temstroemia gracilifolia, Tillandsia fendleri.








Table 2. Noteworthy seed plants not recollected in Parc National Pic Macaya.



Arceuthobium bicaratum, Arthrostylidium multispicatum, Cleyera vaccinioides, Graffenrieda
chrysandra, Guarea sphenophylla, Guettarda torbeciana, Hottea torbeciana, Hypericum fuertesii,
Meriania ekmanii, Mikania hotteana, M. rhomboidea, Ossaea allotricha, Palicourea torbeciana,
Piqueria trinerva, Pilea godetiana, Podocarpus aristulatus, Rubus barkerianus, Schlegelia
brachyantha, Scolosanthus densiflorus, Vemonia ekmnaii.





Dana G. Griffin III, David W. Hall, Florence Sergile, and James D. Skean, Jr. provided many
useful comments concerning the manuscript. I also am grateful to Florence Sergile for her
help in processing the voucher specimens collected in the course of this investigation, to
James D. Skean, Jr., for the use of several photos (Figs. 2, 3A, and 4), and to Daniel B. Ward
for the use of his plant dryer.
I am grateful to many individuals who provided identifications for certain taxonomic
groups: Dana Griffin, III (most mosses and liverworts), Richard Harris (lichens), David W.
Hall (Gramineae), Rolla Tryon (misc. ferns), William C. Steere and William R. Buck (misc.
mosses), Jack Gibson and Beth North (misc. fungi), John T. Mickel (Polystichum,
Elaphoglossum, Cystopteris), Hiroshi Inoue (Plagiochila), Laurence E. Skog (Gesneria,
Rhvtidophvllum), R. Grolle (misc. Lejeuneaceae), Kohsaku Yamada (Radula), Jiri VAna
(misc. liverworts), David A. Breil (Marchantiaceae), Thomas A. Zanoni (misc. flowering
plants), William R. Anderson (Byrsonima, Tetrapterys), Alan R. Smith (Thelypteris sancta),






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 9

Timothy Plowman (Brunfelsia picardae), Elizabeth Kellog (Eremolepis wrightii, Grady L.
Webster (Hyeronima domingensis), and Tom Soderstrom (Chusquea abetifolia). I thank
William G. D'Arcy for assistance with the identification of certain species of Solanum.
Last, I thank my wife, Beverly, for her understanding and patience throughout this
study.


ENDANGERED SPECIES


Top priority for protection should be given to species endemic to
Hispaniola, and especially to those endemics with ranges restricted to the
Massif de La Hotte and/or the Massif de La Selle (or with more local
distributions within these mountain ranges). Species very susceptible to
disturbance (e.g. Junipenrs ekmanii) should be given special concern.
Ecological/biological studies of these species are urgently needed;
unfortunately very little is known beyond the most basic taxonomic
information for most plant species endemic to these regions.
Junipents ekmanii may be the woody species most in danger of
extinction. This species has a very limited range, and does not sprout
vegetatively after fire or cutting, both very common in the region. Thus, in
many parts of the La Visite park (even places seemingly little disturbed and
with diverse native vegetation) the species is present only in the form of dead
stumps and logs. The species is surviving in the Tete Opaque region, and
urgent efforts should be made to protect the few remaining individuals.
Other endemics that seem to be rare or very restricted in distribution within
the parks include: Hypericum millefolium, Miconia rigidissima, Gesneria
hypoclada, Siphocampylus caudatus, Ilex blancheana (Parc La Visite);
Rondeletia domatiata (Morne d'Enfer); and Myrsine magnoliifolia, Meliosma
abbreviata, Calycogonium torbecianum, Ossaea woodsii, 0. curvipila, Miconia
macayana, Miconia xenotricha, Mecranium tricostatum, Mecranium alpestre,
Ekmaniocharis crassinervis, Wallenia formonensis, Tabebuia conferta, and
Brunfelsia picardae (Parc Macaya). But it should be stressed again, that all
endemic species should be considered taxa of special concern, and protected
from further destruction by human-caused disturbances. Endemic species of
tracheophytes (excluding orchids) are listed in Table 3. The degree of
endemism is much greater in the flowering plants than in the ferns, mosses, or
liverworts. Genera occurring in the parks with many endemic species include:
Cestrum, Dendrophthora, Eupatorium, Lyonia, Mecranium, Miconia, Ossaea,
Pilea, Rondeletia, Salvia, Senecio, and Wallenia.






10 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

PLANT COMMUNITIES IN PARC NATIONAL
PIC MACAYA, MASSIF DE LA HOTTE


The vegetation of this region may be divided into two major types. The
first is an extremely diverse wet forest on limestone; see discussion of this
formation in Howard (1973). This vegetation type occurs at the lower
elevations of the park. It extends upward to ca 1250 m alt, and collections
were made in this plant community to elevations as low as ca 850 m. The
second vegetation type at Parc Pic Macaya is composed of a complex mosaic
of the pine forest and cloud forest (Fig. 2); see Howard (1973) for discussion
of these vegetation types. These forests intergrade with the lower elevation
wet limestone forest in several areas, and localities with mixed species
compositions occur (e.g. moist forest below "1650 m camp" on southern slope
of Morne Formon, and in Morne Cavelier region). The higher elevation
forests show all variation between moist dense cloud forest and open,
savanna-like pine forest depending upon edaphic factors, e.g. soil, exposure,
local rainfall, wind patterns, and time since last disturbance, especially by fire,
but also by hurricane or cutting (see Figs. 3, 4). Some conspicuous subtypes
include: (1) cloud forest, an extremely moist forest with few or no overstory
pines (Pinus occidentalis), large and conspicuous individuals of Bois Tremble
(Didymopanax tremulum), a diverse selection of shrubs and small trees such
as Garrya fadyenii, Myrsine coriacea, Brunellia comocladiifolia, Persea
anomala, Weinmannia pinnata, Cestrum coelophlebium, Miconia spp., Cyathea
harrisii, Alsophila minor, and a climbing bamboo, Arthrostylidium haitiense; (2)
moist pine forest with scattered shrubs or small trees, blackberries (Rubus
spp.), and ferns; and (3) open, extremely rocky, pine forest with Agave
antillarum, Rhytidophyllum auriculatum, Eupatorium flavidulum, Baccharis
myrsinites, Gyrotaenia myriocarpa, and Senecio stenodon. Open windswept
ridges near Pic Formon are dominated by dense thickets of Ilex obcordata, I
macfadyenii, Myrica picardae, Baccharis myrsinites, Symplocos hotteana,
Miconia hypoides, M. apiculata, M. barker, Temstroemia barker, Weinmannia
pinnata, Vaccinium racemosum, Lobelia rotundifolia, and Psychotria liogieri.
The cloud forests and moister pine forests are better developed on Morne
Formon (especially the northern slope) than Morne Macaya; the southern
slopes of Pic Macaya are especially open and dry, and fire seems to be more
frequent in these areas. Frequent fires kill young broad-leaved species (e.g.
Myrsine coriacea, Miconia spp., Cestrum spp., Weinmannia pinnata,
Didymopanax tremulum, Citharexylum caudatum, Persea anomala, Psychotria
alpestris, Rondeletia formonia, Ganya fadyenii) and favor pine germination, a
diverse fern understory (especially Lophosoria quadripinnata, Histiopteris
incisa, Pteridium aquilinum, Culcita coniifolia, Gleichenia spp., and Blechnum






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 11





















A























Figure 2. High elevation forests-moist pine forest/cloud forest: A, view northeast from
ridge of Morne Formon; B, Grande Ravine du Sud, with Morne Macaya to left (dominated by
pine forest) and Morne Formon to right (dominated by cloud forest).






12 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

tuerckheimii), and the growth of fire-adapted species (such as Rubus spp. and
Senecio stenodon).
Dominant and/or characteristic trees and shrubs of the pine forest/cloud
forest zone (above ca 1300 m) on Morne Formon and Pic Macaya include
Pinus occidentalis, Brunellia comocladiifolia, Didymopanax tremulum,
Dendropanax arboreus, D. selleanus, Myrsine coriacea, Weinmannia pinnata,
Cyathea harrisii, Alsophila hotteana, A. minor, Miconia hypoides* M.
subcompressa, M. barkei*, M. apiculata*, M. tetrastoma, M. ossaeifolia,
Haenianthus oblongifolius, Hyptis schusteri* Citharexylum caudatum, Trema
micrantha, Persea anomala, Ocotea foeniculacea* Gyrotaenia myriocalpa,
Psychotria liogieri, P. alpestris*, Lobelia rotundifolia, L. robusta, Garrya
fadyenii, Cestrum coelophlebium, C. filipes*, Palicourea alpine, Symplocos
hotteana*, Calyptranthes hotteana* C. nummularia, Ilex obcordata*, I.
macfadyenii*, Rondeletia fomnonia*, Ternstroemia barker*, Myrica picardae*,
Blechnum underwoodianum, Eugenia formonica*, Heterotrichum umbellatum,
Senecio stenodon, Besleria lutea, Vaccinium racemosum, Solanum
fonnonense*, S. hotteanum*, Sapium haitiense, Trichilia havanensis,
Eupatorium flavidulum, E. urbanii, Tabebuia berteri, Zanthoxylum haitiense,
Agave antillarum, Ardisia fiertesii, Daphnopsis crassifolia, Baccharis myrsinites,
Rhytidophyllum auriculatum, Vemonia buxifolia, V. saepium, Pluchea
symphytifolia, Henriettea barkeri, Pachyanthus cubensis subsp. blancheanus*,
Meriania spp., and Banara splendens. (Species especially characteristic of Pic
Formon and the upper elevations of the Formon ridge are indicated with an
asterisk.) It is of interest that the primitive taxon, Illicium ekmanii, occurs in
this forest on Morne Cavalier (and also at lower elevations near Formon).
The most showy-flowered species are Fuchsia pringsheimii and Lobelia
rotundifolia, and both are characteristic of moist forest.
Vines include a conspicuous bamboo, Arthrostylidium haitiense, as well as
Smilax havanensis, Mikania spp., Cissus dissecta, Passiflora sexflora, P.
murncuja, Rajania ovata, Senecio hotteana, and Columnea domingensis, along
with the ferns, Hypolepis hispaniolica and Odontosoria aculeata. Herbs are
not a major element of this forest; however, characteristic herbaceous species
include Rubus selleanus, R. eggersii, Peratanthe ekmanii, Isachne rigidifolia,
Zeugites americana, Uncinia hamata, Panicum glutinosum, Andropogon
glomeratus, Relbunium hypocarpium, Erigeron domingensis, Hydrocotyle pusilla,
Scrophularia minutiflora, Begonia plumieri, Psychotria uliginosa, and many
species of Pilea and Peperomia. The epiphytic bromeliads Tillandsia caribaea
and Vriesea sintenisii are abundant, as are various epiphytic stem parasites,
such as Dendrophthora carnosa, D. cupressoides, D. brachystacha, D. versicolor,
and Dendropemon parvifolius. Many terrestrial and epiphytic ferns also occur
(see species list).
The moist pine forest of the peak and ridge of Morne Formon contains
a fair number of local endemics (e.g. Miconia apiculata, M. barker, M.




















,;, =,..=...~LB~s't CT. .

















Figure 3. Cloud forests: A, southern slope of Morne Formon, note cleared area; B, ridge of Morne Formon, note large
Didmyopanaxt tremulu_._._m, with Brunellia comocladiifolia and Alsophila minor.
~t;;a~rjG~Y'"~B8~"4aC

0











4m..




S~




.. ~.~i;~cOL
Fiur Clu oets ,suhensoeo MreFron oeceae ra ig fMon omnnt ag
Dimoa rmuuwt rnelacmcadioi n lspiamnr






14 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

















y' .



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Figure 4. Forests of Pinus occidentalis: A, very moist forest with scattered overstory pines
and numerous mixed broadleaved species, ridge of Morne Formon; B, open, frequently
burned pine forest with various ferns, grasses, Rubus spp., and Senecio stenodon, ridge of
Morne Formon above Morne Cavalier.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 15

hypiodes, Mecranium alpestre, M. tricostatum, Meriania parvifolia* [Judd and
Skean 1987b], Ossaea woodsii* [Judd and Skean 1987a], Cestrum filipes,
Psychotria alpestris, Rondeletia formonia, Terstroemia barker, Myrsine
magnoliifolia, Lobelia hotteana* [Judd and Skean 1987a], Solanum
fonnonense, Pilea formonica; asterisk indicates undescribed or previously
undescribed taxa discovered in the course of this study). In contrast, the
drier forest of Pic Macaya contains fewer endemics (e.g. Miconia apiculata, M.
hypiodes, M. macayana* [Judd and Skean 1987a], Lobelia hotteana* [Judd
and Skean 1987a], Salvia sp.*, Cestrum filipes) and is not as diverse. However
understory ferns are more conspicuous on Pic Macaya, probably because the
increased frequency of fire on Pic Macaya allows a more open pine forest,
thus providing more available habitat for this group.
The moist forest on limestone, occurring in the low hills in the vicinity of
Ville Formon, at the southern base of Morne Formon, is very diverse and
includes a large number of endemic species (Fig. 5). Much of this formation
occurs outside the park boundaries, but it was sampled in order to contrast
this forest with the higher elevation forests of Macaya and Formon. The area
is much degraded with the forested areas limited to steep ravine slopes or
dog-tooth limestone domes and hillsides, separated by open rocky hillsides
and fields occupied by widespread tropical and warm-temperate weedy






















Figure 5. Moist forest on limestone, near Ville Formon, below Morne Cavalier (reprinted
with permission of Brittonia, Skean & Judd, 1986).





16 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

species. In these forests dominance is shared by many species. Important
and/or striking trees or shrubs include: Dendropanax arboreus, Phyllanthus
myriophyllus, Lunania mauritii, Prunus occidentalis, Prunus myrtifolia,
Beilschmeidia pendula, Ardisia fuertesii, Tabebuia conferta, Mecranium
haitiense, M. microdictyum, M. revolutum, Miconia subcompressa, M. laevigata,
Amyris apiculata, Piper hispidum, P. confusum, P. amarum, Calycogonium
apiculatum, C. catyopteris, Cestrum picardae, C. bicolor, Lobelia robusta,
Psychotria berteroana, P. pubescens, Zanthoxylum haitiense, Z. martinicense,
Alchorea latifolia, Chrysophyllum argenteum, Rhytidophyllum bicolor,
Gesneria spp., Solanum antillarum, S. torvum, S. erianthum, Turpinia picardae,
Allophylus crassinervis, Polygala penaea, Casearia sylvestris, Guarea guidonia,
Comocladia pinnatifolia, Cupania americana, Meliosma recurvata, Palicouria
alpina, Clusia clusioides, Gymnanthes lucida, Eugenia glabrata, E. christii,
Eupatorium stigmaticum, E. nervosum, E. microchaetum, Besleria lutea,
Cecropia peltata, Heliconia bihai, Daphnopsis americana, D. crassifolia,
Brunfelsia picardae, Vemonia saepium, Jacquinea eggersii, Ossaea setulosa,
Dipholis cubensis, Nectandra patens, N. membranacea, Phoebe cf. montanum,
Ficus citrifolia, Cyathea furfuracea, Cnemidaria horrida, Alsophila hotteana,
Senecio stenodon, Salvia spp., Garcinia barkeriana, Calyptranthes sintenisii,
Pithecellobium oppositifolium, Coccothrinax cf. montana, Maytenus hotteanus,
Hamelia patens, Didmyopanax tremulum and Micropholis polita. Common
vines include: Cissampelos pareira, Serjania polyphylla, Cissus verticillata,
Cayaponia americana, Stigmaphyllon emarginatum, S. angulosum,
Philodendron consanguineum, Columnea domingensis, Senecio hotteana,
Marcgravia oligandra and Anthurium scandens. Commonly found herbs are
Begonia pycantha, Renealmia jamaicensis, R. densiflora, Ichnanthus pallens,
Lasiacis divaricata, and a great many species of Pilea and Peperomia.
Terrestrial ferns are abundant (see species list). Members of the family
Bromeliaceae are very common, including: Tillandsia fasciculata, T. jenmanii,
T. fendleri, Catopsis nitida, Guzmania lingulata, G. ekmanii, and Vriesea
macrostachya. Loranthaceous parasites, such as Dendrophthora serpyllifolia,
Phoradendron anceps, and P. piperoides, are frequent. The epiphytic ericad
Sphyrospermum majus is very common; this forest also includes a great
diversity of epiphytic ferns (see list), including Ophioglossum palmatum, a
striking plant with broad palmately lobed leaves. The very showy, herbaceous
scroph Castilleja arvensis occurs in disturbed areas, along with many other
weedy species, e.g. Phytolacca rivinoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Stellaria
media, Chamissoa altissima, Triumfetta semitriloba, Anoda hastata, Sida
acuta, S. rhombifolia, Urena lobata, Chamaesyce hypericifolia, Desmodium
axillare, Kalanchoe pinnata, Tibouchina longifolia, Asclepias nivea, Lantana
camera, L. trifolia, Stachytaipheta jamaicensis, Verbena urticifolia,
Cynoglossum amabile, Solanum capsicoides, S. nigrescens, Dichondra repens,
Bidens alba, Conyza canadensis, Eclipta prostrata, Emilia fosbergii, Youngia






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 17

japonica, Vemonia saepium, Andropogon bicomis, A. leucostachyus, Lasiacis
divaricata, Panicum glutinosum, Paspalum fimbriaturn, Setaria corrugata, and
Sporobolus indicus. The woods in the vicinity of Ville Formon form a mosaic
of habitats caused by the extensive human-induced destruction in this region;
every intermediate exists between fairly undisturbed forest and cultivated
fields or bare limestone rock.
As mentioned earlier, this plant community contains a great many
endemics, and some are even limited to the Formon area (see species list and
Table 3). The melastome genus Ekmaniocharis is an example; the area is also
the center of diversity for the related genus Mecranium. The endemic
euphorb Phyllanthus myriophyllus is especially striking because of its
distinctive, norfolk-island-pine-like habit. Other noteworthy endemics
include Tabebuia conferta, with its showy dull-red flowers, Renealmia
densiflora, Meliosma recurvata, Rhytidophyllum bicolor, Amyris apiculata, and
Wallenia ekmanii. Previously undescribed local endemics discovered in the
course of this study include Mecranium revolutum (Skean and Judd 1986),
Metiania brevipedunculata (Judd and Skean 1987b), Micropholis polita subsp.
hotteana (Judd 1986b), and Walleniafornonensis (Judd 1986a).
The vegetation of lower elevations (ca 1000 m) in the Grande Ravine du
Sud is a distinctive open, often rocky, pine forest, which is drier than the
higher elevation pine forests of Morne Formon and Pic Macaya. Associated
shrubs include Heterotrichum angustifolium, Gyrotaenia myriocalpa, Wigandia
puritiva, Trema lamarkianum, Hyptis schusteri, Senecio stenodon, Senna
ligustlina, Ganya fadyenii, Besleria lutea, Rhytidophyllum bicolor, R.
auriculatum, Piper aduncum, P. hispidum, Tabebuia berteri, Cestrum bicolor,
Vemonia saepium, Beilschmeidia pendula, Prunus myrtifolia and Weinmannia
pinnata. The beautiful terrestrial bromeliad Pitcairea elizabethae is
occasional in rocky areas. Common ferns include Thelypteris sen-a, Pteris
longifolia, and Neurodium lanceolatum.


PLANT COMMUNITIES IN PARC NATIONAL
MORNE LA VISIT, MASSIF DE LA SELLE


The plant communities occurring in the area of Parc La Visite may be
placed in two general categories: pine forest and cloud forest on limestone
(hardwood areas or "rak bwa"); see Howard (1973). The two do intergrade,
and many hardwood species can be found as scattered understory shrubs or
small trees in moister localities within the pinelands. The moist hardwood
forest occurs along the steep more or less north-facing slopes from Tete
Opaque, Belle Fontaine, and Pic Cabaio west to Morne La Visite. This
interesting and diverse hardwood community continues westward to Morne





18 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

D'Enfer (and also eastward toward Pic La Selle), and shows much local
geographic variation. Certain species are limited to Morne Cabaio, Morne
D'Enfer, etc., while others are distributed more widely along the ridge (see
species list). Endemics limited to the park (or nearly so) include Ilex
blancheana (Judd 1986c) and Rhytidophyllum sp. nov. (both discovered during
field work in connection with this study), Rondeletia domatiata, Salvia
foveolata, Ditta sp. nov. (first collected by T. A. Zanoni in 1982 in the park
and not yet described; recollected in this study), Calyptranthes densifolia, and
Siphocampylus caudatus. The diversity and number of endemic species is
higher in the hardwood forest than in the pinelands, although both contain
endemics (see Table 3). Both communities include many patches that have
been cleared and burned, and thus many weedy species occur. The number of
temperate weeds that occur in the pinelands is especially striking, e.g. Prunella
vulgaris, Fragaria vesca, Hypericum perforatum, Lampsana communis,
Geranium rotundifolium, G. purpureum, Leontodon taraxacoides, Taraxacum
officinale, Cynoglossum amabile, Euphorbia peplus, Tragopogon pratensis,
Stellaria media, Cerastium glomeratum, Silene gallica, Plantago lanceolata,
Verbascum thapus, Leucanthemum vulgare, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium
repens, Arenaria lanuginosa, Sonchus asper, Daucus carota, Lepidium
virginicum, Barbarea vema, Brassica campestris, Cardamine hirsuta, Conyza
canadensis, Lolium perenne, Oxalis comiculata, Erigeron karvinskianus,
Pteroselinum sativum, Pastinaca sativa, Galium aparine, Linum usitatissimum,
Anagallis arvensis, and Hieracium gronovii.
The pinelands can be divided into several subtypes that likely develop
according to certain edaphic conditions (fire frequency, soil, exposure, etc.)
(Figs. 6, 7). These are (1) open rocky pinelands with many individuals of
Agave antillarum (along with Myrica picardae, Eupatorium illitum, E.
cabaionum, Garrya fadyenii, and Baccharis myrsinites), (2) open pine savannas
with Danthonia domingensis (along with Andropogon urbanianus and Rubus
spp., and sometimes a few scattered shrubs, such as Lyonia microcalpa or
Ganya fadyenii), (3) open ("typical") pinelands with scattered shrubs
(especially Lyonia microcarpa, Myrica picardae, Baccharis myrsinites, Garrya
fadyenii, Eupatorium illitum, E. cabaionum) and the grasses and sedges,
Andropogon urbanianus, A. glomeratus var. pumilis, Cyperus picardae, Carex
ekmanii, Isachne rigidifolia, Panicum xalapense, Bromus unioloides, Zeugites
americana, Melinis minutiflora, and Chusquea abetifolia, and (4) moist
pinelands with a nearly continuous understory of shrubs, some of which are
also common in the moist hardwood communities.
Characteristic trees and shrubs of this mosaic of pineland vegetation
types include the dominant tree Pinus occidentalis (endemic to island of
Hispaniola although a closely related species occurs in Oriente, Cuba), the
shrubs or small trees Baccharis myrsinites, Ganya fadyenii, Lyonia microcarpa,
Myrica picardae, Agave antillarum, Eupatorium illitum, E. cabaionum, Persea






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 19

























i~
A














-Ai4







\,B...



Figure 6. Pinelands: A, typical forest of Pinus occidentalis with scattered shrubs, "the
Depression"; B, Danthonia domingensis savanna, "the Depression."





































Figure 7. Pinelands: A, open, rocky forest of Pinuus occidentalis with Ag antillarum, south of "park headquarters;" B, moist 3
pinelands along the Riviere Blanche.
Figure 7. Pinelands: A, open, rocky forest of Pinuus occidentalis with Agave antillarum, south of "park headquarters;" B, moist
pinelands along the Rivi~re Blanche.





JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 21

anomala, Bocconia frutescens, and to a lesser extent Hypericum hypericoides,
Lyonia tnmcata, L. rubiginosa var. costata, Ilex macfadyenii, Oreopanax
capitatus, Daphnopsis crassifolia, Cestrum mononeurum, Solanum crotonoides,
Bumelia subintegra, Salvia selleana, Gesneria bullata, Fuchsia tiphyllum, F.
pringsheimii, and Myrsine coriacea. A great many grasses and herbaceous
dicots occur in these open forests; the blackberries Rubus argentifrons, R.
haitiensis, and probably also R. selleanus are common everywhere; some
additional characteristic herbs include Pilea spp., Mitracarpus decumbens,
Galium brevipes and Relbunium hypocarpium, along with the many weedy
species listed above. Pteridium aquilinum, bracken, is abundant; other
common terrestrial ferns include: Lophosoria quadripinnata (especially on
moist slopes), Campyloneurum angustifolium (especially rocky areas),
Blechnum occidentale (especially rocky areas), and Woodsia montevidensis (on
rocky slopes). The epiphytic bromeliads Tillandsia hotteana, T. compact, T.
usneoides, and Vriesea sintenisii are locally conspicuous.
The very moist pinelands possess a nearly continuous and very well
developed understory of broadleaved dicots, including many species that are
also characteristic of the cloud forest/hardwood community. In addition to
many of the species mentioned in the previous paragraph, the following trees
and shrubs are common or occasional in these moister forests: Buddleja
domingensis, Brunellia comocladiifolia, Lobelia robusta, L. rotundifolia, Trema
micrantha, Cestrum violaceum, Rondeletia camea, Palicourea alpina, Myrsine
acrantha, Miconia selleana, Turpinia picardae, Calyptranthes nummularia, and
Cordia picardae. The climbing bamboos Arthrostylidium haitiense and
Chusquea abietifolia occur locally, and other frequent vines include Smilax
havanensis, Mikania tripartita, Passiflora orbiculata, and Valeriana scandens.
As mentioned above there is also floristic variability within the cloud
forest/moist hardwood community. These areas range from very wet forests
with conspicuous large individuals of Didmyopanax tremulum (best developed
in some areas on Morne D'Enfer, Morne Fe Noir, and the ravine just east of
the Berac area) to drier and more open scrub-forests with the showy Senecio
buchii and Agave antillarum (and even some intermixed pines, best developed
in the vicinity of Pic Cabaio) (Figs. 8, 9). The greatest species diversity likely
occurs in the hardwood forest extending from Morne Nacel northeast toward
Pic La Visite, although the vicinity of Pic Cabaio and the region between
Belle Fontaine, Roche Cabrit, and Tete Opaque are also very diverse. The
latter region is of particular interest because several species (e.g. Lyonia
microcarpa and Myrica picardae) grow to an exceptionally large size in this
area, and because two rare conifers, Podocaipus aristulatus and Juniperus
ekmanii, occur here. Additional collecting is needed in this region.
Characteristic trees and shrubs of the moist hardwoods are Senecio
buchii, S. picardae, Gyrotaenia myriocarpa, Eupatorium illitum, E. cabaionum,
Myrsine coriacea, M. nubicola, Daphnopsis crassifolia, Sapium buchii, Gesnelia





22 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)





.IT











A




















Figure 8. Cloud forests: A, open, scrub-forest with Senecio buchii, Agave antillarum,
Eupatorium illitum, etc. at Pic Cabaio (looking east toward Tete Opaque); B, moister, very
diverse cloud forest at Morne D'Enfer (looking east toward Morne F6 Noir and Morne La
Visite).






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 23


















































Figure 9. Cloud forest and pine forest: A, bowl shaped plateau of Pare National Morne La
Visite, looking north toward Pic Cabaio, note forest of Pinus occidentalis on plateau and
cloud forest/hardwood thickets on Pic Cabaio and adjacent peaks; B, cloud forest at Morne
D'Enfer, note conspicuous individuals of Didmvopanax tremulum.





24 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

ekmanii, G. viridiflora, G. bullata, Rhytidophyllum auriculata, Persea anomala,
Ocotea acrantha, 0. wrightii, Lobelia robusta, L. assurgens, L. rotundifolia,
Brunellia comocladiifolia, Cyathea harrisii, Alsophila minor, Ganya fadyenii,
Miconia selleana, M. favosa, M. ferruginea, M. tetrastoma, Didymopanax
tremulum, Trema micrantha, Coccoloba picardae, Ardisia fuertesii, A. picardae,
Weinmannia pinnata, Turpinia picardae, Picrasma selleana, Citharexylum
caudatum, Lyonia buchii, Meliosma impress, Agave antillana, Cestrum
violaceum, C. monoeurum, C. inclusum, C. coelophlebium, C. brevifolium, Ilex
macfadyenii, Dendropanax arboreus, Buddleja domingensis, Solanum
crotonoides, S. umbellatum, Calyptranthes densifolia, C. pitoniana, Bunchosa
ekmanii, Malpighia macracantha, Oreopanax capitatus, Rondeletia christii, R.
came, R. domatiata, Psychotria baltenweckii, Cordia picardae, C. dependens,
Tournefortia hirsutissima, Salvia tuerckheimii, S. foveolata, Durantia arida,
Satureja viminea, Eugenia picardae, Heterotrichum umbellatum, Mecranium
multiflorum, Meriania involucrata, Bumelia subintegra, Datura suaveolens, and
Siphocampylus caudatus. Both Fuchsia pringsheimii and F. triphyllum are
common, along with hybrids. Only one palm, Prestoea montana, occurs in
this forest. In places Arthrostylidium haitiense and A. multispicatum are
common. Other climbing plants include Passiflora sexflora, P. orbiculata,
Marsdenia clausa, Columnea domingensis, Hypolepis hispaniolica, Odontosoria
aculeata, Valeriana scandens, Cissampelos pareira, Mikania tripartita,
Melothria domingensis, Cynanchum leptocladum and Rajania ovata. The
bromeliads Vriesea sintenisii and Tillandsia hotteana are common, as are the
loranthaceous parasites Dendrophthora cupressoides and D. serpyllifolia.
These forests also contain some herbaceous species, especially in disturbed
areas (see species list).
The vegetation of the larger ravines (and sinkholes) in the pinelands is
composed of elements of this community. The Riviere Blanche contains the
best developed hardwood community, although the smaller ravine to the
north of the Park Center/Headquarters, i.e. Grande Ravine, is also fairly well
developed on its south slope. The woody dominants of the ravine systems are
essentially those of the hardwood forests of the north-facing slopes/cliffs
within the park. However, an interesting additional species is Sambucus
canadensis, an introduced and escaped shrub that is common along the
Riviere Blanche (and in other moist ravines) and is also planted along the
edges of fields and around homesteads in the pinelands. Some important
herbaceous species occurring in the various ravines (especially on steep and
often rocky slopes) include Erigeron dissectus, Chaptalia albicans, Begonia
platyptera, Zeugites americana, Phyllanthus lindenianus, Pilea spp., Peperomia
spp., Thelypteris imitata, Polystichum echinatum, Diplazium spp., Asplenium
spp., Thelypteris spp., Selaginella leonardii, and Lycopodium spp. Several
species occur in the moist soil along the edge of (or as emergent aquatics in)
the Riviere Blanche (and also along other smaller streams in the region);






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 25


Table 3. Hispaniolian endemic seed plants occurring in Parc Macaya and Parc La Visite, Haiti.
Abbreviations and symbols: occurring in Parc Macaya--M; occurring in Parc La Visite, LV;
plant endemic to either Massif de La Hotte or Massif de La Selle --*.


Agave antillarum M, LV Dendrophthora brachystacha M
Amyris apiculata M* Dendrophthora camosa M*
Andropogon urbanianus LV Dendrophthora versicolor M*
Ardisiafuertesii M, LV Didymopanax tremulum M, LV
Ardisia picardae LV* Ditta sp. nov. LV*
Arthrostylidium haitiense M, LV Ekmaniocharis crassinervis M*
Asketanthera picardae M* Epilobium coloratum LV
Baccharis myrsinites M, LV Erigeron dissectus LV
Banara splendens M Erigeron domingensis M
Begonia domingensis LV Eugenia christii M*
Begonia platyptera LV* Eugenia formonica M
Begonia plumieri M Eugenia lineata LV
Begonia pycantha M Eugenia picardae LV*
Brunfelsia picardae M Eugenia cf. tiburona M*
Buddleja domingensis LV Eupatorium cabaionum LV*
Bumelia subintegra LV* Eupatoriumflavidulum M*
Bunchosa ekmanii LV* Eupatorium illitum LV
Calycogonium apiculatum M* Eupatorium microchaetum M
Calycogonium calycopteris M Eupatorium porphyrocladium M*
Calycogonium torbecianum M Eupatorium sp. nov. LV*
Calyptranthes densiflora LV* Eupatorium stigmaticum M
Calyptranthes hotteana M* Eupatorium urbanii M*
Catyptranthes nummularia M, LV Exostemma picardae M
Calyptranthespitoniana LV Fuchsia pringsheimii M, LV
Carex ekmanii LV Fuchsia triphylla LV
Cestrum bicolor M* Galium brevipes LV
Cestrum brevifolium LV Garcinia barkeriana M*
Cestrum coelophlebium M, LV Gesneria aspera M, LV
Cestrum filipes M* Gesneria bullata LV*
Cestrum mononeurum LV Gesneria ekmanii M, LV
Cestrum picardae M Gesneria fruticosa M
Cestrum violaceum LV* Gesneria hypoclada M,,LV
Cleyera temstroemioides M* Gesneria viridiflora ssp. acrochordonanthe
Coccoloba pauciflora M M, LV
Coccoloba picardae LV* Gnaphalium eggersii LV
Coccothrinax montana M Gnaphalium selleanum LV*
Cyperuspicardae LV Guzmaniae)nanii M
Danthonia domingensis LV Haenianthus oblongatus M*
Daphnopsis crassifolia M, LV Hen ttea barker M
Dendropanax selleanus M Hyeronima domingensis M
Dendropemon bistratus LV <'Hypericum fuertesii LV
Dendropemon pycnophyllus LV / Hypericum millefolium LV*




/






26 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)


Table 3 continued


Hyptis schusteri M Mikania dissecta M*
Ilex blancheana LV* Mikania tripartita LV*
Ilex fuertesiana LV Mitracarpus decumbens LV*
Illicium ekmnanii M Myrcia tiburoniana M*
Juniperus ekmanii LV* Myrica picardae M, LV
Laplacea alpestris LV Myrsine magnoliifolia M*
Lobelia hotteana M* Myrsine nubicola LV*
Lunania mauritii M Narvalina domingensis M
Lyonia buchii LV Ocotea acarina LV*
Lyonia microcarpa LV* Ossaea curvipila M*
Lyonia truncata var. truncata LV* Ossaea setulosa M*
Lyonia rubiginosa var. costata M, LV Ossaea woodsii M*
Malpighia macracantha LV* Pachyanthus cubensis ssp. blancheanus M*
Maytenus hotteana M* Pachyanthus hotteanus M
Mecranium alpestre M* Peperomia dominicana M
Mecranium birimosum M Peperomia leonardii LV
Mecranium haitiense M* Peperomia michelensis M*
Mecranium microdictyum M* Peratanthe ekmanii M
Mecranium revolutum M* Phyllanthus lindenianus var. inaequifolius
Mecranium tricostatum M* LV*
Mecranium tuberculatum M Phyllanthus myriophyllus M*
Meliosma abbreviata M* Picrasma selleana LV*
Meliosma impressa LV Pilea baltenweckii M
Meliosma recurvata M* Pilea cephalantha LV*
Melothria domingensis LV Pilea distantifolia M*
Meriania brevipedunculata M* Pilea domingensis M, LV
Meriania involucrata LV Pilea formonensis M*
Merianiaparvifolia M* Pileafranquervilleana LV*
Meriania squamulosa M* Pilea hepatica M, LV
Miconia apiculata M* Pilea lanceolata LV
Miconia barker M* Pilea lepidincola LV
Miconia hypiodes M* Pilea leptocardia M
Miconia favosa LV Pilea propinqua LV
Miconia ferruginea LV* Pilea psilogyne LV*
Miconia lanceolata LV Pilea serpyllacea M*
Miconia macayana M* Pilea stolonifera M
Miconia ossaeifolia M* Pilea torbeciana M*
Miconia sp. nov. M* Pinus occidentalis M, LV
Miconia rigidissima LV* Piper oviedoi M
Miconia selleana LV Pitcaimia elizabethae M
Miconia subcompressa M, LV Podocarpus aristulatus LV
Miconia xenotricha M* Psychotria alpestris M*
Micropholis polita ssp. hotteana M* Psychotria baltenweckii LV*
Mikania cyanosma M* Psychotria liogieri M, LV






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 27


Table 3 continued


Renealmia densiflora M* Senecio stenodon M*
Rhynchospora elongata Siphocampylus caudatus LV*
var. ekmanii M 'Siphocampylus sonchifolius M
Rhytidophyllum bicolor M* Solanum hotteanum M*
Rhytidophyllum sp. nov. LV* Solanum formonense M*
Rondeletia camea LV* Stevensia hotteana M*
Rondeletia christii LV* Symplocos hotteana M*
Rondeletia formonica M* Tabebuia conferta M*
Rubus argentifrons LV Temstroemia barker M*
Rubus eggersii M Tillandsia hotteana M, LV
Rubus haitiensis LV Turpinia picardae M, LV
Rubus selleanus M, LV Wallenia aquifolia M
Salvia arborescens M Wallenia ekmanii M*
Salvia bahorucona LV* Walleniaformonensis M*
Salvia sp. nov. M* Vemonia buxifolia M
Sapium buchii LV Vemonia saepium M*
Sapium haitiense M* Zanthoxylum haitiensis M*
Senecio buchii LV* Zanthoxylum tetraphyllum LV*
Senecio hotteanus M* Zeugites americana var. haitiensis M
Senecio picardae LV





28 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

these include Nasturtium officinale, Poa annual, Fumaria caipreolata, Galium
aparine, Epilobium coloratum, Stachys arvensis, Pilea psilogyne, Euphorbia
peplus, Pastinaca sativa, and Rumex obtusifolius.


MANAGEMENT OF VEGETATION


The hardwood/cloud forest areas of Parc National Morne La Visite
require protection from cutting, burning and clearing. These continuing
activities are extremely destructive to this plant community. Currently there
are enough growths of intact forest (with endemic species still surviving) so
that the cloud forest areas have the capability of recovering from the effects
of human disturbance if repeated clearing and burning are prohibited (or at
least greatly reduced) in the region. At the present time these forests exist as
a mosaic of reasonably intact to very disturbed (fields, pastures, etc.)
communities. The wet forest on limestone at low elevations in Parc National
Pic Macaya is also very susceptible to fire. This forest community now is
being destroyed fairly rapidly by clearing and burning. In contrast, the
pinelands (of both parks) probably require periodic (and controlled) fires to
maintain pine (and associated species) regeneration. However, Holdridge
(1947) considered the high elevation pine forests to be maintained, at least in
part, by cold temperatures. Detailed ecological studies of these pinelands
clearly are needed. On Morne Formon/Pic Macaya the high elevations are
occupied by a complex mosaic of cloud forest and pine forest communities.
This mosaic is probably maintained by a pattern of periodic fires, with the
composition of the community probably influenced strongly by the amount of
time lapsed since the last fire. The pinelands of both parks are in need of
ecological study to determine the appropriate timing, frequency and intensity
of controlled fires that are required to maintain the community. At present
fires are probably too frequent (and/or too severe). The fires are often set by
the local people, although natural (lightning set) fires undoubtedly also occur.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 29



THE CHECKLISTS


The following checklists are arranged by major taxonomic group (i.e.
tracheophytes or vascular plants, mosses and liverworts) and geographic area
(i.e. Massif de La Hotte, Massif de La Selle). The systematic arrangement of
flowering plant families follows R. F. Thorne (1983), Proposed new
realignments in the angiosperms; the arrangement of the ferns follows R. M.
and A. F. Tryon (1982), Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to
tropical America. Families of mosses and liverworts are listed alphabetically;
family concepts follow Crosby and Magill (1978) for the mosses, and Farr,
Leussink, and Stafleu (1979) for the liverworts. An index to families of each
park is provided.
Each entry follows a standardized format. The name of the species is
followed by the authority, habit, habitat, frequency, elevational range, and
localities at which the taxon was collected or observed. The collectors and
collection numbers are given, and the checklists are based only on these
collections. Collections were made by R. E. Baird, R. Franz, W. S. Judd, J. D.
Skean, Jr., F. G. Thompson, and C. A. Woods. Nearly all collections were
made during some 9 weeks of field work between January and June 1984, and
voucher specimens are deposited at FLAS (Herbarium of the University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL) and EHH (Ekman Herbarium, D6partement de
l'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles et du D6veloppement Rural, Service
Recherche Agronomique, Damien, Port-au-Prince, Haiti). A few T. A.
Zanoni and M. M. Mejia specimens (from JBSD, herbarium of the Jardin
BotAnico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso", Santo Domingo, Repfiblica
Dominicana) and W.R. Buck specimens (from NY, herbarium of the New
York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y.) are also cited. The elevations and
geographical localities are based only on our collections or sight records and
probably could be expanded significantly by additional field work. Finally,
taxa endemic to Hispaniola or either the Massif de La Selle (including the
Sierra de Baoruco) or Massif de La Hotte are indicated (see also Table 3);
occasionally other nomenclatural or taxonomic information is given.
A brief statistical summary of each flora is presented below. The
coverage of woody flowering plants and conifers in the following lists is the
most complete, followed by that of herbaceous flowering plants, ferns and
"fern allies", mosses, and liverworts. Macrolichens and some fungi were also
collected, but the identifications for these groups are still too incomplete to
be included in this report (see appendix).
A total of 470 species (267 genera in 109 families) of vascular plants
(including 367 flowering plants [excluding orchids], 1 conifer, 102 ferns and
fern allies) was collected (or, for a few weedy taxa, observed) in Parc National





30 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Pic Macaya, Massif de La Hotte. The largest families (excluding the
Orchidaceae) include Melastomataceae (36 spp.), Asteraceae (30 spp.),
Polypodiaceae s. str. (22 spp.), Piperaceae (19 spp.), Rubiaceae (19 spp.),
Urticaceae s. lat. (19 spp.), Dryopteridaceae (17 spp.), Poaceae (15 spp.),
Solanaceae (14 spp.), Bromeliaceae (12 spp.), and Myrtaceae (12 spp.). The
largest genera include Pilea (Urticaceae--14 spp.), Peperomia (Piperaceae--13
spp.), Miconia (Melastomataceae--11 spp.), Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae--9
spp.), Grammitis (Polypodiaceae--8 spp.), Lycopodium (Lycopodiaceae--8
spp.), Eupatolium (Asteraceae--7 spp.), Mecranium (Melastomataceae--7
spp.), Polypodium (Polypodiaceae--7 spp.), Solanum (Solanaceae--7 spp.),
Psychotria (Rubiaceae--6 spp.), Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae--5 spp.), Cestrmm
(Solanaceae--5 spp.), Diplazium (Dryopteridaceae--5 spp.), Dendrophthora
(Viscaceae--5 spp.), and Gesneria (Gesneriaceae--5 spp.).
The total vascular flora of Parc National Pic Macaya includes ca 136
species (or infraspecific taxa, excluding orchids) endemic to Hispaniola (ca
29% of flora), and of these, 72 are endemic to the Massif de La Hotte (ca
15%). The degree of endemism among the flowering plants was slightly
greater with 130 endemic species (ca 35%), and of these, 71 (ca 19%) are
endemic to the Massif de La Hotte. The percentage of endemic species
among the ferns and fern allies was much less, i.e. ca 5%. Families with large
numbers of endemic species include: Melastomataceae (29), Urticaceae (12),
Asteraceae (15), Solanaceae (7), and Myrtaceae (6). Genera with many
endemic species include Pilea, Miconia, Eupatorium, Mecranium, and
Cestrum; other noteworthy genera in this regard are Dendrophthora, Wallenia,
Senecio, Eugenia, and Ossaea.
A total of 99 species of mosses and 63 species of liverworts was collected
in Parc National Pic Macaya and adjacent regions. Very few of these species
are endemic.
The vascular flora of Parc National Morne La Visite (and adjacent areas
of the Massif de La Selle) is documented by collections representing 325
species (including 262 flowering plants [excluding orchids], 3 conifers, and 60
ferns and fern allies). These are distributed among 201 genera and 89
families. The largest families (omitting the Orchidaceae) are Asteraceae (28
spp.), Poaceae (14 spp.), Urticaceae (14 spp.), Rubiaceae (14 spp.),
Dryopteridaceae (12 spp.), Melastomataceae (11 spp.), Solanaceae (10 spp.),
Polypodiaceae (10 spp.), Araliaceae s. lat. (8 spp.), Piperaceae (8 spp.),
Gesneriaceae (7 spp.), Aspleniaceae (7 spp.), and Lamiaceae (7 spp.). The
largest genera include: Pilea (Urticaceae--12 spp.), Peperomia (Piperaceae--8
spp.), Asplenium (Aspleniaceae--7 spp.), Miconia (Melastomataceae--7 spp.),
Polypodium (Polypodiaceae--6 spp.), Cestrum (Solanaceae--5 spp.), Thelypteris
(Thelypteridaceae--5 spp.), Hypericum (Clusiaceae--4 spp.), Gesneria
(Gesneriaceae--4 spp.), Eupatorium (Asteraceae--4 spp.), Lycopodium
(Lycopodiaceae--4 spp.), Lyonia (Ericaceae--4 spp.), Tillandsia
(Bromeliaceae--4 spp.), and Elaphoglossum (Dryopteridaceae--4 spp.).






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 31

The total vascular flora of Parc National Morne La Visite includes 112
species (excluding orchids) endemic to Hispaniola (ca 34% of the flora), and,
of these, 44 are endemic to the Massif de La Selle or extend also into the
Sierra de Baoruco (ca 14%). As in Parc Macaya, endemism is most
pronounced among the flowering plants, with 105 endemic species (ca 40%),
and-of these 44 species (ca 16%) are endemic to the Massif de La Selle. Only
about-3% of the species of ferns and fern allies are endemic. Families with
many endemic species include: Asteraceae (11), Urticaceae (8),
Melastomataceae (7), Rubiaceae (7), Solanaceae (5), Myrtaceae (5),
Ericaceae (4), and Lamiaceae (4). Genera with many endemic species in Parc
Morne La Visite include: Pilea, Miconia, Cestmm, Lyonia, Eupatorium,
Rondeletia, Gesneria, and Salvia.
A total of 76 species of mosses and 19 species of liverworts was collected
in or near La Visite National Park; very few of these are endemic.
The flora of the two national parks, when taken together, comprises 678
different species of tracheophytes (i.e. flowering plants, conifers, ferns,
psilopsids, and lycopsids) and 222 species of bryophytes (mosses and
liverworts), giving a grand total of 887 species of embryophytes. In addition,
63 species of lichens and 27 species of fungi were collected, bringing to 978
the number of species considered in the following lists and appendices.
The results of this floristic study document the rich and highly endemic
nature of the vascular (especially angiosperm) floras of Pic Macaya and
Morne La Visite National Parks and confirm Ekman's (1926, 1928) brief
reports on these areas. Howard (1973) also has pointed out that genera
endemic to Hispaniola are concentrated in the mountains of northern and
especially southern Haiti. In fact more endemic genera are restricted to the
Massif de La Selle and/or the Massif de La Hotte than any other region of
the island. Thus the protection of the few remaining forested localities in this
region is critical, and it is hoped that this can be accomplished through the
establishment and maintenance of these national parks.





32 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Vascular Plants Collected in Pare National
Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti.


Division Tracheophyta

[Collections identified by W. S. Judd, unless indicated otherwise; notations
after family name refer to number of genera/species]

Class Psilopsida
Order Psilotales
Family Psilotaceae (1/2)

Psilotum complanatum Sw. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest (uncommon),
1650 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3832.
Psilotum nudum (L.) Beauv. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb (on rocks); moist
forest on limestone (uncommon), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Judd
3493.

Class Lycopsida
Order Lycopodiales
Family Lycopodiaceae (1/8)

Lycopodium cemuum L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed areas (occasional/very common), 900-1100 m; Bois
Formon. Judd 3627, Skean 1261.
Lycopodium clavatum L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed open
areas (common), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3628, 4090
Skean 1460.
Lycopodium hippurideum Christ. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (occasional), 2100-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd
4063, 4159, Skean 1399.
Lycopodium pithodes Schl. & Cham. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest
(uncommon), 1900-2200 m; south slope of Pic Macaya. Judd 4216,
Skean 1426a.
Lycopodium reflexum Lam. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed
slopes (occasional), 1100-2200 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd
3629,4054, 4058a.
Lycopodium verticillatum L.f. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(rare), 1800-2070 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3889.
Lycopodium skattchii Maxon. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(rare), 1800-2070 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3888.





JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 33

Lycopodium taxifolium Sw. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1500-2150 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3715, 4064, Skean 1351.

Order Selaginellales
Family Selaginellaceae (1/2)

Selaginella leonardii Schmidt. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1500 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne
Formon. Judd 3480a, 3851. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Selaginella plumieri Hieron. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, cloud
forest (occasional), 950-1780 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3477a, Skean 1201, 1372. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Class Filicopsida
Order Ophioglossales
Family Ophioglossiaceae (1/1)

Ophioglossum palmatum L. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3467, 3532, Skean
1177, 1237.

Order Marattiales
Family Marattiaceae (1/1)

Danaea elliptica J. Smith. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(rare), ca 1750 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3852.

Order Polypodiales
Family Gleicheniaceae (1/2)

Gleichenia bifida (Willd.) Spreng. Scrambling herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest, disturbed open areas (common), 1800-2200 m; Morne
Formon. Judd 3861, Skean 1534.
Gleichenia revoluta HBK. Scrambling herb; moist pine forest, disturbed open
areas (abundant), 1700-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3892.

Family Hymenophyllaceae (2/7)

Hymenophyllum hirsutum (L.) Sw. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3481.
Hymenophyllum microcarpum Desv. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (uncommon). 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3466.





34 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Hymenophyllum trapezoidale Copel. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (occasional), 1800-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3878b. Det.
Dana Griffin, III.
Hymenophyllum urbani Brause. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest/ moist pine
forest (common), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3866, Skean
1476.
Trichomanes crispum L. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3522.
Trichomanes holoptetmm Kunze. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), ca 960 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3998.
Trichomanes rigidum Sw. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; cloud forest/moist
pine forest (common), 1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3672.

Family Plagiogyriaceae (1/1)

Plagiogyria semicordata (Presl.) Christ. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(common), 2300-2340 m; Pic Macaya; reported by Ekman (in field
notes) from ca 2200 m on Morne Formon. Judd 4143, 4163, Skean
1408. Det. Rolla Tryon.

Family Dicksoniaceae (1/1)

Culcita coniifolia (Hook.) Maxon. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(common), 2150-2340 m; Pic Macaya; probably also on Morne
Formon. Judd 4151, Skean 1403.

Family Lophosoriaceae (1/1)

Lophosoria quadripinnata (Gmel.) C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest,
especially disturbed, recently burned areas (very common), 1670-
2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3634, 4149, Skean 1391.

Family Cyatheaceae (3/6)

Alsophila hotteana (C. Chr. & Ekm.) Tryon. Tree fern; moist forest on
limestone (common), moist pine forest (occasional), 950-1770 m;
Bois Formon, Morne Formon. Judd 3482, 3647c, Skean 1321, 1362.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Alsophila minor (D.C. Eaton) Tryon. Tree fern; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3738,
4419. Skean 1447, 1495.
Alsophila woodwardioides (Kaulf.) Conant. Tree fern; moist forest on
limestone, (occasional), 1200-1250 m; Bois Formon, hills south of






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 35

Morne Formon. Judd 3961. This taxon sometimes is treated as
Nephelea woodwardioides (Kaulf.) Gastony var. hieronymi (Brause)
Gastony.
Cnemidaria horida (L.) Presl. Tree fern; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3505, Skean 1200.
Cyathea furfuracea Baker. Tree fern; moist forest on limestone, cloud forest
(common), 950-1560 m; Bois Formon, Morne Cavalier, lower
elevations on southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3519, 4053,
Skean 1198, 1575.
Cyathea hanrrisii Underw. ex Maxon. Tree fern; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(very common), 1650-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd
3737, 4155, Skean 1406, 1446.

Family Pteridaceae (4/6)

(The following fern families are sometimes treated as members of one large
polymorphic family, the Polypodiaceae sensu lato; pteridologists
differ as to how this assemblage should be divided, and the
classification of R. M. & A. F. Tryon [1982] is followed here.)
Adiantum pyramidale (L.) Willd. Terrestrial herb, moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1260 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3931, Skean 1259.
Adiantum raddianum Presl. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1620-1660 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd
3803.
Adiantum tenemrm Sw. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, pine forest
(occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 4111,
Skean 1574.
Cheilanthesfarinosa (Forsk.) Kaulf. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, open
rocky ridge (occasional), ca 2200 m; southern slope of Pic Macaya.
Judd 4134.
Pityrogramma tartarea (Cav.) Maxon. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed
slopes (common), 1670-1770 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3622.
Pteris longifolia L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially open rocky areas
(very common), 1000-1730 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3793, 4110.

Family Vittariaceae (1/1)

Vittaria moritiziana Mett. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), 1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3756.





36 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Dennstaedtiaceae (4/5)

Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J. Smith. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (very common), 1650-2300 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya.
Judd 3767, 4154.
Hypolepis hispaniolica Maxon. Vine; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(abundant), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3894. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Odontosoria aculeata (L.) J. Smith. Vine; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3766, Skean 1536.
Odontosoria fitmarioides (Sw.) J. Smith. Vine; moist pine forest (occasional),
2300-2340 m; Pic Macaya. Judd 4156.
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. var. caudatum (L.) Sadeb. Terrestrial herb;
moist pine forest, especially open disturbed slopes (abundant), 1550-
2200 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Pic Macaya. Judd 3620, 4040.

Family Thelypteridaceae (1/9)

Thelypteris asterothrix (F6e) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3471. Det.
Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris hispidula (Decne.) Reed. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(occasional), 1650-1770 m; south slope of Morne Formon. Judd
3667a. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris cf. imitata C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest (occasional),
2300-2340 m; Pic Macaya. Judd 4146.
Thelypteris patens (Sw.) Small. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, pine forest
(occasional), 1000-1780 m; Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of Morne
Formon). Judd 4122, Skean 1371. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris nudis (Kunze) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 1560-1770 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd
3646, 4032. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris sagittata (Sw.) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), ca 960 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4002. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris sancta (L.) Ching. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), ca 975 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1193. Det. Alan R.
Smith.
Thelypteris serra (Sw.) St. John ex Small. Terrestrial herb; pine forest
(common), 1000-1700 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Franz 8,
Judd 3796, 4109.
Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Alston. Terrestrial herb; pine forest
(occasional), ca 1000 m; Ravine du Sud. Judd 4121.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 37

Family Dryopteridaceae (8/16)

Ctenitis cheilanthina C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3436.
Diplazium centripetale (Baker) Maxon. Terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1800-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd
3887.
Diplazium l'herminieri Hieron. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3734, 4083.
Diplazium pectinatum (F6e) C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 1650-2000 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3647a, Skean
1543.
Diplazium plantaginifolium (L.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3534, 3996.
Diplazium unilobum (Poir.) Hieron. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 1450-1780 m; Morne Formon, Ravine
du Sud. Judd 3647b, Skean 1366. (=? D. semihastatum (Kuntze) C.
Chr.)
Dryopteris denticulata (Sw.) Kuntze. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(occasional), 1650-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3667b,
4150.
Dryopteris paleacea (Sw.) Hand.-Mazz. Terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional/common), 1900-2340 m; Morne
Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 4082, 4133, 4153, Skean 1407. Det. Rolla
Tryon.
Elaphoglossum chartaceum (Baker ex Jenman) C. Chr. Terrestrial and
epiphytic herb; moist pine forest (common), 1650-2340 m; Morne
Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3521, 3772, 4142. Det. J. T. Mickel
(4142).
Elaphoglossum crinitum (L.) Christ. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3536.
(=Hymenodium crinitum (L.) F6e)
Elaphoglossum peltatum (Sw.) Urb. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 950-1650 m;
Bois Formon, southern slope of Morne Formon. Judd 3465, 3815.
Elaphoglossum revolutum (Liebm.) Moore. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest
(occasional), 1450-1780 m; Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of Morne
Formon). Skean 1340. Det. J. T. Mickel.
Lomariopsis amydrophlebia (Slosson) Holttum. Terrestrial herb; moist forest
on limestone (occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1202.
Polystichum echinatum (Gmel.) Christ. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; moist
forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest, often in open






38 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

rocky areas (common), 950-2340 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon,
Pic Macaya. Judd 3997, 3999, 4139, Skean 1472. Det. J. T. Mickel.
Polystichum polystichifonne (F6e) Maxon. Terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1620-1660 m; southern slopes of
Morne Formon. Judd 3804. Det. J. T. Mickel.
Tectaria hippocrepis (Jacq.) Copel. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, cloud forest (common), 950-1530 m; Bois Formon,
Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of Morne Formon). Judd 3446,
3533, Skean 1246, 1353.

Family Aspleniaceae (1/3)

Asplenium myriophyllum (Sw.) Presl. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3430, 3606,
Skean 1186. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Asplenium praemorsum Sw. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest (occasional),
1650-1770 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3643a.
Asplenium serra Langsd. & Fisch. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 1450-1800 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud.
Judd 3735, Skean 1332.

Family Davalliaceae (1/3)

Nephrolepis multiflora (Roxb.) Jarrett ex Morton. Terrestrial herb; moist
forest on limestone, pine forest, often on rocks (common), 950-1050
m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Frans 7, Skean 1272.
Nephrolepis pectinata (Willd.) Schot. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(occasional), 1430-1675 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon.
Skean 1517.
Nephrolepis rivularis (Vahl) Mett. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3535.

Family Blechnaceae (1/5)

Blechnum divergens (Kunze) Mett. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (common),
1900-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 4086.
Blechnum fragile (Liebm.) Morton & Lell. Epiphytic herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 1600-2200 m; Morne Formon. Skean
1515.
Blechnum occidentale L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest (common), 950-1770 m; Bois Formon, southern slope of
Morne Formon. Judd 3540, 3650.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 39

Blechnum tuerckheimii Brause. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest (common),
2200-2340 m; Pic Macaya. Judd 4144. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Blechnum underwoodianum (Broudh.) C. Chr. Tree fern; moist pine forest
(common), 1650-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3649,
4141, 4166, Skean 1400.

Family Polypodiaceae (7/22)

Campyloneurum angustifolium (Sw.) F6e. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist
forest on limestone, moist pine forest (common), 1000-2340 m; Bois
Formon, Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3641, 3666, 4152, Skean
1564.
Campyloneurum vexatum Eaton. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest (common), 950-1770 m; Bois Formon,
southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3453b, 3445b, 3636a, Skean
1271.
Grammitis apiculata (Klotzsch) Seymour. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3523a,
Skean 1187. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Grammitis cretata Maxon. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (occasional), 1700-
1800 m (to as low as 1500 m, Ekman field notes); Morne Formon.
Judd 3600, Skean 1375.
Grammitis cultrata (Willd.) Proctor. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (occasional), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3883, Skean
1471.
Grammitis firm (J. Smith) Morton. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest
(uncommon), 2300-2340 m; Pic Macaya. Judd 4162.
Grammitis fiurcata Hk. & Grev. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(rare), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3480b.
Grammitis marginella (Sw.) Sw. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(rare), 1900-2300 m; Pic Macaya (to "The Saddle" connecting this
peak with Morne Formon). Judd 4129.
Grammitis moniliformis (Sw.) Proctor. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest
(occasional), 2250-2340 m; Pic Macaya. Judd 4161, Skean 1405. Det.
Rolla Tryon.
Grammitis pendula (Sw.) Proctor. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3523b, Skean 1188.
Det. Rolla Tryon.
Microgramma lycopodioides (L.) Copel. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon,
Ravine du Sud. Judd 3445a, 3447a, 4119, Skean 1236.






40 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Microgramma piloselloides (L.) Copel. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist
forest on limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd
3447b, 4009, Skean 1230.
Neurodium lanceolatum (L.) Fee. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, rocky
ledges (common), ca 1000 m; Ravine du Sud. Judd 4112.
Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lell. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, often in disturbed open areas, open rocky pine forest
(common), 950-1730 m; Bois Formon, southern slope of Morne
Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3670, 3792, 4118, Skean 1235.
Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Cav.) Maxon. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest
(common), 1650-1770 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3636b.
Polypodium aureum L. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3940, Skean
1154.
Polypodium dissimile L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), ca 960 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4001.
Polypodium lasiopus Klotzsch. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; moist pine forest
(rare), ca 1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3714.
Polypodium loriceum L. Usually epiphytic herb; moist pine forest, often
disturbed areas (occasional/common), 1430-2340 m; Morne Formon,
Pic Macaya. Judd 3638, 4164, Skean 1513.
Polypodium pectinatum L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1280.
Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist
forest on limestone, often in disturbed areas, pine forest (occasional),
950-1260 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 4024, 4115, Skean
1299.
Polypodium squamatum L. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, disturbed open areas, pine forest (occasional), 950-1260
m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3456b, 3930, 4114.

Class Coniferopsida
Order Coniferales
Family Pinaceae (1/1)

Pinus occidentalis Sw. Tree; dominant tree forming pinelands, or scattered
overstory tree in cloud forest (abundant), 1000-2340 m; Morne
Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3632, 3993,
Skean 1458. Endemic to Hispaniola.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 41

Class Angiospermopsida
Superorder Annoniflorae
Order Annonales
Family Illiciaceae (1/1)

Illicium ekmanii A. C. Smith. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 950-1560 m; Bois Formon, Morne
Cavalier. Judd 4038, Skean 1194, 1260, 1313, 1662, 2089. Endemic
to Hispaniola.

Family Chloranthaceae (1/1)

Hedyosmum nutans Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, disturbed area
(occasional), ca 974 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1501.

Family Lauraceae (5/7)

Beilschmiedia pendula (Sw.) Hemsl. Tree; moist forest on limestone, pine
forest (common), 930-1250 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3524,3526,3936.
Phoebe cf. montanum Griseb. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common),
930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3946, Skean 1283.
Nectandra cotiacea (Sw.) Griseb. Tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1294.
Nectandra membranacea (Sw.) Griseb. Tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1143.
Ocotea foeniculacea Mez. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional),
1800-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3891, 3896.
Persea americana Mill. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 930-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Introduced. Judd 3957.
Persea anomala Britt. & Wils. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1500-2200 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du
Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3727, 3867, Skean 1432, 1527, 1537, 2109,
(=Persea ekmanii 0. C. Schmidt)

Family Piperaceae (3/19)

Lepianthes umbellatum (L.) Raf. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, especially
disturbed openings (very common), 930-1560 m; Bois Formon,
southern slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3951, Skean
1163. (=Pothomolphe umbellata (L.) Miq.)






42 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Peperomia acuminata Ruiz & Pay. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 1650-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3663, 4127, Skean 1401.
Peperomia alata Ruiz & Pav. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4000, Skean
1276.
Peperomia distachya (L.) Dietr. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (very common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3443,
3456a, Skean 1192.
Peperomia dominicana DC. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (occasional), ca 1000
m; Ravine du Sud. Thompson s.n. 6 Feb. 1984. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Peperomia galioides HBK. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/ cloud forest
(rare), 1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3760.
Peperomia glabella (Sw.) Dietr. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 1500-1770 m; Morne Formon, Ravine
du Sud. Judd 3662, Skean 1377.
Peperomia hernandifolia (Vahl) Dietr. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; moist
forest on limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd
3473.
Peperomia hispidula (Sw.) Dietr. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3470.
Peperomia magnoliifolia (Jacq.) Dietr. var. microphylla Dahlst. Epiphytic
herb; moist forest on limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois
Formon. Judd 3476.
Peperomia michelensis Trel. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3444, Skean 1270.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Peperomia obtusifolia (L.) Dietr. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest/cloud forest (common), 1200-2070 m; Bois
Formon, Morne Formon. Judd 3880, 3967.
Peperomia tenella (Sw.) Dietr. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest (common), 950-1770 m; Bois Formon,
Morne Formon. Judd 3654, Skean 1162.
Peperomia tetraphylla (S. Forst.) Hook. & Arn.. Epiphytic herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd
3656, 3759.
Piper aduncum L. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, pine forest (common),
950-1250 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Franz 4, Judd 4003.
Piper confitsum DC. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050
m; Bois Formon. Judd 3438.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 43

Piper hispidum Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (common), moist pine
forest (uncommon), 950-1670 m; Bois Formon, southern slope of
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3665, 3948, Skean 1155, 1189.
Piper mrgosum Lam. Small tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest (common),
1620-1660 m; southern slope of Morne Formon. Judd 3805.
Piper oviedoi Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050
m; Bois Formon. Skean 1204, 1243. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte
and Massif de La Selle.

Order Berberidales
Family Menispermaceae (1/1)

Cissampelos pareira L. Vine; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 930-1800 m; Bois Formon, Morne
Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3947, Skean 1333.

Family Ranunculaceae (2/2)

Clematis dioica L. Vine; moist pine forest (occasional), 1650-1700 m;
southern slope of Morne Formon. Judd 3835.
Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. var. tropicus (Griseb.) Fawc. & Rendle.
Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional/common),
1800-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Skean 1396, 1541.

Family Papaveraceae (1/1)

Bocconia frutescens L. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest, especially disturbed openings (very common),
950-2300 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du
Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3537, Skean 1360.

Superorder Chenopodiiflorae
Order Chenopodiales
Family Phytolaccaceae (2/2)

Petiveria alliacea L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
openings (occasional), 800 m; Bois Formon. Not collected.
Phytolacca rivinoides Kunth & Bouch6. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest, clearings (occasional/
common), 950-1650 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier.
Judd 3660, Skean 1150.





44 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Caryophyllaceae (3/3)

Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest/cloud forest, open disturbed areas (common), 950-
1560 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier. Judd 4048.
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
open disturbed areas (uncommon), ca 950 m; Bois Formon. Not
collected.
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, open
disturbed areas (occasional), 950-1300 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon. Introduced. Judd 3918.

Family Nyctaginaceae (1/1)

Pisonia aculeata L. Scrambling shrub; moist forest on limestone, especially
open areas (uncommon), 900-1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1296.

Family Amaranthaceae (1/1)

Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) HBK. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, disturbed openings (occasional), 950-1250 m; Bois
Formon. Judd 3976.

Family Cactaceae (1/1)

Rhipsalis baccifera (Soland. ex J. Mill) Steam. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3988, Skean
1576a.

Superorder Theiflorae
Order Theales
Family Theaceae (2/2)

Cleyera temstroemioides (0. E. Schmidt) Kobuski. Tree/shrub; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1620-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd
3818. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Temstroemia barked Ekm. & Schmidt. Shrub to small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 1900-2200 m; Morne Formon, "The
Saddle" between M. Formon and Pic Macaya. Judd 4087, Skean
1477, 1668, 2102. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon,
Pic Macaya).






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 45

Family Symplocaceae (1/1)

Symplocos hotteana Urb. & Ekm. Small tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3854, Skean 1670,
2105. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).

Family Aquifoliaceae (1/2)

Ilex macfadyenii (Walp.) Rehder. Shrub to small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 1800-2300 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3865, 4124, Skean 1390, 1433.
Ilex obcordata Sw. Shrub to small tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3862,
4080, Skean 1444, 1540, 2107.

Family Marcgraviaceae (1/2)

Marcgravia oligandra Wr. ex Griseb. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3478.
Marcgravia rectiflora Triana & Planch. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Not collected.

Family Clusiaceae or Guttiferae (2/3)

Clusia clusioides (Griseb.) D'Arcy. Epiphytic or terrestrial shrub; moist forest
on limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3497,
Skean 1229, 2086.
Clusia major L. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 930-960 m;
Bois Formon. Judd 3958.
Garcinia barkeriana (Urb. & Ekm.) Judd. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m (-1500 m, Ekman field notes); Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3464. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte (Formon region). Robson (1958) has suggested
that Rheedia be merged into Garcinia. The combination is made
here; basionym: Rheedia barkeriana Urb. & Ekm., Arkiv. Bot.
22A(10): 18. 1929.

Order Ericales
Family Ericaceae (4/4)

Gaultheria domingensis Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest (uncommon), 2100-
2200 m; ridge leading to peak on southern slope of Pic Macaya. Judd
4123, Skean 1434.






46 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Lyonia mrbiginosa (Pers.) G. Don var. costata (Urb.) Judd. Tree to shrub;
moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1450-1800 m; Morne
Formon, Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of Morne Formon). Judd
3754, Skean 1344. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Sphyrospermum majus Griseb. Epiphytic shrub; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest/cloud forest (common), 950-2200 m; Bois Formon,
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3455,
3529, 3711, 3770, 3834, 3913, 3984, 4051, 4137, Skean 1305, 1449.
Extremely variable: leaves acuminate to rounded at apex, flowers
white to pink, ovary glabrous to pubescent.
Vaccinium racemosum (Vahl) Wilbur & Luteyn. Scrambling shrub/vine;
moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest (common),
950-2200 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3472,
3886, 4131, Skean 1181, 1184, 1435, 1673. [= Symphysia racemosa
(Vahl) Steam; the generic placement of this taxon is in doubt.]

Order Ebenales
Family Sapotaceae (3/3)

Chrysophyllum argenteum Jacq. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3509, 4016, Skean 1141.
Dipholis cubensis (Griseb.) Pierre. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest/cloud forest (common), 1200-1800 m; Bois Formon,
Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3819, 3979, Skean 1338.
Generic delimitations in group are problematical; species sometimes
considered in Bumelia.
Micropholis polita (Griseb.) Pierre subsp. hotteana Judd. Tree; moist forest
on limestone (common), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3435,
3927. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (subsp.polita in Cuba).

Order Primulales
Family Theophrastaceae (1/1)

Jacquinia eggersii Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3501.

Family Myrsinaceae (3/6)

Ardisia filertesii Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, cloud forest
(common), 950-1660 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon. Judd 3498,
3816, Skean 1290, 2083.
Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. Shrub to tree; moist forest
on limestone (uncommon), moist pine forest/cloud forest (very






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 47

common), 950-2300 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier,
Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3630, 3885, 4022b, 4037, 4147,
Skean 1394, 1654, 2111.
Myrsine magnoliifolia (Urb. & Ekm.) Alain. Small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (uncommon), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon.
Skean 1475, 1676, 2110. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne
Formon).
Wallenia aquifolia Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest (occasional), 2100-
2300 m; ridge on southern slope of Pic Macaya; Ekman also reports
(in field notes) from elevations as low as 1550 m on Morne Formon.
Judd 4128, Skean 1388. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif
de La Selle.
Wallenia ekmanii Urb. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1578. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Wallenia formonensis Judd. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional),
ca 1520 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean 1524.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).

Order Polygonales
Family Polygonaceae (1/2)

Coccoloba costata Wr. ex Sauv. Shrub to tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3499, Skean 1178.
Coccoloba pauciflora Urb. Shrub to small tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1530-1650 m; Morne Cavalier. Judd 4027. Endemic to
Hispaniola.

Superorder Celastriflorae
Order Celastrales
Family Celastraceae (1/1)

Maytenus cf. hotteana Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (uncommon),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3465a. Endemic to Massif de La
Hotte.

Superorder Santaliflorae
Order Santalales
Family Loranthaceae (1/1)

Dendropemon parvifolius (Sw.) Steud. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; moist
pine forest/cloud forest (common), 1450-1650 m; southern slopes of
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3831, 4057.






48 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Viscaceae (2/7)

Dendrophthora brachystacha Urb. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; moist pine
forest (common), 1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3645.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Dendrophthora camosa Urb. & Ekm. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; moist
pine forest/cloud forest (common), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon,
"The Saddle" to Pic Macaya. Judd 3621, 3757, 4092, Skean 1459,
1666b. Endemic to the Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya).
Dendrophthora cupressoides (Macf.) Eichl. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub;
moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1530-1560 m; Morne
Cavalier. Judd 4056.
Dendrophthora serpyllifolia (Griseb.) Krug & Urb. Epiphytic and parasitic
shrub; moist forest on limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois
Formon. Judd 3468, 3516.
Dendrophthora versicolor Urb. & Ekm. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; moist
pine forest/cloud forest (common), 2100-2340 m; Morne Formon,
Pic Macaya. Judd 4091, Skean 1397. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte
(M. Formon/Pic Macaya region).
Phoradendron anceps (Spreng.) Krug & Urb. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub;
moist forest on limestone (occasional), 1200-1250 m; Bois Formon.
Judd 3989.
Phoradendron piperoides (HBK.) Trel. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; moist
forest on limestone (occasional), 930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd
3938.

Superorder Violiflorae
Order Violales
Family Flacourtiaceae (4/4)

Banara splendens Urb. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest (common), 1400-
1650 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3830, Skean 1508.
Endemic to Hispaniola. (= B. hotteana Urb. & Ekm.)
Casearia sylvestris Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1145a, 1282.
Lunania mauritii Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (common), 950-1250
m; Bois Formon. Judd 3461, 3507, 3977. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Samyda dodecandra Jacq. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1262.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 49

Family Passifloraceae (1/2)

Passiflora murucuja L. Vine; moist pine forest/cloud forest (uncommon),
1370-1650 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Skean 1502.
Passiflora sexflora Juss. Vine; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 930-1650 m; Bois Formon, Morne
Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 4030, 4120, Skean 1245.

Family Cucurbitaceae (1/1)

Cayaponia americana (Lam.) Cogn. Vine; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed openings (common), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd
3981.

Family Begoniaceae (1/2)

Begonia plumieri DC. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1450-1800 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3791. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Begonia pycnantha Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3528, Skean 1252.
Endemic to Hispaniola.

Order Capparales
Family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae (2/2)

Brassica campestris L. Terrestrial herb; disturbed clearings and fields
(common), ca 1600-1750 m; Morne Formon. Not collected.
Introduced.
Lepidium virginicum L. Terrestrial herb; disturbed clearings and fields
(common), ca 1650 m; Morne Formon. Not collected.


Superorder Malviflorae
Order Malvales
Family Tiliaceae (1/1)

Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq. Terrestrial herb; disturbed openings (common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Not collected.






50 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Bombacaceae (1/1)

Bombax emarginatum (A. Rich.) A. Robyns. Tree; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1308.

Family Malvaceae (4/5)

Anoda hastata Cav. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
openings (uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1312.
Hibiscus tiliaceus L. Tree; moist forest on limestone (uncommon), 950-1000
m; Bois Formon. Judd 3952, Skean 1277. Probably persisting after
cultivation.
Sida acuta Burm. f. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
openings and fields (common), 900-1200 m; Bois Formon. Not
collected.
Sida rhombifolia L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
openings and fields (occasional), 900-1050 m; Bois Formon. Not
collected.
Urena lobata L. Terrestrial herb or subshrub; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed openings and fields (common), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon.
Not collected.

Order Urticales
Family Ulmaceae (1/2)

Trema lamarckiana (R. & Sch.) Blume. Tree; pine forest (occasional), ca
1000 m; Ravine du Sud. Judd 4105.
Trema micrantha (L.) Blume. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1450-1850 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier,
Ravine du Sud. Judd 3769, 4047, Skean 1334.

Family Urticaceae (including Moraceae, Cecropiaceae) (5/19)

Cecropia peltata L. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional/common),
950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3973, Skean 1565.
Ficus citrifolia Mill. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common), 950-1050 m;
Bois Formon. Judd 3490.
Ficus suffocans Griseb. Tree; pine forest (uncommon), ca 1000 m; Ravine du
Sud. Judd 4102.
Gyrotaenia mytiocarpa Griseb. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional/common), 1200-1800 m;
Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud.
Judd 3633, 4104, Skean 1505 1525.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 51

Pilea baltenweckii Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, cloud
forest (occasional), 950-1700 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of
Morne Formon. Skean 1175, 1514. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Pilea distantifolia Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone (very
common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3440, Skean 1176, 1182,
1249. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Pilea domingensis Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, cloud
forest (occasional), 950-2200 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon. Judd
3504, Skean 1278, 1474. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Pilea fonnonensis Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 1700-2200 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud,
southern slope of Pic Macaya. Judd 3644, Skean 1448. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte (high elevations).
Pilea hepatica Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3494. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Pilea leptocardia Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1450-1800 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du
Sud. Judd 4050, Skean 1336. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and
Massif de La Selle.
Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, especially
open rocky areas (very common), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon,
southern slope of Pic Macaya. Judd 3742, 4140.
Pilea aff. P. microphylla (L.) Liebm. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest,
especially open rocky areas (common), 1500-1770 m; southern slopes
of Morne Formon. Judd 3624, Skean 1530.
Pilea parietalia (L.) Blume. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1250.
Pilea seipyllacea (HBK.) Liebm. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 1530-1750 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd
4049. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Pilea stolonifera (Sw.) Wedd. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1196, 1251. Endemic
to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Pilea cf. torbeciana Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1200 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1248. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte.
Pilea sp. nov. aff. P. formonensis. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3531, Skean 1348, 1185,
1199.






52 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Pilea sp. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone (uncommon), ca 975 m;
Bois Formon. Skean 1500.
Urera baccifera (L.) Wedd. Subshrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3953.

Order Euphorbiales
Family Euphorbiaceae (7/7)

Alchomea latifolia Sw. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common), 930-1370
m; Bois Formon. Judd 4008, 4055, Skean 1264, 1570.
Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, open, disturbed areas (occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois
Formon. Not collected.
Croton glabellus L. Moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), 1000-1780 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, Ravine
du Sud. Skean 1329, 1569.
Gymnanthes lucida Sw. Shrub to tree; moist forest on limestone (common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3503, Skean 1304.
Hyeronima domingensis Urb. Small tree; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
area (uncommon), 910-940 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1322. Endemic
to Massif de La Selle and Massif de La Hotte. Det. Grady L.
Webster.
Phyllanthus myriophyllus Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (very
common), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3459, 3987, Skean 1133,
1653. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Sapium haitiense Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (uncommon/occasional), 950-1650 m; Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 4043, Skean 1241.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.

Family Thymeliaceae (1/2)

Daphnopsis americana (Mill.) Johnston subsp. tinifolia (Sw.) Nevl. Shrub to
tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois
Formon. Judd 3956.
Daphnopsis crassifolia (Poir.) Meissn. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1500-1660 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3801, 4028, Skean 1355. Endemic to
Hispaniola.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 53

Superorder Geraniiflorae
Order Geraniales
Family Oxalidaceae (1/1)

Oxalis corniculata L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed openings
(occasional), 1800-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3881.

Family Malpighiaceae (3/4)

Byrsonima lucida (Mill.) DC. Moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3619. Det. William R. Anderson.
Stigmaphyllon angulosum (L.) A. Juss. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(occasional/common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3462, Skean
1153.
Stigmaphyllon emarginatum (Cav.) Juss. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3963.
Tetraptetys citrifolia (Sw.) Pers. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1555. Det. William
R. Anderson.

Family Polygalaceae (2/2)

Polygala penaea L. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone (common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4006.
Securidaca virgata Sw. Vine; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050
m; Bois Formon. Skean 1171a.

Superorder Rutiflorae
Family Rutaceae (3/4)

Amyris apiculata Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3434. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte (Formon region).
Citrus aurantium L. Tree; moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud
forest (uncommon), 950-1550 m; Bois Formon, Morne Cavalier. Not
collected. Introduced.
Zanthoxylum haitiense (Urb.) Jim6nez. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(rare), 1200-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3969. Endemic to the
Massif de La Hotte. Det. T. Zanoni.
Zanthoxylum malrinicense (Lam.) DC. Small tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1100 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4005.






54 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Meliaceae (2/2)

Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1225.
Trichilia havanensis Jacq. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest/cloud forest (common), 1200-1780 m; Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du
Sud. Judd 3659 3985, Skean 1324 1512.

Family Anacardiaceae (1/1)

Comocladia pinnatifolia L. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1567.

Family Myricaceae (1/1)

Myrica picardae Krug & Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest, especially
windswept ridges (occasional), 2100-2250 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 4089, 4136. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Sapindaceae (3/3)

Allophylus rigidus Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest
(very common), 950-1650 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of
Morne Formon. Judd 4019.
Cupania americana L. Tree; moist forest on limestone (uncommon), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3511, Skean 1571.
Serjania polyphylla (L.) Radlk. Vine; moist forest on limestone (common),
930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3945.

Family Sabiaceae (1/2)

Meliosma abbreviata Urb. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest (uncommon),
1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3753b. Endemic to Massif de
La Hotte.
Meliosma recurvata Urb. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3512. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 55

Family Leguminosae or Fabaceae (5/5)

Desmodium axillare (Sw.) DC. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
open disturbed areas (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean
1573.
Inga vera Willd. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 930-1050 m;
Bois Formon. Judd 3959.
Pithecellobium oppositifolium Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1140-1560 m; Morne Cavalier
and hills to the south. Judd 4026, Skean 1653b.
Rhynchosia etythfinoides Schlecht. & Cham. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1302.
Senna ligustlina (L.) Irwin & Barneby. Shrub; moist pine forest (common), ca
1000 m; Ravine du Sud. Judd 4117.

Superorder Rosales
Order Rosales
Family Rosaceae (2/4)

Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urb. Tree; moist forest on limestone (very common),
930-1250 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3449, 3929, 3943,
3962, Skean 1263, 1554.
Pmnus occidentalis Sw. Tree; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 930-1660 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3510b, 3652, 3814, 3937,
3982, 4052.
Rubus eggersii Rydb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(abundant), 1530-2100 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3762b,
4029. Endemic to Hispaniola. The similar Rubus barkerianus is
probably also present but overlooked.
Rubus selleanus Helwig. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(abundant), 1650-2300 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3762a,
Skean 1426b, 1671. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de
La Selle.

Family Crassulaceae (1/1)

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Terrestrial herb; disturbed open areas, 950-
1200 m, Bois Formon. Not collected.






56 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Cunoniaceae (1/1)

Weinmanniapinnata L. Shrub to tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional),
moist pine forest/cloud forest (abundant); 1000-2340 m; Bois
Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya.
Judd 3518, 3639, Skean 1425.

Family Brunelliaceae (1/1)

Bmnellia comocladiifolia Humb. & Bonpl. subsp. domingensis Cuatr. Tree;
moist forest on limestone (occasional), moist pine forest/cloud forest
(abundant), 950-2340 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier,
Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3623, 4004, 4067, 4132, Skean
1507.

Family Staphyleaceae (1/1)

Turpinia picardae Urb. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest/cloud forest (common), 950-1650 m; Bois Formon,
southern slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 4021, Skean
1273, 1528, 1659. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La
Selle.

Superorder Myrtitlorae
Order Myrtales
Family Melastomataceae (10/34)

Calycogonium apiculatum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to tree; moist forest on
limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3441.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Calycogonium cf. calycopteris (L. C. Rich.) Urb. Shrub; moist forest on
limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3442, Skean
1247. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Calycogonium torbecianum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 1000-1450 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne
Formon. Judd 3934b, Skean 1140, 2094. Endemic to Massif de La
Hotte (Formon region).
Clidemia cf. capillaris (Sw.) Griseb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 800-850 m; Bois Formon. Skean 2078.
Conostegia icosandra (Sw.) Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), ca 900 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1577.
Ekmaniocharis crassinervis Urb. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on
limestone (uncommon), 800-1000 m; between Les Platons and






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 57

Soubois. Skean 1660, 1665, 1642, 2079, 2115. Endemic to Massif de
La Hotte.
Henriettea barked Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3890, Skean 1463,
2097. Endemic to Massif de La Selle and Massif de La Hotte;
conspecific with H. elliptica Urb. (see Judd, 1986d).
Heterotrichum angustifolium DC. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, pine
forest (occasional/common), 950-1000 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du
Sud. Franz 3, Judd 4103, Skean 1563.
Heterotrichum umbellatum (Mill.) Urb. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), moist pine forest/cloud forest, especially
disturbed openings (common), 1500-1800 m; Bois Formon, Morne
Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3626, 4036, Skean 1256.
Mecranium alpestre Urb. Shrub to small tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), 2000-2100 m; Morne Formon. Skean 2095, 2101.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Mecranium birimosum (Naud.) Triana. Shrub to small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (uncommon), 1500-1800 m; Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier. Judd 3713, 4035. Endemic to Massif de La Selle and
Massif de La Hotte.
Mecranium microdictyum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional/common), 1450-1780 m; southern
slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud (northern
slope of M. Formon). Judd 3795, 4033, Skean 1335, 1376, 1523.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Mecranium haitiense Urb. Shrub to tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1450 m; Bois Formon, lower southern slopes of
Morne Formon. Judd 3932, Skean 1258, 1288, 1553, 1557, 1651
1661, 2092. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Formon region); plants
of this region have been described as M. salicifolium Urb., but these
are likely conspecific with M. haitiense.
Mecranium tricostatum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (rare), 2100-2150 m; Morne Formon. Skean
1666a, 1667, 2104. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Mecranium tuberculatum Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Skean 1542. Endemic
to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Mecranium revolutum Skean & Judd. Shrub to tree; moist forest on
limestone (common), cloud forest (uncommon), 950-1600 m; Bois
Formon, southern slope of Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3433, 3934, 3971, Skean 1257, 1315, 1316, 1328, 1350, 1558, 1644,
1649, 2091 2116. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Formon region).





58 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Mecranium revolutum Skean & Judd X M. haitiense Urb. Shrub; disturbed
moist forest on limestone (rare), 1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 2093.
Det. J. D. Skean, Jr.
Meriania squamulosa Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Skean 1466. Endemic
to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Meriania parvifolia Judd & Skean. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), (1000-)1450-1800 m; Ravine du Sud (northern slopes
of Morne Formon), Bois Formon. Judd 3755, Skean 1325, 2085.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Meriania brevipedunculata Judd & Skean. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1287. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte (Formon region). Note: A fourth species, M.
ekmanii Urb., also has been collected in the high elevations of the
Massif de La Hotte; it is known only from the type gathering, i.e. E.
L. Ekman H5331 (S!), near Torbec, above La-Mare-Proux, 1780 m.
This species is most closely related to M. involucrata (Desr.) Naud.
Miconia apiculata Urb. & Ekm. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/very common), 2100-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 4062, 4126, Skean 1398, 2100. Endemic to Massif de
La Hotte (high elevations).
Miconia barkeli Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3758, 3868, Skean
1457, 2098, 2112. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Miconia hypiodes Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1800-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3856,
4065, 4081, 4148, Skean 1386, 1464, 2099, 2103. Endemic to Massif
de La Hotte (high elevations).
Miconia laevigata (L.) DC. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional/common), 900-1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1275, 1556,
1647.
Miconia macayana Judd & Skean. Shrub; moist pine forest, rocky ridges
(uncommon), ca 2200 m; southern slope of Pic Macaya. Judd 4125,
Skean 1428. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (southern slope of Pic
Macaya).
Miconia mirabilis (Aubl.) L. O. Williams. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(rare), ca 900 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1561.
Miconia ossaeifolia Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1360-1780 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Skean
1327, 1352, 1498. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Miconia subcompressa Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(abundant), moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional/common),
950-2340 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 59

Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3460, 3669, 3758b, 3933, 4034, 4044, Skean
1145b, 1652, 2084, 2118. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Miconia tetrastoma Naud. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1450-2200 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier,
Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of M. Formon). Judd 3741, 4025,
Skean 1346, 1379, 1470, 1538, 1677, 2114.
Miconia xenotricha Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1400-1780 m; Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of M.
Formon). Skean 1326. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Miconia sp. nov. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), 1450-1780 m;. Ravine du
Sud. Skean 1347. Probably an undescribed species but possibly a
hybrid between M. barker and M. hypiodes; endemic to Massif de La
Hotte.
Ossaea curvipila Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (rare), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3469. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte
(Formon region).
Ossaea setulosa Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (common), 800-1050
m; Bois Formon. Judd 3527, Skean 1231, 1320, 2077, 2088.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Ossaea woodsii Judd & Skean. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1450-1780 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud (northern
slopes of M. Formon). Judd 3802, Skean 1367. Endemic to Massif
de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Pachyanthus cubensis A. Rich. subsp. blancheanus (Urb.) Borhidi. Shrub;
moist pine forest/cloud forest (uncommon), ca 1800 m; Morne
Formon. Judd 3758c. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (subsp.
cubensis in Cuba).
Pachyanthus hotteana (Urb. & Ekm.) Ekm. Tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3939, Skean 2080.
Endemic to Hispaniola
Tibouchina longifolia (Vahl) Baill. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, open
disturbed areas (abundant), 900-1600 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3949, Skean 1503.

Family Onagraceae (1/1)

Fuchsia pringsheimii Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest (common),
1450-2340 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of M.
Formon), Pic Macaya. Judd 3725, 4160, Skean 1363, 1402. Endemic
to Hispaniola.






60 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Myrtaceae (6/11)

Calyptranthes hotteana Urb. & Ekm. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1800-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3855, 3858, 4088,
Skean 1462, 1672, 2113. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (high
elevations).
Calyptranthes nummularia Berg. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1000-1670 m; Bois Formon,
southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3806, Skean 1297.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Calyptranthes sintenisii Kiaersk. Tree; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3510.
Eugenia christii Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050
m; Bois Formon. Judd 4017, Skean 1266. Endemic to Massif de La
Hotte.
Eugenia foetida Pers. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050
m; Bois Formon. Skean 1303.
Eugenia formonica Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1620-2200 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3817, Skean 1478,
1674. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Eugenia glabrata (Sw.) DC. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional/common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3451, 3452,
3454, Skean 1274, 1301, 1657.
Eugenia sp., possibly E. tiburona Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on
limestone (rare), ca 950 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1658. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte.
Gomidesia lindeniana Berg. Shrub to small tree; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (occasional), 1530-1570 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon,
M. Cavalier. Skean 1526.
Myrcia tiburoniana Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1307. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte.
Psidium guajava L. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
areas (common), 900-1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1314, 1559.
Introduced.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston. Tree; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
areas (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4015. Introduced.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 61

Superorder Corniflorae
Order Cornales
Family Vitaceae (1/2)

Cissus dissecta Urb. & Ekm. Vine; moist pine forest (occasional), 1650-1770
m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3668.
Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicols. & Jarvis. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3950.

Family Garryaceae (1/1)

Garrya fadyenii Hook. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), moist
pine forest/cloud forest (common/abundant), 1000-2340 m; Bois
Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya.
Franz 1, Judd 3495, 3637, 3820, 3859, Skean 1436.

Family Araliaceae (including Apiaceae) (4/6)

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, open
disturbed areas (occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Not collected.
Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch. Tree; moist forest on limestone,
cloud forest (very common), 930-1650 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3453, 3829, 3991, Skean 1232.
Dendropanax selleanus (Urb. & Ekm.) A. C. Smith. Tree; cloud forest
(occasional), 1500-1600 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd
3807. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Didymopanax tremulum Krug & Urb. Tree; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), moist pine forest/cloud forest (very common/
conspicuous), 1000-2200 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3768, Skean 1427.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
areas (occasional), 930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3954a.
Hydrocotyle pusilla A. Rich. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1450-1850 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud.
Judd 3744, Skean 1374.

Superorder Gentianiflorae
Order Oleales
Family Oleaceae (1/1)

Haenianthus oblongatus Urb. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1600-1800 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud





62 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

(northern slopes of Morne Formon). Judd 3753a. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte (higher elevations).

Order Gentianales
Family Rubiaceae (12/19)

Chione venosa (Sw.) Urb. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common), 1200-
1250 m; Bois Formon, hills south of Morne Formon. Judd 3974.
Det. T. Zanoni.
Exostema cf. picardae Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), ca
1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1139. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte
and Massif de La Selle.
Guettarda ovalifolia Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3539, Skean 1227, 1291.
Hamelia patens Jacq. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, open disturbed areas
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4013.
Hamelia ventricosa Sw. Tree; moist forest on limestone (uncommon), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1226.
Hillia parasitica Jacq. Scrambling epiphytic shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3457, Skean 1146.
Palicourea alpina (Sw.) DC. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional),
moist pine forest/cloud forest (very common), 950-2100 m; Bois
Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3513,
3731, 3850, 4039, Skean 1330, 1461, 2108.
Peratanthe ekmanii Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1450-1900 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud
(northern slopes of Morne Formon). Judd 3739, Skean 1373.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Psychotria alpestris Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (occasional/common), 1900-2300 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3853, 4084, Skean 1395, 1443. Endemic to Massif de
La Hotte (Morne Formon, Pic Macaya).
Psychotria berteroana DC. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(occasional/common), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3992, Skean
1148, 1203.
Psychotria guadalupensis (DC.) Howard. Epiphytic shrub; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3437, Skean
1238.
Psychotria liogieri Steyermark. Shrub; moist pine forest/ cloud forest
(common), 1500-2300 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3726,
Skean 1532. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Psychotria pubescens Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (very common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3439, 4010, Skean 1134, 1648.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 63

Psychotria uliginosa Sw. Subshrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest (common),
1600-1660 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3810.
Relbunium hypocarpium (L.) Hemsl. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (occasional), 2000-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd
4157.
Rondeletia formonia Urb. & Ekm. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1900-2200 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 4066,
4138, Skean 1437, 1440, 2106. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte
(Morne Formon, Pic Macaya).
Spennacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pay. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, disturbed clearings (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon.
Judd 4023, Skean 1158. Often treated as Borreria laevis.
Stevensia hotteana Urb. & Ekm. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1530-1650 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier. Judd 3653. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte. Det. T.
Zanoni.
Sterile Rubiaceae. Tree; moist forest on limestone (common), 1200-1250 m;
Bois Formon. Judd 3965.

Family Apocynaceae (including Asclepiadaceae) (5/5)

Asclepias nivea L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest, disturbed openings (common), 950-1650 m; Bois Formon,
southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3788, Skean 1151.
Asketanthera picardae (Urb.) Woodson. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1195. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte.
Cynanchum leptocladum (Decne.) Jim6nez. Vine; moist pine forest
(occasional), 1430-1675 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon.
Skean 1511.
Forsteronia corymbosa (Jacq.) G. F. W. Mey. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1300, 1579.
Rauwolfia nitida Jacq. Small tree; moist forest on limestone (uncommon),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1568.

Order Bignoniales
Family Bignoniaceae (1/2)

Tabebuia berteri (DC.) Britt. Tree; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional/common), 1000-1560 m; Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du
Sud. Franz 5, Judd 3828, Skean 2082.





64 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Tabebuia conferta Urb. Tree; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1250 m (to 1400 m, Ekman field notes); Bois Formon. Judd 3491.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.

Family Scrophulariaceae (2/2)

Castilleja arvensis Schlecht. & Cham. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest, disturbed openings
(occasional/common), 950-1730 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of
Morne Formon. Judd 3530, 3833, 3935, 3975, Skean 1173.
Scrophularia minutiflora Pennell. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest, disturbed openings (occasional), 1800-1900 m; Morne
Formon. Judd 3764.

Family Plantaginaceae (1/1)

Plantago major L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed clearings,
fields (common), ca 1650 m; Morne Formon. Not Collected.
Introduced.

Family Gesneriaceae (4/10)

Besleria lutea L. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 950-1660 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Franz 2, Judd 3514,
4011, Skean 1161, 1646.
Columnea domingensis Urb. Epiphytic vine; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest/cloud forest (occasional/ common), 950-1650 m; Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3450, 3479, Skean
1190. (= Trichantha domingensis (Urb.) Wiehler).
Columnea tulae Urb. Terrestrial viny herb; moist forest on limestone (rare),
900-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3942.
Gesneria aspera Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3517, Skean 1228. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle. Det. L. E. Skog.
Gesneria fruticosa (L.) Kuntze. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional),
930-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3944, Skean 1566. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Gesneria reticulata (Griseb.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3432.
Gesneria viidiflora (Decaisne) Kuntz subsp. acrochordonanthe L. Skog.
Shrub; moist forest on limestone (common), 950-1050 m; Bois





JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 65

Formon. Judd 3475. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de
La Selle. Det. L. E. Skog.
Gesneria aff. hypoclada Urb. & Ekm. Tree; moist forest on limestone (rare),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3500. Endemic to Massif de La
Hotte and Massif de La Selle. Det. L. E. Skog.
Rhytidophyllum auriculatum Hook. Shrub; moist pine forest, especially open
rocky areas (common), 1000-1780 m; southern slopes of Morne
Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3635, Skean 1364.
Rhytidophyllum bicolor Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, pine forest
(occasional), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon, Ravine du Sud. Franz 6
Judd 3980, Skean 1169. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte. Det. L. E.
Skog.

Order Lamiales
Family Verbenaceae (4/5)

Citharexylum caudatum L. Tree; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common/occasional), moist forest on limestone (occasional), 1000-
1780 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3655, 4031 Skean 1345, 1518, 1663.
Lantana camera L. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, disturbed open areas
(common), 900-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3438a, Skean 1164.
Lantana trifolia L. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, disturbed open areas
(common/occasional), 900-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3954b, Skean
1268.
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. Herb, moist forest on limestone,
disturbed open areas (occasional), ca 900 m; Bois Formon. Not
collected.
Verbena urticifolia L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, open
disturbed areas (very common), 900-1250 m; Bois Formon. Not
collected.

Family Lamiaceae or Labiatae (2/5)

Hyptis mutabilis (L. C. Rich.) Briq. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, open disturbed areas (occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois
Formon. Not collected.
Hyptis schusteri Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common/occasional), 1000-2150 m; Ravine du Sud; "The Saddle"
connecting Pic Macaya to Pic Formon. Judd 40_77 4106, Skean 1450.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.





66 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Salvia cf. arborescens Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), ca 1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3914. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Salvia sp. nov. aff. S. tuerckheimii Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest, rocky
ridges (uncommon), ca 1900 m; Ravine du Sud, "The Saddle"
between Pic Macaya and Pic Formon. Judd 4078, Skean 1431, 2096.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Ravine du Sud).
Salvia sp. 2., aff. S. tuerckheimii Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3474.

Order Dipsacales
Family Valerianaceae (1/1)

Valeriana scandens Leofl. Vine; moist forest on limestone (common), 950-
1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1166.

Superorder Solaniflorae
Order Solanales
Family Hydrophyllaceae (1/1)

Wigandia pruritiva Spreng. Shrub; moist pine forest, open rocky areas
(uncommon), 1000-1730 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon,
Ravine du Sud. Judd 3839, 4108.

Family Boraginaceae (3/3)

Cordia lima (Desv.) R. & Sch. Shrub, often scrambling; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 950-1780 m;
Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd
3651, Skean 1337,1656.
Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & Drummond. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest, open disturbed areas (very common), ca
950-1800 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3917,
Skean 1152.
Toumefortia bicolor Sw. Vine; cloud forest (common), 1550-1660 m;
southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3794.

Family Solanaceae (4/14)

Brunfelsia picardae Krug & Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 4022a. Endemic to
Hispaniola. Det. Timothy Plowman.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 67

Cestrum bicolor Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest
(very common), 950-1560 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3463, 3915, 3972,
4042, Skean 1170, 1269. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Cestrum coelophlebium 0. E. Schulz. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1530-2070 m; Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3640,
4041. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Cestnrm filipes Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1850-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya.
Judd 3860, 4158, Skean 1442. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte
(Morne Formon, Pic Macaya).
Cestnlm inclusum Urb. Shrub; moist pine forest (common), 1430-1675 m;
southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean 1509. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Cestrum picardae Alain. Shrub; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3520, 3928, Skean 1174. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Shrub; moist forest on
limestone (uncommon), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1224.
Introduced.
Solanum antillarum 0. E. Schulz. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, cloud
forest (common/occasional), 950-1700 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3912, Skean 1323,
1655.
Solanum capsicoides All. Terrestrial herb to subshrub; open disturbed areas,
pastures (common), 840- 1050 m; Bois Formon. Not collected.
Solanum erianthum D. Don. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, often
disturbed openings (occasional/common), 900-1050 m; Bois Formon.
Skean 1157, 1242.
Solanum formonense 0. E. Schulz. Shrub to small tree; moist pine
forest/cloud forest, often disturbed openings (occasional/common),
1450-2100 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3863, Skean
1339. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon).
Solanum hotteanum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed openings, moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 950-
2200 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3716.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Solanum torvum Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, disturbed open areas
(common), 950-1350 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3916 3986, Skean 1156.
Solanum nigrescens Mart. & Gal. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest,
disturbed open areas (common), 950-1650 m (possibly to 2000 m);
Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3661.





68 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Convolvulaceae (1/1)

Dichondra repens J. R. & G. Forst. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, disturbed open areas (occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois
Formon. Not collected.

Order Campanulales
Family Campanulaceae (2/4)

Lobelia robusta Graham var. robusta. Shrub to small tree; moist forest on
limestone, moist pine forest/cloud forest (very common), 950-2200
m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3618, 3857, Skean 1137. Possibly conspecific with L.
assuwgens L.
Lobelia rotundifolia Juss. Scrambling shrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1450-2340 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3763, Skean 1331, 1389.
Lobelia hotteana Judd & Skean. Subshrub; moist pine forest, open rocky
areas (occasional), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd
3790. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne Formon, Pic Macaya).
Siphocampylus sonchifolius (Sw.) McVaugh. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3431, Skean
1233. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.

Superorder Asteriflorae
Order Asterales
Family Asteraceae or Compositae (17/30)

Baccharis myrsinites (Lam.) Pers. Shrub; moist pine forest, usually in open
and/or rocky areas (common), 1650-2250 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3789, 4061, 4130, Skean 1429. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Bidens alba (L.) DC. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest, open disturbed areas, fields (common), 900-1700 m; Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean 1562.
Chaptalia albicans Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest (occasional), 1250-2150 m; Bois Formon, Morne
Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3837.
Conyza apurensis HBK. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest,
disturbed openings (common), 1450-1780 m; Ravine du Sud
(northern slopes of Morne Formon). Skean 1369.
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq. Terrestrial herb;
moist forest on limestone, disturbed openings, fields (common), ca






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 69

900-1350 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Not
collected.
Ecliptaprostrata (L.) L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, disturbed
open areas, fields (occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Not
collected.
Emilia fosbergii Nicolson. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed openings, fields (occasional), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon.
Judd 4007.
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest,
disturbed openings (occasional/common), 1450-1800 m; Morne
Formon, Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of Morne Formon). Judd
3724, Skean 1370.
Erigeron domingensis Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest,
disturbed openings (common), 1650-2150 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3743, Skean 1445. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Eupatorium flavidulum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest, especially
open rocky areas (very common), (1000-)1550-2150 m; Bois Formon
(?), Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3838, Skean 1438, 1504?.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Eupatorium microchaetum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone,
open areas (common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon; to 1500 m on
southern slopes of Morne Formon, according to Ekman. Skean
1197. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Eupatorium cf. nervosum Sw. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, open areas
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1183.
Eupatorium odoratum L. Subshrub; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(uncommon), ca 1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3732.
Eupatorium porphyrocladum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 1450-2200 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud
(northern slopes of Morne Formon). Skean 1341, 1368. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte (higher elevations).
Eupatorium stigmaticum Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed openings (very common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd
4018. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Eupatorium urbanii Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest, especially open areas
(occasional), 1500-2150 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Skean 1451.
Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Gnaphalium domingense Lam. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed
openings (occasional), 1650-2000 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3771.
Gnaphalium purpureum L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed
openings (common), 1800-1860 m; Morne Formon. Skean 1535.





70 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Lantanopsis hispidula C. Wright ex Griseb. Shrub; moist pine forest
(uncommon), 1430-1675 m; Morne Formon. Skean 1510. Det. T.
Zanoni.
Mikania cyanosma Urb. & Ekm. Vine; moist pine forest (occasional), 2150-
2340 m; Pic Macaya; Ekman collected this species on Morne
Formon. Skean 1393. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte (Morne
Formon, Pic Macaya).
Mikania dissecta Urb. & Ekm. Vine; moist pine forest (common), 1750-1800
m; Morne Formon, probably also Pic Macaya. Judd 3730. Endemic
to Massif de La Hotte (higher elevations).
Naivalina domingensis Cass. Shrub; moist pine forest, rocky areas
(uncommon), ca 1900 m; south slope of Pic Macaya. Skean 1441.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Neurolaena lobata (L.) Cass. Subshrub/herb; moist forest on limestone
(uncommon), ca 975 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1135.
Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis. Shrub; moist pine forest, especially
disturbed openings (occasional), 1520-1880 m; southern slopes of
Morne Formon. Judd 3631, Skean 1529.
Senecio hotteanus Urb. & Ekm. Vine; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (common), 900-1660 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3809, 3966, Skean 1319. Endemic to
Massif de La Hotte.
Senecio stenodon Urb. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest, especially in disturbed open areas (very
common), 950-2200 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier,
Pic Macaya. Judd 3486, 4068 4116, Skean 1281, 1531, 2081. Plants
with leaves densely pubescent abaxially to essentially glabrous;
described by Urban as var. stenodon and var. deglabratus, respectively,
but intergrading and probably not separable. Endemic to Massif de
La Hotte.
Senecio trineums Griseb. Vine; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
2340 m; Bois Formon, Pic Macaya, probably also Morne Formon.
Skean 1180, 1329?.
Vemonia buxifolia (Cass.) Less. Shrub; moist pine forest (occasional), 1450-
1800 m; Morne Formon, Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of M.
Formon). Judd 3761, Skean 1378. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Vemonia saepium Ekm. Shrub; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest, disturbed openings (abundant/common), 900-
1800 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3729,
Skean 1136, 1165, 1244, 1650. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Youngia japonica (L.) DC. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest, disturbed openings (common), 950-1675 m; Bois






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 71

Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean 1516.
Introduced.

Superorder Liliiflorae
Order Liliales
Family Amaryllidaceae (1/1)

Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntze. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, disturbed openings (occasional), ca 900 m; Bois Formon.
Judd 5059. Introduced. Det. Alan Meerow.

Family Hypoxidaceae (1/1)

Hypoxis cf. wrightii (Bak.) Brackett. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on
limestone, disturbed openings (occasional), ca 950 m; Bois Formon.
Not collected.

Family Agavaceae (1/2)

Agave antillarum Desc. Succulent herb; moist pine forest, open rocky areas
(occasional), 1650-2200 m; Morne Formon, Pic Macaya. Judd 3840,
4135. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Agave sisalana Perrine. Succulent herb; moist forest on limestone, open
disturbed areas, fence rows (common), 1000-1250 m; Bois Formon.
Judd 3968, Skean 1496. Introduced.

Family Alstroemeriaceae (1/1)

Bomarea edulis (Tuss.) Herb. Vine; cloud forest (common), 1500-1530 m;
Ravine du Sud. Skean 1354.

Family Smilacaceae (1/1)

Smilax havanensis Jacq. Vine; moist forest on limestone, moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 950-1770 m; Bois Formon, southern
slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3658, 3808, Skean 1138.

Family Dioscoreaceae (1/1)

Rajania ovata Sw. Vine; moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 950-1650 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Skean 1147, 1240.





72 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Orchidaceae

[Family treatment by D. Dod and W. Judd (1986); they report 133 species in
42 genera for this family; 98 species are endemic to Hispaniola, and
of these 38 are endemic to the Massif de La Hotte.]

Superorder Ariflorae
Order Arales
Family Araceae (2/2)

Philodendron consanguineum Schott. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3955, Skean 1168.
Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl. Vine; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1200 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3538, 3941.

Superorder Areciflorae
Order Arecales
Family Arecaceae or Palmae (2/2)

Coccothrinax cf. montana Burret. Tree; moist forest on limestone, cloud
forest (uncommon), 1000-1560 m; Bois Formon, Morne Cavalier,
Ravine du Sud. Judd 4045, Skean 1295. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Prestoea montana (R. Grah.) Nichols. Tree; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 975-1675 m; Bois Formon,
southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean 1159, 1506, 1560.
(=Euterpe globosa Gaertn.)

Superorder Commeliniflorae
Order Bromeliales
Family Bromeliaceae (5/12)

Catopsis floribunda (Brongn.) Smith. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1172. Det.
T. Zanoni.
Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Griseb. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), ca 1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3496.
Guzmania ekmanii (Harms) Harms. Epiphytic herb (or on rocks); moist
forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd
3052, Skean 1265. Endemic to Hispaniola. Det. T. Zanoni (Judd
3052).
Guzmania lingulata (L.) Mez. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3484.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 73

Pitcaimia elizabethae L. B. Smith. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
pine forest, open rocky areas (occasional), 975-1000 m; Bois Formon,
Ravine du Sud. Judd 4107, Skean 1552. Endemic to Massif de La
Hotte and Massif de La Selle.
Tillandsia caribaea L. B. Smith. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1650-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3884.
Tillandsia fasciculata Sw. var. laxispica Mez. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (very common), 900-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3492,
3508, Skean 1309.
Tillandsia fendleri Griseb. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone, moist
pine forest, often disturbed openings (common), 1200-1550 m; Bois
Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3671,
3978.
Tillandsia hotteana Urb. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (common), 1450-1800
m; Ravine du Sud (northern slopes of Morne Formon). Skean 1343.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Tillandsia jenmanii Baker. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3488.
Vriesea macrostachya (Bello) Mez. Epiphytic herb (or on rocks); moist forest
on limestone (occasional), 950-1000 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3489,
Skean 1149.
Vriesea sintenisii (Bak.) L. B. Smith & Pitt. Epiphytic herb; moist forest on
limestone (occasional), moist pine forest/cloud forest (abundant),
975-2340 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M. Cavalier, Ravine du
Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3773, 3895, Skean 1160, 1179, 1342.

Order Commelinales
Family Cyperaceae (3/3)

Eleocharis flaccida (Rchb.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist ground near spring
(uncommon), ca 1400 m; southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean
1548.
Rhynchospora elongata Boeck. var. ekmanii (Urb.) Kukenthal. Terrestrial
herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1530-2200 m;
Morne Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3864. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Uncinia hamata (Sw.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(common), 1800-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3733, Skean 1539.

Family Poaceae or Gramineae (13/15)

[collections identified by Dr. David W. Hall, except where otherwise
indicated]





74 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Andropogon bicomis L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, open
disturbed areas, old fields (occasional/very common), 1000-1400 m;
Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Judd 3990, Skean
1551.
Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) BSP. var. pumilus Vasey. Terrestrial herb;
moist pine forest, especially disturbed, open and/or rocky areas
(occasional/common), 1530-1770 m; southern slopes of Morne
Formon, M. Cavalier. Judd 3664, 3836.
Andropogon leucostachyus HBK. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed open areas, old fields (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois
Formon. Skean 1572.
Arthrostylidium haitiense (Pilger) Hitchc. & Chase. Climbing bamboo; moist
pine forest/cloud forest (abundant), 1450-2300 m; Morne Formon,
M. Cavalier, Ravine du Sud, Pic Macaya. Judd 3893, Skean 1468,
1669. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Bambusa vulgais Schrad. ex J. C. Wendl. Bamboo; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed open areas (occasional), 900-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean
1550. Introduced.
Chusquea abietifolia Griseb. Climbing bamboo; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1900-2000 m; "The Saddle" between Pic Macaya and
Pic Formon. Judd 4079, Skean 1469.
Ichnanthus pallens (Sw.) Munro. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(common), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3448.
Isachne ligidifolia (Poir.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest,
especially open areas (abundant), 1650-2340 m; Morne Formon, Pic
Macaya. Judd 3625, 3765, Skean 1430. Det. W. S. Judd.
Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
pine forest, open disturbed areas (common), 950-1100 m; Bois
Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 4012.
Panicum glutinosum Sw. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed open
areas (occasional), 1650-1800 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3736.
Paspalum fimbriatum HBK. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed open areas (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd
4020.
Poa annual L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed open areas, along
trails (common), 1600-1850 m; Morne Formon. Judd 3740.
Introduced.
Setaria comngata (Ell.) Schult. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
moist pine forest, disturbed open areas (common), 950-1050 m; Bois
Formon, Ravine du Sud. Judd 4113, Skean 1497.
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone,
disturbed open areas, old fields (common), 900-1350 m; Bois
Formon. Not collected. Det. W. S. Judd.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 75

Zeugites americana Willd. var. haitiensis Pilger. Terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (occasional), 1800-2100 m; Morne Formon. Judd
3728. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Order Zingiberales
Family Heliconiaceae (1/1)

Heliconia bihai L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone (common),
950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3487, Skean 1167.

Family Zingiberaceae (3/4)

Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Smith. Terrestrial herb; moist
forest on limestone (occasional), 950-1050 m; Bois Formon. Skean
1267. Introduced.
Hedychium coronarium Koenig. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional), ca 1000 m; Bois Formon. Skean 1664. Introduced.
Renealmia densiflora Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone
(occasional/common), 950-1250 m; Bois Formon. Judd 3970, Skean
1132. Endemic to Massif de La Hotte.
Renealmia jamaicensis (Gaertn.) Horaninow var.puberula (Gagnepain) Maas.
Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone, moist pine forest/cloud
forest (common), 950-2200 m; Bois Formon, Morne Formon, M.
Cavalier, Ravine du Sud. Judd 3506, 3712, 3964, Skean 1467.

Family Cannaceae (1/2)

Canna indica L. Terrestrial herb; moist forest on limestone (occasional), 950-
1400 m; Bois Formon, southern slopes of Morne Formon. Skean
1279, 1549. Introduced.
Canna jaegeriana Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest
(occasional), 1530-1560 m; Morne Cavalier. Judd 4046.






76 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Vascular Plants Collected in Pare National
Morne La Visite, Massif de La Selle, Haiti.


Division Tracheophyta

[Collections identified by W. S. Judd except for Zanoni & Mejia specimens,
unless otherwise indicated; notation after family name refers to
number of genera/species.]

Class Lycopsida
Order Lycopodiales
Family Lycopodiaceae (1/4)

Lycopodium clavatum L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, ravine slope
(occasional), ca 1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4285.
Lycopodium complanatum L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest (occasional),
ca 1800 m; "The Depression." Judd 4494.
Lycopodium reflexum Lam. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist pine forest
(occasional), 2100-2250 m; north facing slope of Morne la Visite.
Judd 4514.
Lycopodium taxifolium Sw. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (rare), 1650-2200 m;
Riviere Blanche, near Belle Fontaine. Judd 4422.

Order Selaginellales (1/1)
Family Selaginellaceae

Selaginella leonardii Schmidt. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest,
rocky cliffs (common), 1700-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4266,
4466, 4467. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Class Filicopsida
Order Ophioglossales (1/1)
Family Ophioglossiaceae

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(uncommon), ca 1800 m; "The Depression." Judd 4483, 4885.

Order Polypodiales
Family Gleicheniaceae (1/1)

Gleichenia bifida (Willd.) Spreng. Scrambling herb; cloud forest, disturbed
open areas (locally common), ca 1800 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4708.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 77


Family Hymenophyllaceae (1/2)

Hymenophyllum fuicoides Sw. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (occasional), ca
2210 m; between Pic Cabaio and Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd
4849.
Hymenophyllum microcaipum Desv. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest, ravine slope
(common), 1650-1700 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4423.

Family Lophosoriaceae (1/1)

Lophosoria quadripinnata (Gmel.) C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest,
cloud forest (common), 1750-2250 m; nearly throughout. Judd 4344.

Family Cyatheaceae (1/2)

Alsophila minor (D.C. Eaton) Tryon. Tree fern; cloud forest (occasional),
1650-1700 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4419.
Cyathea harisii Baker. Tree fern; cloud forest, moist pine forest
(occasional/common), 1650-2000 m; Morne d'Enfer to Belle
Fontaine/Roche Cabrit, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4252, 4458, 4718.
Cyathea harisii Baker X Alsophila minor (D.C. Eaton) Tryon. Tree fern;
cloud forest (rare), ca 1650 m; Riviere Blanche; growing with its
presumed parents. Judd 4457. Hybrid status suggested by Rolla
Tryon.

Family Pteridaceae (4/4)

(The following fern families are sometimes treated as members of one large
polymorphic family, the Polypodiaceae sensu lato; pteridologists
differ as to how this assemblage should be divided, and the
classification of R. M. & A. F. Tryon [1982] is followed here.)

Adiantum fragile Sw. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, rocky cliffs
(uncommon), ca 1835 m; ravine east of "Park Center." Judd 4833.
Anopteris hexagonia (L.) C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, cloud
forest, on rocks (occasional), 1620-1900 m; Riviere Blanche, Gros
Basin in ravine east of Berac area, Morne Nacel region; Ekman
collected species on Morne Cabaio. Judd 4318, 4810, 4812, Zanoni
& Mejia 24546. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Cheilanthes notholaenoides (Desv.) Maxon. Terrestrial herb; open pine forest,
disturbed cloud forest, thin soil over limestone (very common), 2050-






78 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

2100 m; Galette Seche, Morne Nacel region. Judd 4862, Zanoni &
Meiia 24499, 24509.
Pteris hispaniolica Maxon. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, on rocks in
sinkhole (rare), ca 2150 m (to ca 1900 m, Ekman field notes); east of
Pic Cabaio. Judd 4845. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Vittariaceae (2/3)

Antrophyum feei Schaffner ex Fe. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (occasional),
ca 2210 m; between Pic Cabaio and Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit.
Judd 4850.
Vittaria graminifolia Kaulf. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (uncommon), ca
2210 m; between Pic Cabaio and Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd
4848.
Vittalia moritiziana Mett. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; cloud forest (rare), ca
1650 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4450.

Family Dennstaedtiaceae (3/3)

Dennstaedtia globulifera (Poir.) Hieron. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest,
sinkholes in pine forest (uncommon), ca 1800-1900 m; Truing
Marassa. Judd 4507, Zanoni & Meiia 24545.
Odontosoria aculeata (L.) J. Smith. Vine; cloud forest (occasional), 1800-
1880 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4656.
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. var. caudatum (L.) Sadeb. Terrestrial herb;
pine forest (abundant), 1750-2250 m; throughout. Judd 4372
Zanoni & Meiia 24563.

Family Thelypteridaceae (1/5)

Thelypteris asplenioides (Sw.) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest,
rocky slopes (rare), 1700-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4472. Det.
Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris decussata (L.) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (common),
1650-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4443. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris ct imitata C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, rocky slopes
(common), 1700-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4253, 4332, 4470,
4471.
Thelypteris rudis (Kunze) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist
sinkhole vegetation (common), 1700-1800 m; Rivibre Blanche,
pinelands near Park Center. Judd 4314, 4464. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Thelypteris sagittata (Sw.) Proctor. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (occasional),
ca 1650 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4434. Det. Rolla Tryon.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 79


Family Dryopteridaceae (6/12)

Ctenitis subincisa (Willd.) Ching. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist
sinkhole vegetation (uncommon),. ca 2150 m; between Pic Cabaio
and Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd 4842. Det. Rolla Tryon.
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, cloud
forest (uncommon), 1650-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4258, 4435.
Det. J. T. Mickel (4435).
Diplazium ftiertesii Brause. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud forest,
moist sinkhole vegetation (occasional), ca 1800 m; Riviere Blanche,
Truing Marassa. Judd 4303, 4508. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Diplazium hostile (Christ) C. Chr. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (uncommon),
1620-1640 m; Gros Basin in ravine east of Berac area. Judd 4811.
Diplazium taylorianum (Jenman) Maxon ex Proctor. Herb; cloud forest, ca
1900 m; Morne Nacel region. Zanoni & Mejia 24565.
Diplazium unilobum (Poir.) Hieron. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest, moist sinkhole vegetation (common), ca 1800-1900 m; Morne
Nacel region, Rivibre Blanche, Truing Marassa. Judd 4254, 4316,
4505, Zanoni & Meiia 24564, 24575. (=? D. semihastatum [Kunze]
C. Chr.)
Elaphoglossum chartaceum (Baker & Jenman) C. Chr. Epiphytic herb; cloud
forest (common), 1850-1950 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4719. Det. J.
T. Mickel.
Elaphoglossum huacsaro (Ruiz) Christ. Terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest/cloud forest (very common), 2100-2250 m; northern slope of
Morne la Visite. Judd 4517. Det. J. T. Mickel.
Elaphoglossum aff. latifolium (Sw.) J. Smith. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb;
cloud forest (common), 1650-1935 m; Morne Nacel region, Riviere
Blanche, ravine east of Park Center. Judd 4425, Zanoni & Mejia
24572. Det. J. T. Mickel (4425).
Elaphoglossum pachyphyllum (Kunze) C. Chr. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest
(common), 1850-1950 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4720. Det. J. T.
Mickel.
Polystichum echinatum (Gmel.) Christ. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist
pine forest, rocky slopes (occasional), 1790-2100 m; Roche Plate,
Rivi6re Blanche. Judd 4319, 4334, Thompson 3753-1, Zanoni &
Meiia 24529, 24573, 24628. Det. J. T. Mickel.
Polystichum rhizophyllum (Sw.) Presl. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest
(occasional), 1650-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4439.






80 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Aspleniaceae (1/7)

Asplenium auritum Sw. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (occasional), 1660-1735
m; between Morne d'Enfer and M. Fe Noir; Ekman collected species
on Morne La Visite at ca 1800 m. Judd 4754.
Asplenium clutei Gilbert. Terrestrial herb; moist sinkhole vegetation
(uncommon), ca 2150 m; between Pic Cabaio and "Pic 2208." Judd
4846.
Asplenium monanthes L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, cloud forest,
open rocky areas (occasional), 1800-2210 m; Morne Nacel region to
Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4288, 4843,
4847, Zanoni & Meifa 24570, 24574.
Asplenium praemorsum Sw. Terrestrial or epiphytic herb; cloud forest
(occasional), 1850-1950 m; Morne d'Enfer, Morne Nacel region.
Judd 4659, 4729, Zanoni & Meiia 24543, 24569.
Asplenium radicans L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist sinkhole
vegetation (occasional), 1650-1800 m; Riviere Blanche, Truing
Marassa. Judd 4433, 4506.
Asplenium resilens Kunze. Terrestrial herb, cloud forest, pine forest, rocky
areas (uncommon), 1880-2050 m; Morne Nacel region, pinelands
south of Park Center. Judd 4358, Zanoni & Meiia 24506.
Asplenium serra Langsd. & Fisch. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist
sinkhole vegetation (common), 1800-1950 m; Morne d'Enfer, Morne
Nacel region, Truing Marassa. Judd 4504, 4726, Zanoni & Meiia
24535.

Family Blechnaceae (1/3)

Blechnum fragile (Liebm.) Morton & Lell. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest
(common), 1650-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4395.
Blechnum occidentale L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (occasional), 1800-2120
m; scattered throughout. Judd 4352, 4572.
Blechnum tuerckheimii Brause. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest/cloud
forest, especially open steep slopes (common), 2100-2250 m;
northern slope of Morne La Visite. Judd 4523. Endemic to
Hispaniola.

Family Polypodiaceae (4/10)

Campyloneurum angustifolium Sw. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist
vegetation in sinkholes, pine forest, especially rocky areas (common),
1750-2050 m; Morne Nacel to Morne La Visite, throughout
pinelands. Judd 4347. 4359, 4489, Zanoni & Meifa 24576.





JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 81

Campyloneurum vexatum Eaton. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, rocky
ledges (occasional), 1900-1935 m; ravine east of Park Center. Judd
4835.
Microgramma piloselloides (L.) Copel. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest
(occasional), ca 1705 m; between Morne d'Enfer and M. F6 Noir.
Judd 4785.
Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Cav.) Maxon. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest, cloud forest (common), 1650-2050 m; Riviere Blanche, ravine
east of Park Center, scattered in pinelands. Judd 4356, 4440, 4497.
Polypodium antillense Maxon. Terrestrial herb; moist sinkhole vegetation
(rare), ca 1800 m; Truing Marassa. Judd 4317.
Polypodium aureum L. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest, ca 1900 m; Morne Nacel
region. Zanoni & Meiia 24576.
Polypodium lasiopus Klotzsch. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (occasional),
1650-1900 m; Morne Nacel region, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4438,
Zanoni & Mejia 24501, 24549.
Polypodium loriceum L. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest (occasional), 1650-1800
m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4418.
Polypodium pectinatum L. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist pine forest,
cloud forest (occasional), 1700-1800 m; between Morne d'Enfer and
M. F6 Noir, "The Depression." Judd 4492, 4787.
Polypodium thysanolepis A. Br. Epiphytic herb; moist pine forest (common),
1650-2000 m; Riviere Blanche, Morne Nacel, Roche Cabrit, scattered
in pinelands. Judd 4296, 4397, Thompson 3754-2, Zanoni & Meila
24537.

Class Coniferopsida
Order Coniferales
Family Pinaceae (1/1)

Pinus occidentalis Sw. Tree; dominant tree forming pinelands (abundant),
1700-2300 m; + throughout plateau. Judd 4383. Endemic to
Hispaniola.

Family Cupressaceae (1/1)

Juniperus ekmanii Florin. Tree; moist pine forest, disturbed cloud forest
(rare/nearly extinct), 1750-2210 m; "The Depression" (dead stumps
and logs), between Pic Cabaio and Tete Opaque (living plants only
seen ca SSW of Tete Opaque). Baird LV-32, Judd 4853, Woods s.n.
17 Jan. 1985. Endemic to the Massif de La Selle.





82 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Podocarpaceae (1/1)

Podocarpus aristulatus Parl. Tree; cloud forest (occasional), 1900-2210 m;
between Pic Cabaio and Belle Fontaine/ Roche Cabrit; Ekman
reports from Morne La Visite, in field notes. Judd 4852. Endemic to
Hispaniola. (= P. buchii Urb.)

Class Angiospermopsida
Superorder Annoniflorae
Order Annonales
Family Lauraceae (2/3)

Ocotea acarina C. K. Allen. Tree; cloud forest (common), 1700-1930 m;
Morne d'Enfer to just west of M. La Visite, Riviere Blanche. Judd
4408. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Ocotea wrightii (Meissn.) Mez. Tree; cloud forest (occasional/common),
1700-1930 m; Morne d'Enfer to just west of M. La Visite, Rivibre
Blanche. Judd 4647, 4794.
Persea anomala Britt. & Wils. Tree; cloud forest, moist pine forest (very
common), 1650-2200 m; scattered throughout, but especially along
ridge from Morne d'Enfer to Tete Opaque, Riviere Blanche, ravine
east of Park Center. Baird LV-24, Judd 4301, 4526, 4724.

Family Piperaceae (1/9)

Peperomia acuminata Ruiz & Pay. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist
sinkhole vegetation (occasional), 1650-2100 m; Morne d'Enfer, to M.
La Visite(?), Riviere Blanche, Truing Marassa. Judd 4431, 4501.
Peperomia galioides HBK. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, cloud forest,
especially on rocks (occasional), 1750-1920 m; Morne d'Enfer, to M.
La Visite, "The Depression." Judd 4486, 4690, Zanoni & Meiia
24550.
Peperomia glabella (Sw.) Dietr. Epiphytic or terrestrial herb; moist pine
forest, especially on rocks (occasional), 1800-1860 m; "The
Depression." Judd 4502, 4793.
Peperomia hispidula (Sw.) Dietr. Terrestrial herb; moist sinkhole vegetation
(uncommon), ca 1800 m; Truing Marassa. Judd 4500.
Peperomia leonardii Trel. Terrestrial herb; moist sinkhole vegetation
(uncommon), ca 1800 m; Truing Marassa. Judd 4499. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Peperomia quadrifolia (L.) HBK. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, disturbed
opening, on rocks (uncommon), 1850-1920 m; Morne d'Enfer,
Morne Nacel region. Judd 4691, Zanoni & Meiia 24571.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 83

Peperomia reflexa (L.f.) A. Dietr. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, ca 1900 m;
Morne Nacel region. Zanoni & Mejia 24548.
Peperomia tetraphylla (S. Forst.) Hook. & Arn. Epiphytic herb; cloud forest,
moist pine forest (occasional), 1740-1900 m; Morne Nacel region,
Morne La Visite, Riviere Blanche; ravine east of Park Center. Judd
4260, 4799, Thompson 3748-7, Zanoni & Meiia 24550.
Peperomia sp. 1. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (uncommon), 1620-1640 m;
Gros Basin in ravine east of Berac area. Judd 4813.

Order Berberidales
Family Ranunculaceae (2/2)

Clematis dioica L. Vine; cloud forest (uncommon), 1740 m; Rivibre Blanche.
Judd 4804.
Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. var. tropicus (Griseb.) Fawc. & Rendle.
Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (occasional), 1650-2100 m; Morne La
Visite, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4441.

Family Papaveraceae (2/2)

Bocconia frutescens L. Shrub; moist pine forest, cloud forest, especially
disturbed areas (common), 1750-2200 m; throughout park and
adjacent areas. Baird LV-29, Judd 4350.
Fumaria capreolata L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, along stream
(common), 1800-1900 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4298. Introduced.

Superorder Chenopodiiflorae
Order Chenopodiales
Family Phytolaccaceae (1/2)

Phytolacca rivinoides Kunth & Bouch6. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, open
disturbed areas (occasional), 1700-1850 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. F6
Noir. Judd 4670.
Phytolacca icosandra L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist pine forest,
especially disturbed areas (occasional), 1800-2220 m; Morne F6 Noir
to Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd 4561, 4837.





84 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Family Caryophyllaceae (4/5)

Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed
open areas (occasional), 1790-1900 m; throughout plateau. Judd
4881, Zanoni & Mejia 24624.
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed open
areas (common), 1750-1900 m; throughout plateau. Judd 4485,
4882b. Introduced.
Silene gallica L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, pine forest, disturbed open
areas (common), 1750-1900 m; throughout plateau. Judd 4493,
Zanoni & Meiia 24553. Introduced.
Stellaria antillana Urb. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, disturbed open areas
(locally common), 1600-1650 m; ravine east of Berac area. Judd
4944.
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, cloud forest, disturbed
open areas (common), 1700-1900 m; throughout plateau. Judd
4463, 4882a. Introduced.

Family Amaranthaceae (1/1)

Iresine herbstii Hook. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, disturbed open areas
(rare), 1700-1800 m; Morne F6 Noir. Judd 4780. Introduced.

Superorder Theiflorae
Order Theales
Family Theaceae (1/1)

Laplacea alpestris (Krug & Urb.) Dyer. Tree; cloud forest (uncommon),
1660-2160 m; between Morne d'Enfer and M. F6 Noir, Tete Opaque;
Ekman also collected this species at ca 2200 m on Morne La Visite
and Pic Cabaio. Baird LV-25, Judd 4756. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Aquifoliaceae (1/3)

Ilex fiertesiana (Loes.) Loes. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), ca 2150 m;
between Pic Cabaio and Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit; Ekman also
collected species from north slope of Morne La Visite at ca 1600 m.
Judd 4841. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Ilex macfadyenii (Walp.) Rehder. Shrub; pine forest, cloud forest
(occasional), 1650-2300 m; nearly throughout. Judd 4351, 4540.
Ilex blancheana Judd. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), 1700-1800 m;
Riviere Blanche. Judd 4403. Endemic to Massif de La Selle (Riviere
Blanche).






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 85


Family Clusiaceae or Guttiferae (2/5)

Clusia clusioides (Griseb.) D'Arcy. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), ca 1705
m; between Morne d'Enfer and M; Fe Noir. Judd 4784.
Hypericum fuertesii Urb. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest/ moist pine forest,
steep rocky slopes (common), 2050-2250 m; northern slope of Morne
La Visite. Judd 4518. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Hypelicum hypericoides (L.) Crantz. Subshrub; pine forest (occasional), 1750-
1800 m; "The Depression." Judd 4490.
Hypericum millefolium Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; cloud forest, open areas (rare),
ca 2300 m; Pic Cabaio. Judd 4547. Endemic to the Massif de La
Selle.
Hypericumpeiforatum L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, cloud forest, especially
disturbed open areas (abundant), 1700-2300 m; nearly throughout,
especially pinelands. Judd 4369, 4665. Introduced.

Order Ericales
Family Ericaceae (2/5)

Gaultheria domingensis Urb. Shrub; pine forest (uncommon), cloud
forest/moist pine forest (common), 1800-2250 m; northern slope of
Morne La Visite, pinelands near Riviere Blanche. Judd 4289, 4515.
Lyonia buchii Urb. Shrub to tree; cloud forest/moist pine forest (common),
1500-2250 m; northern slope of Morne La Visite. Judd 4345, 4513.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Lyonia microcarpa Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to tree; pine forest, cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1750-2200 m; scattered throughout pinelands,
locally dominant in hardwoods between Pic Cabaio and Belle
Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd 4461, 4481, 4827, 4854. Endemic to
Massif de La Selle.
Lyonia rubiginosa (Pers.) G. Don var. costata (Urb.) Judd. Shrub; pine forest
(occasional), ca 1825 m; pinelands near Park Center. Judd 4807,
4808.4886. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Lyonia truncata Urb. var. truncata. Shrub to small tree; pine forest (rare), ca
1800 m; "The Depression." Judd 4460. Endemic to Massif de La
Selle.

Order Ebenales
Family Sapotaceae (2/2)

Bumelia subintegra Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; pine forest, cloud forest
(occasional), 1700-2160 m; scattered in pinelands, Riviere Blanche,






86 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Morne d'Enfer to just west of M. La Visite, Tete Opaque; Ekman
collected in vicinity of Morne Cabaio, ca 2200 m. Baird LV-23, Judd
4381, 4449. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Dipholis cubensis (Griseb.) Pierre. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), 1850-
1950 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4717. Generic delimitation in group
problematical; species sometimes considered in Bumelia.

Order Primulales
Family Myrsinaceae (2/4)

Ardisia fuiertesii Urb. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest (occasional/common),
1660-2000 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Riviere Blanche. Judd
4411, 4653, 4766. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Ardisiapicardae Urb. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest (common), 1650-2050
m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Riviere Blanche, ravine east of
Park Center. Judd 4442, 4587, Zanoni & Meiia 24552. Endemic to
Massif de La Selle.
Myrsine nubicola Liogier. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional/common), 1850-
2300 m; Morne d'Enfer to Tete Opaque, Roche Plate, ravine east of
Park Center. Baird LV-31, Judd 4546, 4564, 4646, 4692, Thompson
3753-13, Zanoni & Mejia 24547, 24562. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. Shrub to small tree; cloud
forest, moist pine forest (very common), 1650-2100 m; Morne
d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Rivibre Blanche, ravine east of Park Center,
other ravines in pinelands. Judd 4315, 4426, 4716.

Family Primulaceae (1/1)

Anagallis arvensis L. Terrestrial herb; moist vegetation along stream, open
areas (common), 1800-1900 m; Morne Nacel region, Riviere Blanche.
Judd 4324, Zanoni & Meiia 24557. Introduced.

Order Polygonales
Family Polygonaceae (2/2)

Coccoloba picardae Urb. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest (common), 1700-
2000 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Rivibre Blanche; Ekman
collected this species near Pic Cabaio. Judd 4642, 4409, 4667, 4668,
Zanoni & Mejia 24519. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Rumex obtusifolius L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, disturbed open
areas, often along streams (common), 1600-1800 m; Rivi6re Blanche,
ravine east of Berac area, scattered in pinelands. Judd 4468, 4953.
Introduced.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 87

Superorder Celastriflorae
Order Celastrales
Family Celastraceae (1/1)

Tontalbasia cuneifolia (C. Wr.) Krug. & Urb. Shrub to tree; cloud forest
(uncommon), ca 1750 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4800.

Superorder Santaliflorae
Order Santalales
Family Eremolepidaceae (1/1)

Eremolepis wrightii Griseb. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; cloud forest (rare),
1700-1800 m; Riviere Blanche; Ekman collected species from Pic
Cabaio at ca 2300 m. Judd 4414. Det. Elizabeth A. Kellogg.

Family Loranthaceae (1/3)

Dendropemon bistratus Urb. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; cloud forest
(occasional), 1650-1900 m; Morne La Visite, Riviere Blanche. Judd
4398, 4429, Thompson 3748-6. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Dendropemon parvifolius (Sw.) Steud. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub; cloud
forest (uncommon), ca 2300 m; Pic Cabaio. Judd 4541.
Dendropemon pycnophyllus Krug & Urb. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub (on
Pinus); pine forest (common), 1750-2200 m; throughout pinelands.
Baird LV-30, Judd 4378. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Viscaceae (1/2)

Dendrophthora cupressoides (Macf.) Eichl. Epiphytic and parasitic shrub;
cloud forest (occasional), 1650-2160 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. Nacel,
Tete Opaque, Rivibre Blanche. Baird LV-34, Judd 4448, 4760.
Dendrophthora serpyllifolia (Griseb.) Krug & Urb. Epiphytic and parasitic
shrub; cloud forest (occasional), ca 1900 m; Morne Nacel. Judd
4649.

Superorder Violiflorae
Order Violales
Family Passifloraceae (1/2)

Passiflora orbiculata Cav. Vine; cloud forest, moist pine forest (uncommon),
1750-1950 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. FR Noir, "The Depression." Judd
4478, 4721.





88 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Passiflora sexflora Juss. Vine; cloud forest (occasional); 1800-2100 m; Morne
d'Enfer, Roche Plate. Judd 4660, Thompson 3753-6.

Family Cucurbitaceae (2/2)

Melothria domingensis Cogn. Vine; cloud forest, disturbed open areas
(occasional), 1800-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4669. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Sicyos laciniatus L. Vine; disturbed cloud forest, ca 1900 m; Morne Nacel
region. Zanoni & Mejia 24532.

Family Begoniaceae (1/2)

Begonia domingensis DC. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (common), 1650-1800
m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4446. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Begonia platyptera Urb. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist pine forest
(common), 1600-1800 m; Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Berac area.
Judd 4300. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.

Order Capparales
Family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae (6/6)

Barbarea vema (Mill.) Aschers. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed open
areas, fields (common), 1750-2000 m; throughout pinelands. Judd
4961. Introduced.
Brassica campestlis L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed open areas,
fields (very common), 1750-2000 m; throughout pinelands. Judd
4290. Introduced.
Cardamine hirsuta L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, open disturbed areas,
fields (occasional), ca 2210 m; between Pic Cabaio and Belle
Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd 4856. Introduced.
Lepidium virginicum L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed open areas,
fields (common), 1700-1900 m; throughout pinelands. Judd 4638.
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Terrestrial/aquatic herb; along margins of (or in)
streams (common), ca 1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4287.
Introduced.
Raphanus sativus L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest/moist pine forest,
disturbed open areas, fields (uncommon), ca 2180 m; between Morne
La Visite and Pic Cabaio. Judd 4512. Introduced.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 89

Superorder Malviflorae
Order Malvales
Family Malvaceae (1/1)

Sphaeralcea abutiloides (L.) G. Don. Shrub; pine forest (uncommon), 1800-
2050 m; pinelands south of Park Center. Judd 4376.

Family Ulmaceae (1/1)

Trema micrantha (L.) Blume. Tree; cloud forest, moist pine forest (common),
1600-2150 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Roche Plate, Riviere
Blanche, ravine east of Berac area. Judd 4404, 4568, Thompson
3748-3 3753-1.

Family Urticaceae (including Moraceae, Cecropiaceae) (2/13)

Gyrotaenia myriocarpa Griseb. Shrub; moist pine forest, cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1660-2250 m; Morne d'Enfer to north slope of
M. La Visite. Judd 4522, 4752.
Pilea cellulosa (Spreng.) Urb. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (occasional),
1600-1650 m; ravine east of Berac area. Judd 4948.
Pilea cephalantha Wedd. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (common), 1650-1900
m; Riviere Blanche, Morne d'Enfer, to M. Nacel(?). Judd 4390.
Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Pilea domingensis Urb. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest (common), ca 1800
m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4262. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Pileafranquervilleana Wedd. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist pine forest
(common), 1800-2220 m; Morne La Visite to Pic Cabaio. Judd 4532
4562?, 4563. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Pilea hepatica Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (uncommon),
1600-1650 m; ravine east of Berac area. Judd 4947. Endemic to
Massif de La Selle and Massif de La Hotte.
Pilea lanceolata (Lam.) Wedd. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, cloud forest
(common), 1800-2300 m; Pic Cabaio, scattered in pinelands, Riviere
Blanche. Judd 4382. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Pilea cf. lapidincola Urb. & Ekm. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (common),
ca 1900 m; Morne Nacel. Judd 4706. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, rocky slopes
(common), 1790-2160 m; Morne Nacel to Tete Opaque, Riviere
Blanche. Baird LV-26, Judd 4267, 4282, Zanoni & Meiia 24623.
Pilea parietaria (L.) Blume. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, open disturbed
areas (occasional), 1880-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4680.





90 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Pilea propinqua Wedd. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, rocky slopes
(common), ca 1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4325. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Pilea psilogyne Urb. Terrestrial/aquatic herb; on rocks in stream (common),
ca 1800 m; Riviere Blanche; Ekman collected species on Morne
Cabaio, ca 2200 m. Judd 4335. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Pilea sp. 1. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest (common), 1850-1950 m; Morne
d'Enfer. Judd 4723.

Order Rhamnales
Family Rhamnaceae (1/1)

Rhamnus sphaerosperma Sw. Shrub; pine forest (rare), ca 1900 m; ridge east
of Park Center. Judd 4826.

Order Euphorbiales
Family Euphorbiaceae (5/5)

Ditta sp. nov. aff. D. myricoides Griseb. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional),
1740-1900 m; Morne Nacel region, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4801,
Zanoni & Mejia 24561. Endemic to Massif de La Selle. Det. T.
Zanoni.
Euphorbia peplus L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially disturbed areas
(occasional/common), 1800-2050 m; Rivi&re Blanche, scattered in
pinelands. Judd 4337, 4374. Introduced.
Phyllanthus lindenianus Baill. var. inaequifolius (Webster) Webster.
Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially ravine slopes and disturbed
areas (very common), 1800-2000 m; Riviere Blanche, scattered in
pinelands. Judd 4331, 4880. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Ricinus communis L. Shrub; pine forest, disturbed open areas (common), ca
1900 m; near Park Center, throughout plateau in disturbed
localities. Judd 4939. Introduced.
Sapium buchii Urb. Tree; cloud forest (occasional), 1850-2100 m; Morne
d'Enfer to west slope of M. La Visite, Roche Plate. Judd 4652,
Thompson 3753-8. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Thymelaeaceae (1/1)

Daphnopsis crassifolia (Poir.) Meissn. Shrub; pine forest, cloud forest (very
common), 1700-2300 m; Morne d'Enfer to Tete Opaque, Roche
Plate, Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Park Center, other ravines,
throughout pinelands. Judd 4312, 4412, 4465, 4480, Thompson
3753-10. Endemic to Hispaniola.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 91

Superorder Geraniiflorae
Order Geraniales
Family Linaceae (1/1)

Linum usitatissimum L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially open
disturbed areas (common), 1700-1900 m; throughout pinelands.
Judd 4323. Introduced.

Family Oxalidaceae (1/2)

Oxalis corniculata L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (occasional), ca 1800 m;
scattered in pinelands. Judd 4415.
Oxalis eggersii Urb. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, rocky areas (occasional),
1750-1800 m; "The Depression." Judd 4498.

Family Geraniaceae (2/3)

Geranium purpureum Vill. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, cleared pasture
(occasional), ca 2050-2250 m; Galette Seche to ridge west of Pic
Cabaio. Judd 4859. Introduced.
Geranium rotundifolium L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, pine forest,
disturbed open areas (very common), 1800-2150 m; Morne La Visite,
throughout pinelands. Judd 4363, Zanoni & Meiia 24555.
Introduced.
Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. ex Ait. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(rare), ca 2120 m; Morne La Visite. Judd 4573. Introduced.

Family Malpighiaceae (2/2)

Bunchosia ekmanii Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), 1700-1900
m; Morne Nacel region, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4402, Zanoni &
Mejia 24530. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Malpighia macracantha Urb. & Ndz. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), 1700-
1900 m; Morne Nacel, Riviere Blanche; Ekman collected this species
near Pic Cabaio, ca 2200-2300 m. Judd 4401. Endemic to Massif de
La Selle.

Superorder Rutiflorae
Order Rutales
Family Rutaceae (2/2)

Citrus aurantium L. Tree; cloud forest (occasional), 1850-1920 m; Morne
d'Enfer. Judd 4687. Introduced.





92 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Zanthoxylum tetraphyllum (Urb. & Ekm.) Jim6nez. Shrub; cloud forest, open
rocky area (rare), 2220 m; just west of Pic Cabaio. Judd 4560.
Endemic to Massif de La Selle.

Family Simaroubaceae (1/1)

Picrasma selleana Urb. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest (occasional), 1700-
1900 m; Morne Nacel region, Rivibre Blanche. Judd 4400, Zanoni &
Menia 24528. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.

Family Myricaceae (1/1)

Myrica picardae Krug & Urb. Shrub; pine forest, moist pine forest/cloud
forest (very common), 1650-2250 m; Morne La Visite to Belle
Fontaine/Roche Cabrit, probably also at Tete Opaque, throughout
pinelands. Judd 4353, 4520, Thompson 3748-11. Endemic to
Hispaniola.

Family Sapindaceae (1/1)

Allophylus crassinervis Radlk. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), 1660-1740 m;
between Morne d'Enfer and M. F6 Noir. Judd 4765.

Family Sabiaceae (1/1)

Meliosma impress Krug & Urb. Tree; cloud forest, moist pine forest
(common), 1600-2150 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Riviere
Blanche, ravine east of Berac area, ravine east of Park Center. Judd
4306, 4413, 4531, 4832. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Fabaceae or Leguminosae (4/5)

Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb. Scrambling shrub; cloud forest (uncommon),
1900-2100 m; Morne Nacel, western slope of Morne La Visite,
Roche Plate. Judd 4707, Thompson 3753-14.
Medicago lupulina L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed open areas,
fields (common), 1800-1950 m; throughout pinelands. Judd 4879,
Zanoni & Meiia 24513. Introduced.
Phaseolus lunatus L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, disturbed open areas
(uncommon), 1650-1700 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4445.
Introduced.
Trifolium arvense L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (occasional), ca 1800 m;
pinelands near Riviere Blanche. Judd 4284. Introduced.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 93

Trifolium repens L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, disturbed open areas, fields
(common), 1800-2300 m; Morne La Visite to Pic Cabaio,
throughout pinelands. Judd 4877. Introduced.

Superorder Rosiflorae
Order Rosales
Family Rosaceae (2/3)

Fragatia vesca L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, cloud forest, disturbed open
areas (common), 1750-2300 m; throughout pinelands, southern
slope of Morne La Visite to Pic Cabaio, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4349,
Zanoni & Mejia 24622. Introduced.
Rubus argentifrons Bailey. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (abundant), 1750-2200
m; throughout pinelands. Judd 4362. Endemic to Hispaniola; the
very similar species, R. selleanus Helwig., is probably also present.
Rubus haitiensis Bailey. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (abundant), 1750-2200
m; throughout pinelands. Judd 4473. Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Cunoniaceae (1/1)

Weinmannia pinnata L. Shrub to tree; cloud forest, moist pine forest (very
common), 1750-2250 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Riviere
Blanche, ravine east of Park Center. Judd 4292 4311, 4525.

Family Brunelliaceae (1/1)

Bmnellia comocladiifolia Humb. & Bonpl. subsp. domingensis Cuatr. Tree;
cloud forest, moist pine forest (very common), 1600-2250 m; Morne
d'Enfer to Tete Opaque, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4417, 4567.

Family Staphyleaceae (1/1)

Turpinia picardae Urb. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1700-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. Nacel, M.
La Visite(?), "The Depression." Judd 4476, 4651, 4681, 4775.
Endemic to Massif de La Selle and Massif de La Hotte.

Superorder Myrtiflorae
Order Myrtales
Family Lythraceae (1/1)

Cuphea rotundifolia Koehne. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, disturbed open
areas (occasional), 1850-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4666.





94 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)


Family Melastomataceae (4/11)

Heterotrichum angustifolium DC. Shrub; moist pine forest (occasional), ca
1500 m; northern slope of Morne La Visite. Not collected; this
species was collected by Ekman at ca 1600 m.
Heterotrichum umbellatum (Mill.) Urb. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest,
disturbed openings (common), 1850-1880 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd
4657.
Mecranium multiflorum (L.C. Rich.) Triana. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest
(occasional/common), 1700-1880 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. F6 Noir.
Judd 4663, 4750, 4753, 4783, Skean 1055, 1056.
Meriania involucrata (Desr.) Naud. Shrub to tree; cloud forest (occasional),
1600-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer to ravine east of Berac area (east of M.
Nacel). Judd 4664, 4758, 4779, Skean 1058. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Miconia alboviridis Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; disturbed cloud forest, ca 1900 m;
Morne La Visite (Ekman H1400), recollected 15.8 km W of Mare
Rouge on road to Seguin by T. Zanoni et al., i.e. Zanoni et al. 18698.
Miconiafavosa (Desr.) Naud. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional/very common),
1600-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer to ravine east of Berac area, Riviere
Blanche. Judd 4250, 4455, 4658, 4725, 4762. Endemic to Massif de
La Selle and Massif de La Hotte.
Miconia fermginea (Desr.) DC. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), 1600-1900
m; Morne F6 Noir to ravine east of Berac area, Riviere Blanche.
Judd 4454, 4778, 4940. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Miconia lanceolata (Desr.) DC. Shrub to tree; cloud forest (uncommon),
1850-2210 m; Morne d'Enfer, Pic Cabaio to Belle Fontaine. Judd
4712, 4851. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Miconia luteola Cogn. Shrub; pine forest, Morne La Visite. Collected by E.
Ekman; not recollected in park, but collected to the east in vicinity of
Pic La Selle, Judd 4932. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Miconia rigidissima Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; cloud forest, open rocky areas
(uncommon), ca 2300 m; Pic Cabaio; Ekman also collected this
species on Morne La Visite. Judd 4538. Endemic to Massif de La
Selle.
Miconia selleana Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest, moist pine
forest (occasional), 1900-2250 m; Morne La Visite, Riviere Blanche,
ravine east of Park Center. Judd 4519, 4528, 4566. Endemic to
Hispaniola; Ekman also collected in Massif de La Hotte.
Miconia subcompressa Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest (rare), ca 1800
m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4251. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Miconia tetrastoma Naud. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), 1660-1880 m;
Morne d'Enfer to M. F6 Noir. Judd 4662, 4763.






JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 95


Family Myrtaceae (2/5)

Calyptranthes densifolia Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to tree; cloud forest
(occasional), 1900-2250 m; Morne Nacel, between Pic Cabaio and
Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit; Ekman collected species on Morne La
Visite and M. Cabaio. Judd 4645. Endemic to the Massif de La
Selle.
Calyptranthes nummularia Berg. Shrub; moist pine forest (uncommon), 1850-
1900 m; Morne Nacel region, "The Depression." Judd 4791, Zanoni
& Meiia 24510. Endemic to Massif de La Selle and Massif de La
Hotte.
Calyptranthes cf. pitoniana Urb. & Ekm. Small tree; cloud forest (common),
1700-2100 m; Morne Nacel, Roche Plate, Riviere Blanche. Judd
4399, 4654, Thompson 3753-4. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Eugenia lineata (Sw.) DC. Small tree; cloud forest (occasional), 1850-1880 m;
Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4682. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Eugenia picardae Krug & Urb. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), 1875-1930
m; Morne Nacel to M. La Visite. Judd 4650, 4820. Endemic to
Massif de La Selle.

Family Onagraceae (2/3)

Epilobium coloratum Muhl. ex Willd. Terrestrial herb; along stream
(common), ca 1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd 4327. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Fuchsia pringsheimii Urb. Shrub; cloud forest, moist pine forest (common),
1650-2300 m; Morne d'Enfer to Tete Opaque, Rivibre Blanche,
ravine east of Park Center, other ravines in pinelands. Judd 4313,
4393, 4552, 4672, 676, 4677, 4731. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Fuchsia triphylla L. Shrub; cloud forest to pine forest (common), 1650-2200
m; Morne d'Enfer to Tete Opaque, Rivibre Blanche, ravine east of
Park Center, other ravines in pinelands, scattered throughout
pinelands. Baird LV-28, Judd 4366, 4673, 4732. Endemic to
Hispaniola.
Fuchsia pringsheimii Urb. X triphylla L. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional),
1850-1880 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4674, 4675. Hybrids have been
reported from several localities in the Massif de La Selle.





96 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

Superorder Corniflorae
Order Cornales
Family Garryaceae (1/1)

Garrya fadyenii Hook. Shrub to tree; pine forest to cloud forest (very
common), 1650-2300 m; throughout pinelands and hardwood
forests. Judd 4264, 4377, 4491, Thompson 3753-3, 3758-1.

Order Araliales
Family Araliaceae (including Apiaceae) (8/8)

Anethum graveolens L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (uncommon), ca 1910 m;
pinelands near Park Center. Judd 4641. Introduced.
Daucus carota L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially open disturbed areas
(very common), 1800-2100 m; Morne La Visite toward Pic Cabaio,
throughout pinelands. Judd 4936. Introduced.
Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch. Tree; cloud forest (common),
1660-1750 m; Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Berac area (east of
Morne Nacel). Judd 4430.
Didmyopanax tremulum Krug & Urb. Tree; cloud forest (very common),
1600-2250 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, ravine east of Berac
area, Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Park Center, other ravines in
pinelands. Judd 4392, 4727. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Hydrocotylepusilla A. Rich. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (occasional), ca 1800
m; near Riviere Blanche. Judd 4601.
Oreopanax capitatum (Jacq.) Decne. & Planch. Tree; pine forest to cloud
forest (very common), 1700-2160 m; Morne La Visite to Tete
Opaque, Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Park Center, other ravines in
pinelands. Baird LV-22, Judd 4310, 4452.
Pastinaca sativa L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially disturbed areas
(very common), 1750-2300 m; Morne La Visite to Pic Cabaio,
scattered in pinelands. Judd 4355. Introduced.
Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially
disturbed areas (very common), 1750-2150 m; Morne La Visite,
scattered in pinelands. Judd 4354. Introduced.





JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 97


Superorder Gentianiflorae
Order Gentianales
Family Buddlejaceae (1/1)

Buddleja domingensis Urb. Shrub; cloud forest, moist pine forest (very
common), 1600-2300 m; Morne d'Enfer to Pic Cabaio, ravine east of
Berac area, Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Park Center, other
ravines in pinelands. Judd 4410, 4570, Zanoni & Meifa 24566.
Endemic to Hispaniola.

Family Rubiaceae (7/13)

Galium aparine L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist pine forest, in open
disturbed areas (occasional), 1800-1900 m; Morne Nacel region,
Riviere Blanche. Judd 4307, Zanoni & Meiia 24521. Introduced.
Galium brevipes Urb. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (occasional), 1750-1850 m;
"The Depression." Judd 4484. Endemic to Hispaniola.
Guettardapungens Urb. Shrub; cloud forest, ca 1900 m; Morne Nacel region.
Zanoni & Meiia 24498. '
Guettarda or Psychotria sp. Tree; cloud forest (occasional), ca 1650 m;
Riviere Blanche. Judd 4420
Mitracarpus decumbens Urb. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (common), 1800-
2050 m; scattered in pinelands. Judd 4367. Endemic to Massif de
La Selle.
Palicourea alpine (Sw.) DC. Shrub; moist pine forest, cloud forest (common),
1600-2250 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, ravine east of Berac
area, Riviere Blanche; Ekman, in field notes, also reports from Pic
Cabaio. Judd 4529, 4588, 4946.
Psychotria berteriana DC. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), 1660-1735 m;
Morne F6 Noir. Judd 4751.
Psychotria liogieri Steyermark. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), ca 1700 m;
between Morne d'Enfer and M. FR Noir. Judd 4788, Skean 1057.
Endemic to Hispaniola.
Psychotria baltenweckii Urb. Shrub; cloud forest (common), 1750-2050 m;
Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite, Rivibre Blanche; Ekman also
collected this species on M. Cabaio. Judd 4565, 4728 4795, Zanoni
& Meiia 24512. Endemic to Massif de La Selle.
Relbunium hypocarpium (L.) Hemsl. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest
(common), 1750-2150 m; southern slope of Morne La Visite, "The
Depression." Judd 4488, 4530, Thompson 3748-4.
Rondeletia came Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest, moist pine
forest (uncommon), 1750-2200 m; Morne La Visite; Ekman also





98 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)

collected species on M. Cabaio. Judd 4554, 4822. Endemic to Massif
de La Selle.
Rondeletia christii Urb. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), ca 1750 m; Riviere
Blanche. Judd 4796. Endemic to Hispaniola; R. selleana Urb. &
Ekm., described from the Morne La Visite region, is probably
conspecific.
Rondeletia domatiata Urb. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional/ common), 1800-
1950 m; Morne d'Enfer. Judd 4683, 4710, 4714. Endemic to Massif
de La Selle (Morne d'Enfer).

Family Apocynaceae (incl. Asclepiadaceae) (3/3)

Asclepias nivea L. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, pine forest, disturbed open
areas (occasional), 1600-1900 m; ravine east of Berac area; scattered
in pinelands. Judd 4945.
Cynanchum leptocladium (Decne.) Jim6nez. Vine; cloud forest moist pine
forest (occasional/common), 1650-1930 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La
Visite, "The Depression," Rivibre Blanche. Judd 4689, Zanoni &
Meiia 24505.
Marsdenia clausa R. Br. Vine; cloud forest (occasional), 1700-1900 m; Morne
FR Noir to M. Nacel, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4407,4839.

Order Bignoniales
Family Bignoniaceae (1/1)

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. Shrub; cloud forest (uncommon), ca 1750 m; Rivibre
Blanche. Judd 4802. Introduced.

Family Scrophulariaceae (2/2)

Scrophularia minutiflora Pennell. Terrestrial herb; cloud forest, moist pine
forest (occasional), 1850-2200 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite,
Rivibre Blanche. Judd 4533a, 4730.
Verbascum thapsus L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially disturbed open
areas (common), 1800-2150 m; southern slope of Morne La Visite, +
scattered in pinelands. Judd 4571. Introduced.

Family Plantaginaceae (1/1)

Plantago lanceolata L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest, especially disturbed open
areas (abundant), 1750-2300 m; southern slope of Morne La Visite
to Pic Cabaio, throughout pinelands. Judd 4876. Introduced.





JUDD: FLORISTIC STUDY HAITIAN NATIONAL PARKS 99

Family Gesneriaceae (3/7)

Columnea domingensis Urb. Epiphytic vine; cloud forest (occasional), 1650-
1900 m; Morne d'Enfer to Morne La Visite, Riviere Blanche. Judd
4436, Zanoni & Mejia 24559.. (= Trichantha domingensis (Urb.)
Wiehler)
Gesneria bullata Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; moist pine forest (common), 1700-2200
m; between Morne La Visite and Pic Cabaio, Riviere Blanche. Judd
4256, 4328. Endemic to Massif de La Selle. Det. L. E. Skog (4256).
Gesneria ekmanii Urb. (=Rhytidophyllum sp.) Shrub; cloud forest (common),
1600-1900 m; Morne d'Enfer to ravine east of Berac area, Riviere
Blanche. Judd 4437, 4704, 4767, 4956. Endemic to Massif de La
Hotte and Massif de La Selle. Det. L. E. Skog (4767).
Gesnetia hypoclada Urb. & Ekm. Shrub to small tree; cloud forest (rare),
1750-1900 m; Morne Nacel region, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4798,
Zanoni & Meiia 24566. Endemic to Massif de La Selle and Massif
de La Hotte. Det. L. E. Skog.
Gesneria viridiflora (Decaisne) Kuntz subsp. acrochordonanthe L. Skog.
Shrub; cloud forest (common), 1650-1800 m; Riviere Blanche. Judd
4427. Endemic to Massif de La Selle and Massif de La Hotte. Det.
L. E. Skog.
Rhytidophyllum auriculatum Hook. Shrub; cloud forest, often disturbed open
areas (common), 1650-1800 m; Morne d'Enfer to north slope of M.
Nacel, Riviere Blanche. Judd 4447 4648, 4761.
Rhytidophyllum sp. nov. aff. R. auriculatum Hook. Shrub; cloud forest
(occasional), 1800-1900 m; Morne F6 Noir. Judd 4781, 4838.
Endemic to Morne F6 Noir. Det. L. E. Skog.

Order Lamiales
Family Verbenaceae (4/4)

Citharexylum caudatum L. Shrub to tree; cloud forest, moist pine forest
(occasional/common), 1650-2250 m; Morne d'Enfer to M. La Visite,
Riviere Blanche, "The Depression." Judd 4477, 4757, 4790, 4797.
Duranta arida Britt. & Wils. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional/common), 2150-
2220 m; vicinity of Pic Cabaio to Belle Fontaine/Roche Cabrit. Judd
4559, 4840.
Lantana trifolia L. Shrub; cloud forest, disturbed open areas (uncommon), ca
1900 m; Morne Nacel. Judd 4705.
Verbena domingensis Urb. Terrestrial herb; pine forest (uncommon), 1800-
1900 m; scattered in pinelands near Park Center; Ekman collected
species at ca 2200 m in vicinity of Pic Cabaio. Judd 4809. Endemic
to Hispaniola.





100 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM VOL. 32(1)


Family Lamiaceae or Labiatae (5/7)

Hyptis schusteti Urb. Shrub; cloud forest (locally common), ca 2300 m; Pic
Cabaio. Judd 4551. Endemic to Massif de La Selle and Massif de La
Hotte.
Prunella vulgaris L. Terrestrial herb; pine forest or cloud forest, especially
open disturbed areas (common), 1750-2150 m; Morne Nacel to
Morne La Visite, throughout pinelands. Judd 4348, Zanoni &
Meiia 24558. Introduced.
Salvia foveolata Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; cloud forest/moist pine forest
(uncommon), 2200-2300 m; between Morne La Visite and Pic
Cabaio. Judd 4555. Endemic to Massif de La Selle (Morne La
Visite-Pic Cabaio region).
Salvia selleana Urb. Shrub; pine forest, on thin soil over limestone (locally
common), 2050-2100 m; Galette Seche; Ekman collected this species
at ca 2250 m in vicinity of Pic Cabaio. Judd 4861. Endemic to Massif
de La Selle.
Salvia bahorucana Urb. & Ekm. Shrub; cloud forest (occasional), ca 2200-
2300 m; vicinity of Pic Cabaio. Judd 4558. Endemic to Massif de La
Selle.
Satureja viminea (L.) Urb. Shrub; cloud forest, moist pine forest (common),
1800-2300 m; Morne Nacel to Pic Cabaio. Judd 4321, 4521.
Stachys arvensis L. Terrestrial herb; moist pine forest, often along streams
(occasional), 1800-1935 m; Riviere Blanche, ravine east of Park
Center. Judd 4330, 4834. Introduced.

Order Dipsacales
Family Adoxaceae (1/1)

Sambucus canadensis L. Shrub or small tree; pine forest to cloud forest,
especially along streams (common), 1650-2050 m; Riviere Blanche,
ravine east of Park Center, other ravines in pinelands, scattered in
pinelands (where planted near inhabited areas?). Judd 4291.
Introduced.

Family Valerianaceae (1/1)

Valeriana scandens Loefl. Vine; cloud forest, moist pine forest (common),
1600-2150 m; ravine east of Berac area, Riviere Blanche, Morne La
Visite. Judd 4533b, 4943.




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