• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Half Title
 Copyright
 Preface
 List of Illustrations
 Main






Title: The young American's picture gallery
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00063270/00001
 Material Information
Title: The young American's picture gallery
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Lindsay & Blakiston
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1856
Copyright Date: 1856
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00063270
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alg5566 - LTUF
002225294 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Front cover 3
        Front cover 4
        Front cover 5
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Half Title
        Page iii
    Copyright
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Main
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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ITn3 TRIRUTE OF A GRATrFUL PEOPLE TO
TEN FATHER OF RIB COUNTY.


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THU WABHRNGTON NATIONAL MONUXENPT,
(MA^ 100fM.) Wshington city. (Rdp -f/Ow1uL, aof.)
























































































































THE



YOUNG AMERICAN'S



PICTURE GALLERY.


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CAPITOL AT WABHINGTON.


PHILADELPHIA:
LIN)SAY & BLAKISTON.




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PICTURE GALLERY.

WITH
8IVENTY ILLISTEATISNL,



PHILADELPHIA:
LINDSAY & BLAKISTON.


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entered, aecordlng to the Act of CoDgros, in the year 18M, by
LINDBAY & BLAKI8TON,
in the Clerk's 0M* of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern Dstnet of PennJylvnia.



















PERHAPS there is no better way of impressing on the minds of the
youth of our country, important events in its history, and in the lives
of some of the noble men who took prominent parts in securing the
glorious Independence which we all now enjoy, than in doing so by
anecdotes and pictures illustrating the events themselves. The example
of which have prompted those of a later generation to follow in their
footsteps, and in their turn be bright and shining lights to the rising
millions of our youth to whom the destiny of our beloved country
is hereafter to be entrusted.

PHILADELPHIA.




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AND


Cist of llt stations.





WASHINGTON'S. MONUMENT ........................................... Faomlial c.
CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON....................................... EMOuAVZD Tmrr
WASHINGTON AS A SURVEYOR.... ................................... Page 11
WASHINGTON CROSSING THE ALLEGHANY........ ............................ 18
WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE ................................... 1
WASHINGTON PRAYING AT VALLEY FORGE...................... ............ 17
THE SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLIS...................................... 19
WASHINGTON'S HOME, MOUNT VERNON........................................ 21
WASHINGTON WITH HIS FAMILY............................................. 28
WASHINGTON'S TOMB .......................................... ................. 2
FRANKLIN THE TALLOW-CHANDLER............................................. 27
FRANKLIN A PRINTER ....................................................... 20
FRANKLIN'S FIRST ARRIVAL IN PHILADELPHIA ........................... 81
FRANKLIN HIS OWN PORTER................................................ 88
THE LIBRARY THAT FRANKLIN FOUNDED........ ........... ................. 86
FRANKLIN A PHILOSOPHER ................................................... 87
FRANKLIN SIGNS THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.................... 8
FRANKLIN THE STATESMAN.................................................... 41
PENN INSTRUCTED BY HIS MOTHER .......................................... 4
PENN'S MOTHER VISITS HIM IN PRISON......................... ............. 41
PENN LANDING AT CHESTER.......................... ....................... 47
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Viii CONTENTS AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOh8.

PENN'S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS........................................... 40
PENN'S FIRST COTTAGE IN PHILADELPHIA.................................... 1
PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PENN AS A PREACHER.......... ......................
PENN'S PRIVATE RESIDENCE, PHILADELPHIA ........................... 65
PENN IN CONFERENCE WITH THE INDIANS................................... 57
GENERAL MARION ON HIS FAMOUS HORSE BALL............................ 5
THE LAST SHOT.................................................................... 61
MARION DRILLING THE RAW RECRUITS...................................... 68
SERJEANT MACDONALD AND THE OLD TORY.................................. 65
THE FAMOUS POTATO DINNER................................................ 67
COLONEL CAMPBELL TAKEN PRISONER...................................... 69
MACDONALD'S MESSAGE TO WATSON ......................................... 71
MRS. MOTTE AND THE BOW AND ARROWS................................... 78
LAFAYETTE OFFERING HIS SERVICES TO FRANKLIN............... ......... 7
LAFAYETTE WOUNDED AT THE BATTLE OF BRANDYWINE..................... 77
LAFAYETTE AT THE BATTLE OF MONMOUTH .......... .............. ...... 79
LAFAYETTE'S LAST INTERVIEW WITH WASHINGTON ......... .................. 81
MAJOR GENERAL LAFAYETTE................................................. 88
LAFAYETTE'S ARRIVAL AT NEW YORK........... .......................... 85
TRIUMPHAL ARCH AT PHILADELPHIA........................................ 87
LAFAYETTE'S TOMB, PARIS .................................................... 89
WEBSTER AT HIS FATHER'S SAW-MILL ..................................... 91
WEBSTER FISHING FOR TROUT............................................... 98
WEBSTER DECLINING A CLERKSHIP............................................ 95
WEBSTER AS A STATESMAN.................................................... 97
BUNKER HILL MONUMENT.................................................... 99
THE WEBSTER DINNER AT FANEUIL HALL.................................... 101
WEBSTER'S LAST VISIT TO ELMS FARM.................................. 108
MARSHFIELD, WEBSTER'S RESIDENCE ...................................... 106




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CONTENTS AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOIS. ix

TOUNG JACKSON'S PRESENCE OF MIND....................................... i07
YOUNG JACKSON'S ESCAPE ON A RAFT...................................... 10
ANDREW JACKSON AS A JUDGE............... ........................... III
GENERAL JACKSON AND THE ACORNS ......... ................ ........ ... 118
THE YOUNG INDIAN AND JACKSON .......................................... 115
THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS...................................... ....... 117
PORTRAIT OF MAJOR GENERAL JACKSON......... ........................... 119
JACKSON'S RETIREMENT TO THE HERMITAGE ................... ............. 121
THE BIRTH-PLACE OF HENRY CLAY.................................... ..... 128
THE MILL-BOY OF THE SLASHES............................................ 125
HENRY CLAY AT THE VILLAGE SCHOOL.................................... 127
HENRY CLAY AT THE DEBATING SOCIETY .......... ............................ 129
ASHLAND, MR. CLAY'S RESIDENCE........................................... 181
HENRY CLAY THE STATESMAN............................................... 188
THE BATTLE OF LAKE OKEE-CHOKEE............. .......................... 18
CAPTURE OF GENERAL LA VEGA........................................... 187
SIEGE OF MONTEREY............................... .......................... 189
CAPITULATION OF MONTEREY............................................... 141
GENERAL TAYLOR NEVER SURRENDERS.................................... 148
GALLANT CHARGE AT BUENA VISTA....................................... 146
GENERAL TAYLOR AS A PRESIDENT......................................... 147
BATTLE OF THE KEGS........................................................ 149
THE OLD BELL OF INDEPENDENCE.......................................... 150




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GEORaG WASHINGTON'S first teacher was a tenant of his father, named
Hobby, who lived to see his pupil commander of the American armies;
and he used to boast that he had "laid the foundation of his greatness."
The manuscript school-books of Washington have been preserved, and
they indicate the natural cast of his mind.
Soon after he left school, Washington went to reside with his elder
brother, Lawrence, at his place on the Potomac River, named Mount
Vernon, in' honour of the admiral of that name.
At the age of sixteen years, he was appointed a private surveyor by
Lord Fairfax, then residing in Virginia; and in March, 1748, set out
upon his first surveying expedition.
It was a most laborious and fatiguing service. The season was
stormy, and still cold; the rivers were swollen by the recent rains, so as
to be impassable except by swimming the horses; and the forests were
pathless and trackless. But he performed his duty in such a manner as
to give perfect satisfaction to his employer, and established a high pro-
fessional reputation. He soon after received a commission as a public
surveyor, and for three years was almost constantly engaged in this
pursuit, strengthening his habits and constitution by hardships and
exposures, and increasing all the while his reputation for integrity.
energy, and ability
(10)








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WASHINGTON had gained such a high character by the time he was
twenty-one years of age, that he was selected by the Royal Governor of
Virginia to carry a letter to St. Pierre, the French commander on the
Ohio. In the discharge of this duty, he set out on the 15th of November,
1753. The patience and firmness which he displayed on this occasion,
merited and obtained a large share of applause. He expected to find
the Alleghany River frozen; but it was not, except about fifty yards
from the shore.
"There was no way of getting over but on a raft, which we set about
with but one poor hatchet, and finished just after sunsetting. We next
launched it -then went on board and set off; but before we were half
over, we were jammed in the ice in such a manner that we expected
every moment our raft to sink, and ourselves to perish. I put out my
setting-pole to try and stop the raft, that the ice might pass by, when
the rapidity of the stream threw it with such force against the pole,
that it jerked me out into ten feet water; but I fortunately saved my-
self by catching hold of one of the raft-logs. Notwithstanding all our
efforts, we could not get to either shore, but were obliged, as we were
near an island, to quit our raft and make for it. The ice was formed
so thick during the night that we found no difficulty in getting off the
island next morning, and proceeding on our journey."




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iv asjington Crossing tl) P ahwartn .



PREvIOUS to the Battle of Trenton, Washington reflected on the dis-
persed situation of the English troops, and observed, "Now is the time
to clip their wings." Urged on by the necessity of striking a blow that
might awaken the energies and revive the hopes of his country, he
formed the design of attacking the enemy at the moment he was lulled
in the lap of security, waiting for the freezing of the river.
The design was executed, so far as the elements would permit, with
success. The night was dark as pitch; the north-east wind whistled
along the shores of the Delaware, laden with freezing sleet, and the
broken ice came crashing down "the stream in masses that, as they
encountered the rocks above, shivered into fragments, with a noise that
might be heard for many miles. Neither man nor beast was out that
night, and the enemy on the opposite shore sought shelter from the storm
in the houses of the citizens of Trenton. But Washington was active.
In the dead of the night, the boats were launched on the river, and,
after incredible exertions, they reached the opposite shore. Without
waiting a moment to learn the fate of the other two divisions, which
were to co-operate in this daring adventure, he pressed forward towards
the foe, and the dawn saw him before Trenton. The guard had no time
to fire, so impetuous and unexpected was the attack. Washington
advanced upon them and took a thousand prisoners, with their arms,
and six field-pieces.



















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Waalington racingg at Sal1q fnrge.



IN the winter that the American army was stationed at Valley Forge,
near Philadelphia, the hardships endured by the soldiers were almost
incredible, and Washington continued to urge on the attention of Con-
gress the sufferings of his troops. During this period of suffering
and privation at Valley Forge, Washington received a letter from the
English Governor of New York, enclosing a resolution of Parliament to
propose a reconciliation to the Americans. Offers of pardon were made,
but no acknowledgment of independence. Addresses to the same effect
were sent by agents of Great Britain to persons of every description
throughout the country.
The inhabitants of the surrounding -country, knowing the condition
of the army, were alarmed. One of them left home, and as he was
passing thoughtfully the edge of a wood, near the camp, heard low
sounds of a voice. He paused to listen; and, looking between the
trunks of the large trees, saw Washington engaged in prayer. He
passed quietly on, that he might not disturb him; and on returning
home, told his family he knew the Americans would succeed, for their
leader did not trust in his own strength, but sought aid from the Hearer
of prayer, who promised in his Word, Call on me in the day of trouble;
I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glprify me."
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P tP $ rrtunh r of Tart carnnllis.


AFTER the arrival of the French Admiral, Count de Grasse, from
France, with twenty-five ships of the line, Cornwallis saw himself be-
sieged by a superior army, animated by the certainty of success; every
day increased his difficulties, and diminished his hopes of assistance;
new batteries were raised on all sides against him, while his own de-
fences fell, one after another; the Americans and French vied in acts of
gallantry, and at the expiration of a few days his situation became so
desperate that he was obliged to surrender on the terms offered by
General Washington, which were accepted by the English General; and,
on the 19th day of October, 1781, the whole British army marched out
of Yorktown as prisoners of war. General Lincoln was appointed by
Washington to receive the submission of the enemy, in the same manner
in which Cornwallis had received that of the Americans on the 12th of
May, 1780, at Charleston.
While the troops of Cornwallis were marching out of the town, with
cased colours and drums beating the sad sound of defeat, Washington
said to his men, "My brave fellows, let no sensation of satisfaction for
the triumph you have gained, induce you to insult a fallen enemy; let
no shouting, no clamorous huzzaing, increase their mortification. It is
a sufficient satisfaction to us that we witness their humiliation. Pos-
terity will 'huzza for us "










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fasiiungton's 'tmie Monnnut Prrnu.


SooN after the final evacuation of New York by the British, which
occurred on the 25th of November, 1782, and at the close of the general
festivities which followed the entry of the American army into that city,
Washington began to prepare for revisiting his home at Mount Vernon,
which lie had not seen from the time on which he left it to take the
command of the army. The mansion is pleasantly situated in the beau-
tiul county of Fairfax, Virginia, at the top of a small steep hill from
the edge of a wild ravine, on the south bank of the Potomac River.
The most impressive and the most painful duty before him was to
take leave of his old companions in.arms. On the 4th of December, at
twelve o'clock, they assembled, by his request, at the hotel in which he
lodged, where in a few minutes they were met by their general. Few
words passed, for their hearts were too ftll to speak. Washington filled
a glass of wine, turned to his fellow-soldiers, and, in a voice almost
choked with his emotions, addressed them in these noble and affecting
words: "With a heart full of love and gratitude, I now take leave of
you. I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous
and happy as your former ones have been glorious and honourable."
Having pledged himself to them all, he added, I cannot come to each
of you to take my leave, but shall be obliged if each of you would come
and take me by the hand," which was complied with; General Knox
taking the lead, who- was followed by all the officers present.
S(20)






















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CCUI ^-LI -~--~I------^ ^- ^II ^~-^CU-~IIICCI CIIYI I
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WHEx Washington had resigned the title of Commander-in-chief, he
took that of private citizen, and retired to his peaceful home. The
satisfaction he felt in doing so was expressed in a letter to his friend
Lafayette, who had returned to France soon after the surrender of Corn-
wallis. "At length," he wrote, "I have become a private citizen, on
the banks of the Potomac, and under the shade of my 'own vine and my
own fig-tree,' and free from the bustle of a camp and the busy cares of
public life. I have not only retired from all public employment, but
am retiring within myself, and shall be able to view the solitary walk,
and tread the paths of private life, with heartfelt satisfaction."
He was at this time fifty-one years of age, with a vigorous frame, and
a constitution unbroken by the vicissitudes of a hard service of eight
arduous years. His pleasure was in the performance of his duties. His
employment was agriculture.
Every morning he was abroad in the fields, directing his labourers,
and seeing that they had complied with his instructions. His eye was
everywhere, and as those who performed their duties never failed of being
rewarded by his approbation, so those who neglected them were sure of
a reprimand. He considered indulgence to his dependants, when carried
to the extent of permitting idleness or offence, as equally unjust to him-
self and injurious to them. He was a kind master to the good, a strict
disciplinarian to the bad, and he was both feared and loved by all with-
in the sphere of his domestic influence.




































































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"THIS structure consists simply of an excavation made partly in the
Aide of a steep, sloping hill, which has a southern exposure upon a thickly-
wooded dell. The walls are built of brick, and arched over at the height
of eight feet above the level of the ground. The front of the tomb is
rough-cast, and has a plain iron door, inserted in a strong freestone case-
ment; over the door is placed a sculptured stone panel, upon which are
inscribed these impressive words:
"I AM THE RESSURRECTION AND TIIE LIFE; HE
THAT BELIEVETII IN ME, THOUGH HE
WERE DEAD, YET SHALL HE LIVE."
At a small distance from the walls of the tomb, on all sides, there is a
surrounding enclosure of brick-work, elevated to a height of twelve feet,
and guarded in front with an iron gateway, opening several feet in ad-
vance of the vault door. This gateway is flanked with pilasters, sur-
mounted by a stone cornice and coping, covering a pointed gothic arch,
over which is sculptured, upon a plain slab, inserted in the brick-work:
WITHIN THIS ENCLOSURE BEST THE REMAINS
OF GENERAL GEORGE WASI[NGTON.-
The sarcophagus, which now incloses the sacred dust of the Great
Founder, owes its origin to the patriotism and public spirit of a mechanic
of Philadelphia. Early in 1837, Major Lewis, surviving executor of
Washington's will, applied to John Struthers, to execute a suitable marble
coffin to inclose these interesting remains. In answer to this application,
[r. Struthers requested permission to execute, at his own cost, a sarco-
ibagus which he hoped might be deemed worthy of so honourable a dis-
tinction. This permission was cheerfully accorded, and in August of
the same year, the work was most creditably completed.


arrad---~gy
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BENJAMIN FRANKUN was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 17th of
January, 1706.
The name Franklin was most probably assumed by his English ances-
tors when others took surnames, all over the kingdom, which was about
the commencement of the fourteenth century.
Franklin's uncle, Benjamin, after whom he was named, appears to
have been the only one of his father's connexions who followed him to
America. He had a great affection for his little namesake, and as this
sentiment on the part of the uncle was reciprocated with respect by the
nephew, Uncle Benjamin no doubt had much influence in the formation
of the future philosopher.
Franklin was originally intended for the ministry; his early readiness
in learning, and the advice of friends, including his Uncle Benjamin,
determining his father upon that course with him. He was accordingly
placed at eight years of age at a grammar school, where he made rapid
progress; but the expense of a college education was found to be so great,
that he was taken home by his father to help him in his business, which
was that of a soapboiler and tallow-chandler. As Benjamin was young
and light, he was employed in the easier work, such as cutting wicks,
killing moulds, attending the shop, and "going of errands." At this
employment, though he very much disliked it, he remained for about
two years.















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THE inclination which Benjamin had shown for books and reading,
and the failure to fix upon any other occupation for him, determined his
father to make him a, printer. He accepted the offer of an apprentice-
ship to his brother James, as he preferred printing to the business of his
father.
At the early age of twelve years his indentures were signed, by which
he agreed to remain with his brother until he was one-and-twenty.
Franklin's time for improvement while in the printing-office was
necessarily brief; but, by untiring application during all his spare hours,
he accomplished wonders yet no more than any studious youth, so dis-
posed, may do. His occupation gave him more access to books than he
hitherto enjoyed, both by his acquaintance with other apprentices, and
by the friendship of gentlemen, to whom his studious habits and correct
deportment recommended him. Of these advantages he was careful to
avail himself; and in the selection of books he showed a judgment and
wisdom far beyond his years, reading and studying those chiefly which
would repair the deficiencies in his education. Among the books which
he early read were, Bunyan's Works, Burton's Historical Collections,
Plutarch's Lives, De Foe's Essay on Prqjects, Locke on the Understand-
ing, and a treatise of Dr. Mather's, entitled An Essay to do Good." His
Irother, in 1721, commenced the publication of a newspaper, the New
England Courant, the fourth which had appeared in America. This
seemed to open a new era in our young philosopher's life.
(28)
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franklin's first Irtiual in jbilnhlplia.



FINKLIN, after working some time with his brother James, resolved
on leaving him and seeking employment elsewhere. New York being the
nearest place where there was a printing-office, he turned his attention
towards that city, and arrived there in October, 1723, when only 17 years
of age. Failing to find employment there, and being told by a Mr. Brad-
ford, who formerly lived in Philadelphia, and carried on the printing
there, that his son, who was a printer also, had an office in Philadelphia,
and had just lost his principal hand by death,our young adventurer
pushed at once for Philadelphia, and after a series of mishaps he arrived
in the city; his first appearance is best told in his own words:
I walked towards the top of the street, gazing about till near Market
Street, where I met a boy with bread. I had often made a meal of dry
bread, and inquiring where he had bought it, I went immediately to the
baker's he directed me to. I asked for biscuits, meaning such as we had
at Boston; that sort, it seems, was not made in Philadelphia. 1 then
asked for a three-penny loaf, and was told they had none. Not knowing
the different prices, nor the names of the different sorts of bread, I told
him to give me three-penny worth of any sort. He gave me accordingly
three great puffy rolls. I was surprised at the quantity, but took it,
and having no room in my pockets, walked off with a roll under each
arm, and eating the other."
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franklin 1iis nin Porter.




IN the summer of the year 1730, Franklin opened in the city of Phila-
delphia a small stationery store, and offered for sale in it legal blanks of
all kinds, the most correct and neat that had ever been got up for the
profession. The result of this new business soon enabled him to com-
mence paying off a debt he had incurred in the purchase of his printing-
office. His habits were industrious and frugal, avoiding every thing that
had an appearance of idleness and dissipation, dressed plainly, was never
seen at places of idle diversion, wasted no time in hunting and fishing,
and was not above trundling his purchase of stock for his store home on
a wheelbarrow, when it was convenient or necessary. His favourite
source of recreation, books, instructed as well as amused him; and while
reading did not expose him to the public charge of idleness, he took care
that it did not really interfere with his industry, and was careful to be
punctual in keeping his engagements. In this manner, winning and
keeping public confidence, he went on thriving daily.
Franklin married on the first day of September, 1730, and commenced
bis matrimonial life with the old English proverb in view that says, "He
St~ would thrive, must ask his wife," who, as good luck would have it,
was as frugal as himself, assisting him in folding and stitching pam-
phlets, tending shop, and purchasing old linen rags for paper-making, &c.
(82)




p~w















PHILADELPHIA CITY has become celebrated for its Public Institutes, and
none among them has added more to its celebrity than the Philadelphia
Library, founded by Benjamin Franklin. This venerable-looking building,
with a niche in its front, in which stands a statue of its founder, placed
there in 1792, by the munificence of William Bingham, Esq., a citizen of
Philadelphia, was the first piece of sculpture of so large a size which
had been seen in America. The Sage is represented standing, with his
right arm resting upon a pile of books, and holding in his right hand an
inverted sceptre, indicating his anti-monarchical and republican principles.
This Library afforded Franklin the means of improvement, by constant
study, for which he had set apart an hour or two each day, and was the
only amusement which he permitted himself. Although his situation now
daily grew easier, his original habits of frugality continued. His father,
in his youth, had frequently repeated to him the saying of Solomon:
"Seest thou a man diligent in his calling? He shall stand before kings, he
shall not stand before mean men." From this saying, early impressed upon
his mind, Franklin considered industry as a means of obtaining wealth
and distinction, which encouraged him; though he did not think that he
should literally stand before kings, which afterward happened. Franklin
stood in his life beforefive, and sat down with one, the king of Denmark,
to dinner.
(84)


















AMWWM m



.. . .. . .








I franklin n lailnsclirr.


1N 1749, Franklin first suggested his theory, explaining the phenomena
of thunder-gusts and the aurora-borealis upon electrical principles; and,
in the same year, conceived the bold and grand idea of actually drawing
down the lightning by sharp-pointed rods. His original design was, to
place an insulated pointed rod upon some high tower, for the trial of the
experiment; but there was at this time no tower in Philadelphia which
would serve the purpose. At length the thought of a kite occurred to
him. He prepared one of silk, as better adapted to withstand the rain
than paper. To the upright stick of the kite an iron rod was affixed.
The string was hempen twine, except the lower end, which was silk, and
where the twine terminated a key was attached.
With this apparatus he proceeded to the fields, when he perceived a
thunder-gust approaching. He was accompanied only by his son; for
the experiment was one so daring, and, if it failed, would be pronounced
so foolish, that he was reluctant to disclose his purpose. The experiment
was to test the truth of what he had long taught, relative to the theory
of electricity, and its identity with lightning.
The kite was raised. A thunder-cloud passed over it-still there were
no signs of electricity. Doubts and despair of the result which he had
been labouring to establish came over him, when suddenly he observed
the fibres of the hempen string bristling up in an erect position. Ho
presented his knuckle to the key, and repeated sparks were drawn from
it The experiment was completely successful, and the theory established
which made Franklin's name immortal.



.......... (se)




a


I .09







franklin signs tbe Itelaration of Itpnuten.

IN the controversy between Great Britain and her North American
colonies, Franklin was, from the first, one. of the advocates of early action,
and was appointed, with Jefferson, John Adams, Sherman, and Livingston,
upon the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence. The
paper was from the pen of Jefferson, and received in committee only a few
verbal alterations, suggested by Franklin and Adams. Congress debated
upon it three days, and in that time made nearly a hundred verbal and
other alterations, and struck out two entire clauses. The curious reader
who desires to compare the Declaration as reported, with the paper as
adopted, will find the original draft, as preserved by Jefferson, printed in
a parallel column with the Declaration, in the notes to the first volume
of Marshall's Life of Washington.
There is a letter of Franklin, written.in 1775, which is remarkable, no
less for its strong American and patriotic feeling, and its sacrifice of pri-
vate friendships to the public cause, than for the epigrammatic neatness
of its conclusion. It was addressed to his old friend, Mr. Strahan, and is
as follows:
"Phltada. July 5th, 1775.
"MR STRAHAN:-
"You are a Member of Parliament, and one of that majority which has
doomed my country to destruction. You have begun to burn our towns,
and murder our people. Look upon your hands They are stained with
the blood of your relations! You and I were long friends; you are now
my enemy, and I am
"Yours,
B. FRANKUN."
(88)










I I






I IN`














IN October, 1776, the United States gave another proof of the wisdom
which guided their councils in the appointment of Dr. Franklin at the
head of a commission to transact the business of the United States at
the Court of France. He embarked for France in the sloop of war
Reprisal, Captain Wickes. on the 27th of October, taking with him his
two grandsons, William Temple Franklin, and Benjamin Franklin Bache.
Before leaving Philadelphia he raised all the money he could command,
between three and four thousand pounds, and placed it, as a loan, at the
disposal of Congress.
This was indeed a signal mark of his patriotism, and of his confidence
in the success of the stand taken by his countrymen. In his 71st year,
he might reasonably have pleaded age and infirmity as reasons for
remaining at home. A sea voyage was not,.in 1776, the every-day affair
that it now is; and to the ordinary dangers and inconveniences of the
passage, were to be added the risk of capture, and the ignominious treat-
ment which the "factious fellow," Franklin, would have received, had he
fallen into the power of the enemy at this early period of the "rebellion,"
as it was, as yet, universally termed.
In the autumn of 1778, the commission to France was dissolved, and
Franklin, in his 73d year, was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary, with-
out a Secretary of Legation, so that the multifarious duties of the office had
, to be done with such assistance as could be rendered by his grandson.
(40)


irauklin 4e Vattsmau.




kF `''- ~i .,,-.--~-~,inlc~sF 1










^ min instrnm h bg jis lotj)n.



WILLIAM PENN was born in London, October, 1644; his father was a
naval officer, his son being born about the date of his first promotion, and
growing in years as the father increased in reputation and advanced in
honour.
At the age of fifteen [1659], he was entered a gentleman-commoner at
Christ's Church, Oxford. He was, even at this tender age, ripe in intel-
lect and forward in his classical attainments. But he had enjoyed, pre-
viously to his entering at Oxford, superior advantages for improvement;
first at Chigwell Grammar School, and then by the joint benefit of a
private seminary near his father's residence, and a special tutor in his
father's house. And it is worthy of-notice, that the sound sense and
discretion which appeared in William Penn's after-life were early de-
veloped; for while his progress in his studies proves his application to
his books, he secured and promoted his health by due attention to inno-
cent recreation, and manly out-door exercises. Indeed, in all respects,
his character may be said to have been early formed by his mother.
Serious and thoughtful even from infancy, he was the subject of strong
religious impressions before his twelfth year; and these appear never to
have been effaced, or even to have been dimmed, during an after-life
marked by so many labours, so many various scenes, and so prominent
a place among the illustrious men of his times.




'I --
























I I
C 2














.4








l nun's M otjer visits 1imt in Prison.

SHORTLY after William Penn had attained his majority, and with the
natural feeling of youth, upon reaching what is generally looked forward
to with more impatience than any era in life, he chose serious companions,
and shortly afterwards became a patron and advocate of the society of
Friends, and hesitated no longer what he believed to be his duty on the
one hand, and the dictates of expediency on the other. He visited Cork,
where his old friend, Thomas Loe, was then preaching, and attended on the
religious meetings of the Friends whenever opportunity presented; but
he does not yet appear to have assumed their costume, or to have
adopted all their peculiarities. A further event was necessary to confirm
him, as an absolute and uncompromising "Quaker," and it was not long
wanting, in the circumstance which has. confirmed the new members of
almost every sect, since sects began persecution.
In the month of September, 1687, "William Penn was present at a
meeting of the Friends, which was broken up by the police; and Penn,
with a number of others, committed to prison under the proclamation
against "tumultuous assemblies." He was shortly released, but soon
commenced a controversy with a Presbyterian minister, and the attempt
was made to conduct it publicly in the congregation; but as the Friends
deemed they were not allowed a fair hearing, Penn published his views
through the press; but that part of his book relating to the Trinity, gave
offence to the authorities, and Penn was committed to the Tower. Here
he spent seven months, and was not allowed to hold personal intercourse
with his friends. Pen and ink were however granted him.
























--------- --










i '


/ -
.. . .. . . . . . . . . . .









T HU lauming at Ctsttr.


IN October, 1682, William Penn embarked at Deal for his North
American possessions, in the ship Welcome; there were, besides himself,
about a hundred passengers, principally of his own religious denomination.
The passage occupied about two months, Penn arriving at Newcastle
on the 27th of October, 1682. Some historians have given other dates,
but that the above is correct appears from the record of Newcastle. The
entry there is: "On the 27th day of October, 1682, arrived before the
town of New Castle from England." This place was laid out by the
Swedes fifty years prior to Penn's arrival, and was originally called
Stockholm; and it received four or five other titles under different dynas-
ties, before the present name was adopted. As Penn landed, he was
received with acclamations by the people, to whom through his connexion
with West Jersey he was already well known by reputation, and beloved
for his peaceful and just character.
The ship, with its other passengers, proceeded up the river: Penn
remained at Newcastle, and on the day after his arrival, the 28th, called
a meeting of the magistrates and others in the Court House, and took
formal possession of the town and the country.
From Newcastle, Penn soon proceeded to Upland, now Chester. This
place was originally peopled by Swedes, but many Friends had found
their way to it from New Jersey. The first General Assembly was called
here, and indeed the opinion and wish were prevalent among the early
emigrants, that it should be the seat of government of the Colony.
(46)

















"^V !
















Sr










. .I.









S nn's erPat mitl tjj gnian s.


Turs celebrated treaty with the Indians, (the only one between these
l~ople and the Christians which was not ratified by an oath and that
was never broken), took place in 1682, in Philadelphia, at a place then
called Shackamaxon. The leaders on both sides approached the great
elm, afterward celebrated as the Treaty Tree. William Penn wore a
sky-blue sash of silk net-work, not unlike a military officer's, except in
colour. Before him were carried various articles of merchandise, which,
as they approached the Sachems, were spread upon the ground. On his
right hand was Colonel Markham, his secretary, who had preceded him,
to this country; and on his left, his friend Pearson. A company of
Friends followed, and the deputation on.the part of the white nan bore
thus to the Indians the noble aspect of peace and confidence.
Penn held in his hand a roll of parchment, containing the Confirma-
tion of the Treaty of Purchase and Amity, as Clarkson terms it.
The Treaty Tree stood until the 3d of March, 1810, when it was blown
down in a gale. The girth or circumference of the trunk was twenty-
four feet, and its age, as indicated by the circles of wood, was 283 years.
The Penn Society caused the site of the tree to be marked by a marble
monument, which bears the following inscriptions: "Treaty Ground of
William Penn and the Indian Nations, 1682. Unbroken Faith."-" Wil-
lam Penn, Born 1644, Died 1718."-" Placed by the Penn Society, A. D.
1827, to mark the site of the Great Elm Tree."-" Pennsylvania, Founded,
1681, by Deeds of Peace."















JL 4








'^nn's first Cottagp in jlhlpi


DujuNx Penn's visit to the province in 1700, he gave a house, with the
half-square in which it was situated, to his daughter Lretitia; and from
her it afterward bore the name by which it has since been known. Its
cellar was the first dug in Philadelphia; and within its walls the busi-
ness of the Province and town was for many years transacted. If we
would contemplate this Ltetitia House in its first relations, we should
consider it as having an open area to the river, the whole width of the
half square, with here and there retained an ornamental clump of forest
trees and shrubbery, on either side of an avenue, leading out to the Front
Street; having a garden of fruit trees on the Second Street side, and on
Second Street, the Governor's Gate, so called. This passage was the
carriage-way, by which vehicles passed on the north side of the house
round to the east, or river front. The lot on which the house stood was
called "The Governor's Lot," until after William Penn gave the estate
to his daughter, which he did not do till he had ceased himself to use it
as a residence. It was many years afterward, before the court received
her name, by which it has been since known. The Governor's Gate,"
was the place at which proclamations, &c. were read, and official notices
promulgated.
This time-honoured dwelling still stands in Laetitia court, and suggests
many reflections on the difference between the Philadelphia of that
early period, and the magnificent city of seventy thousand houses which
now stretches miles away beyond that humble nucleus.








l



c i




i ,










r ortrait if W illiam tnu as a prv arjtr.



PENN's opportunities were favourable in his youth, and he sedulously
improved by travel and intercourse with the great, and with the learned
and accomplished, which conferred ease upon his manners, and gave him
a courtly address; he was not deficient in repartee, or in strength of
language. His writings were remarkable for the quotation of apposite
facts and illustrations; in his sermons he had a happy method of making
himself intelligible by well-selected comparisons and images. In his
manners, particularly to those who were less gifted, or less fortunate than
himself, he was full of humility and kindness. Sensitive himself, he was
ever careful of the feelings of others, and studious to encourage the diffi-
dent and those who were young in the ministry. As a preacher he drew
immense crowds to hear him. It is said of him that his language was
simple, and easy to be comprehended, as his desire was more to be
understood, than to distinguish himself as a learned man. In conversa-
tion he had a disposition to humour and facetiousness. In fine, his
natural parts, and kindness of heart, aided by knowledge of books and
knowledge of men, all being harmonized by his simplicity of character,
and modesty, strengthened by self-respect and self-reliance, won golden
opinions from all who heard him as a speaker, or conversed with him as
a companion.
L (52)










II





.11 II










Stnn's 1iinnat Hmwnc, !jili tlpji .



WILLAM PENN labored untiringly for the improvement and increase
of Philadelphia. The beautiful metropolis of Pennsylvania bears the
impress of his well-ordered-mind in traces which time can never efface.
Penn seems to have been one of those sagacious and far-seeing men who
anticipated and adopted principles which were only dimly seen by the
best of his contemporaries. In advance of the age in which he lived, his
improvements on ancient customs have been endorsed by the experience
of succeeding generations; and, as the city grows older, its inhabitants
will strive rather to restore what Penn designed than to obliterate. The
distinctive characteristics of Philadelphia have ceased to be its peculi-
arities, because other cities and towns adopt its model; as the highly
respectable society, of which he iwas so distinguished a member, have
ceased to be so distinctly marked as a lbod since many of their leading
points, now universally admitted, are held in common by all good
citizens. In "circumstances" as he advised his Legislature they may
yield to "essentials," but the essential "peace on earth and good will to
.men," is every day bringing classes and sects more into union. And, to
adopt their own phraseology, Friends have borne able testimony to it."
Penn's private mansion was erected prior to 1700, for we find by
history that he and his family occupied it during his second visit in that
year. In it, John Penn, "The American," was born.
(M)




~ R;Qrr-- ~--~ T~n~l'-jk~p~~S~l` ~ *nqF7pP "










nn in ronfmrunrt mith tlj Sin ns.



IN 1701, Penn had two conferences or treaties with the representatives
and chiefs of Indian Tribes, one of which was held at Philadelphia, and
the other at Pennsbury, his country-seat. At these treaties the old
terms of friendship and kind intercourse were revived. The best evi-
dence of the sincerity and fair dealing of the Founder with the Indians,
is afforded in the fact that "Onas," as they translated his name, ever
held a high place in the regard of the Red men, both contemporary and
traditional. His friends were no less their favourites, and the moral
influence which he exerted over the races and the benefit and advantage
of the rules he established for their intercourse, have preserved Pennsyl-
vania's early annals from the Indian Wars which figure so prominently
in other colonial histories.
It was not until a later period, when the governmentof Pennsylvania
passed into other hands, and when a less scrupulous race of settlers came
into contact with the Indians on the borders of the commonwealth, that
scenes of bloodshed and conflagration, such as were not uncommon with
the adjoining settlements from a very early epoch, sullied also the annals
of this once peaceful State--not, perhaps, because her rulers were dis-
posed to oppress the Indians, but by reason of the greater difficulty of
cotrolling the rough pioneers who advanced into the wilderness so far as
to be in a manner beyond the reach of law.
(Ce)


- I




W-qV p -- "1 I










tutral m arion on )is famous Jjrst %all.



FRANCIS MARION, whose name is as intimately connected with the
romance and adventure of the American Revolution, as that of Bruce o0
of Wallace with the marvels of the Scottish annals, was of French extrac-
tion, born in Winyah, near Georgetown, in 1732, was a puny little fellow,
very delicate and insignificant until he reached his twelfth year. In
that year, either the lad's own love of adventure, or the desire of his
parents that he should try change of scene for the improvement of his
health, or both causes combined, led to his attempting a trip to the West
Indies. After the result of the voyage he abandoned all idea of becoming
a sailor. For the next twelve or fourteen years he was content with the
tranquil life of a planter, though when the occasion and opportunity for
more active life presented, lie was not backward in improving them.
Marion first appeared as a warrior in the Indian campaigns of 1759
and 1761, and was an active participant in many of the Indian battles
of that time; from then till the breaking out of the Revolution, we hear
nothing of the life of Marion, except that he was jointly engaged as a
planter on the reception of the news of the battle of Lexington. He
takes an active part, and finally becomes one of the leading spirits of
the war. Marion rode, during a great part of his campaign, a famous
horse named "Ball," in compliment of his former owner, a loyalist, Cap-
tain Ball.




i~'~ ~r~~-:~(mni~rin~~








|j Tgot SIjnt.


IN March, 1776, the second regiment, under Col. Moultrie, was ordered
to take post on Sullivan's Island, at the entrance of Charleston Harbour.
The fort, when the regiment entered, existed only in name, though un-
finished when the British fleet appeared at the entrance of the harbour.
The garrison of the fort consisted of four hundred and thirty-five men.
The canyon mounted were thirty-one in number; nine French twenty-
sixes, six English eighteens, nine twelve, and seven nine-pounders.
The British fleet consisted of nine vessels, under command of Sir Peter
Parker. Of these, two were fifty-gun ships, five carried twenty-eight
guns each, and one twenty-six; the other was a bomb-vessel. On the
20th of June, these vessels anchored before the fort, with springs on their
cables, and commenced a bombardment. The Americans, on this, as on
other occasions, conducted themselves like men who were in arms not for
hire, but in defence of their country.
The last shot on this day is ascribed to Marion. Just at sunset, as
the British ships were slipping their cables, and moving out of the range
of fire from the fort, a cannon having just been charged, Marion took the
match, and caused the piece to be aimed at the Commodore's ship. The
ball entered the cabin, where two young officers were taking some re-
freshment, and killing both, glanced thence upon the main deck, where,
in its course, it killed three sailors, and then passed through the side of
the vessel into the sea. This remarkable occurrence was narrated by
some sailors who deserted from the commodore's vessel on the night
following the engagement




p--i *-~-r --;~ -i --P: Ca~~F7











































. . .. . . . .















. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . .. . .












%nm0rion 13rilling tJK lnm n nm its.



IN January, 1780, the greater part of the American troops were with-
drawn to Charleston, South Carolina, a place which it was considered of
great consequence to preserve from the enemy. As it was now seriously
threatened with attack, a camp was established at Bacon's Bridge, on
Ashley River, for the reception of the militia, who had been summoned
for the defence of the capital of the State. Hither Marion was despatched
to drill and discipline the new recruits; for in this description of service
he was unexcelled. He could enter into their feelings, and appreciate
their conduct; and, while he did iot exact impossibilities of them, he led
them to perform feats which, at this day, seem almost incredible. He
knew, understood and reconciled himself to the difference between citizen
volunteers and regularly trained soldiers; and was celebrated for what
was called his "patience wih the militia." In other words, he treated
them as men; while it is generally the case with military officers that
they regard the militia with contempt.
It is related by Major Horry, that when, at one time, he complained
of his men, Marion answered with a smile: "Pshaw I It is because you
do not understand the management of them. You command militia; it
will not do to expect too much from this sort of soldiers."




*-~ F- ,M












SrjPant 3arhs nalk -ni tje dlii iart.



SOMETIME during the American Revolution, artifice or plunder was
resorted to against wealthy Tories on private account. Such was the
trick played by a serjeant in Marion's Brigade, a young Scot named
Macdonald. He went to a wealthy and well-known Tory, who resided
near Tarleton's encampment, and, representing himself to be a serjeant
in Tarleton's legion, bearing a message from his commander, was received
with a profusion of compliments, and great civility. It was considered
a high honour by the wealthy loyalists to be remembered in so dis-
tinguished a manner by the British officer. Macdonald then, with un-
blushing effrontery, stated that Colonel Tarleton, knowing the excellent
character of his stables, had sent, with-his compliments, for one of his
best horses, for the Colonel's own riding. This was a testimonial alike
to his loyalty and to his knowledge in horse-flesh," which the loyalist
could not withstand; and, as the serjeant took pains to make the mes-
sage sufficiently adulatory to the distinguished devotion of the Tory to
the royal cause, the dupe gave him his very best, his own favourite
steed, and added a new saddle and splendid equipment. The serjeant
was furthermore feasted with a hot and comfortable breakfast--a rare
tmest to one of Marion's men -and then despatched with a message to
Tatetoh, full of the heartiest thanks for his consideration.




-.7 fw - 7 1- :- -r T "' -:,, .- -- "' -- ra!











'go famons oftatn minirm.



IT .was at the American encampment on Snow's Island that the famous
Potato dinner took place. The account of this is one of the most pleasant
legends of the Revolution, and has been celebrated throughout the land
in song and story. It forms the subject of one of our most agreeable
national pictures. It has been circulated in various forms as an engrav-
ing, being first published by the Art Union, and never fails to please.
The story is, that a British officer arrived at Marion's encampment with
a flag of truce, to negotiate an exchange of prisoners. His business
finished, he was about to depart, when Marion pressed him to remain
and share his dinner. The guest looked round, and perceived a fire, but
no tokens of anything in the way of a banquet. Curiosity, or politeness,
or both motives, induced him to accept the invitation; and Marion then
directed one of the men to serve the repast.
The plate on which the American general's dinner was served was a
clean piece of bark, and the viands themselves, which the man proceeded
to unearth from among the glowing ashes, were tolerably simple, being
neither more nor less than sweet potatoes, baked to a nicety. The
General ate heartily, pressing his guest to follow his example. The
stranger was at once awed and surprised at what he had seen, and for-
gave the dinner in the pleasure he received at being the guest of a soldier
so renowned as General Marion.
(66)














































~I











Cnlnel Caomi yhell taken 'rionPr.



Pusvious to the battle of Cowpens, one of the most important victories
to the Americans during the Revolution, a plan was laid to capture
Georgetown by surprise at midnight; the troops under Marion were
moved near the town unperceived. At midnight the various bodies
rushed into the town according to the plan concerted; but as some of
them were not in time to make the attack simultaneous, the enemy
retained possession of the fort or citadel. The Americans had no ord-
nance to carry the defences; and nothing was left them but to retreat,
after having driven the enemy into their works. Several of the British
were killed, and among them one or two officers. One of the British
officers, named Crookshanks, was saved by his betrothed. He had rushed
out into the piazza of the house in which le lodged, and discharged his
pistol among the assailants. At the moment when their weapons were
directed against him, the young lady rushed into the fray, and throwing
her arns round his neck, cried out, "01 save Major Crookshanks I"
Crookshanks surrendered himself a prisoner, and his parole was taken
qpon the spot; and the Americans pushed on to further surprises.
Colonel Campbell, the commander of the post, was taken prisoner in
lhi bed, and admitted to parole. Had the fort at the first onset been
carried by the byonet before the enemy had time to prepare themselves
ftr hesitance, the victory would have been signal and complete.
(68)













iji
. . ,,. . . .. . .
':l ,
L''Bb ^











3%arhonal's 3T0gnR tu '1iatsan.



SERJEANT MACDONAL, who was attached to Marion's Brigade during the
American Revolution, had the misfortune, in the hurried movements in
those days, to leave a knapsack, containing his entire wardrobe, where it
fell into the hands of the enemy. It so happened that about that time
a flag of truce came from Colonel Watson requesting a passport for
Lieutenant Torriano, a wounded officer, to Charleston; this General
Marion readily granted by the same flag which carried back Torriano's
passport. Serjeant Macdonald sent a curious message to Watson, which
was, that unless his wardrobe was .returned to him he should, in retalia-
tion, kill eight of his men I Colonel Watson was disposed to treat the
message with contempt; but from what- lie had heard of the seijeant,
and from the representations of his officers of the daring character of the
man, the British commander was induced to comply with the request.
When the clothes appeared, Macdonald, to amuse himself still further
with the irritation of the British officer, directed the bearer to say to
Colonel Watson, "Now I will only kill four."
It is not, however, to be supposed that any American officer would
really have carried into execution so barbarous an act as was here
threatened. The incident only shows what an impression was made by
the determined character of the man upon the British officer.
(70)

i'^
























F






i












3lIr aotte anl ti e tam alt Irrm s.




IN the month of May, 1781, General Marion was engaged in the reduc-
tion of Fort Motte. This was an important dep6t on the route from
Charleston to Camden, and was a mansion-house belonging to Mrs. Motte,
appropriated by the British, and surrounded with defences. It had a
garrison of about two hundred men. On the 20th of May, Marion sum-
moned it to surrender; and the British commander, Colonel McPherson,
declared his determination to stand a siege. He was the more encouraged
to do this, as Lord Rawdon, having abandoned and fired Camden, was
advancing to the relief .of the fort. Nay, his fires at night, as he
encamped, were discerned. Marion saw that there was no time for
battering down the defences with his single six-pounder. He resorted
to the expedient of firing the house. To the immortal honour of the
lady who owned it, Mrs. Motte, it is related that she not only cheerfully
assented to the destruction of her house, but furnished the implements,
a bow and arrows, with which it was effected. They were shot at the
roof, with combustibles attached, and the building was fired in three
places. McPherson sent parties to the roof to stay the flames; but
these were soon driven down by Marion's six-pounder, and the garrison
begged for quarter, which was accorded to them.
















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IN 1774, Lafayette married Anastasie, Countess of Noailles, and the
union proved in every respect a most happy one, the lady being in all
things worthy of the hero to whom she was united. His rank, and illus-
trious family and connections, with his personal merits and favour with
the Court, opened to him a ready path to royal preferment. But for a
life of inglorious pageantry he had no taste; and early as he was exposed
to the atmosphere of temptation, the boy resisted its wiles with the
prudence of the sage, and declined appointments tendered to him un-
solicited, which others would have thade every sacrifice to win.
The circumstance which first drew Lafayette's attention to the cause
of freedom in America, has been left on record by the hero himself.
While stationed in the citadel of Metz, being then only eighteen years of
age, he was thrown into the society of an English nobleman, the Duke
of Gloucester, who was at that time an exile from England on account
of a marriage which he had contracted. The information which Lafayette
received from the Duke of Gloucester, respecting the state of the noble
contest in which the Americans were engaged, fired his mind with a
strong sympathy in the cause, and a desire to participate in the contest
Leaving Metz for Paris, he sought an interview with Dr. Franklin, who
had just arrived, and after a full conference offered his services to the
American cause, the result of which is known to every reader of history.
(74)


































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THE battle of Brandywine took place on the 11th of September, 1777.
Intelligence having been received that the British army was in motion
upon the direct road to cross Chadd's Ford, on the Brandywine, the
Americais were immediately posted to dispute that passage. After
some skirmishing, the British troops under Cornwallis fell on the Ameri-
cans with great impetuosity, and the latter defended themselves for
some time with such resolution that the result was quite doubtful. The
American troops, after breaking, were several times rallied. In this
retreat, the French officers, and Lafayette particularly, rendered excellent
service. With a disregard of life which amounted almost to a fault, he
exposed himself in rallying the troops, and encouraging them by his
example; and notwithstanding he received a wound in the leg, he con-
tinued at his post, cheering the troops by his conduct as a soldier, and
by his voice as a general, as long as resistance could be of any service.
The British troops engaged in this battle could not have been much
less than eighteen thousand veteran soldiers. The American force has
been stated at fifteen, but on account of the badness and deficiency of
-arms and munitions, the effective American force was between eleven and
twelve thousand men only.
(76)
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AN interesting incident occurred during the Battle of Monmouth,
which was fought in June, 1778, which reflects high honour upon Sir
Henry Clinton, as well as upon the courage and humanity of Lafayette.
The Marquis, with twenty men, advanced toward a British battery to
reconnoitre. A shot killed his aid-de-camp at his side. The party broke
and fled precipitately; but Lafayette did not leave the wounded man till
he had ascertained that his wound was mortal, and received his dying
words. Sir Henry, who knew Lafayette by his white horse, prevented
the gunners from firing upon him, and thus preserved his life. Lafayette,
strong perhaps in the consciousness of a great mind. which challenges
the forbearance of an enemy while in the performance of the duties of
humanity, slowly followed his party, who had retreated beyond the reach
of the pieces.
It was in the early part of the year that news arrived of a treaty being
concluded between France and the United States. Lafayette was, of
course, one of the first in the American army who received the intelli-
gence, and with the eloquent enthusiasm of his countrymen, he embraced
Washington in a transport of joy, mingled with tears: "The king, my
master, has acknowledged your independence, and entered into an
alliance with you for its establishment!"
(78)



























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Tafleftjrt eo t [ nted M im tuitj Iw aoiington.



IN the summer of 1784, Lafayette determined to pay America another
visit, to observe the fruits, in peace, of the political independence which
he had aided to secure. To this he was moved by his private friend-
ships, as well as by his public attachments., After the establishment of
peace he had not intermitted his disinterested labours, not only for the
national interests of America, but for the advantage of individual
citizens, whenever opportunity presented. Lafayette arrived at New
York on the 4th of August. As soon as his arrival was known, all the
officers who had served under him luring the war, the citizens who had
the pleasure of his acquaintance, and the thousands who knew him by
reputation, hastened to meet and bid him welcome. On the day after
his arrival, he was invited to a splendid entertainment, at which the
officers appeared in the uniform which they had laid aside with the war.
Anxious early to exchange congratulations with his beloved friend
Washington, Lafayette left Philadelphia on the 14th, and hurried
through to Mount Vernon, where he arrived on the 19th-a rate of travel
expeditious in those days, though it would be deemed dilatory now.
After passing twelve happy days with Washington, he left for Balti-
more. This was the final interview between these two great and dis-
tinguised men.
(80)




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LAFAYETTE was, in April, 1792, made one of the three major-geneials
who commanded the French armies, and soon after was named lieutenant-
general and marshal of France. Had the counsels of Lafayette and
other moderate men and true friends of France prevailed, the commence-
ment of hostilities would have been thrown upon Austria, instead of
France, which had been compelled by the Jacobin faction to declare war
against Austria. Nevertheless, Lafayette did not hesitate to accept the
command which had been tendered to him, and repaired to his post,
where early opportunities occurred, to render signal though not brilliant
services to his country, in the resistance of the invasion which followed
the declaration of war.
Lafayette is the author of the following memorable sentence:-"Insur-
rection against tyrants is the lliest of duties." This served in Europe as the
theme of endless denunciation against its Author. Probably, as suggested
by John Quincy Adams, Lafayette borrowed the sentiment from the
mouth of Jefferson- "Rebellion against tyrants is obedience to God."
How Lafayette understood the maxim has been shown in his conduct.
He was not, by any means, one of those fanatical Jacobins who stained the
holy cause of Liberty by needless cruelty. He was ever the foe of
tyranny; and when the mob of Paris grew furious and bloodthirsty,
Lafayette withdrew and separated himself from their cause.
(82)




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tafatptth' Irriual at [r 'atk.


LAFAYETTE having expressed his intention of revisiting the United
States, Congress unanimously passed, in February, 1824, a resolution
directing the President to assure him of the grateful recollection of the
American people, and tendering him a national ship for his passage
hither. But with his consistent love of true republicanism, he preferred
to take his passage in a private ship; and on the 16th of August, 1824,
arrived at New York in the Cadmus, Capt. Allyn. He was accompanied
by his son, George Washington Lafayette, M. Auguste de Vasseur, and
one servant.
Lafayette's reception in New Yprk formed a splendid pageant. The
whole community united in the grateful effort to testify the nation's esti-
mation of its early champion and constant friend. He landed on Staten
Island on the 15th of August, where he passed the night. On the day
following, a fleet of steamboats went down to the Island, to convey and
escort him to the city, including the war-steamer, Robert Fulton; and
on board of these were over six thousand persons, besides the committee
of the corporation, members of the Society of the Cincinnati, revolu-
tionary officers and soldiers, a deputation from West Point, and many
other distinguished guests and official personages. On shore, hundreds
af bells were ringing, and the very air seemed vocal with the music of
welcome. As the fleet arrived off the Battery, at two o'clock, P. M.,
the sene was most impressive.
(84)

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trinmpjal Irrj in ^jila plynia .



THE day of the arrival of the nation's guest, General Lafayette, in
Philadelphia, was the most enthusiastic that was ever seen in that city.
Thousands of visitors, and numerous military companies, from all the
surrounding country, repaired to the city, to witness the grand display.
The procession exceeded three miles in length, and every step of its pro-
gress was through a dense crowd of people, whose faces, radiant with
joy and welcome, made the spectators not the least delightful part of
the pageant. The doors, windows, and balconies were all alive with
graceful forms and happy faces; the decrepit with age, and the babe in
arms, all estates and conditions acknowledged their common interest in
the welcome to the friend of his race, the benefactor of America, the
adopted son of Washington.
The nation's guest, on reaching the old State-House, passed under a
magnificent arch into the HALL OF INDEPENDENCE, where, amid patriotic
objects and decorations, the officers and citizens deputed to welcome him
were assembled. The city was brilliantly illuminated in the evening;
and magnificent transparencies took the place of the various objects
which had attracted, during the day, the admiring gaze of the hundreds
of thousands who kept holiday. The arches thrown across the streets
at various points were very numerous, and in ingenuity of construction,
and tastefulness of design, were truly unique and appropriate.






















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LAAYETTE died at his hotel in Paris, on the 21st of May, 1834, at the
age of seventy-seven. On the 18th he had followed on foot the remains
of the patriot Dulong to Pere le Chaise, and, in consequence of the ex-
posure took a cold, which in less than a week thereafter led another
mournful pageant to the Garden of Tombs. A moment before his death
the attendants were putting a blister upon his breast. It is of no use,"
he said, and falling back into the arms of his son George Washington,
breathed his last.
The funeral was a mournful pageant, in which all the people of Paris
participated. No oration was spoken, no formal eulogy was attempted;
for the aspect of the city, and the faces of the people were more eloquent
than words. Thus was a man beloved in death-thus was he honoured,
who always dared the right, whether for the moment it pleased or dis-
pleased who, in the period of buoyant youth and gay prosperity, was
willing to leave the delights of Paris to combat in a distant land for the
cause of freedom,- and when that cause triumphed, was anxious that
his own countrymen also should taste of liberty, but when they fell
into errors and excesses, had no participation in their crimes, but pre-
ferred a foreign dungeon instead. If for this he forfeited popularity
for an hour, his constant adherence to principles has made his good
name immortal.
The children, who, ten years before, assisted in the fetes at his recep-
tion, in 1834 aided, as men and women, in the solemnities of his funeral
honour.
(88)




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MANY anecdotes of Webster have been published, of his incapacity for
manual labor, or of his aversion to it. The testimony of his early com-
panions and neighbors contradicts, in general and in particulars, all
stories of his idleness.
He was an industrious boy. He labored to the extent of his strength.
He was the youngest son, and, perhaps, on that account received some
indulgences. Men are now living who labored with him, in the field and
in the mill--who shared his toils and his sports. They affirm that he
always worked well and played fair.' Boys in those days were usually
trained to hard service.
In the bed of a little brook, near where Daniel Webster was born, are
the remains of a rude mill which his father built more than sixty years
ago. The place is a dark glen, aid was then surrounded by a majestic
forest, which covered the neighboring hills. To that mill, Daniel
Webster, though a small boy, went frequently to assist his father. He
was apt in learning anything useful, and soon became so expert in doing
everything required, that his services as an assistant were valuable.
But the time spent in manual labor was not misspent as regarded
mental progress. After 'setting the saw' and 'hoisting the gate,' and
while the saw was passing through the log, which usually occupied from
ten to fifteen minutes for each board, Daniel was reading attentively some
book, which he was permitted to take from the house. He had a passion,
thus early, for reading history and biography."
(90)


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IN early life Daniel Webster was of slight form, and had the appear-
ance of a person of feeble constitution. He was a brunette in complexion;
his hair was black as jet, and, when turned back, displayed a forehead
which always excited great admiration. His dark eyes shone with
extraordinary brilliancy. In his youth, among other soubriquets, Mr.
Webster had that of "All Eyes." With this delicacy of constitution, we
may readily suppose that the out-door recreations, invigorating yet not
violent, in which Mr. Webster indulged, were as necessary to the health
of his body as to the strength of his mind. Probably, to them, and to
his habit of early rising, and devoting the morning to study, he
owed that renovation of his physical strength, which made him in after
years as remarkable for his iron constitution, as in youth he had been
for an opposite appearance. He was quite an adroit swimmer and
skater, and a very good marksman. In the pursuit of anything he was
an enthusiast. The brooks on his father's farm were, in those early days,
famous for trout, and young Daniel knew all their haunts and habits.
With his fishing-rods, cut from the bushes, and his horse-hair lines, of
his own manufacture, he was ready, at every proper moment of leisure,
while at home, in college, and even to the last days of his life, to follow
the streams, and take the fish which can only be captured by skill and
patience.
(92)
























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