Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Mary's childhood
 Her education in France
 The great wedding
 Return to Scotland
 Mary and Lord Darnley
 The fall of Bothwell
 Loch Leven Castle
 The long captivity
 The end

Title: boy's birthday book
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00057178/00001
 Material Information
Title: boy's birthday book
Series Title: boy's birthday book
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: John and Robert Maxwell
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00057178
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ALZ9940
alephbibnum - 002395033

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Mary's childhood
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Her education in France
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The great wedding
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Return to Scotland
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Mary and Lord Darnley
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    The fall of Bothwell
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Loch Leven Castle
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    The long captivity
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    The end
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
Full Text



-7 7




MTC., wC.




Cuarmr PAu
I. Mary's Childhood . . .. 1
II. Her Education in France . 20
IlI. The Great Wedding . . 38
IV. Misfortunes . . . . 55
V. Return to Scotland . . 76
VI. Mary and Lord Darnley . 93
VII. Rizzio . . . . 112
VIII. Bothwell . . . . 131
IX. The Fall of Bothwell . . 162
X. Loch Leven Castle . . 165
XI. The Long Captivity . .. 182 .
XIr. The End ......... 197

* *


TRAVZLLnRS who go into Scotland, take a
great interest in visiting, among other palaces,
a certain room in the ruins of an old palace
where Queen Mary was born. Queen Mary was
very beautiful, but she was very unfortunate
and unhappy. Everybody takes a strong in-
terest in her story, and this interest attaches,
in some degree, to the room where her sad
and sorrowful life was begun.
The palace is near a little village called
Linlithgow. The village has but one long
street, which consists of ancient stone houses.
North of it is a little lake, or rather pond:
they call it, in Scotland, a loch. The palace
is between the village and the loch ; it is upon
a beautiful swell of land which projects out
into the water. There is a very small island
in the mlddle of the loch, and the shores are
bordsed with fertile elUds. The place, whe

entire, was square, with an open space or court
in the centre. There was a beautiful stone
fountain in the centre of this court, and an
arched gateway through which horsemen and
carriages could ride in. The doors of entrance
into the palace were on the inside of the court.
The palace is now in ruins. A troop of
soldiers came to it one day in time of war, after
Mary and her mother had left it, and spent
the night there: they spread straw over the
floors to sleep upon. In the morning, when
they went away, they wantonly set the straw
on fre, and left it burning, and thus the palace
was destroyed. Some of the lower floors were
of stone; but all the upper floors and the
roof were burned, and all the wood-work of
the rooms, and the doors and window-frames.
Since then, the palace has never been repaired,
but remains a melancholy'pile of ruins.
The room where Mary was born had a stone
floor. The rubbish which has fallen from above
has covered it with a sort of soil, and grass
and weeds grow up all over it. It is a very
melancholy sight to see. The visitors who
go into the room walk mournfully about, trying
to imagine how Queen Nary looked as an in-
foat in her mother's arms, and reflecting on
the wickedness of the soldiers in wantonly des-
troying so beautiful a palace. Then they go
to the window, or, ther to the crumbling

opening in the wall where the window once
was, and look out upon the loch, now so de- .
sorted and lonely; over their heads it is all
open to the sky.
Mary's father was King of Scotland. At
the time that Mary was born, he was way
from home engaged in war. The King of
England had invaded Scotland, and the battle
went against Mary's father, and he thought
that the generals and nobles who command
his army allowed the English to conquer them
on purpose to betray him.- This thought
overwhelmed him with vexation and anguish.
He pined away under the cuteness of his
suffering, and just after the newa came to
him that his daughter Mary was born, he died.
Thus Mary became an orphan, and her troubles
commenced at the very beginning of her days.
She never saw her father, and her father never
saw her. Her mother was a French lady;
her name wu Mary of Guise. Her own amne
was Mary Stuart, but she is commonly called
Mary Queen of Scots.
As Mary was her father's only child, of
course, when he died, she became Queen of
Scotland, although she was only a few days
old. Itis customary, in such aseteapoaint
some distinguished person to govern the kln-
den, i the same of the yeoag queen, until
dagIewaup: xmchba persam isealsdar.at.

Mary's mother wished to be the regent until
Mary became of age.
It happened that in those days, as now,
the government and people of France were of
the Catholic religion. England, on the other
hand, was Protestant. There is a great dif-
ference between the Catholic and the Protestant
systems. The Catholic Church, though it
extends nearly all over the whole world, is
banded together, as the reader is aware, under
one man-the pope-who is the great head
of the Church, and who lives in state at Rome.
The Catholics have, in all countries, many
large and splendid churches, which are orna-
mented with paintings and images of the Vir-
gin Mary and of Christ. They perform great
osremonies in these churches, the priests being
dressed in magnificent costumes, and walking
in processions, with censers of incense burning
as they go. The Protestants, on the other hand,
de not like these ceremonies; they regard such
outward acts of worship as mere useless parade,
and the images as idols. They themselves
have smaller and plainer churches, and call
the people together in them to hear sermons,
and to offer up simple prayers.
In the time of Mary, England was Protes-
teant, and France was Catholic, while Scotland
was divided, though most of the people were
Protestants. The two parties were very meek

excited against each other, and often persecuted
each other with extreme cruelty. Sometimes
the Protestants would break into the Catholic
churches, and tear down and destroy the paint-
ings and the images, and the other symbols
of worship, all which the Catholics regarded
with extreme veneration; this exasperated the
Catholics, and when they became powerful in
their turn, they would seise the Protestants
and imprison them, and sometimes burn them
to death, by tying them to a stake and piling
faggots of wood about them, and then setting
the heap on fire.
Queen Mary's mother was a Catholic, and
for that reason the people of Scotland were
not willing to have her 'for regent. There
were one or two other persons who wished to
be regent also : one was a certain nobleman
called the Earl of Arran. He was a Protes-
tant. The Earl of Arran was the next heir
to the crown, so that if Mary had died in her
infancy, he would have been king. He thought
that this was a reason why he should be re-
gent, and govern the kingdom until Mary be-
came old enough to govern it herself. Many
other persons, however, considered this rather
a reason why he should not be regent; for
they thought he would be naturally interested
in wahing that Mary should not live, sine if
*se died, he would himself become king, md

that therefore he would not be a safe protector
for her. However, as the Earl of Arran was
a Protestant, and as Mary's mother was a
Catholic, and a the Protestant interest was
the strongest, it was at length decided that
Arran should be the regent, and govern the
country until Mary should be of age.
It is a curious circumstance that Mary's
birth put an end to the war between England
and Scotland, and that in a very singular way.
The King of England had been fighting against
Mary's father, James, for a long time, in order
to conquer the country and annex it to Eng-
land; and now that James was dead, and
Mary had become queen, with Arran for the
regent, it devolved on Arran to carry on the
war. But the King of England and his go-
vernment, now that the young queen was born,
conceived of a new. plan. The king had a
little son named Edward, about four years old,
who, of course, would become King of Eng-
land in his place when he should himself die.
Now he thought it would be best for him to
conclude a peace with Scotland, and agree with
the Scottish government that, as soon as Mary
was old enough, she should become Edward's
wife, and the two kagdoms be united n that

snme of this King of aglad was
HeM the Eighth. H s a very headstrg

and determined man. This, his plan, mfht
have been a very good one; it was certainly
much better than an attempt to get possession
of Scotland by fighting for it; but he was
very far from being as moderate and just as
he should have been in the execution of his
design. The first thing was to ascertain
whether Mary was a strong and healthy child;
for if he should make a treaty of peace, and
give up all his plans of conquest, and then if
Mary, after living feebly a few years, should
die, all his plans would faiL To satisfy him
on this point, they actually had ome of the
infant's clothes removed in the presence of
his ambassador, in order that the ambassador
might see that her form was perfect Wad her
limbs vigorous and strong. The nurse did.
this with great pride and pleasure, Mary's
mother standing, by. The nurse's name was
Janet Sinclair. The ambassador wrote back
to Henry, the King of England, that little
Nary was as goodly a child as he ever saw."
So King Henry the Eighth was confirmed in
his design of having her for the wife of his
Klag Henry the Eighth accordingly chaagd
all his plans. He made a peace with the Earl
of Arran. He dismissed the prisoners that
he had taken, and seat them hme kind.
If be had been seom ted with kind and gen

8 MARY eQU N or sCOTS.
measures like these, he might have succeeded
in them, although there was, of course, a strong
party in Scotland opposed to them. Mary's
mother was opposed to them, for she was a
Catholic and a French lady, and she wanted
to have her daughter become a Catholic as she
grew up, and marry a French prince. All
the Catholics in cotland took her side. Still
Henry's plans might have been accomplished,
perhaps, if he had been moderate and conci-
liating in the efforts which he made to carry
them into effect.
But Henry the Eighth was headstrong and
obstinate. He demanded that Mary, since
she was to be his son's wife, should be given
up to him to be taken into England, and edu-
eated there under the care of persona whom
he should appoint. He also demanded that
the Parliament of Scotland should let him
have a large share in the government of Scot-
land, because he was going to be the father-
in-law of the young queen. The Parliament
would not agree to either of these plans; they
were entirely unwilling to allow their little
queen to be carried off to another country,
and put under the charge of so rough and
rude a man. Then they were unwilling, too,
to give him any share of the government during
Mary's minority. Both these measures were
entirely inadmiWsable; they would, if adopted.

bave put both the infant Queen of Scotland
and the kingdom itself completely in the power
of one who had always been their greatest
Henry, finding that he could not induce the
Scotch government to accede to these plans,
gave them up at last, and made a treaty of
marriage between his son and Mary, with the
agreement that she might repnain in Scotland
until she was ten years old, and that then she
should come to England and be under his
All this time, while tjese grand negotia-
tions were pending between two mighty nations
about her marriage, little Mary was uncon-
scious of it all, sometimes reposing quietly in
Janet Sinclair's arms, sometimes looking ot
of the windows of the Castle of Linlithgow to
see the swans swim upon the lake, and some-
times, perhaps, creeping about upon the
palace floor, where the earls and barons who
came to visit her mother, clad in armour of
steel, looked upon her with pride and pleasure.
The palace where she lived was beautifully
situated, as has been before remarked, on the
borders of a lake; it was arranged somewhat in
the following manner:-


a. Boom where Mary was born. e. Eatranes
through great gatea, Bow window projecting
toward the water. d. Den where they kept a lion.
t. i. Trees.
There wuas a beautiful fountain in the centre
of the court-yard, where water spouted outfrom
the mouths of carved images, and fell into mar-
ble basins below. The ruins of this fountain
and of the images remain there still. The den
at d. was a round pit, like a well, which you
could look down into from above: it wu about
ten feet deep. They used to keep lio.s in
such dena near the palaces and castles in then
days. A lion in a den was a ort of play
thing in former times, as a parrot or a pet


lamb is now: this was in keeping with the
fierce and warlike spirit of the age. If they
had a lion there is Mary's time, Janet eften,
doubtless, took her little charge out to see it,
and let her throw down food to it from above.
The den is there now. You approach it upon
the top of a broad embankment, which is as
high as the depth of the den, so that the bottom
of the den is level with the surface of the
ground, which makes it always dry. There
is a hole, too, at the bottom, through the wall,
where they used to put the lion in.
The foregoing plan of the buildings and
grounds of Linlithgow, is drawn as maps and
plans usually are, the upper part toward the
north. Of course the room a, where Mary
was born, is on the western side. The ad-
joining engraving represents a view of the
palace on this western side. The church is
seen at the right, and the lawn, where Janet
used to take Mary out to breathe the air, is in
the fore-ground. The shore of the lake is very
near, and winds beautifully around the mar-
gin of the promontory on which the palace
stands. Of course the lion's den, and the an-
cient avenue of approach to the palace, are
round upon the other side, and out of sight in
this view. The approach to the pale at the
present day, Is on the southern side, between


the church and the trees on the right of the
Mary remained here at Linlithgow, for a
year or two; but when she was about nine
months old, they concluded to have the great
ceremony of the coronation performed, as she
was by that time old enough to bear the
journey to Stirling Castle, where the Scottish
kings and queens were generally crowned.
The coronation of a queen is an event which
always excites a very deep and universal in-
terest among all persons in the realm; and
there is a peculiar interest felt when, as was
the case in this instance, the queen to be
crowned is an infant, just old" enough to bear
the journey. There was a very great interest
felt in Mary's coronation. The different courts
and monarchs of Europe sent ambassadors to
be present at the ceremony, and to pay their
respects to the infant queen; and Stirling be.
came, for the time being, the centre of universal
Stirling is in the very heart of Scotland. It
is a castle, built upon a rock, or, rather, upon a
rocky hill, which rises like anisland out of the
midst of a vast region of beautiful and fertile
country, rich and verdant beyond dseaeripe.
Beyond the confines of this region of beauty,
dark mountains rise on all sides; audi wer,-
ever you are, whether riding along the Feeds

in the plain, or climbing the declivities of the
mountains, you see Stirling Castle, from every
point, capping its rocky hill, the centre and
ornament of the broad expanse of beauty which
surrounds it.
Stirling Castle is north of Linlithgow, and
is distant about fifteen or twenty miles from
it. The road to it lies not far from the shores
of the Firth of Forth, a broad and beautiful
sheet of water. The castle, as has been before
remarked, was on the summit of a rocky hill.
There are precipitous crags on three sides of
the hill, and a gradual approach by a long as-
cent on the fourth side. At the top of this
ascent you enter the great gates of the castle,
crossing a broad and deep ditch by means of
a draw-bridge. You enter then a series of
paved courts, with towers and walls around
them, and finally come to the more interior
edifices, where the private apartments are
situated, and where the little queen was
crowned. rK,
It was an occasion of great pomp and cere-
mony, though Mary, of course, was unconscious
of the meaning of it all. She was surrounded
by barons and earls, by ambassadors and
priMem fun foreign courts, and by the prin-
cipl Ird and ladies of the Seottish nobility,
all dnse in asagnieewt costumes. They
hUl INtl IaMry up, a cardinal, that is, a

great dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church,
placed the crown upon her head. Half pleased
with the glittering show, and half frightened
at the strange faces which she saw everywhere
around her, she gased unconsciously upon the
scene, while her mother, who. could better
understand its import, was filled with pride
and joy.
Linlithgow and Stirling are in the open and
cultivated part of Scotland. All the northern
and western part of the country consists of vast
masses of mountains, with dark and sombre
glens among them, which are occupied solely
by shepherds and herdsmen with their locks
and herds. This mountainous region was
called the Highlands, and the inhabitants of it
were the Highlanders. They were a wild and
warlike class of men, and their country was
seldom visited by either friend or foe. At the
present time there are beautiful roads all
through the Highlands, an& stage-coaches and
private carriages roll over them every summer,
to take tourists to see and admire the pic-
turesque and beautiful scenery; but in the'
days of Mary the whole region was gloomy and
desolate, and almost inaccessible.
Mary remained in Linlithgow and Stirling
for about two years, and then, as the country
was becoming more and more disturbed by the
struggles of the great contending pte--

those who were in favour of the Catholic re-
ligion and alliance with France on the one
hand, and of those in favour of the Protestant
religion arnd alliance with England on the
other hand-they concluded to send her into
the Highlands for safety.
It was not far into the country of the High-
lands that they concluded to ;end her, but
only into the borders of it. There was a small
lake on the southern margin of the wild and
mountainous country, called the Lake of Men-
teith. In this lake was an island named Inch-
mahome, the word isch being the name for
island in the language spoken by the High-
anders. This island, which was situated in a
very secluded and solitary region, was selected
Sary's place of residence.
She was about four years old when they
ent her to this place. Several persons went
ith her to take care of her, and to teach her.
In fact everything uas provided for her which
old secure her improvement and b ne.
er mother did not forget that she would need
laymates, and so she selected four little girls
f about the same age with the little queen
herself, and invited them to accompany her.
Swere the daughters of the noblemen and
ofioers cabot the court. It is very cu-
that thA e jirls wre all named Mary.
r ams in fll were follows :-

Mary Beaton, Mary Livingstone,
Mary Fleming, Mary Seaton.
These, with Mary Stuart, which was Queen
Mary's name, made five girls of four or five
years of age, all named Mary.
Mary lived two years in this solitary island.
She had, however, all the comforts and con-
veniences of life, and enjoyed herself with her
four Maries very much. Of course she knew
nothing, and thought nothing, of the schemes
and plans of the great governments for hav-
ing her married, when she grew up, to the
young English prince, who was then a little
boy of about her own age, nor of the angry
disputes in Scotland to which this subject
gave rise. It did give rise to very serious
disputes. Mary's mother did not like the
plan at all. As she was herself a French lady
and a Catholic, she did not wish to have her
daughter marry a prince who was of the
English royal family, and a Protestant. All
the Catholics in Scotland took her side. At
length the Earl of Arran, who was the re-
gent, changed to that side; and finally the
government, being thus brought over, gave
notice to King Henry VIII. that the piano
must be given up, as they had concluded, eq
the whole, that Mary should not marry his
King Henry was very much incensed. He

declared tht Mary Aesd marry his son, and
he raised an army and. seat it into Scotland to
make war upon the Scotch again, and compel
them to consent to the execution of the plan.
He was at this time beginning to be sick, but
his sickness, instead of sofening his temper,
only made him the more ferocious and cruA
He turned against his best friends. He grew
worse, and wuas evidently about to die;. but
he was so irritable and angry, that for a long
time no one dared to tell him of his approach-
ing dissolution, and he lay restless, and
wretched, and agitated with political animoal-
ties, upon his dying bed. At length ome one
ventured to tell him that his end wa near.
When he found that he must die, he resigned
himself to his fate. He aent for an arch-
bishop to come and aee him, but he was
speechless when the prelate came, and oono
afterward expired.
The Englibsh government, however, after
his death, adhered to his plan of compelling
the Scotch to make Mary the wife of his son.
They sent an army into Scotland. A great
battle was fought, and the Sootch were d-
feated. The battle was fought at a place not
far from Edinburgh, and near the a. Itwu
so neas the Sa, that the EngnInh i ud a
the Seatch amy from thad ahip, ad ren
assisted their troea apes the Are. The

prmies had remained several days near each
other before coming to battle, and during all
this time the city of Edinburgh was in a state
of great anxiety and suspense, as they ex-
pected that their city would be attacked by
the English if they should conquer in the
battle. The English army did, in fact, ad-
vance towards Edinburgh after the battle was
over, and would have got possession of it, had
it not been for the castle. There is a very
strong castle in the very heart of Edinburgh,
upon the summit of a rocky hill. 9%.
These attempts of the English to force the
Scotch government to consent to Mary's mar-
riage only made them the more determined to
prevent it. A great many who were not op-
posed to it before, became opposed to it now,
when they saw foreign armies in the country
destroying the towns and murdering the
people. They said they had no great objec-
tion to the match, but that they did not like
the mode of wooing. They sent to France, to
ask the French king to send over an army to
aid them, and promised him that if he would
do so they would agree that Mary should
marry his son. His son's name was Fau
'The French king was very much
with this plan. He sent them an army of
thousand men nto sotismad, to asas
Sce ag st their Eg I Pash em It

arranged, also, a little Mary was now hardly
safe among all these commotions, even in her
retreat to the island of Inchmahome, to med
her to France, to be educated there, and to
live there until she was old enough to be
married. The same ships which brought the
army from France to Scotland, were to carry
Mary and her retinue from Scotland to France.
The four Maries went with her.
They bade their lonely island farewell, and
travelled south till they came to a strong
castle on a high rocky hill, on the banks of
the river Clyde. The name of this fortress is
Dumbarton Castle. Almost all the castles of
those times were built upon precipitous hills,
to increase the difficulties of the enemies in
approaching them. The Rock of Dumbarton
is a very remarkable one. It stands close to
the bank of the river. There are a great
many ships and steam-boats continually pass-
ing up and down the Clyde, to and from the
great city of Glasgow, and all the passengers
on board gape with great interest, as they sail
by, on the Bock of Dumbarton, with the
castle walls on the sides, and the towers and
battlements crowning the summit. In Nary's
time there was comparatively very little ship-
ping on the river; but the French eet was
there, waiting oppoit the castle to receive

Mary mad the numerous persons who were to
go in her train.
Mary was escorted from the island where
she had been living, across the country to
Dumbarton Castle, with a strong retinue. She
was now between five and six years of age.
She was, of course, too young to know any-
thing about the contentions and wars which
had distracted her country on her account, or
to feel much interest in the subject of her ap.
preaching departure from her native land. She
enjoyed the novelty of the scenes through
which she passed on her journey. She was
pleased with the dresses and the arms of the
soldiers who accompanied her, and with the
ships which were flestig in the river, beneath
the walls of the Castle of Dambarton, when
she arrived there. She was pleaed,'too, to
think that, wherever she was to go, her four
Maries were to go with her. She bade her
mother farewell, embarked on board the ship
which was to receive her, and sailed away
from her native land, not to return to it again
for many years.

Tas departure of Mary from
little a she was, was a great event both

Scotland and for France. In those daysking.
and queens were even of greater relative im-
portance than they are now, and all 8eotland
was interested in the young qaeen's going
away from them, and all France in expecting
her arrival. She sailed down the Clyde, and
then passed along the -eam and ohamnnel which
lie between England and Ireland. These seas,
though they look small upon the masp, are
really spacious and wide, and are often greatly
agitated by winds and storms. This was the
case at the time Mary made her voyage. The
days and nights were tempestuos and wild,
and the ships had difficulty Is keeping ia each
other's company. There was danger of being
blown upon the ooasts, or upon the recks or
islands which lie in the way. Mary was too
young to give much heed to these dangers,
but the lords and commissioners, and the great
ladies who went to attend her, were heartily
glad when the voyage was over. It ended
.afely at last, after several days of tonsing
upon the stormy billows, by their arrival upon
the northern coast of France. They landed
at a town called Brest.
The King of France had made great pre.
pantiea for receiving the young qeen im=
mediately upen her leading. Carriage and
horses had been provided to convey herself
and the company of her iattdants, by easy

journeys, to Paris. They received her with
great pomp and ceremony at every town
which she passed through. One mark of re-
spect which they showed her was very singu-
lar. The king ordered that every prison
which she passed in her route should be
thrown open, and the prisoners set free. This
fact is a striking illustration of the different
ideas which prevailed in those days, compared
with those which are entertained now, in re-
spect to crime and punishment. Crime is now
considered as an offence against the comms-
city, and it would be considered no favour to
the community, but the reverse, to let impri-
soned criminals go free. In those days, on
the other hand, crimes were considered rather
as injuries committed by the community, and
against the king; so that, if the monarch
wished to show the community a favour, he
would do it by releasing such of them as had
been imprisoned by his officers for their
crimes. It was just so in the time of our
Saviour, when the Jews had a custom of hav-
ing some criminal released to them once a
year, at the Passover, by the Roman govern-
ment, as an act of fawesr. That is, the go-
vernment was accustomed to furnish, by way
of contributing its share toward the general
festivities of the occasion, the setting ef a
robber and a murderer at liberty I

The King of France haa several palaces in
the neighbourbood-of Paris. Mary was taken
to one of them, named St. Germain. This
palace, which still stands, is about twelve
miles from Paris, towards the north-west. It
is a very magnificent residence, and has been
for many centuries a favourite resort of the
French kings. Many of them were born in
it. There are extensive parks and gardens
connected with it, and a great artificial forest,
in which the trees were all planted and culti-
vated like the trees of an orchard. Mary was
received at this palace with great pomp and
parade; and many spectacles and festivities
were arranged to amuse her and the four
Maries who accompanied her, and to impress
her strongly w th an idea of the wealth, and
power, and splendour, of the great country to
which she h d come.
She remained here buta short time, and
then it was arranged for her to go to a con.
vent to be educated. Convents were in those
days, as in fact they are now, quite famous as
places of education. They were situated
sometimes in large towns, and sometimes in
secluded places in the country ; but, whether
in town or country, the inmates of them wae
shut up very strictly from all intercourse with
the world. They were ndsar the care of umms,
who had devoted shamselva fer iJ to the

service. These nuns were some of them un-
happy persons, who were weary of the sorrows
and sufferings of the world, and who were
glad to retire from it to such a retreat as they
fancied the convent would be. Others became
unns from conscientious principles of duty,
thinking that they should commend themselves
to the favour of God by devoting their lives
to works of benevolence, and to the exercises
of religion. Of course there were all varie-
ties of character among the nuns; some of
them were selfish and disagreeable, others
were benevolent and kind.
At the convent where Mary was sent there
were some nuns of very excellent and amiable
character, and they took a great interest in
sary, both because she was a queen, and be-
cause she was beautiful, and of a kind and
affectionate disposition. Mary became very
strongly attached to these nuns, and began to
entertain the idea of becoming a nun herself,
and spending her life with them in the con-
vent. It seemed pleasant to her to live there
in such a peaceful seclusion, in company with
those who loved her, and whom she herself
loved; but the King of France, and the Scot-
tish nobles who had come with her frvm Scot-
land, would, of course, be opposed to any
* such plan. They wanted her to be married
to the young prince, and to become one of the

great ladies of the court, and to lead a life of
magnificence and splendour. They became
alarmed, therefore, when they found that she
was imbibing a taste for the life of seclusion
and solitude which is led by a nun. They de-
cided to take her away immediately.
Mary bade farewell to the convent and its
inmates with much regret and many tears;
but, notwithatandinp her reluastace, she was
obliged to submit. If she had not been a
queen, she might, perhaps, have had her own
way. As it was, however, she "as obliged to
leave the convent and the nuns whom she
loved, and to go back to the palaces of the
king, in which she afterward continued to
live, sometimes in one and sometimes in an-
other, for many years. Wherever she went,
she was surrounded with scenes of great gaiety
and splendour. They wanted to obliterate
from her mind all recollections of the convent,
and all love of solitude and seclusion. They
did not neglect her studies, but they filled up
the intervals of study with all possible schemes
of enjoyment and pleasure, to amuse and co-
cupy her mind, and the minds of her com-
panions. Her companions were her own four
Maries, and the two daughters of the French
het M was ab"e t seven two yean rsegen,
that is, afer e had been two years in France,

her mother formed a plan to come from Scot-
land to see her. Her mother had remained
behind when Mary left Scotland, as she had
an important part to perform in public affairs,
and in the administration of the government
of Scotland while Mary was away. She
wanted, however, to come and see her. France,
too, was her own native land, and all her re-
lations and friends resided there. She wished
to see them as well as Mary, and to revisit
once more the palaces and cities where her
own early life had been spent. In speaking
of Mary's mother, we shall call her some-
times the queen dowager. The expression,
queen dowager, is the one usually applied to
the widow of a king, as queen consort is used
to denote the wife of a king.
This visit of the queen dowager of Scotland
to her little daughter in France was an event
of great consequence, and all the arrangements
for carrying it into effect were conducted with
great pomp and ceremony. A large company
attended her, with many of the Scottish lords
and ladies among them. The King of France,
too, went from Paris toward the French coast,
to meet the party of visitors, taking little Mary
sad a large company of attendants with him.
They went to Rouen, a large city not far frna
the coast, where they awaited the arrival ef
Mary's mother, and where they received her

with great ceremonies of parade and rejoicing.
The queen dowager was very much delighted
to see her little daughter again. She had
grown two years older, and had improved
greatly in every respect, and tears of joy came
into her mother's eyes as she clasped her in
her arms. The two parties journeyed in com-
pany to Paris, and entered the city with great
rejoicings. The two queens, mother and
daughter, were the objects of universal interest
and attention. Feasts and celebrations with-
out end were arranged for them, and every
possible means of amusement and rejoicing
were contrived in the palaces of Paris, of St.
Germain's, and of Fontainebleau. Mary's
mother remained in France about a year. She
then bade Mary farewell, leaving her at Fon-
tainebleau. This proved to be a final farewell,
for she never saw her again.
After taking leave of her daughter, the
queen dowager went, before leaving France,
to see her own mother, who was a widow,
and who was living at a considerable distance
from Paris in seclusion, and in a state of
austere and melancholy grief, on account of
the less of her husband. Instead of for-
gettiag her sorrows, as she ought to have
doie, sad returning calmly and peacefully to
the datis sad ejoymeots o tlif, sh bad
ive herself up to laosaslbl grief, aid

was doing all that was in her power to
perpetuate its mournful influence upon her
mind. She lived in an ancient and gloomy
mansion, of vast sise, and she had hung all
the apartments in black, to make it still more
desolate and gloomy, and to continue the in-
fluence of grief upon her mind. Here the
queen dowager found her, spending her time
in prayers and austerities of every kind, mak-
ing herself and all her family perfectly miser-
able. Many persons at the present day, act,
under such circumstances, on the same prin-
ciple, and with the same spirit, though they
do not manifest it in precisely the same way.
One would suppose that Mary's mother
would have preferred to remain in France with
her daughter and her mother, and all her
family friends, instead of going back to Scot-
land, where she was, as it were, a foreigner and
a stranger. The reason why she wanted to go
back was, that she wished to be made. qees
regest, and thus have the government of Scot-
land in her own hands. She would rather be
queen regent in Scotluid than a simple queen
mother in France. While she was in Francs,
she urged the king to use all his influence to
have Arran resign the regency into her hands,
and finally obtained writings from him and
from Queen Mary to this effect. She the
Mh France and wat to Scodaad,going through

England on the way. The young ling t
England, to whom Mary had been engaged
by the government when she was an infant in
Janet Sinclair's arms, renwed his proposals
to the queen dowager to let her daughter be-
come his wife; but she told him it was all
settled, that she was to be married to the
French prince, and it was now too late to
change the plan.
There was a young gentleman, about nine-
teen or twenty years of age, who came from
Scotland also not far from this time, to wait
upon Mary as bet page of honour. A pge
is an attendant above the rank of an ordinary
servant, whose business it is to wait upon his
mistress, to read to her, sometimes to convey
her letters and notes, and to carry her com-
mands to the other attendants who are beneath
him in rank, and whose business it is actually
to perform the services which the lady requires.
A page of hoour is a young gentleman who
sustains this oMic in a nominal and temporary
manner for a princess or a queen.
The name of Mary's page of honour, who
came to her now from Scotland, was Sir James
Melville. The only reason for mentioning
him thus particularly, rather thdun the many
other eAcers and attendants by whom Mary
was surrounded, was, that the service which
he thus commenced was continued is various

so harl QiRn or0 scoTs.
ways through the whole period of Mary's life.
We sall often hear of him in the subsequent
part of this narrative. He followed Mary
to Scotland when she returned to that country,
and became afterward her secretary, and also
her ambassador on many occasions. He was
now quite young, and when he landed at Brest
he travelled slowly to Paris in the care of two
Scotchmen, to whose charge he had been in-
trusted. He was a young man of uncommon
talents and of great accomplishments, and it
was a mark of high distinction for him to be
appointed page of bonour to the queen, although
he was about nineteen years of age, and she
was but seven.
After the queen dowager's return to Scot-
land, Mary went on improving in every respect
more and more. She was diligent, industrious,
and tractable. She took a great interest in
bar studies. She was not only beautiful in
person, and amiable and affectionate in heart,
but she possessed a very intelligent and active
mind, and she entered with a sort of quiet but
earnest enthusiasm into all the studies to
which her attention was called. She paid a
great deal of attention to music, to poetsy,
and to drawing. She used to invent NMe
devices for seals, with French and Lat&e M
toes, and, after drawing them again and agli
with great care, until she was satisled wth

the desu, she would give them to the gam-
engnvars to be cut upon stone stels, that
she could seal her letters with them. These
mottoes and devices cannot well be represented
in English, as the force and beauty of them
depended generally upon a double meaning i
some word of French or Latin, which cannot
be preserved in the translation. We shall,
however, give one of these seals, which she
made just before she left France to return to
Scotland, when we come to that period of her
The King of France, and the lords ad
ladies who came with Mary from Scotland,
contrived a great many festivals and celebra-
tions in the parks, and forests, and palaces to
amuse the queen and the four Maria who
were with her. The daughters of the French
king joined also in these pleasures. They
would have little balls, and parties, and pie.
nice, sometimes in the open air, sometimes in
the little summer-houses built upon the grounds
attached to the palaces. The scenes of these
festivities were in many cases made unusually
joyous and gay by boa-Ares and illuminations.
They had water parties on the little lakes, and
hunting parties through the parks and forests.
Mary was a very graceful and beautiful rider,
and fall of courage. Sometimes she met with
accidents which were attended with some

' *

danger. Once, while hunting the stag, sod
riding at a full speed with a great company df
ladies and gentlemen behind her and before
her, her dress got caught by the bough of a
tree, and she was pulled to the ground. The
horse went on. Several other riders drove by
her without seeing her, as she bad too much
composure and fortitude to attract their at-
tention by outcries and lamentations. They
brought back her horse, and, smoothing down
her hair, which had fallen into confusion, she
mounted again and rode on after the stag as
before. *
Notwithstanding all these means of eujey-
ment and diversion, Mary was subjected to a
great deal of restraint. The rules of etiquette
are very precise ald very strictly enforced in
royal households, sau they were still meoe
strict in those days than they are no. The
king was very ceremonious in all his arrange-
ments, and was surrounded by a multitude of
oflcers who performed everything by rule.
As Mary grew older, she was subject to
greater and greater restraint. She used to
spend a considerable,portion of e"ery day in
the apartments of Queen Catharine, th wife
of the King of France, and the mother d the
little Franis, to whom dhe was to be married.
Mary and Queen Cadharine did not, however,
like each other very well. Catharine was a

woman of strong mind, and of an imperion
disposition; and it is supposed by some that
she was jealous of Mary because ihe was
more beautiful and accomplished, and more
generally beloved than her own daughters#
the princesses of France. At any rate, she
treated Mary in rather a stem and haughty
manner, and it was thought that she would
finally oppose her marriage to Francis, her son.
And yet Mary war at first very much
pleased with Queen Catharine, and wu accms.
tomed to look up to her with 'great admira-
tion, and to feel for her a verynre regard.
*She often went into the queen' apartments,
where they sat together and talked, or worked
upon their embroidery, which was a famous
amusement for ladies of exalted rank in those
days. Mary herself ar one time worked a
large piece, which she sent as a present to the
nuns in the convent where she had resided;
and afterward in Scotland she worked a great
many things, some of which still remain, an
may be seen in her ancient rooms in the
palace of Holyrodd House. She learned this
art by working with Queen Catharine in her
apartments. When she first became ac-
-quainted with Catharine on these occasieou,
she used to love her society. 8e admired
her talents and her conversational powers,a O
she liked very much to be in her reom. SUK

34 MARY eUssB ofr sats.
lisemd to all she .sd, watched r move-
msnts, and endeaevred in all things to el-
low her example.
Cathrine, however, thought that this was
all a pretence, and that Mary did not really
like bet, but only wished to make her believe
that she did so in order to get favour, or to
aecomplish some other selfish end. One day
"e asked her why she seemed to prefer her
sodety to that of her youthful and more suitsa-
ble companions. Mary replied in substance,
The reason was, that though with them she
might enjoy aehb, she could learn nothing;
while she always learned from Queen Catha-
rWe eonvenrsation something which would be
of uae to her as a guide in future life." One
would have thought that this answer would
have pleased the queen, but it did not. She
did not bdeve that it was sincere.
On one occasion Nary seriously olfnded
* the queen by a remark whic" she made, and
whMh was, at least, incutiou. Kings and
queens, and, in fact, all great peop, e
thmsves very much upon the antiquity of
the lie from which they have dm dd.
Now, the mily Qeen Catherine had sieme
to rank mad di=ation within a medtmte
; and though she was, as Qaem't
m e th v ry pnmaDl of lm mg t-
use, she Wovld naturally be "wod at my

remark which would remind her of the recent.
es of her elavdie. Now Mary, at one tim
aid, in conversation in the presence of Quem
Catharine, that aha herself was the deeenud-
sat of a hundred kings. Thi was, perhaps,
true, but it brought her into direst cemparies
with Catharine on point in wiheh the later
was greatly her inferior, and it mortifia her
escoedingly to have such a thing aid to her
by such a child.
Mary associated thas, during all this time,
not only with the queen and the princasees,
but also with the little prine whom she was
destined to uarry. His name was Frame,
but he was commemly called the daupkin,
which was the name by which the oldest -a
of the King of France was them, eand has boe
since, designated. The origin of thin custom
was this. About a hundred year before the
time of which we anre peakag, a eertaia
nobleasn of high rank, who peemsed estates
in an ancient province o Frane ealed
Dauaphiy, lost s son san heir. Be was
overwhelmed with alieties at the aes, sae
finally bequeathed all his estates to the king
and his successora, ea eaditidaon that the
oldest acs asheuld bear the title of dasphia.
Thae mtwas atoepad, d the eMdet e wa
m, es styleS eF n tMhat atie fwatnd.
T~W -mes, was a week sad

feeble child, but he was amiable and gentle in
Mlis manners, and Mary liked him. She met
him often in their walks and rides, and she
danced with him at the balls and parties given
'for her amusement. She knew that he was
to be her husband as soon as she was old
enough to be married, and he knew that she
was to be his wife. It was all decided, and
nothing which either of them could say or do
would have any influence on the result. Nei-
ther of them, however, seem to have had any
desire to change the result. Mary pitied
Francis on account of his feeble health, and
liked his amiable and gentle disposition; and
Francis could not help loving Mary both on
account of the traits of her character and her
personal charms.
As Mary advanced in years, she grew very
beautiful. In some of th great processions
and ceremonies, the ladies were accustomed
to walk, magnificently dressed, and carrying
torches in their hands. In one of these pro-
cessions Mary was moving along with the
rest, through a crowd of spectators, and the
light from her torch fell upon her features
and upon her hair in such a manner as to
make her appear more beautiful than usual.
A woman standing there pressed up nearer to
her to view her more closely, and, senig how
beautiful she was, asked her if she Was not

an sapl. In those days, however, people
believed in what is miraculous and supernkr
tural more easily than now, so that it was not
very surprising that one should think, in such
a case, that an angel from Heaven had come
down to join in the procession.
Mary grew up a Catholic, of course: all
were Catholics around her. The king and all
the royal family were devoted to Catholic
observances. The convent, the ceremonies,
the daily religious observances enjoined upon
her, the splendid churches which she fre-
quented, all tended in their influence to lead
her mind away from the Protestant religion
which prevailed in her native land, and to
make her a Catholic: she remained so
throughout her life. There is no doubt that
she was conscientious in her attachment to
the forms and to the spirit of the Roman
Church. At any rate, she was faithful to the ties
which her early education imposed upon her,
and this fidelity became afterward the seuree
of some of her heaviest calamities and woes.

WaUw Mary was about Mfeen years of age,
the King of France began to tink that it was

8 MART *UIM O 0016On.
time for her to be ariL. It is tree thM
*h was still vary young, but there were
strong reases for having the marriage tke
place at the earliest possible period, for fear
aemething might occur to prevent its consum-
mation at all. In fact, there were very streg
Parties opposed to it altogether. The whole
Protestant interest in Scotland were opposed
to it, and were continually contriving plans to
defeat it. They thought that if Mary married
a French prince, who was, of course, a Catho-
lic, she would become wedded to the Catholic
interest hopelessly and for ever. This made
them feel a most bitter and determined oppo-
sition to the plan.
In fact, so bitter and relentless were the
animosities that grew out of this questes,
that an attempt was actually made to poison
Mary. The man who committed thia crime
was an archer in be king's guard: he was a
Scotchman, sad bb name was Stewart. His
attempt was discovered in time to prevent the
aoeomplishment of his purpose. He wae tried
and condemned. They made every effort to
induce him to explain the reason which led
him to such on act, or, if he was employed
by others to reveal their names; hut he would
reveal nothing. He was executed for his crie,
leaving mankind to cotaesture that his miv,
or that of the psrs wh instigated him to

the ded, was a depesee deteoir tiom to
save Seotad, at all haseads, froa eling
under the infleace of papol r.
IMry's mother, the queen of Boot-
lead, was of a celebrated Frenc family, called
the family of Gule. She is often, herself,
called in history, KMy of Gaise. There
were other great famillea in France who
were very jealous of the Guies, and envious
of their nfluece and their power. They
opposed Queen ary's marriage to the dau-
phin, and were ready to do all in their power
to thwart and defeat it. Queen Catharie, too,
who seemed to feel a greater and geter d-
gree of envy and jelousy against Mary, as
she saw her increasing in grace, beauty and
influence with her adveasing years, was sap-
poeed to be avm to the marriga. Mary
wae, in some aene, her rival, and she cold
not bear to have her become the wife of her
King Henry, finding all these oppeeoing
influees at work thought that the Wafet
plan would be to have the mrri carried
into eect at the eaIeot poib period.
When, therefore, Mary was about fifteen
yean of age, which was in 1557, he mtt
to Sotland, asking the government them to
a met som commisdi rs to cowe to
ne to asat to the marnige contrtee,

40 MART VUIN or scorTS.
and to witness the ceremonies of the betreth-
ment and the wedding. The marriage con-
tracts, in the case of the union of the queen
of one country with a prince of another, are
documents of very high importance. It is
considered necessary not only to make very
formal provision for the personal welfare and
comfort of the wife during her married life,
and during her widowhood in case of the
death of her husband, but also to settle be-
forehand the questions of succession which
might arise out of the marriage, and to define
precisely tle rights and powers both of the
husband and the wife, in the two countries to
which they respectively belong.
The Parliament of Scotland appointed a
number of commissioners, of the highest rank
and station, to proceed to France, and to act
there as the representatives of Scotland in
everything which pertained to the marriage.
They charged them to guard well the rights
and powers of Mary, to see that these rights
and all the interests of Scotland were well
protected in the marriage contracts, and to
secure proper provision for the personal com-
fort and happiness of the queen. The num-
ber of these commissioners was eight. Their
departure from Scotland was an event of gtat
public importance. They were accomp1ald
by a large number of attendants and foll-ni

who were sager to be present in Paris at the
marriage festivities. The whole company ar.
rived safely at Paris, and were ecelved with
every possible mark of distinction and honour.
The marriage contracts were drawn up, and
executed with great formality. King Henry
made no objection to any of the stipulations
and provisions which the commissioners re-
quired, for he had a secret plan for evading
them all. Very ample provision was made
for Mary herself. She was to have a very
large income. In case the dauphin died while
he was dauphin, leaving Mary a widow, she
was still to have a large income paid to her
by the French government as long as sh
lived, whether she remained in France or
went back to Scotland. If her husband out-
lived his father, so as to become King of
France, and then died, leaving Mary his
widow, her income for the rest of her life
was to be double what it would have been if
he had died while dauphin. Francis was, in
the meantime, to share with her the govern-
ment of Scotland. If they had a son, he
was to be, after their deaths, King of France
and of Scotland too. Thus the two crowns
would have'been united. If, on the other
hand, they had only daughters, the eldest one
was to be Queen of Scotland only, as the laws
of France did not allow a female to inherit

42 MAST aINsM O FaesT.
the thses. In case they had so children,
Scrmew of Scotland was not to cme into
the Frenchfmuily at all, but to descend rega.
larly to the next Scotch heir.
Henry was not atidaed with this entirely,
for he wanted to secure the union of the
Scotch and French crowns at all events,
whether Mary had children or not; and he
persuaded Mary to sign some papers with him
privately, which he thought would secure his
purposes, charging her not to let the commis-
sionero know that she had signed them. He
thought it possible that he should never have
occasion to produce them. One of these pa-
pers conveyed the crown of Scotland to the
King of France absolutely and for ever, in
case Mary should die without children. An-
other provided that the Scotch government
should repay him for the enormous sams he
had expended upon Mary during her residence
in France, for her education, her attendants,
the celebrations and gales which he had pro-
vided for her, and all the splendid journeys,
processions, and parades. His motive in all
this expense had been to unite the crown of
Scotland to that of France, and he wanted to
provide that, if anything should occar toupe-
vent the execution of his plan, he enld have
all this money reimbursed to him again. He
estimated the amount at a millie of pieces of

w3 -AJe wVBaass. 43
gold. TUs wa n oasare saum; it shes
ea how m-pifiet a seodk ary's reception
mad enteminsmeat in Frense were maasdL
Theepres lie ayprwe..dings b.. .etted,
all Pri, and, in fact, all France, began to
prepare for the marriage celebrations. There
were to be two great ceremonies competed
with the oeasion. The iret was the betrtkh-
meat, the seend was the marriage. At the
betrothment Francis and Nary were to meet
in a great public hall, and there, in the pre-
sence of a small and select assemblage of the
lords and dies of the court, and perase of
distinction connected with the royal family,
they were formally and melemaly to engage
themselves to each other. The, in about a
week afterward, they were to be married, in
the most public manner, in the great cathe-
dral church of Notre Dame.
The ceremony of the betrothal was celebra-
ted in the palace. The peace then occupied
by the royal family was the Louvre. It still
stands, but is no longer a royal dwelling.
Another peace, more modern in its structure,
and called dthe Tuileries, has since been built,
a little farther from the heart of the city, and
in a more pleasant situation. The Louvre is
gave, with an open court in the esntre.
ia s w e sart W as is very large, and is
paved like the etreeta. In fact, two great

carriage ways pass through it, crossing each
other at right angles in the centre, and pass-
ing out under great archways in the four sides
of the building. There is a great hall within
the palace, and in this hall the ceremony of
the betrothal took place. Francis and Mary
pledged their faith to each other with appro-
priate ceremonies. Only a select circle of
relations and intimate friends were pr.t on
this occasion. The ceremony was cowluded
in the evening with a ball.
In the mean time, all Paris was busy with
preparations for the marriage. The Louvre is
upon one side of the River Seine, its princi-
pal front being toward the river, with a broad
street between. There are no buildings, but
only a parapet wall on the river side of the
street, so that there is a fine view of the river
and of the bridges which cross it, from the
palace windows. Nearly opposite the Louvre
is an island, covered with edifices, and con-
nected, by means of bridges, with either
shore. The great church of Notre Dame,
where the marriage ceremony was to be per-
formed, is upon this island. It has two enor-
mous square towers in front, which may be
seen rising above all the roofs of the city, at
a great distance in every direction. Before .
the church is a large open area, where vat
crowds assemble on any great occasion. The

Interior of the church impresses the mind with
the sublimest emotions. Two rows of enor.
mous columns rise to a great height on either
hand, supporting the lofty arches of the roof.
The floor is paved with great flat stones, and
resounds continually with the footsteps of
visitors, who walk to and fro, up and down
the aisles, looking at the chapels, the monu-
ments, the sculptures, the paintings, and the
antique and grotesque images and carvings.
Coloured light streams through the stained
glass of the enormous windows, and the tones
of the organ, and the voices of the priests,
chanting the services of the man, are almost
always resounding and echoing from the
vaulted roof above.
The words Notre Dame mean Our Lady, an
expression by which the Roman Catholics de-
note Mary, the mother of Jesus. The church
of Notre Dame has been for many centuries
the great cathedral church of Paris, where all
great ceremonies of state were performed. On
this occasion they erected a great amphithea-
tre in the area before the church, which would
accommodate many thousands of the specta-
tors who were to assemble, and enable them
to see the procession. The bride and bride.
groom, sad their friends, were to assemble in
1e bishop's palace, which was near the eath-
dth, and a covered gallery was erected, lead-

46 MARY QURIX o01 co0s.
lig from this place to the church, threug
which the bridal party were to enter. They
lined this gallery throughout with purple vel-
vet, and ornamented it in other ways, so as to
make the approach to the church through it
inconceivably splendid.
Crowds began to collect in the great am-
phitheatre early in the morning. The streets
leading to Notre Dame were thronged. Every
window in all the lofty buildings around, and
every balcony, was full. From ten to twelve
the military bands began to arrive, and the
long procesion wu formed, the different par-
ties being dressed in various picturesque oee-
tames. The ambassadors of various foreign
potentates were present, each bearing their
appropriate insignia. The legate of the pope,
maguinceatly dressed, had an attendant bear-
leg before him a cross of massive gold. The
br Franis the dauphin, followed
, and soon afterward came Mary,
aempanied by the king. She was dressed
ia white. Here robe was embroidered with
the Agure of the lily, sad it glittered with
diamonds and ornaments of silver. As was
the custom in those days, her dress formed a
lag train, which was bone by two yoeng
girlwho walked behind her. She we a
diam d nekla, with a ring of imessne
vae s..pded from it, sa "aem her bhee

T1r eUIAT WIDbILe. 47
wa agelda coronet, enriched with dimmea d
sad gems of inestimable value.
RBt the dress and the diamonds which
Mary wore were not the chief points of attrac-
tion to the spectators. All who were present
on the occasion agree in saying that she
looked inexpressibly beautiful, and that there
was an indescribable grace and charm in all
her movements and manner, which filled all
who saw her with an intoxication of delight.
She was artless and unaffected in her man-
ners, and her countenance, the expression of
which was generally placid and calm, was
lighted up with the animation and interest of
the occasion, so as to make everybody envy
the. dauphin the possession of so beautiful a
bride. Queen Catharine, and a long train of
the ladies of the court, followed in the pro-
cession after Mary. Everybody thought that
she felt envious and ill at ease.
The essential thing in the marriage cere-
mony was to be the putting of the wedding.
ring upon Mary's finger, and thepronouncdig of
the nptial benediction which wasu immediately
to fellow it. This ceremony wu to be per-
formed by the archbishop of Rouen, who was
at th e~t the greatest cclesiatical dignitary
in fmla. Is order that a many prsema
PMl, eightt whithm this, it s um d
that ham M pahm at the* g ate.r

of the church, so as to be in view of the im-
mense throng which had assembled ia. the
amphitheatre erected in the area, and of the
multitudes which had taken their positions at
the windows and balconies, and on the house-
tops around. The procession, accordingly,
having entered the church through the covered
gallery, moved along the aisles and came to
the great door. Here a royal pavilion had
been erected, where the bridal party could
stand in view of the whole assembled multi-
tude. King Henry had the ring. He gave
it to the archbishop. The archbishop placed
it upon Mary's finger, and pronounced the be-
nediction in a loud voice. The usual con-
gratulations followed, and Mary greeted her
husband under the name of his majesty the
King of Scotland. Then the whole mighty
crowd rent the air with shouts and acclama-
It was the custom in those days, on such
great public occasions as this, to scatter money
among the crowd, that they might scramble
for it. This was called the king's lariyes, and
the largess was pompously proclaimed by he-
ralds before the money was thrown. The
throwing of the money among this iampse
throng produced a scene of ludeseri*hap.un-
fusion. The people precipitated the nes
upon each other in their eagernss to sase

the silver ead tih gold. Some were trailed
under foot. Some wen stripped of their hats
and cloaks, or bed their clothes torn from
them. Some hinted, ad were borne out ot
the scese with infinite difficultyand danger.
At last the people clamorously begged the
officers to- desist from throwing any more
money, for fear that the moat serious and fatal
consequences might ensue.
In the mean time, the bridal procession re-
turned into the church, and, advancing up the
centre between the lofty column, they came
to a place called the choir, which is in the
heart of the church, sad is enclosed by serm
of carved and sculptured work. It Is in the
choir that congregations assemble to be pr-
sent at mass and other religious cenmmees.
Moveable meats are placed here om ordinary
occasions, bat at the time of this wedding the
place was fitted up with great splendour. Here
Smau was performed in the presmae of the
bridal party. Mass is a solema ceremony
conducted by the priests, in which they remw,
or think they rmew, the sacrifice of Chri,
accompanied with o inogs of wcense, and
other actm of adoratie, and the cheating of
selem hymns of praise.
At the dees of these services th proee-
mios ammd spin down the dmror, and, Ins-
MEg rt at the gnat eatranme, it passed

60 ASt ouXma ao scos.
around upon a spacious platform, where ik
could be seen to advantage by all the spe-
tons. Mary was the centre to which an eyes
were turned. She moved along, the very pio-
tore of grace and beauty, the two young giris
who followed her bearing her train. The pro-
cession, after completing its circuit, retsumed
to the church, and thence, through the covaed
gallery, it moved back to the bishop's palace.
Here the company partook of a grand colla-
tion. After the collation there was a ball, but
the ladies were too much embarrassed with
their magnificent dresses to be able to dance,
and at five o'clock the royal family returned
to their home. Mary and Queen Catherimne
went together in a sort of palanquin, borne by
men, high officers of state walking on each
o&e. The king and the dauphin followed on
horseback, with a large company in their
train; but the streets wer everywhere so
crowded with eager spectators, that it was with
extreme difficulty that they were able to make
their way.
The palace to which the party went to qpd
the evening was fitted up and uillamld in
the most splendid meaner, ad a variety of
most curious entertainmeat had beea oe-
trived for the amusement of the eay.
There were twelve artificial b e, to
move by internal maecaulm, ald a-pld ly

vas easa was.ss. 1i
ipeiimed. Th children of the empy,
the little princes and dukes, mouated these
beese, and rode around the areas. Then
Mne in a company of men dressed like plU-
g aiM. each of whom recited a poem wrium
in bemour of the occasion. After this was on
eszibition of galleys, or beots, upon a little
se. These bots were large enough to cary
two persons. There were two sets in each,
one of which was occupied by a young gendle-
man. As the bosts advanced, one by ome,
each gentleman leaped to the shore, or to
what represented the shore, and, going ameg
the company, selected a lady, sad bore her of
to his boat; and then, eating her in the va-
cant chair, took his place by her i*e, mad
continued his voyage. Francis was in one of
the boats, and he, on coming to the shore,
took Mary for his companion.
The celebration nd ftivies e thi f.
moua wedding continued for Nseen days.
They closed with a grand tournament. A
tournament was a very maganileent spectole
in those days. A ed was enclosed,in which
kIings, and princes, and knights, fally aimd,
and mnouted uo war-horses, tilted egaint
each other with leaves and blunted sweud.
aies f gh rank were preeInt as speote
tors aId Jdgea, and ove was appelned at
vok tournament to preside, and to distAiute

St uAT*T.nri ar sown.
he im and rewards t those who we
meet shocesbel in the contests. The greatest
possible degree of deference and honour was
paid to the ladies by all the knights en these
occasions. Once, at a tournament in London,
arranged by a king of England, the knights
and noblemen rode in a long procession to the
teld, each led by a lady by means of a silver
chain. It was a great honour to be admitted
to a share in these contests, as none but per-
sons of the highest rank were allowed to take
a part in them. Whenever one was to be
held, invitations were sent to all the courts of
Europe; and kings, queens, ani sovereign
princes, came to witness the spectacle.
The horsemen who contended on these oo-
icaetns carried long lances, blunt, indeed, at
dhe end, so that they could not penetrate the
armour of the antagonist at which they were
aimed, but yet of such weight that the mo-
mentum of the blow was sometimes socldent
to unhorse him. The great object of every
essbatant was, sceordingly, to protect himself
fem this danger. He maus turn his horse
suddenly, and avoid the lance of his sotago-
ait; or he must strike it with his ow, and
thus parry the blow; or if he must mesenter
it, he was to bnrs khimelf Arly tn his mdi.e,
ad wresit its impale with al the trenthbhe
eel cmmand. hI r equrd, therefore, gt

nations required gave origin to the ase, t
word tournament being formed from the
French word. towner, which signifes to turn.
The princes and noblemen who were pre.
sent at the wedding all joined in the tourns-
ment except the poor bridegroom, who was too
week and feeble in body, and too timid in
mind, for any such rough and warlike exer-
cies. Francis was very plain and unprepo-s
sessing in countenance, and shy and awkwavi
in his manners. His health had always beaa
very infirm, and though his rank was y
high, a he was the heir apparent to what was
then the greatest throne in Europe, everybody
thought that in all other respects he was uatk
to be the husband of such a beautiful man
accomplished princess as Mary. He was
timid, shy, and axious and unhappy in dis-
position. He knew that the gay and warlike
spirits around him could not look upon his
with respect, and ho felt a painful ane of
his inferiority. .
Mary, however, loved him. It was a love,
perhaps, mingled with pity. She did Met
anans aa air of superiority over him, bat
ensaeaared to encourage him, to lead him
ooake, s -MIs him wish osimeis aM
ihWiR feel his own srngsh

54 MART 4oxsIr t 10oro .
ad vwul She was healf ft a eda adl
thdoghtfl cbsracter, and with all her 6WK
actual superiority, she was charoterise by
that feminine gentleness of spirit, that div.
position to follow and to yield rather than to
govern, that desire to be led and to be loved
rather than to lead and be admired, which ovi-
stitute the highest charm of woman.
Francis was glad when the celebrations,
tournament and all, were well over. He set
off from Paris with his young bride to one-of
his country residences, 'where he could live,
for a while, in peace and quietness. Mary
was released, in some degree, fiom the re-
straints, and formalities, and rules of etiquette
of King Henry's court, and was, to some ex-
tent, her own mistress, though still surrounded
with many attendants, and much parade sad
splendour. The young couple thus oe**
meaced the short period of their married life.
They were certainly a very yoey couple, both
of them being under sixteen.
The rejoicings on account of the marriage
were not confined to Paris. All Scotland
celebrated the event with much parade. The
Catholic party there were pleased with the
fnal consummation of the event, and all the
people, in fact, joined, more or less, in esm
mamomating the marriage of their qase .
There is in the asle of dimbrgAh, a

lbay platform wih overlooks
a meassrous gn, several entarie w
wu formed of bar of iron surend by gre
iron boops. The bells which this gun carried
are mere than a foot in diameter. The nase
of this enormous piece of ordnance is .4ss
Meg. It is now disabled, having been burt,
many years ago, and injured beyond the poe.
sibility of repair. There were great rejoicing
in Edinburgh at the time of Mary's marriage,
and from some old accounts which still remain
at the castle, it appears that ten shillings were
paid to some men for moving Mons Meg up
to the embrasure of the battery, and for Afnd
*i and bringing back her shot after she was
discharged; by which it appears that firing
Mos Meg was a part of the celebration by
which the people of Edinburgh honored the
marriage of their queen.

IT was aaid in the last chapter that Mary
loved her husband, infirm and feeble u he
was, both in body and in mind. This love
was prably the elect, quite a much a it
wn the em of the kidneys whb she

6e MART eUV3 or SCOTS.
showed him. As we are very apt to hbae
those whom we have injured, so we almost
instinctively love those who have in may way
become the objects of our kindness and care.
If any wife, therefore, wishes for the pleasure
of loving her husband, or which is, perhaps, a
better supposition, if any husband desires the
happiness of loving his wife, conscious that it
is a pleasure which he does not now enjoy,
let him commence by making her the object
of his kind attentions and care, and love will
spring up in the heart as a consequence of the
kind of action of which it is more commonly
the cause.
About a year passed away, when at length
another great celebration took place in Paris,
to honour the marriages of some other mem-
bers of King Henry's family. One of them
was Francis's oldest sister. A grand tourna-
ment was arranged on this occasion too. The
place for this tournament was where the great
street of St. Antoine now lies, and which may
be found on any map of Paris. A very large
concourse of kings and nobles from all the
courts of Europe were present. King Heary,
magniBfcetly dressed, and mounted on a su-
perb war-horse, was a very prominent Agae
in all the parades of the ocasaion, thoeh the
actual contests and trials of skill whisk teek
place were between younger priaes and

Mi1So0twas. 57
knights, Kig Henry and the liea eing
generally only spectators and judges. He,
however, took a part himself on one or two
occasions, and received great applause.
At last, at the end of the third day, just as
the tournament was to be closed, King Henry
was riding around the field, greedy excited
with the pride and pleasure which so magnifi-
cent a spectacle was calculated to awaken,
when he saw two lances still remaining which
had not been broken. The idea immediately
seised him of making one more exhibition of
his own power and dexterity in such contests.
He took one of the lances, and, directing a
high officer who was riding near him to take
the other, he challenged him to a trial of skill.
The name of this officer was Montgomery.
Montgomery at first declined, being unwilling
to contend with his king. The king insisted.
Queen Catharine begged that he would not
contend again. Accidents sometimes happen-
ed, she knew, in these rough encounters; and,
at any rate, it terrified her to see her bnebead
exposed to such dangers. The other lords
and ladies, and Frande and Queen Mary par-
ticularly, joined in thee expostulations. But
Henry was nexible. There was no danger;
and, smill at their fears, he commanded
oemigamry to arm himself with his lace,
and take hin positive.

58 MART aO 3 or SOTts.
The speetato looked on in breathless al-
lenoe. The two horsemen rode toward seek
other, each pressing his horne forward to his
utmost speed, and as they passed, each aimet
his lance at the head and breast of the other.
It was customary on such occasions to wear a
helmet, with a part called a visor in front,
which could be raised on ordinary occasions,
or let down in moments of danger like this, to
cover and protect the eyes. Of course thipart
of the armour was weaker than the rest, and it
happened that Montgomery's lance struck here
-was shivered-and a splinter of it pene-
trated the visor and inflicted a wound upon
Henry, on the head, just over the eye. Hen.
try's horse went on. The spectators observed
that the rider reeled and trembled in his seat.
The whole assembly were in consternation. The
excitement of pride and pleasure was every.
where turned into extreme anxiety and alarm.
They locked about Henry's horse, and
helped the king to dismount. He said it was
nothing. They took of his helmet, and found
large drops of blood issuing from the wound.
They bore him to his palae. He had dt
magnanimity to qay that Xolgomery ast
not be blamed for this relt, aes he wes hi
self responsible for it eaiely. He linger
eleves days, and then did. Sis wo in
July, 16 If:

One of the marriage which this Uobrnaat
tournament had been intended to celebrate,
that of Eliabeth, the king's daughter, had
aseady taken place, having been performed a
day or two before the king ws wounded; and
it was decided, after Henry was wounded, that
the ether must proceed, as there were great
reasons of state against any postponement of
it. This second marriage was that of Marga-
ret, his sister. The ceremony in her case was
performed in a silent and private manner, at
night, by torch-light, in the chapel of the
place, while her brother wia dying. The
services were interrupted by her sobs and
Notwithstanding the mental and bodily fee-
blenese which seemed to characterize the dau-
phin, Mary's husband, who now, by the death
of his father, became King of France, the
event of his accession to the throne seemed to
awakes his energies, and arouse him to sai-
mation and effort. He was sick himself, and
in his bed, in a palace called the Tournelles,
when some officers of stae were ushered into
hit apartment, and, kneeling before him, as-
lWted him a king. Thiswas the first an-
nmacment of his father's death. He sprang
k*r his bed, exclaiming at once that he was
wveL It is one of the sed consequences of
hereditary greatness and power, that a sen

et aometu0 e jolw t the death of his
It was Francis's duty to repair at once to
the royal palace of the Louvre, with Mary, who
was now Queen of France as well as of Scot.
land, to receive the homage of the various
estates of the realm. Catharinewas, of course,
now queen dowager. Mary, the child whom
she had so long looked upon with feelings of
jealousy and envy, was from this time to take
her place as queen. It was very humiliating
to Casharine to mume the position of a second
and an inferior in the presence of one whom
she had so long been accustomed to direct and
to command. She yielded, however, with a
good grace, though she seemed dejected and
sad. As they were leaving the Tournelles,
she stopped to let Mary go before her, saying,
"Pass on, madam; it is your turn to take
precedence now." Mary went before her, but
she stopped in her turn, with a sweetness of
disposition so characteristic of her, to lt
Queen Catharine enter frat into the carriage
which awaited them at the door.
Francis, though only sixteen, was entitled
to asanme the government himself. He west
to Rheima, a town northeast of PariU, whee
is an abbey, which is the ancient place of
oeronatimo for the kings of Framce. Here be
was crwmed. He appointed his uistesra,

xNIOrTUNZs. 01
and evinced, in his management sad in his
measures, more energy and decision than It
was supposed he possessed. He himself and
Mary were now, together, on the summit of
earthly grandeur. They had uany political
troubles and cares which cannot be related
here, but Mary's life was comparatively pece-
ful and happy, the pleasures which she enjoyed
being greatly enhanced by the mutual affection
which existed between herself and her husband.
Though he was small in stature, and very
unprepossessing in appearance and manuers,
Francis still evinced in his government a con-
siderable degree of good judgment and of
energy. His health, however, gradually do-
clined. He spent much of his time in travel-
lig, and was often dejeced and depressed
One circumstne made hi feel very unhappy.
The people of many of the villages through
which he passed, being in those days very ig.
norant and saperstitioss, got a rumour into
circulation that the king's malady was scke
that he could only be cored by being bthed
in the blood of young children. They aa-
gimed that he was travllng to obtain snoab
bath; and, whenever he asme, the people fled:
these eagerly carrying off their hidrern
from dis impending danger. The king did
not adorasad te ee of his being thun
shmaw i They esesalod it frem hIN, know-

62 MAlr visi ow scoTs.
a that wulA give b pan. He ekw
the fect, and it made him vey sAdto fld
himself the object of this mysterious sd wu
accountable aversion.
In the meantime, while these occurremee
had been taking place in France, Mary's me-
ther, the queen dowager of Scotland, had bees
made queen regent of that country after Mr
return from France; but she experienced in&-
nite trouble and difficulty in managing the
afirs of the country. The Protestant party
became very strong, and took up arms against
her government. The English sent them aid.
She, on the other hand, with the Catholic Wt*
terest to support her, defended her power as
well u she could, and called for help front
France to sustain her. And thus the country
which she was so ambitious to govern, was *-
vwlved by her management in the calamities
and sorrows of civil war.
In the midst ofthis contest she died. During
her last siekness she sent for some of the
leaders of the Protestant party, and did all
that she could to soothe and conciliate their
minds. She mourned the calamities sand d-
ferings which the civil war had brought "pa
th country, and urged the Protesetante to
all in their power, after her death, to heal the
diseniom 1 and restore peace. She alWa '
hearted them to remember their obligmtieu of

loyalty ad beAie t ,r G*ent b quea
ad toa sustain at mmagthen her paoament
by every sems is their power. She died,
and after her death the war wa r I ght t a
dle by a treaty of peace, in whioh the Frenh
and English governments joined with the pv.
mgnment of Scotland to settle th pointlfis
dispute, and immediately after the troo1 of
both these nation were withdrawn. Thorath
of the queen regent was supposed to have been
caused by the pressure of anxiety which the
cares of her government imposed. Her body
was carried home to Frace, and interred in
the royal abbey at Rhelm. -
The death of Mary's mother took place ia
the summer of 1560. The next December
Mary was destined to meet with a much heavier
aMiotion. Her husband, King Franei, in
addition to other complaints, had been uffer-
ing for some time from pain and disease in
the ear. One day, when he was preparing to
go out hunting, he was suddenly wised with a
fainting it, and was soon found to be in great
danger. He continued some days very iUL.
He was oavinced himself that he could net
reever, and began to make arranements far
is approaching ad. As he drew near to the
dea ef his li, he was more and more deeply
ir d with a sese of Mary's kildnes
a mourmed very much his ap.

preaching separation from her. He seat for
his mother, Queen Catharine, to come to his
bedside, and begged that she would treat Mary
kindly, for his sake, after he was gone.
Mary was overwhelmed with grief at the ap-
proaching death of her husband. She knew
at once what a great change it would make in
her condition. She would lose immediately
her rank and station. Queen Catharine would
again come into power, as queen regent, dur-
ing the minority of the next heir. All her
. friends of the family of Guise would be re-
moved from office, and she herself would be-
come a mere guest and stranger in the land of
which she had been the queen. But nothing
could arrest the progress of the disease under
which her husband was sinking. He died,
leaving Mary a disconsolate widow of seven-
The historians of these days say that Queen
Catharine was much pleased at the death of
Francis her son. It restored her to rank and
power. Mary was again beneath her, sad is
some degree subject to her will. All Mary's
fiends were removed from their high Mtatins,
sad others, hostile to her family, were pat
into their places. Mary soo fund bherelf
unhappy at court, and she accordingly mre vd
to a castle at a considerable datame fktm
Paris, to the weet, near the city of Oleans.

mxWOmTOMU. s
Th. people of Scotland wanted he to tmrn
to her native land. Both the great parties
sent ambassadors to her to ask her to return,
each of them urging her to adopt such mee-
sures, on her arrival in Scotland, as should
favour their cause. Queen Catharine, too, who
was still jealous of Mary's Influence, and of
the admiration and love which her beauty and
the loveliness of her character inspired, inti-
mated to her that perhaps it would be better
for her now to leave France, and return to her
own land.
Mary was very unwilling to go. She loved
France. She knew very little of Scotland.
She was very young when she left it, sad the
few recollections which she had of the country
were confined to the lonely island of Inchma-
home and the castle of Stirling. Scotland was
in a cold and inhospitable climate, accessible
only through stormy and dangerous seas, and
it seemed to her that going there was going
into exile. Besides, she dreaded to undertake
personally to administer a government whoes
care and anxieties had been so great as to
ca her mother to the grve. .
ary, however, found that t wa .in vain
for her to resist the Anbesce which passed
upon her the necessity of returning to her n-
tive land. She wandered aboutduring the

spring and summer after her husband's death,
spending her time in various palaces and ab-
beys, and at length she began to prepare for
her return to Scotland. The use gentleness
and loveliness of character which she had ex-
hibited in her prosperous fortunes, shone still
more conspicuously now in her hours of sor-
row. Sometimnes she appeared in public, in
certain ceremonies of state. She was then
dressed in mourning-in white--according to
the custom of royal families in those days,
her dark hair covered by a delicate crap* veil.
Her beauty, softened and chastened by her
sorrows, made a strong impression upon all
who saw her.
She appeared so frequently, and attracted
so much attention in her white mourning, that
she began to be known among the people as
the White Queen. Everybody wanted to see
her. They admired her beauty; they were
impressed with the romantic interest of her
history; they pitied her sorrows. She mourned
he husbands death with deep and unaffected
grief. She invented a device and motto for a
seal, appropriate to the occasion. It was a
figure of the liqorice-plant, every part of
which is useless except the root, which, of
course, lies beneath the surface of the earth.
Underneath was the inscription, in Iatin,
" The earth hides all that's dear to me." The

mowoavnis. C,
expressln is much more beatifl In the Lad
than can be expressed in any English words.*
Mary did not, however, give herself up to
sullen and idle grief, but employed herself in
various studies and pursuits, in order to soothe
and solace her grief by useful occupation.
She read Latin authors; she studied poetry;
she composed. She paid much attention to
music, and charmed those who were in her
company by the sweet tones of her voice, and
her skilful performance upon an instrument.
The historians even record an expression of
the fascinating effect produced by the graceful
movements of her beautiful hand. Whatever
she did or said seemed to carry with it an in.
expressible charm.
Before she set out on her return to Scot-
land, she went to pay a visit to her grand-
mother, the same lady whom her mother had
gone to see in her castle, ten years before, on
her return to Scotland after her visit to Mary.
During this ten years the unhappy mourner
had made no change in respect to her symbols
of grief. The apartments of her palace were
still hung with black. Her countenance wore
the same expression of austerity and woe.
Her attendants were trained to pay to her all
the marks of the most profound deference in
Dukee mena terra tegit.

i8 Mayr eZiZW o0p sCOTs.
all thea approaches to her. No sounds of
gaiety or pleasure were to be heard, but a pro-
found stillness and solemnity reigned continu-
ally throughout the gloomy mansion.
Not long before the arrangements were
completed for Mary's return to Scotland, she
revisited Paris, where she was received with
great marks of attention and honour. She was
now eighteen or nineteen years of age, in the
bloom of her beauty, and the monarch of a
powerful kingdom, to which she was about to
return, and many of the young princes of
Europe began to aspire to the honour of her
hand. Through these and other influences,
she was the object of much attention; while,
on the other hand, Queen Catherine, and the
party in power at the French court, were en-
vious and jealous of her popularity, and did a
great deal to mortify and vex her.
The enemy, however, whom Mary had most
to fear, was her cousin, Queen Elisabeth of
Queen Elizabeth was a maiden lady, now
*early thirty years of age. She was in all
respects extremely different-from Mary. She
was a jealous Protestant,.and very suspicious
and watchful in respect to Mary, on account
of her Catholic connections and faith. She
was very plain in person, and unprepossessing
in manners. She was, however, intelligent

uroaSTUnS. S9
and shrewd, and was governed by ealm
and policy in all that she did. The people by
whom sbe was surrounded admired her talents
anud feared her power, but nobody loved her.
She had many good qualities u a monarch,
but none considered as a woman.
Elisabeth was somewhat envious of her
cousin Mary's beauty, and of her being such
an object of interest and affection to all who
knew her. But she had far more serious and
permanent cause of alienation from her than
personal envy. It was this :-Elisabeth's fa-
ther, King Henry the Eighth, had, in aocoe-
sion, several wives, and there had been a
question raised about the legality of his mar-
riage with Elimabeth's mother. Parliament
decided at one time that this marriage was st
valid ; at another time, subsequently, dey
decided that it was. This difbrmec in the
two decisions was not owing so much to change
of sentiment in the persons who voted, as to
the change in the ascendancy ofthe parties by
which the decision was controlled. If the
marriage were valid, then Elisabeth was es.
titled to the Eglish crown., If it were e
valid, then she was net entitled to it: it be-
longed to the next heir. Now it happened
that Mary Queen of Scots was the nea heir.
Her grandmother on the the's side was an
English prineoses, and through her Mary had

70 MART Uvss OF scOTS.
a just title to the crown, if Queen Elizabeth's
title was annulled.
Now, while Mary was in France, during the
life-time of King Henry, Francis's father, he
and the members of the family of Guise ad-
vanced Mary's claim to the British crown, and
denied that of Elisabeth. They made a coat
of arms, in which the arms of France, and
Scotland, and England, were combined, and
had it engraved on Mary's silver plate. On
one great occasion, they had this symbol dis-
played conspicuously over the gateway of a
town where Mary was making a public entry.
The English ambassador, who was present,
made this, and other acts of the same kind,
known to Elisabeth, and she wu greatly in-
censed at them. She considered Mary as
potting treasonably against her power, and
b to contrive plans to circumvent and
thwart her.
Nor was Elizabeth wholly unreasonable in
this. Mary, though personally a gentle and
peaceful woman, yet in her teens, was very
formidable to Elisabeth as an opposing claim-
ant of the crown. All the Catholics in France
sad in Sootland would naturally take Mary's
side. Then, besides this, there was a large
Catholic party in England, who would be
strongly disposed to favour any plan which
abshould give them a Catholic monarch. Eliu-

beth was, therefore, very judy alarmed at
such a claim on the part of her cousin. It
threatened not only to expose her to the ag-
gressions of foreign foes, but also to internal
commotions and dangers in her own dominions.
The chief responsibility for bringing forward
this claim, must rest undoubtedly, not on
Mary herself, but on King Henry of France,
and the other French princes who first put it
forward. Mary, however, herself was not
entirely passive in the affair. She liked to
consider herself as entitled to the English
crown. She had a device for a seal, a very
favourite one with her, which expressed this
claim. It contained two crowns, with a motto
in Latin below, which meant, "A. third awaits
me." Elizabeth knew all these things, and
she held Mary accountable for all the anxiety
and alarm which this dangerous claim occa-
sioned her.
At the peace which was made in Scotland
between the French and English forces and
the Scotch, by a treaty made at Edinburgh,
which has been already described, it was
agreed that Mary should relinquish all claim
to the crown of England. This treaty was
brought to France for Mary to ratify. It, but
she declined. Whatever rights she might have
to the English crown, she refused to surrender
them. Things remained in this state until the

72 MARY QUev l Ofr COTe.
time arrived for her return to her native lad,
dad then, feeling that perhaps Elisabeth might
do something to intercept her pamage, he
applied to her for a safe-codauct; that is, a
writing authorizing her to pas safely aad
without hindrance through the English do-
minions, whether land or ea. Queen Eliss-
both returned word, through her ambassador
in Paris, whose name was Throckmorton, that
she could nt glve her any such sate-conduct,
because she had refused to ratify the treaty of
When this answer was communicated to
Mary, she felt deeply wounded by it. She
aent all the attendants away, that she might
express herself to Throckmorton without re-
serve. She told him that it seemed to her
very hard that her cousin was disposed to pre-
vent her return to her native land. As to her
claim upon the English crown, she said that
advancing it was not her plan, but that of her
husband and his father; and that now she
could not properly renounce it, whatever its
validity might be, till she could have opportu.
nity to return to Scotland and consult with
her government there, since it affected not her
personally alone, but the public interest of
Scotland. And now," she continued, in sub-
stance, I am sorry that I asked suoh a fa-
vour of her. I have no need to ask it, for I

UmUropTOus. 78
am sue I have a right to return from Fram.
to my own country without asking permission
of any one. You have often told me that the
queen wished to be on friendly terms with me,
and that it was your opinion that to be friends
would be best for us both. But now I ee
that she is not of your mind, but is disposed
to treat me in an unkind and unfriendly maa-
ner, while she knows that I am her equal in
rank, though I do not pretend to be her equal
in abilities and experience. Well, she may
do as she pleases. If my preparations were
not so far advanced, perhaps I should give up
the voyage. But I am resolved to go. I hope
the winds will prove favourable, and carry me
away from her shores. If they carry me upon
them, and I fall into her hands, she may make
what disposal of me she will. If I lose my
life, I shall esteem it no great los, for it is
now little else than a burden."
How strongly this speech expresses that
mixture of melancholy and dignity, of womanly
softness and noble decision, which pervaded
her character." There is a sort of gentleness
even in her anger, and a certain indescribable
womanly charm in the workings of her mind,
which cause all who read her story, while they
cannot but think that Elisabeth was right, to
sympathize wholly with Mary.
Throckmorton, at one of his conversations

with Mary, took occasion to ask her respecting
her religious views, as Elizabeth wished to
* know how far she was fixed and committed in
her attachment to the Catholic faith. Mary
said that she wu born and had been brought
up a Catholic, and that she should remain so
as long as she4lived. She would not interfere,
she maid, with her subjects adopting such form
of religion as they might prefer, but for her-
self she should not change. If she should
change, she said, she should justly lose the
confidence of her people ; for, if they saw
that she was light and fickle on that subject,
they could not rely upon her in respect to any
other. She did not profess to be able to ar-
gue, herself, the questions of difference, but
she was not wholly uninformed in respect to
them, as she had often heard the points dis-
cussed by learned men, and had found nothing
to lead her to change her ground.
It is impossible for any reader, whether
Protestant or Catholic, not to admire the
frankness and candour, the honest conscien-
tiousness, the courage, and, at the same time,
womanly modesty and propriety which charac-
terine this reply.

MARY was to sail from the port of Calais.
Calsis is on the northern coast of France, op-
posite to Dover in England, these towns being
on opposite sides of the Straits of Dover,
where the channel between England and
France is very narrow. Still the distance is
so great, that the land on either side is ordi-
narily not visible on the other. There is no
good natural harbour at Calais, nor, in fact, at
any other point on the French aide opposite.
The French have had to supply the deficiency
by artificial piers and breakwaters. There
are several very capacious and excellent har-
bours on the English side. This may have
beed one cause, among others, of the great
naval superiority which England has attained.
When Queen Elisabeth found that Mary
wuas going to persevere in her intention of re-
turning to her native land, she feared that she
might, after her arrival in Scotland, and after
getting established in power there, form a
scheme for making war upon her dminions,
and attempt to carry into effect her claim upon
the English crown. She wanted to prevent
this. Would it do for her to intercept Mary

upon her paage? She reflected on this
subject with the cautious calculation which
formed so striking a part of her character, and
felt in doubt. Her taking Mary a prisoner,
and confining her a captive in her own land,
might incense Queen Catherine, who was now
regent of France, and also awaken a general
resentment in Scotland, so as to bring upon
her the hostility of those two countries, and
thus, perhaps, make more mischief than the
securing of Mary's person would prevent.
She accordingly, as a previous step, sent to
Throckmorton, her ambassador in France,
directing him to have an interview with Queen
Catherine, and ascertain how far she would
feel disposed to take Mary's part. Throck-
morton did this. Queen Catherine gave no
direct reply. She said that both herself and
the young king wished well to Elizabeth, and
to Mary too; that it was her desire that the
two queens might be on good terms with each
other; that she was a friend to them both, and
should not take a part against either of them.
This was all that Queen Elisabeth could exs
pect, and she formed her plans for intercept-
lag Mary on her passage. She sent to
Throckmorton, asking him to find out, if he
could, what port Quaee Mary was to sail
from, and to send her word. She then gave
orders to her naval commanders to assemble

u many ships as they could, sad held them
in readiness to sail into the sesa between
England and France, for the purpose of ex-
termisating the pirate., which she said had
lately .become very numerous there.
Throckmorton took occasion, in a conversa-
tion which he had with Mary soon after this,
to inquire from what port she intended to sail;
but she did not give him the information.
She suspected his motive, and merely said, in
reply to his question, that she hoped the wind
would prove favourable for carrying her away
as far as possible from the English coast,
whatever might be the point from which she
should take her departure. Throckmortoe
then endeavoured to find out the arrangements
of the voyage by other means, but without
much success. He wrote to Elisabeth that
he thought Mary would sail either from Havre
or Calais; that she would go eastward, along
the shore of the Continent, by Flanders and
Holland, till she had gained a considerable
distance from the English coast, and then
would sail north along the eastern shores of
the German Ocean. He advised that Elia.-
beth should send spies to Calsis and to Hame,
and perhaps to other French ports, to watch
there, and to let her know whenever they ob-
served anyappearances of preparations for
Mary's departure.

78 MARYT B'ss o0 scrOT.
In the mean time, u the hour for Mary's
farewell to Paris, and all its scenes of luxury
and splendour, drew near, those who had
loved her were drawn more closely to her in
heart than ever, and those who ha4 been
envious and jealous began to relent, and to
look upon her with feelings of compassion and
of kind regard. Queen Catherine treated her
with extreme kindness during the last few
days of her stay, and she accompanied her for
some distance on her journey, with every
manifestation of sincere affection and good
will. She stopped, at length, at St. Germain,
and there, with- many tears, she bade her
gentle daughter-in-law a long and last fare-
Many princes and nobles, especially of the
family of Guise, Mary's relatives, accom-
panied her through the whole journey. They
formed quite a long cavalcade, and attracted
great attention in all the towns and districts
through which they passed. They travelled
slowly, but at length arrived at Calais, where
they waited nearly a week to complete the
arrangements of Mary's embarkation. At
length the day arrived for her to set sail. A
large concourse of spectators assembled to
witness the scene. Four ships had been pro-
vided for the transportation of the party and
their effects. Two of these wre galleys.

They were provided with beaks of ears, ad
large crews of rowers, by means of which the
vessels could be propelled when the wind
failed. The two other vessels were merely
vessels of burden, to carry the furniture and
other efects of the passengers.
Many of the queen's friends were to acsom-
pany her to Scotland. The four Maries wen
among them. She bade those that were to
remain behind farewell, and prepared to ea-
bark on board the royal galley. Her heart
wu very aad. Just at this time, a vessel
which was coming in struck against the pier,
in consequence of a heavy sea which was roll-
ing in, and of the distraction of the seamea
occaioned by Mary's disembarkation. The
vessel which struck was so injured by the
concussion that it filled immediately and asnk.
Most of the seamen on board were drowned.
This accident produced great excitement and
confusion. Mary looked upon the scene from
the deck of her vessel, which was now slowly
moving from the shore. It alarmed her, and
impressed her mind with a sad and moerdal
sense of the dangers of the elements to whew
mercy ahe wu now to be committed for amay
lays. "What an unhappy omen is this!"
ahe exclaimed. She then went to the stern
of the ship, looked back at the shore, then
knelt dws, ad, eeveing her face with bhr

80 MARs QUINx or icoTs.
bands, sobbed aloud. Farewell, France I"
she exclaimed: "I shall never, never see
thee more." Presently, when her emotions
for a moment subsided, she would raise her
eyes, and take another view of the slowly-re-
ceding shore, and then exclaim again, Fare.
well, my beloved France! farewell fare-
well I"
She remained in this position, suffering
this anguish, for five hours, when it began to
grow dark, and she could no longer see the
shore. She then rose, saying that her be-
loved country was gone from her sight for
ever. The darkness, like a thick veil, hides
thee from my sight, and I shall see thee no
more. So farewell, beloved land farewell
for ever I" She left her place at the stern,
but she would not leave the deck. She made
them bring up a bed, and place it for her
there, near the stern. They tried to induce
her to go into the cabin, or at least to take
some supper; but she would not. She lay
down upon her bed. She charged the helms-
man to awaken her at the dawn, if the land
was in sight when the dawn should appear.
She then wept herself to sleep.
During the night the air was calm, and the
vessels in which Mary and her company had
embarked made such small progress, being
woked only by the oars, that the land came

into view again with the gray light of the
morning. The helmsman awoke Mary, and
the sight of the shore renewed her anguish
and tears. She said that she could not go.
She wished that Elizabeth's ships would come
in sight, so as to compel her squadron to re-
turn. But no English fleet appeared. Qp
the contrary, the breeze freshened. The
sailors unfurled the sails, the oars were taken
in, and the great crew of oarsmen rested from
their toil. The ships began to make their
way rapidly through the rippling water. The
land soon became a faint, low cloud, in the
horizon, and in an hour all traces of it entirely
The voyage continued for ten days. They
saw nothing of Elizabeth's cruisers. It was
afterwards ascertained, however, that these
ships were at one time very near to them, and
were only prevented from seeing and taking
them by a dense fog, which at that time hap.
opened to cover the sea. One of the vessels of
burden was seen and taken, and carried to
England. It contained, however, only some
of Mary's furniture and effects. She herself
escaped the danger.
The fog, which was thus Mary's protection
at one time, was a source of great difficulty
and danger at another; for, when they were

diawng near to the place of their landing in
4botland, they were enveloped in a fog so
dense that they could scarcely see from one
end of the vessel to the other. They stopped
the progress of their vessels, and kept con-
tinually sounding; and when at length the
fag cleared away, they found themselves en-
veloped in a labyrinth of rocks and shoals of
the most dangerous character. They made
their escape at last, and went on safely toward
the land. Mary said, however, that she felt,
at the time, entirely indifferent as to the re-
sult. She was so disconsolate and wretched
at having parted for ever from all that was
dear to her, that it seemed to her that she was
equally willing to live or to die.
Mary, who, among her other accomplish-
ments, had a great deal of poetic talent, wrote
some lines, called her Farewell to France,
which have been celebrated from that day to
this. This is the song:-
Aditu, plaisant pays de France !
0 ma patrie,
La plus cherie;
'QOi a nourri ma jeune enfance.
Adieu France I adieu, mes beaux jours
La nef qui dejoint ues amount ,
N'I ey de moi que la mauid I
Use part to rested; Hlle est tine;
Jo Ia fie A ton amitid,
Peow que de 'autre il to souvienne.

Many persons have attempted to translate
this sang into English verse; but it is always
extremely difficult to translate poetry from
one language to another. We give here two
of the best of these translations. The reader
can judge, by observing how different they
are from each other, how different they must
both be from their common original.
Farewell to thee, thou pleasant shore,
The loved, the cherished home to me
Of infant joy, a dream that's o'er,
Farewell, dear France I farewell to thee I
The sail that wafts me bears away
From thee but half my soul alone
Its fellow half will fondly stay,
And back to thee has faithful fown.
I trust it to thy gentle care;
For all that here remains with me
Lives but to think of all that's there,
To love and to remember thee.
The other translation is as follows :-
Adieu, thou pleasant land of France I
The dearest of all lands to me,
Where life was like a Joyful dance,
The joyful danes ofi rey.
Farewell my childhood's laugnag wilest
Farewell the joys of youth's bright day I
The bark that takes me from thy miles, .
Bear but my meaner halt away.

The best is thine my changeless heart
Is giren, beloved France, to thee ;
And let it sometimes, though we part,
Remind thee, with a sigh, of me.
It was on the 19th of August, 1561, that
the two galleys arrived at Leith. Leith is a
small port, on the shore of the Frith of Forth,
about two miles from Edinburgh, which is
situated somewhat inland. The royal palace,
where Mary was to reside, was called the
Palace of Holyrood. It was, and is still, a
large square building, with an open court in
the centre, into which there is access for car-
riages through a large arched passage-way
in the centre of the principal front of the
building. In the rear, but connected with
the palace, there was a chapel in Mary's day,
though it is now in ruins. The walls still
remain, but the roof is gone. The people of
Scotland were not expecting Mary so soon.
Information was communicated from country
to country, in those days, slowly and with
great difficulty. Perhaps the time of Mary's
departure from France was purposely con-
cealed, even from the Scotch, to avoid all
possibility that the knowledge of it should get
into Elisabeth's possession.
At any rate, the first intelligence which the
inhabitants of Edinburgh and the vicinity had
of the arrival of their queen, was the approach

of the galleys to the shore, and the fring of a
royal salute from their guns. The Palace of
Holyrood was not ready for Mary's reception,
and she had to remain a day at Leith, await.
ing the necessary preparations. In the mean-
time, the whole population began to assemble
to welcome her arrival. Military bands were
turned out; banners were provided; civil and
military officers in full costume assembled,
and bonfires and illuminations were provided
for the evening and night. In a word, Mary's
subjects in Scotland did all in their power to
do honour to the occasion; but the prepara-
tions were so far beneath the pomp and pa-
geantry which she had been accustomed to in
France, that she felt the contrast very keenly,
and realized, more forcibly than ever, how
great was the change which the circumstances
of her life were undergoing.
Horses were prepared for Mary and her
large company of attendants, to ride from
Leith to Edinburgh. The long cavalcade
moved toward evening. The various profes-
sions and trades of Edinburgh were drawn up
in lines on each side of the road, and thou-
sands upon thousands of other spectators as-
sembled tu witness the scene. When she
reached the palace of Holyrood House, a band
of muak played for a time under her windows,
sad then the great throng quietly dispersed,

leaving Mary to her repose. In Mary's day,
the northern part of the palace only had been
built, and the range extending back to the
royal chapel. Mary took up her abode in this
dwelling, and was glad to rest from the fa-
tigues and privations of her long voyage; but
she found her new home a solitary and gloomy
dwelling, compared with the magnificent pa-
laces of the land she had left.
Mary made an extremely favourable im-
pression upon her subjects in Scotland. To
please them she exchanged the white mourning
of France, from which she had taken the
name of the White Queen, for a black dress,
more accordant with the ideas and customs of
her native land. This gave her a more sedate
and matronly character, and though the ex-
pression of her countenance and figure was
somewhat changed by it, it was only a change
to a new form and fascinating beauty. Her
manners, too, so graceful and easy, and yet so
simple and unaffected, charmed all who saw
Mary had a half-brother in Scotland, whose
title was at this time the Lord James. He was
afterward named the Earl of Murray, and is
commonly known in history under this latter
designation. The mother of Lord James was
not legally married to Mary's father, and con-
quently he could not inherit any of his fa

their's rights to the Scottish crown. The Lord
James was, however, a man of very high rank
and influence, and Mary immediately received
him into her service, and made him one of her
highest ministers of state. He was now
about thirty years of age, prudent, cautious,
and wise, of good person and manners, but
somewhat reserved and austere.
Lord James had the general direction of af-
fairs on Mary's arrival, and things went on
very smoothly for a week; but then, on the
first Sunday after the landing, a very serious
difficulty threatened to occur. The Catholics
have a certain celebration, called the mass, to
which they attach a very serious and solemn,
importance. When our Saviour gave the bread
and the wine to his disciples at the Last Sup-
per, he said of it, This is my body, broken
for you," and This is my blood, shed for
you." The Catholics understand that these
words denote that the bread and wine did at
that time, and that they do now, whenever the
communion service is celebrated by a priest
duly authorized, become, by a sort of miracu-
lous transformation, the true body and blood
of Christ; and that the priest, in breaking the
one and pouring out the other, is really and
truly renewing the great sacrifice for sin made
by Jesus Christ at his crucifixion. The mass,
therefore, in which the bread and the wine are

so broken and poured out, becomes, in their
view, not a mere service of prayer and praise
to God, but a solemn act of sacrifice. The
spectators, or assistants, as they call them,
meaning all who are present on the occasion,
stand by, not merely to hear words of adora-
tion, in which they mentally join, as is the
case in most Protestant forms of worship,
but to witness the enactment of a deed, and
one of great binding force and validity; a real
and true sacrifice of Christ, made anew, as an
atonement for their sins. The bread, when
consecrated, and, as they suppose, transmuted
to the body of Christ, is held up to view, or
carried in a procession around the church, that
all present may bow before it, and adore it as
really being, though in the form of bread, the
wounded and broken body of the Lord.
Of course the celebration of the mass is in-
vested, in the minds of all conscientious Ca-
tholics, with the utmost solemnity and import-
ance. They stand silently by, with the deep.
est feelings of reverence and awe, while the
priest offers up for them, anew, the great sa-
crifice for sin. They, regard all Protestant
worship, which consists of mere exhortations
to duty, hymns, and prayers, as lifeless and
void. That which is to them the soul, the
essence, and substance of the whole, is weant-
ing. On the other habd, the Protestants ab-

hor the sacrifice of the mass as gross super-
stition. They think that the bread remains
simply bread after the benediction as much as
before; that for the priest to pretend that in
breaking it they renew the sacrifice of Christ,
is imposture; and that to bow before it in
adoration and homage is the worst idolatry.
Now it happened that during Mary's ab-
sence in France, the contest between the Ca-
tholics and the Protestants had been going
fiercely on, and the result had been the almost
complete defeat of the Catholic party, and the
establishment of the Protestant interest
throughout the realm. A great many deeded
of violence accompanied the change. Churches
and abbeys were sometimes sacked and de-
stroyed. The images of saints, which the
Catholics had put up, were pulled down and
broken; and the people were sometimes
worked up to phrenzy against the principles
of the Catholic faith and Catholic observances.
They abhorred the mass, and were determined
that it should not be introduced into Scotland.
Queen Mary, knowing this state of things,
determined, on her arrival in Scotland, not to
interfere with her people in the exercise of
their religion; but she resolved to remain a
Catholic herself, and to continue, for the use
of her own household, in the royal chapel at
Holyrood, the same Catholic observances to

90 MAYT QeaN or SCOTS.
which she had been accustomed in France.
She accordingly gave orders that mass should
be celebrated in her chapel on the first Sun-
day after her arrival. She was very willing
to abstain from interfering with the religious
usages of her subjects, but she was not will-
ing to give up her own.
The friends of the Reformation had a meet-
ing, and resolved that mass should swt be
celebrated. There was, however, no way of
preventing it but by intimidation or violence.
When Sunday came, crowds began to assemble
about the palace and the chapel, and to fill all
the avenues leading to them. The Catholic
families who were going to attend the service
were treated rudely as they passed. The
priests they threatened with death. One,
who carried a candle which was to be used in
the ceremonies, was *extremely terrified at
their threats and imprecations. The excite-
ment was very great, and would probably have
proceeded to violent extremities, had it not
been for Lord James's energy and courage.
He was a Protestant, but he took his station
at the door of the chapel, and, without saying
or doing anything to irritate the crowd with-
out, he kept them at bay, while the service
proceeded. It went on to the close, though
greatly interrupted by the confusion and up.
roar. Many of the French people who came

with Mary were so terrified by this scene,
'that they declared they would not stay in such
a country, and took the first opportunity ef
returning to France.
One of the most powerful and influential of
the leaders of the Protestant party at this time
was the celebrated John Knox. He was a
man of great powers of mind and of com-
manding eloquence: and he had exerted a
vast influence in arousing the people of Scot-
land to a feeling of strong abhorrence of what
they considered the abominations of popery.
When Queen Mary of England was upon the
throne, Knox had written a book against her,
and against queens in general, women having,
according to his views, no right to govern.
Knox was a man of the most stern and uncom.
promising character, who feared nothing, re-
spected nothing, and submitted to no restraints
in the blunt and plain discharge of what he
considered his duty. Mary dreaded his in-
fluence and power.
Knox Wad an interview with Mary not long
after her arrival, and it is one of the most
striking instances of the strange ascendancy
which Mary's extraordinary beauty and'grace,
and the pensive charm of her demeanour, ex-
ercised over all that came within her influence,
that even John Knox, whom nothing else
could soften or subdue, tound his rough and

92 MART QUsaw or sCOTI.
indomitable energy half forsaking him in the
presence of his gentle queen. She expostu-
lated with him. He halt apologized. No-
thing had ever drawn the least semblance of
an apology from him before. He told her
that his book was aimed solely against Queen
Mary of England, and not against her; that
she had no cause to fear its influence; that,
in respect to the freedom with which he had
advanced his opinions and theories on the
subjects of government and religion, she need
not be alarmed, for philosophers had always
done this in every age, and yet had lived good
citizens of the state, whose institutions they
had, nevertheless, in some sense theoretically
condemned. He told her, moreover, that he
had no intention of troubling her reign; that
she might be sure of this, since, if he had
such a desire, he should have commenced his
measures during her absence, and not have
postponed them until her position on the
throne was strengthened by her return. Thus
he tried to soothe her fears, and to justify
himself from the suspicion of having designed
any injury to such a gentle and helpless queen.
The interview was a very extraordinary spec-
tacle. It was that of a lion laying aside his
majestic sternness and strength to dispel the
fears and quiet the apprehensions of a dove.
The interview was, however, after all, painful

and distressing to Mary. Some things which
the stern reformer felt it his duty to say to
her, brought tears into her eyes.
Mary soon became settled in'her new home,
though many circumstances in her situation
were well calculated to disquiet and disturb her.
She lived in the palace at Holyrood. The
four Maries continued with her for a time,
and then two of them were married to nobles
of high rank. Queen Elizabeth sent Mary a
kind message, congratulating her on her safe
arrival in Scotland, and assuring her that the
story of her having attempted to intercept her
was false. Mary, who had no means of
proving Elizabeth's insincerity, sent her back
a polite reply.

DURING the three or four years which
elapsed after Queen Mary's arrival in Scot-
land, she had to pass through many stormy
scenes of anxiety and trouble. The great
nobles of the land were continually quarrelling,
and all parties were earnest and eager in their
efforts to get Mary's influence and power on
their side. She had a great deal of trouble
with the affairs of her brother, the Lord

James. He wanted to have the earldom of
Murray conferred upon him. The castle
and estates pertaining to this title were in the
north of Scotland, in the neighbourhood of
Inverness. They were in possession of
another family, who refused to give them up.
Mary accompanied Lord James to the north
with an army, to put him in possession. They
took the castle, and hung the governor, who
had refused to surrender at their summons.
This, and.some other acts of this expedition,
have since been considered unjust and cruel;
but posterity have been divided in opinion on
the question how far Mary herself, was per-
sonally responsible for them.
Mary, at any rate, displayed a great degree
of decision and energy in her management of
public affairs, and in the personal exploits
which she performed. She made excursions
from castle to castle, and from town to town,
all over Scotland. On these expeditions she
travelled on horseback, sometimes with a
royal escort, and sometimes at the head of an
army of eighteen or twenty thousand men.
These ro3 al progresses were extended both to
the great towns and cities on the eastern
coast of Scotland, and also, at other times,
among the gloomy and dangerous defiles of
the Highlands. Occasionally she would pay
visits to the nobles at their castles, to hunt in

their parks, to review their Highland re-
tainers, or to join them in celebrations sad
fetes, and military parades.
During all this time, her personal influence
and ascendancy over all who knew her was
constantly increasing ; and the people of
Scotland, notwithstanding the disagreement
on the subject of religion, became more and
more devoted to their queen. The attach-
ment which those who were in immediate
attendance upon her felt to her person and
character, was in many cases extreme. In
one instance, this attachment led to a very sad
result. There was a young Frenchmaen,
named Chatelard, who came in Mary's train
from France. He was a scholar and a poet.
He began by writing verses in Mary's praise,
which Mary read, and seemed to be pleased
with. This increased his interest in her,'and
led him to imagine that he was himself the
object of her kind regard. Finally, the love
which he felt for her came to be a perfect in-
fatuation. He concealed himself one night in
Mary's bed-chamber, armed, as if to resist
any attack which the attendants might make
upon him. He was discovered by the female
attendants, and taken away, and they, for
fear of alarming Mary, did not tell her of the
circumstances till the next morning.
Mary was very much displeased, or, at least,

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