• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Marco Polo
 Canton
 Difficulties
 The English embassy
 The English embassy (continued...
 Introduction of the Bible
 Advertising














Title: Anecdotes of the Chinese, illustrative of their character and of their conduct towards foreigners.
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Title: Anecdotes of the Chinese, illustrative of their character and of their conduct towards foreigners.
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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page i
    Preface
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Marco Polo
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Canton
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
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        Page 63
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        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Difficulties
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 96
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        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    The English embassy
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
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        Page 144
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        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    The English embassy (continued)
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
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    Introduction of the Bible
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
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    Advertising
        Page 220
Full Text



















AN39CDOTES O THE OHIMIIBO.


..: -:y


571-






ANECDOTES

Of

THE CHINESE,

ILLUBUATInV OP

THEIR CHARACTER

AND 01 Trll

CONDUCT TOWARDS IFOBIGNBRB






LONDON:
T. ALLMAN, 42, HOLBORN HILL.
MDOCOL.









PREFACL


Tan progress of Christianity among the
Chinese, and the recent obanges in or
ommercil regulations with that extraordi.
ary people, have drawn towards them much
public attention, and excited a desire for a
more compendious and clear account of
China than Lha hitherto appeared.
in this little voltoe will be found such
information respecting this singular country,
a may not Cnl be grandfyin, but also highly
interesting, especially to the yoong reader.
It ha been chiely compiled from the valu-
able wor o' Barrow, StuMnto, Marbmaa,
Menlson, Mine, &c.











CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.
MARCO POLO.
The expedition of t two brothers. The
meet an ambasador from the Eat. Tbhe
arrival in China. Their reception and re-
urn. Second expedition. The legte
Passage through Armenia. The proposal.
Joumey through the cotinent. Arri and
caption. The emperor'opinio of Chis-
tiamity. The palace of Peki. Paper m y.
Sr of Achd Re ellion S.mm0
jtice. The besiegiang ene. Tie trav-
rem sons for wishing to return Difel
tie& The Persian prinae, and his embay
to China. The reepies o(the m aimAdos.
The bride. First attempt to retuar. Falne.
Second attempt. Passage through Persia.
Arrival at home.............. ...PIg S

CHAPTER II.
CAITON.
The Portguese at Canton. Firt inter-
view with the notires. Efforts to establit






IV cONIUNTn.
Regular trade. Journal of the Americe
traveller. Arrival at Macao. The fast-boat.
Lintin. The Bogue. Custom-house officers.
Wbampoa. Juan. Praodas. Hongs.
Amusing sceae at Cuanto. g merchants.
Old Chiin-street. The city of Canton.
The Fbteen gardens. A rist to the Mo-
* astery.............................. 41

CHAPTER III.
DIWFICULTIt,.
irst commercial arrangement with the
Portuguese and East India Compnies.
Manner in which the trade wasu ared on.
Licensed pilots. Hong merchant and the in-
"rpretrs. Hoppoo. Duties. Policy of
the Chinese in cases of misndenrtandi
with foreigner. Examples. Cbinme killed
by frig a salute. Difficulty ariing. Su
percago apprehended. Measures of retali
action. The gunner given up. His execution.
Afdir often shipVttuse. The mob. Ne-
gotitions. The trial. Edward Sheen sr-
smdered. Difficulty in 1808. Landing of
Britih troops at Maceo, Remonstrance of
the Chinese. Affair of the Tcpue. Fruit.
less negotiations. The viceroy's frmnes.
His edict. Attempts at compromise. Re.
corded opinions of the superoargoes. Ulti-
mate settlement. Soccer of the Chinese
policy. Its unreasonableuem.......... T4






0mT-1M


CHAPTER IV.
TUBi UOLIU BNDANT.
Object of the chapter. Deiga .t Is
Eoglih embassy. Lord Marty. His
train. Difculties about ma iterprer. The
presuts. Communication sent to China.
Ebarkation of the embassy. Deign in nt
landing at Canton. Wish of the Chinse
authorities. Ch n. ECect produced by
the arrival of the .ips. Chinee junks.
Chinese navigion. Arrival of the bri at
Chusan. Audinoo with the mandarin. At-
tempti to obtain a pilot. Pressing. EI-
trance into the Yellow Sea. The Ambame-
dor's directions to the passenpr and crew.
Mode of ailing tords the ihor. Termi.
nation of the voyage. The JacI. Here-
turn with the Chinos. The mandarin.
Their impression on eein tbhs hip. Mode
of taking tbe on board. Communication to
the mndarins. Description of the presents.
The planetarium. The telescope. Globes
Chronomtes. Mechaical power. Pleas
of ordance. Other parents. IThe umbeq
sad&'s instractioM to the quadroa. The
parting. A man-of-war'sfmrwel Eatera
the rier. The boamen'i song. Reception
of the whole party as guests. Chinese -
lutes. Scenes on the banks of the river.
Illuminations at night. Tien sing. The
eanban received by the legate. Pekia.






vC aNIt.
Pa ge through the city. The yellow wall.
kreets. Crowds.................. 101

CHAPTER V.
TUl WOSLISH rMBAUSS-CONTIrNWD.
Arrival at Yuen-minynen. Difleulties
Journey to Gehol. The English cariages
The Chinese wll. Arrival. Negotiations
about ceremonies. The audience. Visit to
the emperor's gardens. Return to Pekin.
Meetio the emperor on hin return. The
lnre isits. Journey through the coun-
try............................... 151

CHAPTER VI.
INTRODUCTION OF TBN BIBLI.
Dr. Morriso. Preparations. Embark
atio. Visit at Philadelphia. Mr. Maddi.
am. Arrival at Canton. The beginning.
Mr. Morrison's dress. The go-down. Mr.
Morriso' appointment. The Chinese an-
ue. Nature of itu s The character.
Sidiom. Dialogue between a traveer
iad a Canton merobmot. Progress the
transltioo. Arrival of Milne. Aid from
Catholi labours. Conlndrion........ 18








CHINA AND THE ENGLISH.

CHAP. L
MARCO POLO.
AaoUT five hundred ago, whim the
commerce betw Europe nd the ast
was carried on through te great commr-
el oitie of the Meditermnee, two b*-
ther, of te nIaes of Nicolo and MiUdo
Polo, mt of together from Venice, their ns-
tive place, to mk their forteom ua trml-
ling mereamts in Asi. They went rt to
onstatiuople, taking with thm such mr-
chandi as jewellery, and other Mtide of
great vale, compared with their weight d
wise; for the modee of tranportatio wre
difficult and pre'ioue. thly pFad nm
from Caotatinople to the Blaek Setop.
png to trade at it more import
and tbh purmd their jorneMy northward
ad outward, until tby Paebd th eomt
of a powerful Tartr prince, whoee domar
teaxded over that j f the word.
Tbi jorneyt o place not long after the
time of the eler d Tartar conquer,
Ghengis Khoa, who overan all Asia, ft
the River Volp to the Chian Se. 1*
deminoou wer now, however, dirlM
amlg hei dee-adl s: one, of the name (






4 CHINA.
Kubai Khan, whose meat of goernment
was on the oonfine of China, beg con-
sidered a holding the highest power, was
called the grand khan, the latter word, in
their language, signifying chief. The mer-
manta remained for some time in the vici-
nity of the Caspian, but, unfortunately, or,
rather, er fortunately. as appeared n the
result, it happened that a war broke oat
between the subordinate Tartar prices,
which rendered their return unafe. They
mwed, therefore, slowly on, endeavoouri
to take a large circuit romad the diturbe
soontrie, and thu get bask to Cosmtanti-
nople. While on their way, ithe attempt
toexecutethisplan, they wre met, at the
city of BoLkhar, by an envoy, or amba
sador, who was going from er of the
western khas to the grand kbb, Kublai,
in the East. The envoy invited our Italian
merchants to ccompery him. He seemed
to be gratied at meetug them and ooa
vering with them; for they ad by thi
time learned the Tartar larnSuge. Hie
ured them, also, that, if they would acom-
pany him arose the continent to the oourt
of te emperor, they would be hemourbly
received, and would w be reeompeased by
valuable preents. The travellers me to
ie hesitated about embarking on so distant
an expedition but the way for trn to their
hou appeared to be cut of, and the a
Igth detemised to acoede to the b.






MAACO POLO. I
edor'e progo l. They cordiy st out
rith him, teeoded by aoifid U tnl
errvats sd compamoo md direted their
com into the hart of thi oonti t. They
i verm and mountain, and almost
boodles wust; and, fter ye roflatig
uad hardship, they reehed the rsidemw of
the empor.
Th envoy was not mistake in regrd to
the mmoa in which the monarch would
receive his guta. TIhy wer the lnt
Italiin who had over md their way into
his country; and Italy, froa various cause,
was at that time one of th most important
coantrie in Emrope. The upor bad
many intriews with them, ma kin nqai-
rie sbout their prt of the world, the s-
rious Christies price, their relative con-
sequeoce, the extet of their dominions, the
manner in which justice was dministered in
their several kingdom, bow they oonducted
thmslves in waf ; ad, above all, he
.idosed tbhe prticuhlrly reepectig the
Pop, t ,lMir of the church, mad the z.
tar of the Cristian reliio, with the doo.
trian, th duties, ad the modes of womhip
which it prescribes.
After remaining aconsided bl time with
the Tartar, or Chinee emprorra-tr his
empire included Chis,-they bqn to think
of ir retrm. The emperor determined to
end one of his oicer with them, u a m-
smdcr to the Pope, to request, a tdh






I CHINA.
traveler my, that his Hlses would
msd him one hundred men of learg,
thoroughly aquainted with the principle of
the Cbristian religion, a well a with the
seen M sciences, and qualified to prove to the
learned of his dominions, by jut and fair
argument, that the faith profesed by the
Chritians is superior to, and founded upon
more evidence than any other." He gave
them some other commissions, such as tht
they should bring him some of the holy oil
with which the lamp was kept constantly
burning before the sepulchre of the Saviour
at Jerusalem, of whose wonderful virtues
the Italians had probably informed him. He
gave them letters to the Pope, written in
the Tartarla lanuqg, and fmrihed them
also with gdea tablet, displaying the
imperial cipher, a oording to the uage sate
blisbed by his *ajety, n virtue of whbih,
the person bearing it, together with his
whole company, are sely c eeand es-
corted frm station to station, by the go-
ernors of all the places within the I rial
dominions."
These arrangement being mad, the r-
ellero set out on their return. In a few
days, however, the ofcer who had been
commissioned to accompany them, fell iok ;
and it was found necessary, as they sJy, to
leave him behind. The travellers 41m-
delves, with their own compaay went on.
Their golden tablet secured them a p ,






MARCO POLO. r
peolwldo Uesor, wory thing that ws
necessary; and so low and tedious wa
their trrelling, that for thim yr they
tared their route towards the west, before
they arched the European waters. Atlegtb,
however, tbey arrived at a port upon the
Black Sea, whence they went by water to
AcTm, a importat town upon tbe eastern
coat of the Mediterrnea, whbre they foad
themselves once more in Christendom.--
They learned here that the Pope was deed,
which, of course, made it necessary to sum-
end the execution of their commission
from the Chinee emperor until a sacessor
should be appointed; and, in the mean time,
they set sail, a soon a possible, for their
home. Nearly twenty years had elapsed
since their departure: of course they must
have expected some change. The principal
one of importance to our future narrative,
was, that Nicholas, one of the brothers, in-
steed of being welcomed by the wife whom
he had left, was received by a son nineteen
years of age, whom be had never before
seen. The former had died, and the latter
been born, a few motbhs after the com.
mencement of the husband's wanderings.
Thek you man's name was Marco Polo, or,
aswe should y In English, Mark Paul; and
t s his name which we have placed t the
bead of this chapr; for it is obey his ad-
turme wbicb it is the object of the olpe
to deeeribeo






a. CHINA.
The two brothers, after remaining a sart
tie at Vnice, determined on returning to
the East, u they bad promised the grand
khan. They were, however, delayed by an
uezpectod oblstle. They were commis-
sioed, it willbe recollected, as n embassy
to the Pope, from the Eastern emperor; but
they found on their return, as has been al.
ready itimated, that the individual whom
they had left in the pontifial chair was dead,
snd the functionaries upon whom the elec-
tion of a successor devolved, could not
agree upon a choice. The travellers were
unwilling to return until they could carry
back an odial reply to the emperor's com-
munication, and yet they were uneasy at the
delay. Two years elapsed before they de.
e cided what to do.
Now, it happened, that, on their return
from Asia, they had found at Acre, that the
Roman lept there, a man of high rank and
iueace fn the Catholie church, took a vesr
active itereo t in their exdtion, ag in
the conmiesioa which had been intrnted
to thema. They concluded, therefore, since
there ieeMed to be little immediate probabi-
lity tt ht chair at Rome would soon be
killed, to st sail from Venice for Acre, and
to lay ore fully before this late their
eommuninatioM for the Pope. and to request
him to prepare and forward the replim.
They took with Marco Polo, the sa;
sad from Acre they turned aside from tho






MARCO POLO. 9
tose, to go to Jerualem, to obtain oe o
the holy oil which the Chinue empeor bd
patiurly quested. From Jerale
they returned to Acre, and them, having
received communication for the epror
from the l te, and minute instrctions
themelver, they riled tothenorthward along
the coet of bhe Mediterraneam until tbey
came to a port at the north-.et corner of that
ea, near Tarus, where they landed, and,
leaving the coast, commented their journey
into the interior.
They had scarcely crosed the country
of Armenia, before they wre overtaken by
a mesenger from the king, informing them
that the very late at Acre, who bad give
them their credentials and.intructions, had
himself been elected Pope, and that be had
set after them to wish them to retna, in
order that he might now, by means do t
new authority with which be wa cleded
provide, in a more formal ad eaeet
manner, for a suitable reply to the comm-
nicatio frm the Eastero moac They
accordingly returned, a rapidly poib
in glley provided for them bytb kig
Armnia, accompanied by a abameim
from hi to the new ponif. How difrert
their circa mstances, now, from those uade
which they commened their ret jenrme
tweaty y beoe I Then, they were mso.
eary rda-rMn awNeaturer, worklatr h
way, with pert fatigue adp da er, uro






10 CHINA.
the varmio province in their rout now,
bejoto of interest to the highest powers-
reyed at the ap rse and under the pr-
teotio of more hy, and about to be the
besam of d a fro the great poten-
tea of the Weten world, to the mightiest
monarch of the Eastern.
They were received in the most distin-
gdlbed manner by the new Pope; and new
urm-ento were made for their journey.
eu betters papal were prepared for
them. Two ecclesiti were appointed
to accompany them,-Father Nicholu and
Father Willism,-who were said to be men
of great attainments in literature, science,
and theology. They received ample powers
to found churches, ordain priests, consecrate
bishop, and grant abolition for sins. They
were ltruted,also, with many valuable pre-
eats for the grand khan.
The whole party, induding attendants
Iad srvats, aet out again for the north-
Istern port of the Mediterranean, where
they landed, and began once more their long
ourney across the continent, But the course
of their afir was not yet destined to run
smooth. The presobers commissioned to ae-
eompany them soon found their courage and
resolution unequal to the labour and dangers
of the almost Herculean task before them;
and they concluded, very wisely, perhaps,
to leave to the two brothers and the on, all
ie danger and the glory of the enterprise






MARCO POLO. it
Tbey deliv dver to hwe mease, thee.
fwe, ti letters ad p which the Pop
had intr ted to them, ad, putl them-
selves under the protection of a make
escort, Father Nichol and Father Willim
made the bet of their way hom.
The Polo family went on. They Mo
ceased the frontier of Armenia, ad pressed
oa into the heart of the continent. Mouth
fter month they continued their journey,
through deserts, cr rivers, and over
mountains. Winter set in, and blocked up
their way with ice and sow, or impeded
their progress by stomr. When summer
returned,,they resumed their oars Msin;
and thus, after three years ad a half, they
began to draw nar to tbe residence of t
emperor. Heing of their aproh, he
ent out mesengers," forty dysjo y,
met them: them meeosenrs bru t with
them every supply for their wants, and mple
mea of comfort and proewt... By
these mea, and through the bleieg
God," a Marcu Polo devotly upnexse
it, they at length arived in safety t the
royl coMut."
They were hoourably ad ng iously
reied," as MarIc ge oa to y, '* by the
grd khan. in a full Meembly of his prinepd
oceI. When they drew nigh to his per.
son, they paid their respect by proltnting
themelves upon the oor. He immediate
demanded them to ui, and to relate






19 CHINA.
him the elroumatsmo of their travl with
all that bad taken pla in their negotist
with hi holi the Pope. To their nm
tive, which tey e in the regular rd
d events, and divred in perspcuous la-
guaqe, he listed with ittentlve silence.
The letter and present from the Pope were
the laid before him, sad upon hearing th
former reed, h bestowed much commends-
tion on the fidelity, the sel, and the diligence
d his ambesmado; and receiving with due
reverence the oil from the holy sepalchn
gave directions that it should be prmrrd
with religious c ."
The third individual of the part, yung
Mar o, now about twenty-one yea of ae,
would, of oaurn, MooB attract the attention
of hi majesty. The empemr emed to
look opon him with peculiar favour; and it
is remrable, that the interview, in this
respect, s rated by the travellers, er-
esponds alr t piel with a siilar
ocerrnme which took pl ive hundred
yea after, whmn "o aBoi mbmadom
and his setary opp d i the premene
of the Chinee emperor, with a young am
of the nr in their train. In both
oaes, the po sUtrted the peeidl t-
tOption of tb monarch. MmIo Polo was
receive at ome ito his service; and M,
according to his own statement, he oetft
with great ardor into the duties of hia
srttir, be oan acquired, in a very es






MARCO POLO. 1I
dgpe, the coMdde and afection of mh
overign. Hi youth gave him great
advantap over his fther ad uelo; be
cold more seeily learn the la agl and
adopt the customs which pmeid arend
hit; and his European attiament, tted
him to be, in many respects, highly aful.
Seaten years t ravesem contimed in
this country, in the ervies of the mea b.
They various adventures, traveling ser
a parts of the empire, and were inutr d,
from time to time, with the managepat of
important afair. Marco hisef was often
dseptched to remote part of the ooe ry.
and was frequently ltruated with dvl nd
military power. He wsed often, tea tobam
e his own private asonat, and ths had the
opportunity of auiring very extmive is
kfatiuo regnud to the mmenm mad es.
toms, the government, institutde, and isuu
of the Easern world.
It is not our intetion to give to aur
reeden any ver minute seosuut ofwtm.
vellr's obervanton. He deeribee the
ditio of th country, nd the cto of the
people in tl various provides and ctie, ei
a ma vr y Darly with the f Mts a die
rtainMd. 1H wa stromnly tmped, hw.
wer, to eagz rate eery thing w*hi tad
to show the emperor" intrem t in Chrilte.
nity; as the honour of bhving made uay I-
preMiM upon remNote and poaefl a p
Twmenti he our of the C Hol e ri,






14 CHIAA.
would be very bighly valed in thoos days.
Such a story a the following may have ori
ginated in thiu way.
The Emper's Opinion of Christit.-
Th emperor, it ue, after same signal
victory over his enemies, cam in triumph
to Kambalu, (Pekin, probably ) and there,
while rejicing and Mtivity was the -order
of the day, the.tim of Ester approached.
" Being aware," ays Marco Polo, in his
narrative, that thi was one of our prin-
eipal solemnities, he commanded all the
Christisn to atted him, and to bring with
them their book, which contains the four
Gospel of the Evagelits. After causing
t to be reputedly perfumed with incense, in
a casmouious mriaw, he devoutly kissed
it, mad directed that te m M shoe he
dioe by all his obles who were prent.
Tis was hi usual practice upon ech of
the principal Christian festivals, seh a
Eastr and Chrsutma; and he ohmerved the
me at the fetivals of the Sarnses, Jews,
sad idolater. Upon being ked his motive
fr this codoet, he sid, 'Thkem we fr
gres propewho e reve rned and wor.a
bhiped by the difrent olMass of manklad.
The Chritin regard Jesu Christ a their
'Divinity; the 8mcens, Mahomet; the Jews,
- Mew; and the Idolters, 8eommIr-
Kthn, the most eminent among their idl.
I do hoomr and show respectto all the four;
4ed nvoke to my aid w"heer amongst






MARCO POLO. IS
them is, truth, super in hteaven.' Bt
fro the manner in which his mjesty acted
towards them, it is evident that he regarded
th faith dfthe Christla a the trest and
the bet; nothing, as he observed, be-
ina enjoined to its proleors that was ao
replete with virtue and holiness. By no
means, however, would be permit them to
bear the cross before them in their pro-
cessiona, because, upon it so halted a per-
sonage a Christ had ben soourged ad=
ignominiously put to death. It may, per-
baps, be asked by some, why, if he showed
uch a preference to the faith of Chrit, be
did not conform to it, and become a Chris
tion. His reason for not so doing, be a
signed to Nicolo and Matteo Polo. when.
upon the occasion of his sending them
bu ambassador to the Pope, they ventured
to address. few words to him on the sub-
ject of Christianity. Wherefore, h said.
should I become Christianl You your
selves must peroeiv that the Christians
of those countries are ignorat, indciet.
person, who do not possess the faculty ot
pr g ay ti minrculoau, where
youe that t, idote an do whatever
they will. When I sit at table, the cap
fiat wern tla t middle ot the hall com to
me flled with win and other bverae
potnua lr, and without being tooebd
hy human L nd*d I drink from t9 .
Tev have the power of controlling






is CHINA.
weather, and obliging it to retire to adt
quarter of the heavens; with many oth
weaderful gifts of nature. You sm witnesses
that their idols have the facdty 'of speech,
end predict to them whatever is requaid.
bold I become a convert to the faith of
hrist, and proIss myself a Christian, the
noblee of m. court, and other persons who
do not incline to that religion, will ask
what slufient motives have used me to
receive bptism and to embnrce Christimsity.
* What extrrdinary power,' they will
Swhat mincles, have been dirplayd by t
minisJters Wereas the idoate declare
that what they exhibit is performed through
their own anctity and the indnace of their
dolls To this slha not know what an.
swer to make; and I shall be eoidered
bythem laboring under gievos error ;
wil the idolatar, who, by ma of their
peolsad art, cam efet sch wonders, may
without d dalty oumpass my death. But
tamr yoe to year pafif, and qreaet d
him, n my num, to ead hith pena
wen aSel in yor lw, wo, being .-
ated with theidolata, hbdll er pmw
to corce thm; ad bshowi that they
tdmeolvs or endowed with milw rt,
but which they refraa hom awm ic. bo.
m it it s derived frmdie W ~= evil
spl, shel cmpel thee t io bem
ee- of ch a ataure ia te*ir press.
V I am witimse of this. 1 shall plee






MARCO "LO.. F,
ow d wir wwoft swo in balksk
deaw nuiYeul to be blsui.- Slob.
4 m example, all my mY wE
tie wilibemit ed by myu b ON=
nai; so dti s Cb e damo -td eu
wiln sese in sub. theme wh0
your ova eusutry.' hu a W e 11 In
mot be ovidnt that, Ht#o PV* bed saw
out perbons dud7 gaed to preseb the g
the ad would he smbmAed
risdeary, for whieb, ie oetsinly Ima
Is had a strong podideotie..
Among he ee I tma imsuias ef the
pWco a* Pekin, whiah, ma the nder will
Saint euheeuemaeapehIsvT" imil
mpo modwa desumineim.
I no P eAdmao ofheno gmd kha
"u"y euide, deismg ti rnh of the
Yew,-nmely, Deeambe,, JIameVY, ad
leuro"y-i te peat .- KmheI. alto'
ped Imawade the sordNthem w`ne d
the pno rlceof. Kall; and heeea t
owthraesideof 6e wadty, istdo ehse4
We wee. pdlao the fismas aid diu a do
WiLA e ame $--In the I.0l.. le
.~7u~eadA* a thA and deep

asee is. sadech i% at


~~e ~ ii ds fm de, pe toej
notrone






a CHINA.
Smal1 ti breadth, whee the troops me
*ataioaad; and this is bounded by a segpad
wall, enclosing asqur of six mile, baring
three gatm on the nsoth side, and three on
the north, the middle of each being larger
than the other two, and always kept abut,
eanepting on the occasions of the emperor'
entrance or departure. Those on each side
always remain opn for the use of common
passengers. In the middle of each division
of these walls is a handsome and spacious
building; and, coonequently, within the
enclosures there are eight uch buildings,
in which are deported the royal military
store; one building being appropriated to
tJe reception of each clae of stores; theu,
for instance, the bridles, sddles, stirmrup,
sad other furniture, serving for the equip.
ment of cavalry, oceapying one store-house;
the bows, strings, quivers, arrows, and other
article belonging to the archery, occupylag
another; the cuirases, corelets, sad oth t
armour formed of leather, a. third store.
house; and so of the et. Within this
walled losaren, there is stiB another of
great thishoesa; and its height is full twete
ty.fve feet. The battlmemnts, or camestl
pI Qets, re all white. This alse oras a
square, four nle in extent, emoh side being
one mile; and iL has six gates, dispesed As
those of the former elosue. It coosal
k like mainer, eight large buldiMngs, r
lady arangd, which re appreisted to






MARCO POLO. 1t
wardrobe of the emperor. The spus he-
tween the one wall and th other ar emr
mooted with many handsome tr, od con-
tain meadows, in which are kept various
kinds of basts, such a stag, the animals
that yield the musk, roe-buoka, low-deor,
and other of the same class. Every lnternl
between the walls, not occupied build-
ings, is locked in this manner. T* pa-
tures have abundant herbege. The nmed
aross them being rised thre feet above
their level, and paved, no mad collects upa
them, nor rain water settles, but, on the con-
trary, runs off, nd contributes to improve
the vegetation. Within these walls, which
constitute the boundary of four miles, stands
the palace of the grand khan, the most ex.
tenmve which bh ever yet been known. It
resahes from the north to the southern wall,
leaving only a vacant space, or court, where
persons of rank, andthe military guard, pam
and rep It hla no upper foor, (. e. e-
ood story ) but the roof is very lofty. The
paved foendatio, or platform on which it
stands, is raised ten span above the level of
the ground; and a wall of marble, two paces
wide, is built on all sides, to the level of this
pavement. Within the line of this the 1..
lace is erected; so that the wall, extending
beyond the ground plan of the building, an
encompassing the whole, serves a a termre
where thoes who walk on it are visible fom
without Along the exterior edge of the wadi






w9 CHINA.
Is hbnd--e balutae, with pal o Mab
tW peopl air alord to aeash Th
idesr of th pet ball ad oe prtes
an ornameated witk drangs in used 'web
sad gilt. frM ofwrto, da tbd, sad of
b tt, w Mit rpr tatio obettles The
side of the roof is cotlinvd i se smn.
fr that nothing besides gildig Uad paimat
presents itself to the eye. On swh of the
foIr ideof the plam the is a grtd light
of marble yt Which you asced
the beel often groid to the wall of matu
which Urouind theob&Ulding, Md which en-
otitute the approach to th palace itself. The
pgred al is extremely long and wide, aul
admits of dianes bilag there red to peat
maltitade of people. The p e cootais
a number of parent oLm]W, all higcl
bamtifl, ad so dadirMy dised, tat at
l impa ior to qI anJ irmpove.
tkltr e d rtl ro s ia dond with r
-rlty it lm,--rt of a, mr. a d
at~r-aendth.n rt oooverib is rUa |
ato l t for may yWm,. g l
the widow m so wellwrougt, d so d.
Uitow -a to Ma r the brnmprency of s
tai. Inthrsaof the body ofths, pl
tber kr boua ldp ,nta innr
partmanto, wh is d tqo etd th private
pnM of the monarch, or his treswre is
ad iver bullien, preios stones, d
p ald a, lo d hhi sels of old and ieer






MAR4O "OLO. a
Num am IHomisse the Gq d2ba
mimmin ~ not -am"Somm
6rnss. hshg fs. lm o., Imi 4d homm.
o"0 "oa~ sef the PM& pals..
Orrr W ID bidb doSIMPOIN

mi opgis In 1. ob1d he f
mblum, m mote pelm. t:m "y me
Mel lit cakhsprl n mks"own arm s

I*&* pvumb. d dam iNot me6ls,
eimt do l ma m the auu aMIN MA
W" a Iw. dht&O Nhm the "m.
smlin ia uis ikid m mdl u
&uth. =ba hiSbih Im, h. W b am
p., aI" the at. 60 ue%, abl"A
mile. Is tlobsi wM "h a" te
mouYL tress; im at m Auimrn wj
up' vstbrl iof a e aheme im
IComill in. ftyplaa% 10 emm Wto~a do#
sade mu. bm,.h' 6. &mrJbm
be, hehauLit NuMPutd, kroumm of
ph"st. to NO ii OP isuIk tob
"WW" samalim Irm r-rL~
11 it b. uqud "tb appeflad tbi
Grews Mam. 0. 1a On mt its uh
- gommeoaI ulia. W1c, is JihinA
ralmyrem Tb. view 1t dasLe
Una ku" I tbotis, u amie at b -
im. a @4.sz I ase im om






I, CHINA.
LM osM e. In the other qoter,
bo, sad alr within the ypcets of the
dt, theb r ai ae nd deep oaereon,
iudidoy fonad, the earth hom which
appliedd th material for raising the ment.
t is furnished with water by a small rirvlet,
and the stram, passing from thece along
i aqueduct at the foot of the Green Moant,
proceeds to ill another great and very deep
excavation, formed betwee the private pa-
lace of the emperor and that of his son,
Chingis; the earth from which, equally
served to increase the elevation of the mount.
Ia this latter bean, there is a great store
and variety o fish, from which the table of
his majesty is applied with any qukatity
that may be wanted. The streak disebarges
itef at the opposite extremity of the piece
of water, and preautio are taken to pro-
vent the esape of the fish, by placing great.
ap of oopper, or iron, at the paces of its
ehtrese and exit. It is stked, also, with
o and other aqWti birds. From the pa-
see there is a communication by lmee of a
bde thrown across the water.
T allowing description of th emperor'
pe for raiins funds m amme the reader.
Paper Messy.-" In this city of Kambala
is the mint of the grand khan, who may truy
e saidtoe posesse the eeret of the slohy-
mists, e he has the art of producing mwao
.h the foowing prwoees. He casme tbe
k thb stripped from thoe malbeorrnm ,






MARCO POLO. a
the leame of which are used for feeding silI
worms, and takes orno it that thin inaer vda
which lies between the coaer bark and the
wood of the tree. This, bring striped, and
afterwards pounded in amorter, util rdeed
to a plip,s m de into paper, remblin, in
subasne, that which is manufatur from
eottom, but quite black. When read for we,
he Ias it cutinto pier of money difrt
sism, mnrly square, but somewhat loner
than they are wide. 'The o of this pa-
per muey is authenticated w u mook
form and ceremony s if it were actually of
pure gold or silver; for to each note a now-
br of ofce, especially appointed, not only
subscribe their names, but azi their signets
also; and when this ha been rgully done
by the whole of them, the principal ofcer,
deputed by his majesty, having dipped into
vermilion the royal seal committed to his
custody, stamps with it the piece of paper,
so that the form of the seal, tinged with
vermilion, remains impressed upon it; by
which it receives full athenticit a errM t
money; and the act of coantortig it is
punihed u a capital office. When thus
coined is large qunities, this poper es-
rmey i delivered in every part of his m-e
Jty's dominions; nor dares any pomm.
t peril of his life, refuse to accept U in
maym t. All hi subjects receive it without
eltation, because, wherever their buMies
o cal tsm, they c dispose of t it






I* CHINA.
la da pM om d mrlhadia s am .
|oril, old. or diver. With it, I,
ibort, ery article may be pm ed.
8eral timu in the comew tke yeU
hl eMav of mercmt aenms with m ee
ties bas just been medimd, tod
their with gol tiemen, whib he
als majerty. He, there, all ta L
twelve experlem ed and ilfl porsm, so
kosed for hi prb, whm b e ommad
to examine d with great mea, an
fix tbrhe vd t wch they smuid be ppn
ebaed. Upom the at whieh ty have
kbe thus moaindosly appes d, be a-
lers a reMaoable prot, mad immediately
pays for them with this paper; to which the
ownM ca have o objection, because, m has
ben oeerved, it answers the purpose their
w disbursemnat. Sheld they be Lba-
bitant of a country where this kind of mo
y is not current, b cold ivest the
amount is other rtic f mabMadirs
Ited to their wM ulMe.. Wkse ny
pemon hpesp to pssessed of paper
mony, which, fia loag M hM became
damaged, they any it to the mist, whlm
upo. paymwnt of only the pr aat., t.
my meeiv freb oame ien mage. sou
y be desimo of pmaung gold or wim
fr the purpose a meanfaotur, al M
of dtkur aep, girdle, o otker M nia
wr at o mt me -, thea, ik UMmn i
Sapply at* mimn, md, fWr theik p






MXBCO POLO. n
Mt sodm m w:o N HOW Mb

rMo gold dw elver Upon tbmes-pM s iM
mp m.i o ly e .md, that th rm
th Ih eme nm mei semmi too
m .hemy. aqr o rsim la M armid
The hlowaing dwmnlpti of a tyn-
mandarin, a the Pasqushiss sies osed
the obordinaze o&firn tr i, nd of
the smauary ads of Mu qullitu
the inurmseta whisk fi m oaedsia
ed, eomrspo ds ver f with mr, s-
dera acoontl of simnir tretims in tiBn
country.
S&oy rofAss.-"Ameagsdt heeems he
dr court of a grand khem, wa a Ssew
named Ashma, o fty and bold mk, wtoe
isleacewith hMigsienlgn d thtif
all other mrmias. To osuh a I"N
his water infatuated with Nm, that hbe
diged him in evrylibrty.ItwasdMItcore
indeed,aer his death, thma be had, by sme
of sills, so Aeinasted Ms marjdty, is t
oblige l eIt gie and mdii K wtae W
he epenutUd, aId, by the tas, sr
ablhd to set iall l amoodlag le h
owe aibitmy wl. He gas wRy da the

fe-me mrll i re, ao p ,fr,

P iTwfl, he tl to go a s






a CRINA.
empera, and sy to him, Such a pmes
t ooammitted an offence gainet your me
JMty, and he is deserving of deat ; when
the emperor wo accustomed to ay, Do a
y judge best;' upon which he cased
to be immedily executed. So evident
wee theproob of the authority be poeed,
and his majesty' implicit fath in hise m-
Cmirtio, tha am had the h.mibood
to contrdict a in ay matter; nor was
there a p however bigh in rank or
office, who W not stad in awe of him. If
any oe was c~d by him of a capital
orue, however anxious'he might be to e-
ialpate himself, he bhd not the means of
refuting the charge, because he could not
prooure advocate, none daring to oppose
tie will ofAchmen. By the means, he oc-
eancond many to die unjustly. When be
'obtained information of any man having a
beaMtifu daughter, be despatcbed his emis.
series to the ftber of the girl, with instruo-
in to my to him-' Whet are 7our views
ith regard to this handsse daughter
"nr'al You conot do better than give
er i auriage to the lad deputy, or vice.
geant,' that is. to himself, for s thry
ermed l~e uas hig ng that he was his
mr iy le nreentatie.. 'We shall pee-
vail upon abu to appoint you to such a
government, or such an office for three
wnr.' Thus tempted, he i prevailed
amt with b child ; ah d the matter ,






MARCO POLO. -
m h arranged, Aahme pia n to the am
potr, end MIorm his mnjt that a crud
governmme is veomt, or at the period for
wich ft is bhld, wil expire an uch a day,
sad eom-ads the father a a persa we
q dto perform the duties. To this bis
majty his renat, and th appoint.
met i isdttly md ls t dr t.
sch mmas these, ekitr fice tIhe
tio of holding high o tloL te appre-
henaion of his power, be ol the ds ii-
fee ofdl the mot beafd young waema,
either under the dI m om wf wives, or
the saes of his plesere. His sees ad his
relates were appahted to th highest omes
in the state; ad s- of them, availig
themselves of the authority an their ftha
committed may nlWfal Mad etroaM s sa.
Achmoe ad likewime meomuland
wealth; for every pers who obtdh
appointment, f-ond it neeesry to make hi
Soiderable present.
Daug a period of twenty-two ye ,
he exercised -m morta led way. A
legth, the aT of his prt of the oo-
try, Ms g i ble to end hbis r lipld
set of iajumde or agrmat wiokedmese c
mltted eit their fulHs, hlld meold
ia rnder to devise meas of putti bin
det, sad nahig a edllin agait dt
T.reseat. Ammooi. t the ptesoeu pahm
pmy emsad n this plot, we a Kt
immd Chnku &Wbief ofsix flogdM e0






*
wit, bomle With none"" 40 e
014M dwp tejoie hbh him"f Mad Y
hany hd mosirroC pospod the mmm
-* medhi y -NwY&0
be was at the bheed o to doomed -.s
mad omamminded its hali waWe into@s.-
owibm at the tas wham tdoe rt kbm
Serinsag pd hktkae maC hildsmm
isKmbLs% bed depetted b his phmoel
Bhm-du, ar him -2m CAieSs. Woo,
h ustluimd e p, we Was asstoome to
TWA at that loom; beus the chu, 4d
doe city was this uuuibd to Asohmom, wba
essnmrmaimaoI to hi0 me-- whitovae eon.-
"Ad dia big &boom*. ad yioiml, is fi.
Ile la Cbsalm, Lbovi g 3 'L-. l-
tio nqaev, impautel Asirg tees..
a th wliea Kutiaue ad, tang tbm,
*tbwr MICIASr I timer eidtio Is ro
cm a fcmin day, Upoo tbeire ~aw iag ase
(pI 0(eim~ bc thyeho rue aid pat to
tthallwbowrnhes o u no am..
Kli-w- ablddI r~crg
WAN maot he MWae La" ~e ahso a
the eomiy. 7Ue memehg 0(dhata.
w"t ha ti burdso WasU iasIr"ilh
how*"% t Tultes., the a .i 1.okm
ah" d&. Ide oota heqes 40
4b" doeeeuidpty d Kabish hr MOW






MARO TOLO. a
rgfahthOnly by faMvsrofdOR
be-lowed ll the peemiat l a eolmaemt "a
=mimiae upon Teuta, nas, Chok
aH, and aher foaeien who eonid W
hihemsebhld, md is whm he omld tras
In oaineqm of this, hi perom...t t wa
umvoesly bated by the natve, whe oad
hIb-imeeetratedMula.vm by hee Tmmr,
and Oai woe by the oa -ma
- Tbhe pi being thm eged. Vm-
he and Chlm.w eoIntved to u t he,
iece t night, wher thformr, ta' king
Plee a ne of the snyal seae., aed dW
aparses to be ligteod up, mad Msat
nmeagr to huseM, who Msided i the
old ciy, dsMing hkis mmdire attendee
open Chi-gis, the empeer's m, wbe, a
he patdedd, Ibd urived tha igtl. AoeL
ne wma meh mtml oihd at inteUm
eM,, being in p t of the prime,
nuly obeyed. UpOM p g de t o, ( 1
thJe ait. ke et with Tturey oLicer ameu
Kgaet*i, the o..nmrdat of dthe d
twMlve thermad --, wkho eMI d hi whi.
ther he was ing aB t thlatee how.
pied. that h. w pemedI to Mit mpm
&.@gis, of whmo aiw l> Mrt hWwrb .
* How i possib' id W, s Io* TIeE
he can he rarived in M mecat a
4 I sbMMd not be awesr of ld appsme
in time t o a oalwed a party of gunrd.
attend himr a dmr Mam while the s






So CHINA.
atas felt sumd that,if they sihord e.,
ced is depatching Achmac, they bad no
thing further to apprehnd. Upon his en.
trying the palace, and seeing so many lights
briog, he made his protrations before
Van-k, suppoing him to be the prince;
when Cbaenku, who stood thee provided
with a sword, severed his head from his body.
Kogtai had stopped at the door; bat, upon
observing wht had taken place, claimed
that there we treason going forward, ad in.
stantly let ly an arrow at Van-ku, u he at
upon the throne, which slew him. He then
called to his me, who seied Chen.ku, and
despetched an order into the city, that every
peron found out of doors should be put to
death. Tbe Kataians, perceiving, however,
that the Trtars had made discovery, and be-
ing deprived of their leaden, one of whom
was killed, and the other a prisoner, kept
within their houses, and were unable to make
the signal to the other towns, as had been
concerted. Koatai immediately set mee-
engers to the grand khan, with a circum-
stantial relation of all that had passed, who,
in return, directed him to make a diligent in.
vestigation of the treaon, and to punish, se.
cording to their depee of guilt, those whom
he should a d had been concerned. On the
following day, Kogatai examined all the Ka-
taels, and upon such as wre principals in
the conspiracy, he indicted capital punish
mat. The same wa done with repect to






MARCO POLO. 3
Soether elties that wene kew toeh w pa
tidpated in the guilt.
When his majey returned to Kembels,
he wua desirou of knowing the eea of
what had happened, and then larnt that th
iufmous Achmac, and sevea of his rson
bad committed those enormitiu which av
been described. He gwav eod for remov-
ing te treasure that had been socumulted
by the deceased to an incredible mount
from the place of his residence in the ole
city, to the new; where it was deposited i
hli own treasury. le likewise directed that
his body should be taken fire the amhb,
uad thlrwn ioto the street, to be torn to
piecs by the dogs. The eons, who had fol.
Lowed the steps of their father in his iniqi.
ties, he caused to be put to death by torture
Reflecting, also, that the principles of th
sccurard sect of the Saracen, encouraged
every crime, and allowed them to murder
those who differed from them on points of
faith, so that even the nefrious Achmao
and his sowm might have supposed them.
selves guiltless, I held them in eoatempt
and abomination. Summoning, therefore
these people to his pMe ce, he forbade
tbhe to continue many practice enjoined
on them by their law, commanding that, i
future, their marriages should be regulate
by the customs of the Tartars."
At the time thee events took pieoo, Mla
o* Polo was o ot. We wia=Llm- m






M ClINA.
m- rtra bhbb, whthe flMly redit
or not by the reader, will, at any rate, be a*
dfMaed to be a gd traveller's tory.
The srg ini g-l -" sa.yar-f is a
senm bldeab i of the province of Maun,
having under its jarisdictio twelve wealy
nd lage tow. It is apiece of great com-
mee anod extensive manuactures. The in-
habitants brn the bodies of their dead, and
are id er Tbhe ar the subjects of his
majsty, and rs has currene. Raw silk is
there produced in great qutty, and the
esteilks iutermied with gold, are woven.
Gme of all kinds abounds. The place is
amply furnished with evew thing that br.
lepg to a gret city; and, by its uncommo
treagth, it wa enabled to stand a siege of
three year, rftuing to surrender to the
grand kha, even after be had obtained
possesion of the mnt of the province. The
diIlealtie esperienced in t he reduction of
it wer ehiey ooPionled by the many's not
being ale to approcbh it, exptigo on the
neethers ide; the others bng surrounded
with water, by meas of whb the plaos
continually received pplie, which it was
not the powerof the besieged to pro.
et. When te opetios w reported
to his majest he felt exmnely hurt that
thi plaee aloe bould obsately wrist,
after all the rest of the country had be
rdneed to obedience. The clrmtrtuace
ain g come to the tarOedg of th






MARCO POLO. 3
dths Nicolo ad Mattoe, who we ath
eiddet sth pimrl court, they inmm.
diately pressted themedmo to Uthe
khIu ad ppoM to him that they oa
be l towd ito omast bmehi, ach Ma
were made uw of in the Wes, OpablMe a
trowa .ito. the handled poood
w igt, by which th buildings C the ela
bet bt dst r d dt. ihabintat
Umd. The mmorial was ttd to
his majety; and, warmly apponviotg
chb he an monl that the ablMi
mithB and sarpeatears ehd plead ea
der theirdiretimo : ampgst tkm were a
N(atorius Chriaias, whte oed to he
most able mMtoani l.n a w day bsy
oaempltod the egmin, acreding to th
inatrctioae fuaished by thebr. two%1 ;
ad a trial being mead of tm, in thep -
ene ftha grand kbun, ad of his w k
court, n epportity rwas M rdd lof(
theb t Atmea, Meac of whid
tbme huaded pouds. Tey wer them pt
oa board of aweaml, ad maonv to tLh
amy. WbnM sup intr o(, I o v, te
fiat Mtae ptodw b we of d vih ta
h weight d a iolea s a build,
thba puat Part we abrah md d1 to the
powld. ao tenris wen tthe IaHaate by
tUis aWchif, whia to tham semed to te
te*lfe a the adeud -ob frm beawven,
VbimmdAtl delivered pona esit






.14 CHINA.
to treat were accordingly seat from the plaee,
end their submission was cepted upon the
vame terms oa bad been grated to the rest
of the provinces. This prompt result of
their ingenuity increased the reputation and
credit of these two Venetian brothers, in
the opinion of his majesty and of all his
courtiers."
In such scenes, and engaged in such em-
ployment, our travellers remained for many
ye ; but they did not forget their native
cit. In the midst of all the public businiue
which was entruted to them, they did not
-eglect the great design with which their
travel bad originated ; vi. the aoquiition
of a fortune by commercial peulatios.
Their situation gav them great feilitie for
doing this; and, during the long period of
their residence in China, they seem to have
kept it esodntly in view, and, at length, to
have acquired an immense property, chiefly
of gold and jewels. As they advanced in
life, their desire to return home increased.
Besides, they began to fear that, by remain-
ing too long, they might fnd some diicul-
tie in the way of their return The grand
khan was wing very old; and they could
not forces what would be the character or
his soceesor, and especially his disposition
towards them. He might decline rendering
them that aid without which their return
through his dominions might be impractic-a
be, or be might even throw obstacles i this






MARCO POLO. 35
way. They had some fear, too, lt the then
eigng monarch might not readily eoede to
their request. They determined to make the
effort, and Nicolo, the father of Maroo,
agreed to embrace the fst favourable op-
portunity for laying, the subject before thq
emperor. This was accordingly don ; but
Sthe emperor," a Marco relates, instead
of showing himself disposed to comply with
the request, appeared hurt at the application,
and asked what motive they could have for
wishing to expose themselves to all the in-
convemences and huards of a journey in
.which they might probably lose their live
If gain was their object, he aid he was will-
ing to give them the double of whatever they
possessed, and to gratify them with hobouso
to the extent of their desires; but that, from
the regard he bore to them, he must posi-
tively refuse their petition."
SIn what way the traveller could have ex-
tricated themselves from the .dilemma in
which they were thus placed, if they bad
been left to their own resource, it is difficult
to say; they were saved the necessity of at-
tempting it, by an occurrence, which, with
the transactions that aroe oat of it, illus*
trata so strikingly some remarkable traits of
Eastern manners, that we cannot avoid ar
rating it in detail.
A prince, reigning over country in Pea
ia, or India, or, perhaps, partly in bot
wa allied to the grand khan and his quest






S6 CHINA.
on her death-bed, charged her husband not
to admit any one to her place on the throe
with him, but a member of the same family
from which they had themselves sprung,
and which ws, at that time, near the court
of the Chinese emperor. Desirous of com-
plying with this solemn entreaty, the Per-
man prince despatched three of his nobles as
ambasadors, attended by a numerous re-
tinue, to the grand khan, with a request
* that he might receive, through him, a
maiden from among the relatives of the de-
ceased queen." The transaction strong re-
mind us of Abraham' earnest request in re
aspect to a wife for his son, and the expedi
tion by which it was fulfilled.
The emperor received the ambassadors
very favourably, and promised to do all in his
power to promote their object. A young
dy was elected, seventeen years of age,
nd extremely handsome and accomplished.
Her name was Kogain. The ambsemedes
highly approved of the choice; and, when
every thing was arranged for their journey,
they set out with a numerous suite of at-
tendants, and with great pomp and ceremo.
ny, on their return. Their route was across
the country; and, after going in safety
far eight monutb, they found their further
progress dangerous, and at length impracti-
cable, on account of the war which broke
out among the Tartar prince*. They were
o~sequently obliged to return.






MARCO POLO. .
,Abot the tim of their aridl. Mauo
Polo happened to return t-m a voyua be
had mWie, with *a fw vessel aadeir
orders to some put of the Eit Idi a
a h reported to thr pand o thp atjl-
lIc Ir br t s citing th countries
Zhi 1 he waW i d; Matd aso that
navigation in those uM whioh, the reder
will remember, we directly in the rout by
waterto Persa, wa prfetlya. This i
telligence reached th haeAdo; and,
as it opened to them a new lem of hope
in respect to their return, they sought an
interview with Marco, and lend that he,
and hi father, and nde, were dmirs of
returning to their om. It was ageed
to unite their plun; and it was settled
between them, that the ambessdors, accom-
panied by the young quee, should obtain
an audience of the emperor, and propose to
him that they should reton by m. If h
samed to listed favoably to ooh a plea,
they were thn to suggest the epediney
allowing the three Veiedu to coaopea
them, u they were wel skilled a an ig
tioo, and especially as Mao had jut re-
turned from an expedition into those vry
0u.
The emperor liked the irt purt of th
plea, but was evidently very reluctant to
adopt the latter. Still, from political re.
son, he felt bound to do every thing in his
power to promote the Mafe return of U






9b CHINA.
embasadonr, atd, with much hesitatio, he
t length gave his consent. He sent for the
Venetians, and gave them his peinision to
go, accompanied with many assurances of his
regard, and making them promise that, after
having visited their friends in Europe, they
would return again to his dominions. The
emperor gave them the golden tablet, to serve
as a puaport, and to procure protection and
supplies every where throughout his domi-
nions. He also gave them commisions to
act as ambaseadors to the Pope, and other
European potentates.
Fourteen ship were equipped; and thoes
not of very small sis, if Marco's account
of them be true. They had four master and
nine sails each, and the crews of several of
them consisted of two or three hundred men.
The feetwas provided with stores and provi-
sions for two years. When.sll things were
ready, the ambassadors and the Venetians
were dismissed with all due ceremony, and
the young bride, too. once more bade fare-
well to her native land.
The seet worked its way slowly along the
coasts of the Indian seas. On account of
the crowded state of the ships, the an-
healthines of the climate, and want of com-
forts and conveniences, especially incident,
in those early days, to a sea-fuing life, they
lost about six hundred sailors on the p age.
Two of the three Persian ambassadors ao
died. At length, however, without any other





MARCO POLO. 89
dssts, the loot arriTvd safly at its des-
ined port in Persia.
The feeings of ourloity sad intera
which Kogatin must have felt on her arrival,
in repet to her future husband, were anni.
hil t a s ingle blow, by the intelligence
qf lir death; and the poor girl found her.
self thousands of miles from her native
land, with all her hopes and prospects
blighted and destroyed. The politicians
immediately took her case into considers.
tion, and deoidd that she should be pre-
sented to the son of the deceased king who
was then the reigning monarch. He wa at
this time in the northern part of thempre,
superintending ome military preparations,
Some time was occupied in conveying the
young bride thither; and then, after spend.
ing several months in resting from the
fatigues of their travels, the Venetian began
to think of gbg on. They were provided
with every tin eceary for their journey;
and new tablets from the government of that
country were given them, to secure the safe
prosecution of the remainder of their route.
By the instance of the supplies and escort,
which were thus provided for them, they
slowly made their way towards the north.
west, till they reached Constantinople, where
they set sail, and reached Venice, in safety,
in 1M95. On this occasion"-for in themes
words the writer concludes his narrative-,
* they offred up their thanks to God. whe






40 CHINA. ,
bad now been pleased t rellvow tm fim
muh grmt fitra-.fter having peered
Ibm ftMnteMaM Mil; .
Such is, ahM etidn, thre u of the
fht reord visit froa the Wesme to the
sthrn World, in moder times, How far
the ccout is true, and how far hfbulou
reach rdeaer will of course judge for blaeelf
That three travelles did ppear in Venie
Sbout S195, coming from the Est, leaded
with wealth, and exiting univeral intered
ln Venice, by these ad similar mrrations,
therb d no doubt. Atirt their stories were
tIniw only verbally; but, after afew yeas,
m a waf between Venioe -nd Oenoa, M co
wa take prisoner; and in bisjail, atGenoa,
with the asistnce of a friend, he wrote out
his narrative. Copies and translations were
made, and oireliated in manusript, for the
rtef printing had not then be1 discovered ;
end rom thee manuscripts, fmad in various
brarie- is the Mediteanean cities, our
printed editions of his work bave oineo been
t The ory wa almost universal di-
blieved, until, in later times, the vaits of
travellers wh have p-entrted to China, by
h new rodte round the Cape of Good Hope,
and through the Indian Ocem, have verified
the substantial parts of the nation. Still
there are sme ircumstncee a little Msupici.
ens. The cultivation of t, and the fahion of
eompessing the female foot, must have pre-
iled from remote antiquity; and one would






MARCO POLO
er mppeed that they woal be ansM
th attentic or theteardle. H, howeer,
maks no m- ion ofdtes.
It isa v Try lemk, i ircumtane, too,
that he syr nothing of the' Chines wal,
which there is abundant evidence to believe,
exited long before the time of his journey.
It may be mid in respect to these points,
that the manner in which the work was writ-
ten, would expose the writer very much to
the danger of omitting particulars. The ac-
count was not reduced td writing until rome
years after the return of the travellers, nd
then cbiely in the form of detached descrip.
tion ofparticular places and Menes, a they
occurred to te writer's mind, rather than in
the form of a connected peonal narrative.
A brief account only of the jouney itself pre-
cedes thee descriptions, by way of intro-
duction.
On the whole, it may, perbap, be son-
sidered a moral certain that tbhr Vene.
tian travelles did actually travse th Ai-
atic continent in the thirteenth etury, and
fnd a home for many year in China; rad,
on the other band, considering the mental
habits of that age, and the circamstmee of
their expedition, it would have bee a case
almost miraculous, if they had not lagge-
mted their exploit, and the woodeq which
they had sn on their return. At any rate,
their contemporrie thought them exago.
sated for, on account ofthe very liberal






49 CHINA.
he made of bih numbers, in describing
wealth, and the resources, and the extent of
the countries he hd visited, our hero, on hie
return, used to go very often by the name of
Mr. Mark Million.


CHAPTER II.
CANTON.
Arran the journey of Maco Polo, who,
u was narrated in the last chapter, made his
way to China, by lad, across the continent
of Asia, European navigators found a more
easy access, by water, round the Cape of
Good Hope, and through the Indian Ocean.
The Portuguese were the pioneers in this
business; and we must dwell for a moment
upon the circumstances of their first con-
nexion with China, for the sake of throwing
the odium of the system of non-interorse,
now pursued by the government, where it
properly belongs. The leader will reollect
in what a friendly spirit the emperor re-
ceived the Venetian travellers, and how
deirous e was to secure their return. The
Europeans who came three hundred yea
afterwards, by water, were welcomed in the
same manner. Alphoneo Albehurqne,whbo
was, about 1518, the diatin uhed Ports-
vne eroy in the East ldies, (for, ia
dM ay the Portmguese were iea






CANTON. 48
h entereripe of maritime disoovr nd
eoqueot) obtained -cme defnite intbrm-
tioabout China, which he wet home to
Liboo. The government determined to
send ma ambesador there, for the purpose
of opening a negotiation with the Chinese,
and making arrangement for a regular com-
mercial intercourse between the two na-
tions. A squadron coordingly sailpd, in
1518, from Lisbon, with an mbasador on
board.
The commander of this squadron was a
man exactly suited to be intrusted with the
business. When be arrived at Camon, in
the southern part of China, (the nearest
port,) the native boats and verels crowded
around his ships, to gratify their curinsity
with the strange eight. He received them
in a friendly manner, betrayed no fear of
them, allowed them free access to the decks
of his vessels: and any apprehension which
they might have felt wre allayed by per-
ceirin that their visitors w of their gard
The ambassador was received, on his
landing at Cantoo, in the most friedly
manner, and ooeducted by the authoritiM
there through the country of Pekin, where
te emperor resided. He found the emperor
dispod to favour his plans in respect to a
commercial interooure with the Portqume
nation. The commander of the squadrn$
in the man time cruised along the coa






44 CHINA.
vilting the ports, ad trading with the oa-
tirve, tmking errwhere a bvo6ble im-
pomi 7The rli of the maMlirsy wer
oiag on the p pm y, and an angem -
ment was o the polt of being conduded,
when other Portuguese suadron, which
bad been ailing around those se, began at
oeae those ame rode and oppresive prac-
tids, so often, in those days, resorted to by
the unprincipled adventurer who were ex-
ploringforeign shore. Its commanderlanded
without permision, and built a fort; he pil-
ged ship, or extorted money fom them a
they passed to and rnom the ports of China;
he eised the eatires, and stated them, in
many eamu with crtielty aod oppaiUo,
ad his sailors and soldiers followed hi ex-
ample. This conduct, of comas, soon pro-
doued a rpture: the Chitme armed them-
slves in dlf-defene; they improved the
absder, mad the ships with prt difl-
eulty caped. The fau put an ead to aI
hop of ommerial arrangemnts between
China and Portugal for some earn.
After this, the efforts whih were made
b the various nation of Europe to obtain
prmissio to establish a reguhl trade with
Chia, met with ery little sees. There
ws, however, trade commenced, and car.
ried on for about fifty year, whm an event
occurred which gave Europeans their Ant,
sad, thus far, their only permanent pn-
session in the Chinese empire. By wee*ia





CANTON. 45
to any map of China, the reader will per-
eive that Canto is situed towards th
southrn pert af the country, amr tb6 mouth
of a river, which, below the eity, wide
into a broad bay. This bay is ed wit
islads; ad thesores arend it an iadented
with deep creeks; nd these ere at thi
tiue g ldy infested with pirate, whl
ina ed o much i number and n trength,
u to bid defi8a to ll the elfrts of tbh
government to subdue them Near th
southen pert of this bay s an idl called
Maeao, which at this time wu in the po>-
sssion of a noted leadr of thee piras.
He wM a tenor to all the rounding eoms
and even laid sige to Cuton itself. The
Portuguese came to the siistac of theg(-
verment: the pirate was driven away to e
fatnes in MaMo, where h wau so e
preed by hbi allied fes, that he kild
himself; nd the Chines, in ratitode,
granted the island to the Portuguee a a
lprpetual possesion; sad tihy have hed it to
this day.
It is almost eclsively through thisialad,
and the bay coectod with it, leading to th
city of Canton, that Europen nations ie
been permitted to hold commeacil intr-
coure with China for the twoor three last
centuries; o that China, so far as it he
been accessible to Europeana or Aiserican
means Canton and its vaciity. A few C(-
tholic Missionaries, and an oocional amb






46 CHINA.
sdor from Mime foreign power, have beet
tolerated at Pekin; and some of the latter
bare made jorney through the country from
Canton to Pekin ; these case have, however,
been oomprtitely few.
From these ircumstances, thefore, it
happens that Canton and its vicinity deserves
Sfr more particular attention then its geo-
graphical importance, estimated by the figure
it makes pon the map, would seem to jai
tif. It is there that the European ship
collect, from every nation, to receive their
oargoes: it is there that the products of the
country are brought-tes, and silks, and
i.ankeene-to be cold to the English and
America supercargoes, by about twelve
(hinese merchants, appointed to be the
channels of the trade. Canton has been the
scene of the various petty collisions which
have been continually occurring between the
local authorities and the foreign residents.
Canton hu been the point to which the at-
testion of Protestant Misionariee has been
turned. Here, or in its vicinity, Dr. Morri-
mo bhs lived; the Bible has been translated,
and printed, and distributed; in a word,
Canton, in result to and connexion with
foreign nations, a China.
In attempting to make our readers ae-
qoainted with this spot, we shall irat intro-
duce them to it under the guidance of an
American, who visited it very recently i the
-course of buines.






CANTON. 4"
The latter prt of our page up the
China Sea was their rt ough, which was as
more than we expected at this ewao. On
Thursday evening of the Id of Setombr,
we lay to off the lnd in a gale of wid fro
the outhward; the next morning, made
ail again, and, at eight o'clock, cam in
sight of lnd; and, at two o'clock in the
ternoo, after n pe from Bostonof ao
hundred and two day, il r ailed, by our
log, the distance f fifteen thousand sevr
hundred and fifty miles, we cam to an anchor
in Cap Sing Moon, a roadstead on the no
then oout of the island of Snto., the uual
place of rendezvous for ships, at this eason
of the yer. We found here several Amri-
can, and a still larger number of English
ships. Immediately upon ncboring, we were
boaded by Chinese faIt-eat, belonging to
mea who wait upon ships ling here, sapply-
ing them with provisions, e. They seemed
very much pleased to e the captain of our
ship, whom they had seen before, and we
u full of news and palaver a they pomibly
could be.
Ships lying t Litin, and Cap Sing
Moon, although within the waters of Chin,
are not recogned by the governm t, and,
of eourw, ae subject to no charges or inter-
rptions fom them.
SThese anhorges are the station of the
opt a stn ships,which lie there throughout
tl ea, for the purpose of delivering opium






48 CHINA.
to the Chinese mu les. The oenuible
lawsof the emperor of China prohibit, under
the most seve penalties, the importatie of
opium into the country in any .hape. ll,
however, the trade as carried on, to a i-
msea tent; and the 'm s-t4oa,'s their
re called, which a pulled by t or *iA
ocr and as mny dwepa fUorn, amea
to the teet, ad in o which they will
pl at the rte of twelve or fourteen mlee
owr, go up and down te river in open dy,
in dedece of the mandarin and ma-of-war
boas, which e conswatly out in seauh for
them.
"W We lared here, that the season had
been uncommoal boisterous, and that ti-
faong, a sort of rica (so called from
the Chinee word ti, heavy, and fosg,
wind) d been frequent. One ocrred on
the S of Augut last, which made terrible
and s tive devearstio of live and property.
An immense .amber of Chinese isberwa,
who were out in their bots at the tiu the
to m comenced, were deetroyed, being
either driven upon the roks and islands, or
foundered in the fer of the gae.
"The Taifoq in the Cbina ea are pecm-
liarly daded by all mariner; and they re
among the retest of the calaities that be-
fall the Chinese. They come on ver uad-
denly, with little warning, and blow with the
tmoot fury and violence, tbe wind shifting
-ea point to point, a in a hurrica, an






CANTON. 49
toeing the sea into such irrular waves and
violent commotion, as to render it peculiarly
dangerous for the largest and strongest ship.
Instances hae occurred of East India Com-
pany ships, which are as strong, perhaps, a
any in the world, foundering, with their whole
crew. Thee hurricanes occur in the mouthed
of August, September, and October..
Od Saturday, at re in the afternoon,
our captain tarted,in a fast boat, for Canton,
distant seventy miles. I, in other, left at
the same time for Macao, distant about
twenty-two miles. We had a fair wipd, and
were only three hours in reaching Maso.n
My boat was manned with fire Chinese.
These fast-boat, from their peculiar model,
are admirably adopted for smling. They are
generally about thirty feet long, slightly con-
atruoted of some light and buoyant wood, the
after part of the hall being fal, and of oval
shape, running ay' forward, very sharp
nd naow. They are ovred with a deck
rendered water-tight, and have three mast,
which may be shipped and unshipped at plea
sure, and mat ails. Though of so frail a
fabric, they are capital se-boat, and so light
and buoyant as to weather with safety a
heavy se and wind. I was moh struck
with the apparent cheerfulness and content
meant of the boat-me, and the good will and
harmony which seemed to prevail among
them. They smoked from the same pipe a-
tentelyaad chewed their beetel-nut or^ x
D






1o CHINA.'
the same dish, from the captain to the boy.
Boon after we left the ship, they began to
prepare their dinner, which wa f boiled
rise, and most cut up in bits, and simmered
ever the ire, with a goodly preparatic of
pepper and other stimulants. The avoim
reseauended it; but, though I was invited
to partake of their repeat, I declined.
Each boat ha its deity or idol, which is
left in the hold, in the afest part of the boat
It i generally a small mage of the goddess
of the ea, made of wax, and i considered
the guardian of their boat. It is kept in a
sitting posturs, fantastlally dressed in oilks
of the gadiest eoloume, and placed in a shrine
lined with tinel. Two light are kept bum-
ing before her; and twice a day they present
her with caps of tea, sweetmeat, fruits, &e.;
but, a she never deige to aceptof them, the
boatmen themselves, after waiting a due
time, are obliged to swallow theit olbring
for her. I observed that, at saeWet, they
light fre matches, (* Josh teks,')wich were
stuck up in different parts of tlh boat. Upon
my askag the boatman why he did so, he
replied, thatit was Chin Chin Josh;' mean.
uig that it was an offering to the god of the
se, for a continuation of a good bene.
Upon my trying to persuade him that such
idolatry was all ly, he replied, That hw
Mleastom.' That it is an old easton, is evi-
dence enough to any Chinese, that whatee
Je may be doing is right; and foreign hes





CANTON. 51
radile or improvement, i mey e re -
pelled with corn. The fut-boat m are
generally a pretty fithful anadinduatriou,
cla, and live better than the generality of
the labouin Chineee.
I arrived at Macao about eight in the
evening, and wu pulled asheo in ajittle
cockle-hell of a hor-boat, by a couple of
Chinee ladi, quite active, briaklookibg
firs. On my leading, however, they -we
oad in their demand for' oumahard, cn-
shard' (a preeot) and a dollar would hairly
atify them for pulling m twenty yard. I
was nut oblie to pay the mandarin a deller
for the pirinIe of lading, and wam them
allowed to go into the botel, which seemed
quite a reepetable esabliabmt, and wm
kept by ChineM. Upon my arrival there,
a bok was brought to m, requiring the
name ad cargo of the ship, the number of
our gu, and other particular. My pra
pal object in coming here wa to proero a
pilt, to conduct our aip up to Canton; ad
mnangemant to this 2e&t woe ooa made.
The pilot, however, needed a little time to
prepare for his departure, paicularly te.ob.
tain from the authorities the proper doom-
ment authoriing the ship to proceed: and I
embraced the opportunity thus afforded for
obtaining some little knowledge of Mamw.
It i situated in the depth of a small bay, as
the extreme end of an island, separated from
the continent by the river Tigris, and is the






M CHINA.
oaly spot, within the dominions of the em-
peror of China, where foreigners re allowed
to have their families. The foreign residents
at Macao, probably, do not exceed in number
thbr thousand, including Portuguese, Eng-
lish, and Americans; and their limits, as to
territory, are within the space of three miles
one way, and one mile the other, beyond
which bounds they cannot pas. There are
a great many Chinese living at Macso; and
the government, though nominally in the
bands of the Portuguese, is administered, in
fct, by Chinase mandarins. The Portuguese,
however, have their own governor, and were
allowed to build a fort at each end of the
town, where their lags are kept hoisted.
They have one or two churches, and a mo-
naster and nunnery. The number of padres
and frars, even in that confined community,
is not small; and you meet them at every
turn of the street. There are quite a number
of handsome buildings, particular thoed
belonging to the Honourable Eat India Com-
pany; and some of the streets are lean, and
well paved. Macso, from the bay, presents
a very pretty appearance, the principal
buildings facing the water; and, throughout
the year, it is said to be a healthy residence.
At four o'clock of the afternoon of the
next day, 1 started from Maoso with my pi-
o, and reached the ship at Lintin at twelve
o'clock the same night.
* "At this stormy seaso of the year, ship






CANTON. 8S
do nt lie at Ltin. It i a mall, besa is.
laud, inhabited only by a few bsermo. The
est evening, we got under weigh for Wham.
poe. ad anried that night a CbmpeJ,uet
outside of the Booa Tigri, or mooth ofthe
Tigris. It is called by the Eglih and the
Americans Boue. It is not more than a
quarter of a mile wide, and ships are not al-
lowed to pa through it in the night. It is
defended, on each side, by two or three forts,
considered,o doubt, by the Chinese, as im
pregnable, but which are, in fact, rather ludi-
crous specimens of fortification. Each fort is
surrounded by a stone wall, which, the sail-
ors ay, is for the purpose of preventing the
soldiers from running away. Upon the
ship's rival at the Bogue, (i. e. the entrance
6f the river,) the pilot is obliged to go, in
his boat, to each fort, and present his chop,
or pasport, from the bead mandarin, for the
passage of the ship. Upo paying within
the Bogue, you are consider a within the
jurisdiction of the laws of China; and a
petty mandarin is sent to remain by the ship,
during the time sh is in the river, to prevent

e river within the Bogue is of irregn
lar width, and the channel for abipis narrow.
The banks of the river are low, and sometime
overflowed; they are extremely fertile and
highly cultivated. The population of tih
oDonnr is o very great, that every patch of
ground that is capable of vegetation, is ia.






54 CHINA.
proved. The number of Junks ad boa of
all si and shapes, that are ooasady -
up and down the river, in all diroetiae
i. immense; sad not uafoequently you my
ee the poor fiserman cruising bout from
pl;o* to pleoe, in arch of something to pro-
ona merable existence, his boat ontain-
ing hi home, his family, and the amount of
his worldly possessions. A stranger, at
leat, cannot view with indiffernc suhob
soene, so entirely dissimilar to ay thing he
may meet with elsewhere.
"The strength of the tide in the river is
soeh that it is impossible to make any pro-
gpo, until its torn is in your favour; and it
wa not until the third day after leaving Lin-
tin, that we arrived at Whampoa. The river
is a narrow aw only to admit of two ships
lying aberst; and the reach or anrborage
extends three or four miles up and down the
river. Immediatelyon our arrival at this an-
chorage, we were surrounded by thirty or
fortydifferent boats. First came the eom-
prdar, or Beaus Jaek, as he in called, a
stot, portly Ciin-man, who supplies most
of the American ship lying here with what
ever the require. Thes Ce the boatmen,
each one anxious and beggig to obtain the
employment of waiting upon the ship during
her tay beor. Then came the waukerwmaen,
sme twety or thirty, of all aee, ach one
imsas for the privilege of wabil the






CANTON. 15
clothes for the men. Atl this consttutmd a
buding ,cene.
SWampe is the great wmohoge-rag d
for European ships; and, in the businee
season of the aer, there will be found her
.he richest and nest eet of meroheat es-
sels in the world. There were sixty hr
when we arrived.
*On the left side of the mehorage,
going up, is a fertile island, called Dane'I
ldld, covered with field of paddy and
seur-cene. It is so named from the
privilege formerly allowed the I)D es af
going shore for their amusement, at an
time, sad for the purpoee of burying
dead there. French Irand, jst ib it,
o called from the same circumstances The
Chinese prefer that foreigners, whm ahoe,
should be kept separate, in o emM cof
their liability to quarrl. Fre a le is
covered with trees, and has on it a ceasiders,
ble village. There e thousands of Chinaee.
who we born, live, ad die ia their beets on
the river, and who obtai an uncertain sbist-
eace by sing, begging and thieving. They
are so nnmeronu, that it is almost uaoeount-
hale how they subsist, evea by sob emas.
lhe same Whampo designate a vil,
lag#, as well u an anchorge, which is situ.
ated on an island of the same one, in the
middle of the river, leaving a passage to Cap-
tn on eaob side. It is almost exclusively
aLhabited bypersons employed u governnmes





ad CHIlA.
meers, Hoppoo men; or custom-house okmers
and person employed in waiting upon and
working for the foreie ships ling in the ri-
t. No foreigner is allowed to enter the
village, unless accompanied by the comprs-
dor, who waits upon he ship to which they
belong. He conducts tlem only to his own
house, and is himself held strictly accountable
for their good conduct when with him. From
the glimpse I once got of the streets, when
posing prtty uear, Ishould not consider the
temptation to enter it very strong.
A little way above Whampoa'village, and
the most conspicuous object around, is aChi-
nese pagod, said to be one of the highest in
the province. It is situated on a little mound,
chyou pas very near, in going up the
river. It is nine stories in height, surrounded
by a sort of balcony or look-out, which may
be two hundred feet from the ground. It is
built entirely of a grey-oloured stone, of a
circular form, each tory surrounded with a
llery, ad reul decreasing in croom
fence s thyerie fro the lower oe, which
may be forty feet through. It bears marks of
being of very ancient date, the stone being of
a sort of dirty buff colour, similar to the old
marble. Trees and shrubs are growing out
from the nooks and crevices, that abound all
over the building; and from the top of the
pagoda there are two or three pretty large
trees growing out. From the bottom of the
building, inside, you can look to the top, thee





CANTON. SF
aelng no stairway, and the only wy of
ascending it bing by means of a mall lad-
der, which you may drag up with you from
sttoy to try. The walls iuide covered
with a sort of orlain, pointed rudely in
fgures of lying drgo and other fantastial
and ludicrous Cinese devices. It has
magnifcent, and, at the seme time, a desolate
an melancholy appearance, built, u it must
have been, -at an immense expedituro of
time and labour, and for some idolatrous
purpose, rearing its lofty height far above
every thing around it-a monument of wanted
labour and misdirected kill, and strangely
contrastingwith the thousand somes of misery
and wretched suffering within view of it. Its
base is surrounded with some few miserable
hovels, the abode of twenty or thirty half.
starved wreths, in rags and ilth, and all the
horrors of squalid penury.
Half-way from Whampoa to Canton is
another pagoda, on the bank of the river, and
exactly similar to that at Whampoa. Near
it, on a point at the bend of the river, is a
fort belonging to the Chinese government, and
erected there at the expenas of great Hong
merchant, and called by his name.
Canton is fourteen miles by water from
Whampos, and on each side of the river, the
land is low and marby, and converted ints
paddy field very richly cultivated. Unti
within three or four miles of the city, you ee
w very few buildings on shore, and nothing






n CHINA.
hut the cultivation of the soil to sure ye
that you re in an extremely populous coun-
try. As yeo approach Canton, however, the
sce alters etirely; each side of the rive
is lined with vast number of boat, of various
ises,and the shore covered with chop-houses,
Chinese junks, of thr moat grotesque mo.
dels, and of all siMs, fim fifty to hundred
tons; junks, too, from SiUm, Cochin-China,
Hainu, and Japan, seah ditiurbhed by it
own peculiitis of form. They a all ap.
property ald janks, being tat-bottomed,
wll-sded, with a high, quare, open stern,
far too lrg in proportion to the other part
of the bulk, the bluff bows turning in, after
the shape of fiddle-head. On each bow is
painted a monstrous eye, that the junk, as the
Cbineme ay, may be enabled to s her way
th g h th water in the aight. They ap-
edto me an awkward and unanaageable
of erft.
When within about two mile of the fo-
reig faoteries, in the subusrh of Canton, it is
a diicult matter even fr small boat toet
along without maestation, the river being
narrow, sad choked with rast numbers of
canal boats, chop boat,. &c., and thousand
of pIsage boats, driving about in every di.
rectio, ech one looking out for himselflone,
and the tide running ether up or down, with
t foee and rapidity. Notwithsteading
e diieulties,bowever, we at last reached
n city; but, a no one in the boat with wm






CANTON. s
had ove been up the river b it was
ome tir before I would td the place where
foigner were allowed to had. I bad got
too fur up; and twice, in attempting to pet
ubre, Iw received with sueh bowling
look ad thrtcS t gesres,u to show
that I was appMehg forbidden goend.
After cruising p and down e tm, I at
lst fobd an opening fa froat of the fato-
ries, and determined to land, right or wrong;
and accordingly pushed in, through a score
of boats, ad get uhore in the midst of no In.
considerable proar, which wIa raid aiMst
me. Here, however, I met with a gentle
who had seen the dilculty in which I bad
been involved, ad who eam down to direct
me which way to go. I had not com far
from the mark, lad only had to Mad the boat
a little farther down. At any rate, I found
myself on terra frm, on the Mil of the far-
famed olestial mre, the earthly paradise;
and I aud to myself, a I looked wound me,
' If this be a Air samle of i beauties, It is
no peradis for m.'
The spaee allowed for the reidences of
the foreigner at Canes is a the north bank
of the river, and run ea t ad we bout on
quarter of a mile, ad north and south the
legth of the Hang, or anges of factories
Thif inldes the whole ipa In China
where foreigners are piil(g to ride.
Tlre ae twelve Hong bolilg to de W
M t, the mods of whic fc t rive, ad






o0 CHINA.
rnm beck, in a straight line, three or four bu-
dred feet, each Hong being divided into Ire,
and some of them into six factories or tone-
ments. Each Hong is designated by it own
name. They are substantially built of brick
or stone, and form very comfortable reio
denies. The front factories are ten stories in
height, and most of the inner ones three. A
passage way or courtofauffcient width, runs
through the middle of each Hong, from one
end to the other. The buildings belong to
the foreign merchant, and the ground on
which they stand, to the Hong merchants,
who are Chinese ; and they are responsible
for the good conduct of all the foreigner
whom they deal with. The ground-rent of
the factories is very exorbitant. The Hong
belonging to the Honourable East India Com-
anm i by far the most plndid of the group,
baring a specious and elegant verandab pro-
j acting in front of it, where the officers of the
company generally dine in summer; and in
front of that walled garden, extending to
the river. The Dutch have a Hong pretty
much on the same plan; but it will not com-
pare with it in magniloace.
Foreigners a allowed to go to may part
of the suburbs of the eity, which are very
eztenmive, but on no account whatever are
they to be admitted within the walls of the
city. The only place where the residents
an walk for recreation is the little square in
hut of the factoies and there the greater





CANTON. 61
prt of the whole community of them may
be en walking to and fro. It may be alleb
their fshiooable place of resort. The 'Point,'
which projects a little into the river, and
which is the spot whee foreigners are al-
lowed to land in their best, is a narrow
space, perhapesixt feet wide, a dirty, muddy
spot, rming with children from boats that
tong the banks. From this point, a stram r
may, for a long time, contemplate with im
terest the scene before him. It is thesbntion
of two or three petty mandarins, whoe duty
it is to aee that nothing is smuggled on or
from shore in the foreigner' boats. It is
mid,owever, that a dollar or two will seldom
fail of making them completely blind, when
it is the will of the giver that it should be so.
It is the starting place, also, of hundreds of
passage boats, constantly plying with their
passenger, to and from Honam, on the op-
posite side of the river. A greater part of
these boats are propelled by female, who,
in appearance, are hardly distinguihed from
the men, being extremely rough and masu-
line in their manner and habits. It is really
amuing to tand and view the singular habits
and the variety of characters of the multi-
tudes that may always be een at the point.
Here maybe een a cluster of stupid, thick-
headed China-men, looking with affected
score and contempt; the staid and date
Perses or Persians; the supercargoe an
other offers of the Englsh and America





61 CHINA.;
hipes and other forei residents. Jark
Tr also helps to vtr the Mo, loaded with
bhi traps m kick-ut waiting for the
tun of tide, or reeling about in a state of
inebriety. The Lsmes, or Malays, ao fur.
lough, we there, too, cooking their rice and
curry in the ope air, growling ad quarrel-
lng with every o who appracheb too nar
them. The dh r, too, is lined with bundeds
of boats, lying in tier of three or four deep,
the habitations of thousands of Clinese,
whose mnus of subsitece ae a mystery.
The square in front of the factories, during
the day, is usually occupied by a bost of
barbers, quack doctor, amuggler, irtaue-
tellers, thieves, &c., who can pick pockets
with great dexterity, and who frequently ex-
rcise their art upon their own countrymen
from the mountain, when guing with eyes
sad mouth wide open, in stupid wonder, at
the novel scene.
There are ten Hong merchants at Can-
to, specially appointed by government, to
transact the foreign trade, and who have
particular privileges, which m not allowed
to the outside men,' a all the other traders
re called. Through their hands the entire
mop of tea ie sold and shipped from their
seeral Hong. The quantity of mercnh-
die constantly pmaing in ud out of them is
immense. There is a beavy duty levied by
government on all imports and exports, for
tie receipt and delivery of which the Hop-






CANTON. a
poo men and austo&-bous oloen s e ore.
tantly at band. The Hoog mneherob, ina
dividually and s a body, ae held rnpanl
bl, by government, for the egod conduct and
quiet demeanour of all foreigaes riding
Cantdo, and through them only am any ap
plieatio be made to overamaet fwr sedve
of grievance. In fact, the mandueri, with
regard to any circostmces coune ted with
trade, neoognis oly the Hong merbanab.
Every vessel, on her arrival at Whmpoa,
must, before be can proceed to buimaes be
* securedt by a Hoag merchat, who is
obliged to give heavy bods that the whole
business of the ship shell be conducted ex-
actly according to law, that no smuggling
whatever Il be allowed, and that the oft-
oers and crew of the ship behave thevelves
correctly.
An instance occurred while we wee
there, of an ofier of one of the eoumr
ship' smuggling on board two small ame
of silk, his own adventure. On it being
discovered, the mandains dmeaded ,bm
the Hong merchant and cosigee thlHY
thousand dollars; and, after hbeia detaiae
for three weeks, the ship was rmeed by the
payment of ten thousand dollar. The Chi-
nese, in such caue, would be unable to pre-
vent a ahip's getting under weigh, and going
to But the sip would have togo with.
out her grand chop,' as it is called, or per-
aimio to pass the forts, which can never be






84 CHINA.
obtained so long as there be any suspicion
that all is not right. The reeit would be,
that the trade with that nation to which the
ship belonged would be stopped, and to re-
new it would be utterly impossible until the
tfll noe was paid.
Between the American and Monques
Hongs, runs Old Chine-street, well known to
ll who have visited Canton. The entrance
to it is through a strong gate, which can be
closed at any time. The street is perfectly
straight, and is well pared with strong lag-
stonea. The shops are of two stories, built
of stone and brick, and are very uniform in
appearance. On each shop door is a sign,
in English, showing the name and profession
of the occupant. Most of the silk-merchants
reside here, with whom the contracts for silk
are generally made, who keep in their shops
only samples of the different kinds. Here
aso, are the shops of the obow-chow men.'
Chow-eouw means any article of merchandise
exoepting tees and silks. These shops abound
with eurnmitid and valuables of almost every
kind, and a stranger may quickly expend a
large amount ere he be aware of it. Ivory,
pearl, and tortoise-shell, are famous articles
of manufacture; and it is surprising how
cheap they can be afforded. Paintings on
rice paper and glass, lackered ware, &c.&e.,
sen be finished in any quantity, and at the
shortest notice.
Many of thee outside men' are con-





CANTON. a
aiderd honest to their dealie, putihulrly
those who tbik they hav obte ld a 'god
faM,' which they are useio to mrsve
anSpotd till a transient dealer mat be
on ld as they have emlly- variety
of press for their goods, which they dema d
according to the quality ad appeense of
the buyer. They all speak a ort of Aao
CbiOMe dialet, which, at rit, it is nwot
di" alt to understd. They ar ind~i
gble in pursuit of pidgeon, or trade, and
will contract to furnish almost ay thing
with the prospect of making any thing by it.
Contracts with them are, of cour, always
verbal, and punctually e cutod by those
who do not wish to lose fae.' Immdi.
ately upo a stger's arrival at Canto, he
may rely upon being viitd by the while
host of the deals in China-strot, who,
full of their compliments, demand his name,
his business, &e. Each pests his card,
and rys, y like very mch do litt piddgs
Sw China-stnet, which runa between
the Danih and French Hongs, is of the
sam extent, and similar to Old China.
treet. They ar both occupied eslusively
by en engaged in trade with the fo-
ragnera.
The other strts in the suburbe of Co.
ton a very numerous, and ae so narrow
and irrgulakly laid out, as to form acom-
labyrinth, fra which a stranger wi.
X --






a CHINA.
out guide, ca extriate himself only b
his good lmk. He may, frtuately,stroll
into some quarter frequented by foreigners
-and suc instances ar not Vnooommno-
when he will be hooted at, and beet, and
perhaps robbed, by a mob of mischievous
boys, ld and young. The shop are inna-
moable, most of them large, and abundantly
furnished with almost every imnainble
variety of articles, and far surpassing i
riohes every thing I had ever bfor seen.
The shops are entirely open in frot, and ar
generally painted with various colours, over
which scarlet and vermilion predominate.
There ae numerous sign, bung perpendic-.
larly, covered with gilt Chinese characters.
In these hops you seldom meet with any one
who understands English. Whatever you
may wish for will be obtained by the dealers
in China-teet.
Phyaietet is the name of one of the
headed of these street--entirely occu-
pied by apothecaries. The shop are kept
very clean, and apparently well furnished.
Picture-street is one of the most interesting,
containing whole shops of paintings on glass
-an art in which the Chinese much excel.
The best of these pictures frequently repre-
sent the emperor, or some of his family.
auch pictures are interdicted exportation,
under a sever penalty. Carpentera'-iyqu
is a considerable cluster of buildings, occu-
aed entirely by carpenters employed alnoat





CANTON. f
exclusively by the foreigner. The ChineM
ee very expert and neat in making furniture
end trunks; and labour is so very cheap,
that such articles can be obtained upon very
moderate terms.
'Hog-lane,' contiguous to the English
Company a Hong, and running parallel with
it, is the place where silors usually make
their purchases. It is a narrow dirty street,
formerly named by the residents 'Hong-
lane,' as it led from the square into the
suburbs, but is corrupted by the sailors into
Ifog-lane,' which is quite as appropriate.
It is occupied entirely by petty trademen,
who have assumed Enlish names, suob as
Jemmy,' Good Tom, &c., and who gene
rally succeed in drawing from Jack all his
hard-earned money ere he leare them.
Each one has two or three signs up before
his door, calculated to catch the eye of a
sailor, representing sa, ships, &c., and fre
quently very odd and ludicrous device in
English. The moment a boat's crew get
ashore, half a dozen of these Hoglane men
surround them, entice them into their hope,
and, with the aid of spirituous liquor, seldom
fail of obtaining all their cash.
The city of Canton itself is surrounded
by a wall of irregular height, from thirty to
forty feet. One of the principal gates i
within half a mile of the factories. The
thickness of the wall here may be twenty
feet; the gate perhaps, as many wide. I





a CHINA.
is guarded by two or three soldime, dreamed
in the uiform ofthe emperor, of a tawdry
yellow colour. An uninterrupted crowd of
peo re omtantly lowing in ad out of
t t among that crowd you never se
sequai' ( European). I attempted twice
to pass within the-wall, fit by lottery and
gentle means, nd again by a sudden push;
but to no efect. Thee watchful servants ot
his celestial majty were too much on the
alert: they seemed, however, rather mused
than provoked, at my attempt to pas them.
I was allowed to gofar enough to look inside,
and to inhale a draught of the forbidden air,
and to see that there was but little difference
between the confined and crowded street
within, and that without. It is said, how.
ever, that the streets within are generally
wider and cleaner, and the building fr-
quently more neat and comfortable. From a
view of the city from the top of the factory,
there appeared to be but a few building be.
yond the ordinary sie, and but few spires of
any height. It is aid that there are some
very fine and extensive gardens within the
city. The bonuses are generally built of wood
and covered with tiles. Fires, ofeourse, a
common, and often cause much destruction
and misery. Shameen, a portion of the
sburbs just above the factories, sad sepa
rated from them only by a mall areek, was
burnt down while we were there. In the
short spae of fur hours three or feur hun.






CANTON. 6.
did homes were ompl ly deroyed, and
Mfrt7 or GAly th miserable oeosFa
perMbed in tbo rme.s In the year 1M,
l the foreign factories wee destroyed b
Ire, which Irt originated ne the wall of
thecity.
SI A'bot two mles above Canto, oa the
bank of the rive are the Feahte Gardees,
where the residents fquendy resort, in the
summer eason, for the ppo of reerOf .
tior, and the mjoyment or a peer and reo-
vating air. Fateen consists of cluster of
ardens, l arranged on the banks of
tbh river, ipnr y intended as fahionable
place of coneouse for the Chine gentry,
lthoh foreigner m r redily admitted,
upon te paymt of a trifi nsm. Eash
ga i enclosed, ad eovere a "pM of
IT* or six oaes, in front of which i a ator
or public-houe, where th proprietor of the
guden live, who furnhes visitor with
whatever refrbeement they my require, and
keeps boquets and pots of lowe. In the
rear of the building, hid among the tre oe
each ide of the garden, are the rages or
room for the separate aoommodaio of
ditmet parties, inimhed very muoh aft
the style of th fehionable cofe-houses
and reaurateur io Europe. In fat, so far
a convenience, neBtne, and beauty of work.
maeuhip, e regarded, thee rooms display
nothing of brbarin, or want of tit; s i
e can be speedily fished with the






70 CHINA.
means of comfort and luxury. In he oentre
of the garden is an exuberant collection of
beautiful flower, of a great variety of ape-
ies, most of them of the richest fragrance
ad beauty, neatly arrangedin rows. Fruit-
trees are abundant.
Many of the plants we n large earthen
ar, and are daily watered and uurtured by
'mn in constant attendance. In the middle
J the garden i a pond, of a circular frm,
artificially excavated, its depths abounding
with fsh of various kinds, and its surface
with mandarin ducks'-birds of a moat
splendid plumage. At its sides are little
buildings, containing all the apparatus and
appurtenances necessary for bathing. In
the rear of all is a thick grove ofshad trmes,
interested with gravelled walks, and abound-
ing with arbours, which form a gratifying
and delightful retreat from the bustling hum
of the confined and noisome air of Canton.
A favourite amusement of some of the
residents is that of pulling and sailing up the
river in boats. They sometimes land on the
banks, and take a walk; but they dare not go
back far, as they would be likely to be way-
laid, robbed, and beaten by the Cbine
hbe project up the river is beautiful.
sands are numerous, covered with tree,
or highly cultivated, and often adorned with
pagodsand Josh houses.' The country
s, apparently, very fertile, and every foot of
i unwdr the hand of the agriculturist. The






CANTON. 71
sarfao of th rier is rowred with teo thou.
and junkis and bots of different ises.
Hugp anal-boots, which, in the aiss aid
hbape, perhaps, furuih not a bad illustration
of Nob's ark, laden either with cooptry
produce or foreign mercbhandi, are see
passing up or down the river, which, by
mesn ofcanls, is navigable for hundreds of
aile into the interior.
Honsm is a coniderable islad, oppo-
ste the city of Cnton, end divides the
Itreamof the river in two parts, oe of which
fows through the Bogu, and he other forms
the back pasagr to Maco, and separate it
from the continent. Honm is thickly in-
babited, is very fertil, and many of the Chi-
nee gentlemen bave their dwellings nd
families there, retiring there themselves after
th business of the day. On the land is
cultivate d nd tensive Budhist monastery
said, by Mr. Bridgeman, with who" I vi.
sited it, to be the largest and richest in the
empire, except one at Pekin. The bull
iogs and grounds immediately occupied far
the use of the monastery, are grounded by
a stoe wall, whicb encloses a sp of seve.
ral acres. The entrance into this lar eta.
blishment is from a narrow, dirty street,
crowded with fishermn and beggar, through
a smll wicket gate, jut large enough to
sdml single person, into a spacious and
nmgnicent court-yard, covered with ver-
dure, and adorned with rows of beeutifd






TO CHINA.
t a species of banian. Through too
eintr of the yard s a fin pavement, d
broad, at stones, leading towards the dif-
erent temples. To see the buildings to
advantage, it was neceanr to apply to the
prior for som one to attend a, and to whom
we wen obliged to pay thrm dollars. In
the Art temple are to gigantic idols, phoed
in a sitting postarr, d each one surrounded
by a railing. They e made of olay, and
may be twenty feet high, with proportion
and portly dimensions. They e frightflly
pointd, with huge r g eyes, and a oua-
tenanoe intended to as terrisk possible.
The principal temple, and the one in which
the moks bold their daily exeroie, is ia
the centre of the other, the loor of which
ay mere sixty feet by eighty. It con-
tains three huag idols, placed side by side in
the centre of the building, od entirely o-
ered with heay gildin. On each side of
b tmple are rm ges d Ir idol, covered
with giln, repretig the persons of the
different aus. Vase of inesse and can-
dies re kept bring before the prinoipl
idols oan n altr not very diimilar oin r t
that d by Roman Catholics. The celing
is painted with the sal grotesque deeigns
of the Chinese, and the wls are hung with
tablets and cnmson tapetry. The floor
i tiled, andcovered with painted cloth. We
happened to be there at the time of service,
hiih, fa f( u I could discover, seemed a






CANTON. rS
oMssis wold of a ael w chirea
ing, ia whih ty Hll join, o oi walk.-
an aia le le aroMd th T7h
o inilrrnl maucaoeaoopmi thme
disodaot maonds th jiig of a smal
bell, d the drumming with pieceof dbm-
boo, upon a hollow block of wood. The roo
of the temple is not high, and its angles m
beautifid with caly nakes and fina dr*-
oow. At a little distne fero thi atempl
a another of the same description, intended
exclusively for the feales, who perform
their daily Xeucise there; tbere a a ama-
ber of other templeai the rePe, eotaini
idols that ae worbipped coasulted as
occasion may require. The oels for the
monks are log ranges of low buildings, or-
tedin each side of the temple, ach
oeek blt ing bhi ow aatmt to himself.
Her ae kep some half dow pip, which
ar set apart u sacred, for what particular
purpose we could not ascertain, and are al
lowed to live, in iglorio ea and plenty.
to the extet ef te aldwed them by marm
T r not oot ve large framc but eesa
eivey orpit. Two or three of the are
greatly adraned in yeam,ad so much e-
cumbered with Alb and somnolenoy, a
hardly to poae the powe of motion.
In the rar of the building are peddy-
ields, lined with fruit-trees, and exteniv
gard well Aled with vegetables and ece.
at roots, whiab form, or houad fom, th






14 CHINA
principal food of the ombe of the suoa
tery. Farther back, in a grove of tres, is
the cemetery of the establsbment, of singu.
.ar form and structure, in which only the
auhe of the deceased are deported in ves,
a furnace being near, where the bodies e
comued."

CHAPTER III.
DIFFICULTIUS.
W cannot, by any general deeription,
give our readers uch defaite idea of the
commercial habits of the Chinee, and of
nme traits of the national character, a by
narrting some meodotes illustrative of the
nature of the diicultie which have arisen
between them and the foreigners who have
resorted to Canton for the purpose of trade.
The Portuguese were the fart o get poe-
senion of the privilege of trading with China.
By dint of much manI ring, and after
many mnsoeoeesful effort, th Enish East
India Company obtained permission to send
their ehipm there at certain seasons of the
ear, though they were allowed, at first, to
y and ell only through a siangl idiidule,
appointed by the emperor. He was called
th"e Empemr Merchant:" and he paid
gevernuent a considerable sum of money for
the privilege of the exclusive trade with the
ieopene. Of course, he could reglate






DIFFICULT; ES. M5
price at bis will, i the ships would be com-
pelled to come to his tnen, or to rtaru
without their eargoes. This system w
seen abandoned.
It wa not until towards the middle of the
last century, that the trade with Canton u-
eaned a regular shape. The ships wre then
deepatched to Canton at certain wuons of
the yer, npeargoe being appointed to
each ship, whose business it was to sell the
outward cargoes, and to purchase the tes,
silks, &e. for lading the ships on their re-
tamr. The myrc o wer abjeted ta
many rtri tiS ip their stay: they
were required to lodge in one hos, to
keep but one table: and a portion of them,
called the Select Committee, constituted a
sort of board of consultatioe, and wrne see
toned to meet frequent, to take into caool-
deration such subjects a were of common
interest. They kept full journals of thee
deliberations, whih will be alluded to mom
particularly in what follows.
The manner in which th trade w a carried
on, so far s the arrival and departure of the
vessels is concerned was thus :-- As soon
as a ship appeared among the ilads which
front the entrance of the Cantoa river, he
wa generally C U moka . Alot, whd con-
ducted b' to the plee of bach rag, nea
Maceo 1e entrance, however, was so as,
that ships often pushed on without waiti
r the pilot, who, in bed wather,w ao






94 CHINA.
times lea i coming o board. The pilots'
ame we registeed at a ooe near Ma.
cao; ad all wowere licensed paid th mm
of six hundred dollar. The perao who took
outthe license sometieknew nothing about
ships, orthe river; but in ich cas he em.
played fihermen to do the duty. On the
ship's arrival at Macao, the pilot went on
short to report ber to the custom-houa oScer,
who, after a few inquiries, gave permit for
her to pas through the mouth of the river, or
Bogue, a it is caled, and ordered a river
ilot on board. When arrived, which sl-
dom happened before day had passed, the
vesel proceeded throauh the Bogo, and up
the Cantom river, to Whampon.
"Every ship that entered the part we re-
quired to have a Hoe merchant a security
for the duties, and a linguist ad comprer,
before abe could commence usloading. She
wa also reired to give a written deola-
tion, ole y rming that se had brght
no opium; for the importation of that article
was forbidden. The ship of the Eat India
Compnr, however, were excused from this
declaration.
Th Hong, or security merbants, were
the only individuals who were legaly per
mitted to trade with foreigners. To obtain
this privilege, they were obliged to pay
largely; and whan once they became mer-
chants, they were rarely allowed to retire
and were at all time b t to lverM el I






DIFFICULTIES. T
die frm the local govemm t. The lin-
guits wn Or easthoause interpoete, who
procured permit for delivering and tak-
ng in cargoes, tranacted all theo etom-
hogs biness, and kept an count of the
duties. Alo all the minor chrgeof the o-
vernmeat wer paid by them, in codidratk
of which they recve fee of about one hun-
dred eadraventy-threedollars, previous to the
vessel's departure.
When a vessel wished to dicharge or
receive goods, the linguist was informed a
day or two previously of the hot, and lso of
the ind of goods, and of the quantities; he
theM applied for a permit, which being is- .
ned, the lighten, or chop.bot, by which
the goods were conveyed to and from Catton,
proceedd from Canton down the river to
Whampos. For a single boat the linguist
received a fee of twenty-three dollars; but
if he employed from two to six boats, the
fe was only fifteen and a balf.dolars for
tah.
When the goods were ready to be landed
from, or sent to the ship, the Hoppoo, whose
duty it was to oversee foreign ooimeree,
seat a domestic, a writer, and a police ram-
ner; the Hong merchant who secured the
ship snt a domestic and the linguist sent
an aocountat and intrrtr, to attend at the
examination of the goods. The Hong mer-
chants were always held responsible by the
government for paying all the duties whether





tg CHINA.
on imports or export, in foreign vessel
aad, therefore, when goods were prcaed
it was customay for the partie, before
ixing the price, to range between them.
selvre who was 'uJad to pay the duties.
The Hong merchant were required to con-
sider the duties to be paid to gornment ua
the most important part of their affirs. In
default of payment on the part of any one
of them, his property was seied by govern-
ment, and sold to pay the amount; and if
all that he poassesed wa inadequate, he
was mnt from prison into banishment at
Ele, in Western Tartary, which the Chinese
called the cold country,' and the body of
Hong merchants were commanded to pay in
h stead."
In case of any difficult with any person
connected with the foreign ships, the policy
of de Chinese has always been, not to re-
sort to any violent measures for redress, nor
to attempt to invetigat the affair them-
selves, but to require the foreigners them-
selves to do it, and to give up the guilty
individual, or to pay a very heavy fin for
damage ; and if the foreigners objected to
doing this, or declared themselves unable to
do it, the government would stop the trade.
The Chinese authorities seem to have learned
how valuable to their customers the trade
had become, and how necessary the chief
article of it, tea, was considered by the
English people. They were under the ne-






DIFFICULTIES.
amsety, th.erefe, of doing nothing bat su.
ply P ding ll commercial intuecor
ntil ind.maiJomt for any iojry was mde.
An example illtrig ths oourred in
1784 An Eglish ship ws ring a salue
ad by accident, a the Ealish witness
ay, a Chinese w killed Th uthrities
of Canton, ooompnied by the Hong mr-
chants, in a mot formal nd soln mannr,
waited upon th preidnt of the coacil of
supervnrgoe, i demanded the man who
had caused the death. 1Ty were informed
that it could not be aortained who be wu;
that in all vot.bility he had absconded ; and
thaf the ship, being what they call a "conr.
try ihip," that i, one trading from some ea
the neighbouring Britih possesions to Can-
ton, and not from England, was on which
tbhe council had no control over. This ex-
cse, or rather thee exeume,-for they
showed by their number and their inconsis.
tency, that they were none ofthem genuie,-
were not satifactory to the Chinese autho-
ritie, and the dfiulties seemed to increaa.
.Under thlee circumstances, the supercargo
of the ship who salute had originated te
trouble, concluded to go to the city to er-
plain the afair. Upon his landing ha was
taken before the authorities, and examined,
and then, under a military guard, was carried
into the heart of the city a olose prior.
S*ch a proceeding alarmed not only the





oM CHINA.
ether bglish peresare but alo all the
Earopea, ride.ts; for hey perleived a
m that may one of them wolS be equally
liable to be proved in cae of an cident
hearing through the camele*me of any one
ia their employ. They et order to the
reign ships the lying, at WhMboa to
-u and arm their boats, and mad the
rthwith to Canton, as we to show the
Chinese authorities that they were prpawd
for the most decisive .rmem actually
to defend the council from bostile meaires,
if any should be reorted to gain them.
The medaing attitude thu aumed byt h
Zuropeans w as mt y similar manifestas
o the part of the Chla Tey rmolutely
o edto give up the aperargo, unles te
natfortuts gunner hold be surrenderld to
the pimeat which their Ml assigned.
The opera, finding that the luthoi-
tie wea ideuible, that all trade wos an-
poded, and that their Mend, the speroaro,
ould not be retord to them but by giv g
up the guna who was, all this time, not-
witotndine the "oy of his h having &.
emonded, on boa his own ship, rduc-
ttly concluded to surrender him. He wa
acoordingly conducted to the pagoda, Mad
Recommended to the protection of the
Chinese An bour after, the supecare o,
who bo d bea impruoned, returned, ma
that be had ben treated in the mot civil







DIFFICULTIES. 8S
uma while he had bon detaimndmmy d
the madaris having alid upon him and
seet him preenut.
The poor gemw was detained in cutedy
until a muae would be mat to Pekia ft
orders from the empror. In about two
months a aswerwas rtrned, requiring
him to bestrangled. After the mastenc wa
exeoutd, tbhe gtlneme of th serenrl Ia-
ropean nations we sunmmsd to attend the
mandarins, and were told tkat the empar
wa gnre displead with thm for having
olong ydL d givia gthem a up; tht h
law was extraely moderate in snqiri
the ncriice d only oe life, for tu that bad
ies taken, (ome avig been lost ma fr.
aer oeaeioc;) and that tbhe ouw t
expeMtd, in eas a similar eoat
should happen agin, that the Eureans
woald pay a mor, ready obediemn to the
sommanda of tbhe mandarin, or that they
mrt abide the oasqaes of reusmal." ,
Tbhe ing of salute at the port of Catoa
was prohibited from this tim. DiWoulties
somewhat uilar to this continued to occur
from timo to time : the one, however, which
we shall nt describe, took plMe in 1807.
It was in the moth of Mreh. The ship
Neptun, belonging to the East India Com.
ay, wu in port; and a disturbeoc* aro
et a some of her crew, who were on
share near the factory, and some Chinae
The officer of the ship immediately queMed
V






p CHINA.
it, by during their men within the ;ctory;
but the Chinese followed them in great
numbers, and continued through the day to
throw tonoe at the factory, and at every
European p ing. There wre several ma-
darinse d merchant present, who did all
in their power to retrain and diperse the
mob, but in vain. While things were in
this stat, the sailors suddenly forced their
way out of the fotory, and made a furious
attack upon their beeigrs. They were
almost immediately brought beck by their
ocer, but not until one of the Chinee
had ben killed.
The committee of Mpmorg on bear.
ing of the affair, im sdiately felt the mot
miom apprehensions for the conquenc.
They did all they could to prevat ia ooming
befon tih rendering, but did not suceMd.
hey held aort of court of inquiry on board
the N ptao, but could not ix the guilt of
the madr upon any indiidual. ThbHong
merchant who was rsponsibl for this ship,
-for, a has been before stated, one of them
must be reponsible for every ship while hbe
mains in harbour,-was evolved in the
most serious diioulties, and offered a very
large sum for the discovery of the perpetra-
tor; but he was not to be found. The Chi-
M authorities, in the men time, forbade
the Neptune to receive her cro, and gave
aden that no ship should ail until thb
rimil was given up.






DIFFICULTIES. as
This state of things continued for some
time. The Cbinese abstained from all acts
of violence, and made no attempts at seiure
of any persons among the Eropean, they
had done n the former occasion, but Irmly
persisted in prohibition the sailing of the
ships. It ws at length reed that an e-
amrnation of ifty-two men beloa to the
Neptune should take place at the fatoy.
The Chinee bad at Lnt insited that ti
court should be held in the city; but this
they at length waived. They had also de-
msnded that the men bhoula be eamined
by torture, which,of course, was not allowed.
The forms and solemnities of a Chines
court of justice were obsrved at this singu
iar trial, though rts were merely pro-
vided for sme of the most distigible of
the Eglish oces then i port, ad some
English soldier, with ized bayort, were
stationed at the door.
The Chine produced o evidence, bat
the Englih oicers selected eleven ma,
who bad been most violent, in hopes that
some punishment indicted upon them would
satisfy the Chinese, without the necesity of
patting any to death. This, however, would
not do. It was on record that a man bad
been killed, and by the laws of China, which
make magistrates themelves personally re-
sponsible for the rervtion of order, some
punishment or deS 'datio awaited ever
dcer connected with the administration






84 CHINA
justice, which could only be averted by
making some one individual responsible for
the offence.
They could not, however, fix upon any
one; that is, they had no evidence against
any one; but it was at last arranged, that
one of the eleven, considered by the man-
darins as the most guilty, should be named."
Were it not that, probably, every one of
these sailors were guilty, if not in a techni-
cal, at least in a moral point of view, we
might regret that they should have been
willing to deliver up one, from considerations
of policy, when there was no positive evi.
dence against him. Edward Sheen was the
name of the one surrendered. The other ten
were sent back to their ship, subject to the
disposal of their commander, Sheen being *
left at Canton, in the hands of the committee.
He was kept in custody until the emperor's
decision was received, which was, that he
might redeem himself from the punisbmet
of death, by the payment of a fine to thi
relations of the deceased, for defraying
the expenseof burial," as the emperor's edict
expressed it: and then that he might be dis-
missed to be orderly governed in his own
country.
In 1808, a somewhat serious difficulty oc-
uerred on account of a British admiral's hav-
ing lauded some troops at Macao to aid the
Portugues in defending the place against an
expected attack from the French. The Per-






DIFFICULTIES. Ab
toguoe had pledged themselves to the Chi.
noe government not to admit the troops of
anynation at Macao without their consent
but it was thpoght, on this occasion, that the
Chinese were mre likely to refuse consent
if it were asked, than to make any diiculty
if the triops were loaded without it; and,
consequently, the step was taken without
ay previous notie. This was doe with a
aderntanding with the elect Committee at
Caton, who had charge of the commercial
interests of the company there. The Porto-
gesee governor, however, at Macao, renmow
stated agait it.
There came immediately a letter from the
" Hoppoo," the Aoer appointed to super
inted the oein commerce at Canton, pro
testing tr ly against this step. The Bri-
tish admiral then a letter to the vieroy
explaining the motives for landing the troops,
and defending the measure. The vinoeoy
replied, remonstrating trongly against it
and threatening to report the ease to the
emperor. The local authorities made vari
ous other threats, such that they would
send an armed force to compel them to evacu.
ate Macau, that they would burn the ships at
Whampoe, or impruun the English, and put
them to death.
This state of mutual hostility and menaces
continued for many weeks, the Englasb per
mistig in retaining the position of the troops
and the Chinese rmly resisting all ffots to






M CHINA.
renew the trade, or to open any egotiati
whatever. The only reply de to all at-
tempts at intercourse of erry kind, was,
that the troop must be rmod, their re-
minig on ore being contrary to a law of
the empire." This the British admiral
would not do; and the excitement and hos-
tility daily inresed. The English authori-
ties talked of ordering all British subjects of
in fortyght hours, and of bringing the
ships of war up the river, to ssume a me-
nacing attitude towards the city itself; and
the Chinese government replied that they
were ready for war, though they should not
commence it, and began to concentrate
troops upon the important points along the
banks of the river, and some shots were ac-
tually exchanged. At length the English,
finding that the Chinese authorities were not
to be shaken, gave up the point: the troops
werere-embarked a conveyed away, when
the government Caton allowed the trade
to be resmed.
We give one oe re e, relating it some-
what more in detail than the others.
The diiculty commenced near the cloe
of the ear 1811, arising out of the death of
two Chinee, occasioned by ring from a
British ship of war, the Topese, then lying
at Lintin. The reader must bear -n mind
the distinction between a ship of war, under
6e command of oioers of the royal govern-
mnt, and the merchant ships, controlled by






DIFFICULTIES. a
te Eat India C mpaM, u thi di dt ti
d them entiMr i ddeof king' Mhip
f al l otrol on the part of the mpeMarogu
are often alluded toin the rad
Te barge f tight bed bem de(
patched to the Uend of Lil to obtain
water, nd elo to enable the aeen to wamk
their clothe. WhilS engaged d far
these puupm, they wer attMackd by
t bj .I Cines, amed with elwa
Sbaboo pole, with "peam at th end,
wounding six a evrely, and brauiiu
eight more. In order to efect the rem-
barkation of the see the ocier in ao
mand of the ftigate red mM round mht, by
which the two Chinae were killed ; they
alo Mst the other two boatl, named u
awrod with marmoe, fron the hbip to prote
th barge.
Captain Rihardso reported this evet
to the elect committee, and havin written
a letter to th viceroy, preeating the ir-
oa.mcsee, a d a poo him to peLi
the Chinese who had ben potyof k
the disturbance, remqestd e co itt o
alow Dr. Morrd m, the English mio y,
who wa then at Canton, to trula it fnt
Chinee. This wa done, and the letter a
ultimately presented att city gate.
On the flowing day, the Hong mdermhe
waited on the committee with the tter
opened, to ascertain whether it wu mdly
atm Captain RicLhrdson. O receiving an





so CHINA.
ssranes to tht effect, they took it to the
vieeroy, by whom it was received, sad whI
intimatd his intention to depute a peron to
Lintin to investigate the afear.
The merchants proposed to Captain Rich-
rdson to seed the wounded eeamea on shore
to be examined. This, however, he declined
doing; ead, though he had no objection to
a anderin goiag o board the frigate, he
would not s r any social examination to
be had there.
On the god, Captain Richardson left Ca-
tom for Linti. On that day the committee
were formed that the Whampoa magi-
trate would not proceed to Lintin to ea.
mine into the afair, and that if the mn
rom the Top were net Nnt ashore, aad
if Captain rdn departed befre the
affir wa settled, he should hold the chief
of the nation," tha is the chairman of the
select committee, responsible. The co-
mittee, having been solicited bT the Houn
merhants to allow the viceroy answer to
Captain Richardon to be mat throb thbm,
decled it tobe indmimible; er t was a
grat point with them to maintain that t4ey
Nothing to do with a kings sbip,-that
ah a vessel was totally disconnected with
trade. The vicery topped the trade, and
two ed icts were ised, adrting to the death
f the Chinese in one of which wre the fol
Sei:w pae ages
S ZN the menof-war of the said s






DIFFICULTIES.
time originally tabllihed to protest
ad omvoy merchandise. If it be not ue
aeoount of trade, why do the said ntioa's
ships of war como he without lmy MMse
Th said chief, in making the meaof-war
and the trad two eonoern, talks very *b
hl fo er of the aid natio have
heretofore d ocMioa l amr with the
natives, and th usage has always be, a
command the Hong mrehants to order their
chief what to do. In th tirteenth year of
Ke-king, the said nation's mrn-of-war mad
a pmett of protecting the Prtuguese, nd
came to Macao. That alair, more than th
present, had nothing to do with the com-
msee o yet, then the ordeal were isuel to
the chi, equinghia to enforce their do.
partur. As the said chief remains at Ca
te to mu ge the afai of the id oountry,
thee is no aair that he bold not maag.
How can b, in consequene of the moam.
war bhaing killed a native, make up ap.
tet, and push the frir from himi I
Highly improp." hve
Hersnotm, the govern have nrm
had oicial corrspondeace with the avald
ooer ofthe said nation. Onthis ocaoei,
as his repentation sid, natives had
wounded fourtee Englishme. I thereore
deputed as ocer to take with him the Hog
merchants and the linguit,and o to Lntla
and ta an inquest of the blgner who






W CHINA.
we womded, and proseate. If th sdd
me-of-war really had any men who bad
received wounds, it was incumbent an him
to obe my order, and deliver them up, and
wait til an inquest was taken; and prof
being obtained, th matter might be en-
mined into, and justly prosecuted; but ab-
raptly to request the seid deputed o&ers to
go on board to hold an inquet, was not eoly
Violation of the forms of government, but
a thing impossible to be doae; and then to
make this a cae of obstinate resstce,
exites a suspicion, that the tale of fourteen
men being wounded, wu, for the most prt,
m erie."
After p dsing thin shrewd exposition o
his view of the a&ir, the viceroy gave orders
to prevent the Topse from advancing higher
ap the rirer; and a edict was issued, de-
clring that, if she went away before the
tair was settled, the nation chief and the
Hog merchants should certaily be held
reponible.
Oe ofthe Hog merehanta, Chanqua,
in an interview with the president, suggest-
ed thatifthe o r wee allowed togo o
board the Topae, and examine the wounded
men, the diculties would soon be got over.
This wea made known to Captain RBibhad-
son, who consented to receive any person on
bard with civility, but would not allow u
any judicial examination.
An attmptwas afterwards made bythe






DIFFICULTIES. 9t
Ref merehan, unde the deerdl adr
of tEi rirovy, to distribute a copy of te
diet amount the commander f the seve-
ral hip, n order to eparte t rhm om
the committee. The commanders returned
the ediot to the memchats with a declar-
tion, that they were atinly under the
aodem of the elect committee of the Honour-
abl Comany's affair, and that, come.
qunldy, they wee not ethorised in holding
any correpondeno with, or noriving eam-
munieation of any kind from, tm CA se
government."
The select committee, in conequmre of
the stoppage of the trade, caused the Com-
pany's treasure to be moved from Canton
to Whempo. The Topue was then moved
from Lintin to Maceo, tad an edit was
iwued by the vicer, declaring that he held
the chief responble. The committee stated
that they had no control over ship of war,
and requested the viceroy to order som able
ocer to proceed to Captain Pjihrdson.
Thau the contention went on, the Cuhine
authorities demanding an investigation of the
fair, and the punishment of the individuals
who had cased the death of the Cbinese
the EMt India Company's o9oser maintain
ing that they had no authority in the case
and the commander of the ship-ofwar refn.
ing to admit of any Chinese juriediati%
over his majety's ship, or any of it eeaw
Eeh party wM arm. In view of the air






9g CHINA.
at the preset stage of it, the sleet com-
mittee entered the following record in the
journal which the were required to keep of
all their preceding, and which was for-
warded to the Company in London:-
"Thau we see ourselves clearly made re-
posible for the acts of between two and
three thousand individuals who are daily
coming in contact with the lowest of the
Chinese, and exposed to assaults so wanton,
and often so barbsrous, a well as to rob-
berie so extensive, that self-defence im-
poses upon them the necessity of attacking
their assailants in a manner from whence
death must often ensue. A great and im-
portant commerce is instantly suspended,
whole sats at times detained, ourselves
liable to leisure, and to be the medium of
surrendering a man to death, whose crime
is only self-defence or obedience to orders,
or ele to lend oeralves to the most de-
testable flsehoods, in order to support a
fabricated statement which may save the
credit of the ofioers of the Chinese govern
ment.
d" Can the Honourable Company wish their
servant and their trade to remain in this
degraded, this dangerous situation 1 Will
the British government expect that the
captain of his majesty's ship is, upon this
occasion, to sacriioe every feeling of bonour
and humanity
The captain of his majesty's ship lam






DIFFICULTIES. 91
in the moat decided terms, stated that he
never will surrender my of his people to
the justice of the Chinese; and a therm i
no precedent on record of an honourable
adjustment of case of homicide, we have
no ground upon which to remonstrate with
hi majesty's office upon the present occa-
son.
We hall brily recapitulate the case of
homicide noted in our records.
In 1780, a French sailor, who killed a
Portuguese in elf-defence, was strangled
without any form of trial.
In 1784, the gunner, who, in obediemee
to orders, fired a gun on the ocoaso of a
ship saluting, was put to death.
In 1800, the sentinel oa the forestle
of hi majety's sehooer Providence was
charged with the intended murder of a
Chinese. whom, in obedience to orders, he
hired upon, whilst attempting to out the
schooner's cable. The mot serious nego-
tiations ensued, which were terminated by
the wounded man survive for a period of
more than fort days, although he died
shortly irwafrd.
In 1806, Edward Sheen, against whom
not the shadow of psoof existed, was saved
by the Chinese officer inventing a most la-
grant faleehood as to the manner in which
the deceased person came to hi death. The
form of public trial was, however, gone
through; and it mut not be forgotten, that




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