• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Chapter 1: Introduction
 Chapter 2: Improved cookstoves...
 Chapter 3: Attitudes towards improved...
 Chapter 4: Fuelwood consumption...
 Chapter 5: Conclusions and...
 Literature cited
 Biographical sketch
 Tables






Group Title: Improved cookstoves in Western Uganda : : social impacts and environmental implications
Title: Improved cookstoves in Western Uganda
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056227/00001
 Material Information
Title: Improved cookstoves in Western Uganda social impacts and environmental implications
Physical Description: x, 133 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallmo, Kristy, 1967-
Publication Date: 1996
 Subjects
Subject: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation thesis, M.S   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Wildlife Ecology and Conservation -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 1996.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 128-132).
Statement of Responsibility: by Kristy Wallmo.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056227
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002218130
oclc - 36754803
notis - ALF8305

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Dedication
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Chapter 1: Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Chapter 2: Improved cookstoves in developing countries
        Page 10
        Introduction
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Stove types
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Improve cookstove monitoring
            Page 17
            Surveys
                Page 17
            Technical tests
                Page 18
        Past results of improved cookstove monitoring
            Page 19
            Page 20
            The Nada Chula program in India
                Page 21
            The ASTRA program in India
                Page 22
            The Lorena stove program in Guatemala
                Page 23
                Page 24
            The improved Jiko program in Kenya
                Page 25
                Page 26
            The Ban ak Suuf program in Senegal
                Page 27
            Improved cookstoves in China
                Page 28
                Page 29
            The smokeless Ghanian oven
                Page 30
            Impoved woodstoves in Burundi
                Page 30
            The new Nepali insert stove
                Page 31
        Elements of successful ICPS
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Stove design and construction
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
                Page 37
            Stove mechanics
                Page 38
            Program planning
                Page 38
            Program implementation
                Page 39
            Program monitoring and evaluation
                Page 40
        Conclusion
            Page 40
            Page 41
    Chapter 3: Attitudes towards improved cookstoves introduced in Western Uganda
        Page 42
        Introduction
            Page 42
        Methods
            Page 43
            Adoption and impact survey
                Page 43
                Page 44
        Study sites
            Page 45
            Kiziba parish
                Page 45
                Page 46
            Kahangi parish
                Page 47
            Matayisa parish
                Page 48
            Bundinyama parish
                Page 49
                Page 50
        Adoption and impact survey results and analysis
            Page 51
            Baseline information
                Page 51
            Cooking practices
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
            Stove promotion and perception
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
            Stove condition
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
            Non-adoption of the Lorena stove
                Page 72
                Page 73
            Fuelwood collection
                Page 74
                Page 75
            Attitudes towards conservation in Western Uganda
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
        Discussion
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
    Chapter 4: Fuelwood consumption of traditional and improved cookstoves introduced in Western Uganda
        Page 89
        Introduction
            Page 89
        Methods
            Page 90
            Kitchen performance test
                Page 90
                Page 91
            Laboratory tests
                Page 92
                Page 93
                Page 94
        Results and analysis
            Page 95
            Kitchen performance test
                Page 95
                Page 96
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
                Page 102
                Page 103
                Page 104
                Page 105
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
                Page 109
                Page 110
            Laboratory tests
                Page 111
                Page 112
                Page 113
                Page 114
                Page 115
                Page 116
        Discussion
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
    Chapter 5: Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Literature cited
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Biographical sketch
        Page 133
    Tables
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
Full Text













IMPROVED COOKSTOVES IN WESTERN UGANDA: SOCIAL IMPACTS AND
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS











BY

KRISTY WALLMO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1996































This thesis is dedicated to Bill and Barbara Wallmo for all
their love and support.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Susan Jacobson for providing me with

unlimited support during my tenure as a graduate student and

for all her guidance and help with my research preparation

and thesis. I would also like to thank Colin Chapman and

Lauren Chapman for providing a tremendous amount of

information about research possibilities in Uganda and

unlimited information about the country. Thanks to Colin

Chapman and Peter Hildebrand for their extensive advice on

my thesis, and to Peter Hildebrand and Jay Harrison for

their wealth of statistical knowledge that provided a lot of

insight into my data analysis. I am grateful to the Center

for Tropical Conservation and Development at the University

of Florida for providing travel expenses for my research in

Uganda, and to Rolf Posthouwer and Patrick Kidiya from

Kibale and Semliki Conservation and Development Project for

financial and technical support in Uganda. Thanks to all of

the staff at Kibale and Semliki Conservation and Development

Project, especially Margaret, Rolf, and Patrick, for all the

help during my research. I would also like to thank Kathryn

Hunter and David Thomford for providing a home away from

home in Uganda and for being wonderful friends and an

iii














endless source of fun. Many thanks to Teopista Banura,

whose assistance in the field was invaluable and who made

being in the field a complete pleasure. Finally, I would

like to thank all my friends who put up with me during my

research and writing my thesis, and my mom and dad for all

their love and support.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . ... iii

ABSTRACT . . . . . vii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . 1

2 IMPROVED COOKSTOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ..... .10


Introduction .. . . . .. 10
Stove Types . . . . . 14
Improved Cookstove Monitoring . . .. .17
Surveys . . . . 17
Technical Tests. .. . . .. .18
Past Results of Improved Cookstove Monitoring 19
The Nada Chula Program in India . .. 21
The ASTRA Program in India .......... 22
The Lorena Stove Program in Guatemala .. ... 23
The Improved Jiko Program in Kenya . .. .24
The Ban ak Suuf Program in Senegal . 27
Improved Cookstoves in China . .. 28
The Smokeless Ghanian Oven. . ... 29
Improved Woodstoves in Burundi . ... .30
The New Nepali Insert Stove . . 31
Elements of Successful ICPs . . .. 32
Stove Design and Construction . . 34
Stove Mechanics . . . ... 38
Program Planning. .. . .... 38
Program Implementation . . . 39
Program Monitoring and Evaluation . 40
Conclusion . . . . .. .. 40

3 ATTITUDES TOWARDS IMPROVED COOKSTOVES INTRODUCED IN
WESTERN UGANDA. .. . . . .. .42


Introduction . . . .. . 42
Methods . . . . . 43
Adoption and Impact Survey . . 43
Study Sites . . . . 45
Kiziba Parish . . . . .45
Kahangi Parish . . . .. 47
Matayisa Parish . . . . 48










Bundinyama Parish . . . .
Adoption and Impact Survey Results and Analysis
Baseline Information . . .
Cooking Practices . . . .
Stove Promotion and Perception . .
Stove Condition . . . .
Non-Adoption of the Lorena Stove ..
Fuelwood Collection . . .
Attitudes Towards
Conservation in Western Uganda . .
Discussion . . . . .


4 FUELWOOD CONSUMPTION OF TRADITIONAL AND IMPROVED
COOKSTOVES INTRODUCED IN WESTERN UGANDA .


Introduction . . . . .
Methods . . . . .
Kitchen Performance Test . .
Laboratory Tests . . .
Results and Analysis . . . .
Kitchen Performance Test . .
Laboratory Tests . . .
Discussion . . . .

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . .


LITERATURE CITED. . . . .


. 89


. 89
. 90
. 90
. 92
. 95
. 95
. 111
117

122


. .128


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. . . . . ... 133


S. 49
S. 51
. 51
S. 52
S. 55
S. 69
S. 72
S. 74

. 76
S. 82















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the
University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science


IMPROVED COOKSTOVES IN WESTERN UGANDA: SOCIAL IMPACTS AND
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS


By



Kristy Wallmo



December 1996



Chairperson: Susan K. Jacobson

Major Department: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation



Deforestation, particularly in developing countries,

has become a critical conservation issue and has received

considerable international attention. It is estimated that

approximately 7.5 million hectares of closed forest and 3.8

million hectares of open forests and woodlands are destroyed

or degraded each year in tropical developing countries

(Gregersen 1988). One significant factor contributing to

deforestation are expanding populations, which place


vii









increasing demands on forests and forest products. One

forest product which warrants special consideration is

fuelwood. Wood is the predominant source of energy in most

parts of the developing world, and is consumed for both

domestic and small scale industrial purposes. In many

areas, rural households rely solely on fuelwood for their

domestic energy supply. Studies examining the status of

fuelwood supplies for developing nations have determined

that in many areas there are acute fuelwood shortages. This

situation is magnified in countries such as Uganda, where

less than 5% of the land surface remains covered in closed

forest yet deforestation rates are as high as 2% annually

(Chapman et al. 1994). Further, Becker et al. (1995)

estimate that approximately 94% of the human enterprises in

Uganda are powered by wood.

Fuel-saving stoves, or improved cookstoves, have been

introduced in developing countries as a method to reduce

fuelwood consumption and thus alleviate deforestation;

however, many improved cookstove programs have experienced

both technical and social difficulties when disseminating a

new stove.

In 1995 an improved cookstove program in Western Uganda

was monitored to compare domestic fuelwood consumption of an

improved cookstove and a traditional stove. A kitchen


viii









performance test was conducted in 100 households in three

parishes where the stove had been introduced to determine

fuelwood consumption of the improved and traditional stoves

under realistic conditions. A general linear model was used

to analyze fuelwood consumption of the improved stove and

traditional stove in each parish. In Kiziba parish,

fuelwood consumption/3 days of the improved stove

(mean=21.75 kg/household) did not differ from that of the

traditional stove (mean = 18.81 kg/household)(F=2.56;

p=0.13). In Kahangi parish, fuelwood consumption/3 days of

the improved stove (mean=38.00 kg/household) did not differ

from that of the traditional stove (mean=31.50

kg/household)(F=1.07; p=0.31). In Matayisa/Bundinyama

parishes fuelwood consumption/3 days of the improved stove

(mean=34.72 kg/household) did not differ from that of the

traditional stove (mean=34.56 kg/household)(F=0.43; p=0.52).

Household surveys (n=165) were conducted in each parish to

examine people's attitudes about the improved stove.

Respondents in all three parishes had positive perceptions

of the improved cookstove. Advantages of the improved stove

included the ability to cook more than one item at once,

fuelwood savings, quick cooking, and smoke/accident

reduction. Many problems with the stove were technical,

such as chimney malfunctions and potholes too large or small

to accommodate cooking pots. Cost of the stove was the

ix









primary reason for non-adoption. Based on the research

results, stove design recommendations are provided to

increase the fuel efficiency of the stove. Appropriate

training about efficient cooking practices and proper use

and maintenance of the improved stove during stove promotior

would further increase fuel efficiency.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Global deforestation has become a compelling

international concern. While the world's forests are home

to nearly half of the earth's species and a crucial resource

for human survival, they are vanishing at alarming rates

(Durning 1991). In 1991 an estimated 40.5 billion km2 of

forest covered the earth; however, Durning (1991) calculates

that roughly 206 million km2 are destroyed annually. If

deforestation rates persist, all but scattered remnants of

forests and a quarter of the earth's species will be gone

within the next century (Miller and Tangley 1991).

Deforestation in the tropics has received considerable

attention over the last two decades. Myers (1989) reports

that tropical forests cover roughly 8 million km2 and the

rate of loss is 1.8 percent annually. Biological diversity,

estimated at as many as 30 million species for tropical

moist forests (Erwin 1988), and human uses such as erosion

and flood control, food and medicine, and a sustainable

supply of wood products are at risk as rapid deforestation

continues (Becker et al. 1995). While the total amount of

tropical forests destroyed may be only one third of the pre-

1









2

human intervention level (possibly as high as two-fifths in

Asia and Latin America and one-half in Africa), a crude

extrapolation puts the terminal life span of tropical

forests at 38 years (Roberts 1994).

Deforestation in many developing countries is now a

critical situation as their efforts to catch up to Western

world standards require the continuous clearing of land for

agriculture and industry. A minimum of 7.5 million hectares

of closed forest and 3.8 million hectares of open forest and

woodlands are destroyed or degraded each year in tropical

developing countries (Gregersen 1988). In sub-Saharan

Africa the need for foreign exchange was responsible for a

34% increase in logging during 1974 to 1991, compared with a

global average of only 19% (Mabogunje 1995). Compounding

this problem, the rate of forest regeneration to

deforestation is as low as 1:32 in sub-Saharan Africa,

compared to rates of 1:2 in Asia and 1:6 in Latin America

(Mabogunje 1995).

Increasing demands from expanding populations in

developing countries are a significant factor contributing

to deforestation. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example,

annual population growth rates of 2.5% to 3.5% has caused

the population to double in the past 25 years (Mabogunje

1995). It is expected to double again in 24 years, and

predicted to stabilize in the year 2050 with a population of












2.5 billion (Cleaver et al. 1992).

Inevitable consequences of population growth include

the increasing demand to convert forested areas into

agricultural plots and the demand for forest products such

as timber and fuelwood. Fuelwood consumption warrants

special consideration, as the amount of wood consumed for

fuel increased from 1,500 to 3,500 million cubic meters

between 1950 and 1990 (Durning 1991). It is estimated that

by the year 2000 one-half of the developing world's

population will lack a sustainable supply of fuelwood if

deforestation rates remain constant (Miller and Tangley

1991).

The worldwide predictions of deforestation are

magnified in countries like Uganda, where the effects of

deforestation may have particularly severe impacts. While

less than 5% of Uganda's land surface remains covered in

closed forest, deforestation rates are estimated at about 2%

per year (Chapman et al. 1994). Further, Becker et al.

(1995) estimate that about 94% of the human enterprises in

Uganda are powered by wood. The causes of deforestation in

Uganda are numerous, though economic development and an

increasing population are perhaps the most significant.

Uganda's annual population growth of 3.4% places

increasing demands on forest products and on the conversion











of forested land for agricultural use. The conversion of

forested land for agricultural use is particularly

problematic, since this process completely destroys the

forest ecosystem. Howard (1991) states that approximately

12% of the forested land within Uganda's principal forest

reserves has been affected by agricultural encroachment. A

considerable demand also exists for forest products such as

building poles, bamboo, palm nuts and rattan canes.

Economic development has also lead to the increasing

clearing of forests. Timber harvesting by both mechanical

harvesting and traditional pitsawing methods has affected

approximately 35% of the forested land within Uganda's

principal forest reserves (Howard 1991). However, the

demand for timber is relatively small--roughly 1/60--of the

demand for fuelwood.

Hamilton (1984) estimated that 90 to 95% of the total

wood consumed in Uganda was used for fuel. In 1986 the

World Bank estimated the fuelwood demand to be 18.3 million

cubic meters, increasing annually. In 1991 Uganda's annual

production of woody biomass was estimated at only 15.6

million cubic meters of fuelwood equivalent (Howard 1991),

leaving a deficit of 2.7 million cubic meters. These

figures clearly demonstrate the need for both reforestation

and introducing methods of increasing fuel efficiency.

Struhsaker (1987) suggests that immediate attention should











be given to increasing fuel efficiency, as this could be

from 2 to 26 times more effective in dealing with Uganda's

fuelwood problems than the reforestation programs planned

and in progress. One potential strategy .aimed at improving

fuel efficiency is the use of fuel conserving stoves, often

referred to as improved cookstoves. In many rural areas

food is cooked over an open fire. Efficiency rates (the

heat transferred from the fire to cooking pots) for open

fires range from 3 to 10%. However improved cookstoves,

when used properly, can reach efficiencies of 20 to 30%

(Islam et al. 1984). In areas of heavy deforestation where

fuelwood is in short supply the use of more efficient stove

is usually more economically viable than planting trees

(Barnes et al. 1994).

The collaborative efforts of IUCN, the World

Conservation Union and the Department of Environment

Protection have initiated the Kibale and Semliki

Conservation and Development Project (KSCDP) in western

Uganda. Among other activities, the Project is implementing

an improved cookstove program in villages directly adjacent

to Kibale and Semuliki National Parks (Fig. 1) to reduce

domestic fuelwood consumption and alleviate the need to

collect fuelwood from within park boundaries. The goal of

the stove program is to have at least 30% of all frontline











villages (villages directly adjacent to the parks) and at

least 10% of any one parish using improved cookstoves to

standards established by the Project by December 1997.

Late in 1993 a three-pot Lorena mud stove was

introduced in three pilot parishes in western Uganda by

KSCDP. As of December 1995 the program had spread to 10

parishes and 683 stoves had been constructed.


*


Figure 1. Kibale and Semuliki National Parks











Stoves are constructed by community members from each

parish trained by KSCDP staff. After training, community

members with a demonstrated ability in stove construction

become stove promoters for KSCDP and construct stoves in

households within their parish. Materials for construction

consist of 35 bricks, mud, water, sand or cowdung, a chimney

pipe, a machete and a hoe. Each household must supply

bricks, mud, sand and a chimney pipe. Initially, to promote

the Lorena stove, payment for promoters for each stove

constructed was provided by KSCDP.

Limited monitoring of the program occurred throughout

development and dissemination, and feedback from early

adopters was used to modify the stove design. Further

monitoring of the two year program will provide data

concerning the impact of the program at the household and

parish level and insight for the future direction of the

program.

Research conducted for this thesis was designed to

monitor the improved cookstove program in four parishes

surrounding Kibale and Semuliki National Parks. The

objectives are:

(1) To compare fuelwood consumption (in kilograms) of

improved cookstoves and traditional three stone

fires under field and laboratory conditions;

(2) To compare fuelwood species of Lorena stove users











and non-users in each parish;

(3) To determine specific factors influencing adoption

and non-adoption of the Lorena stove;

(4) To determine the perceived advantages and

disadvantages of the Lorena stove and the three

stone fire;

(5) To assess the attitudes of members of each of the

parishes towards natural resource conservation;

(6) To provide recommendations for the future

direction of the KSCDP stove program and

information/references for other stove programs

implemented in developing countries;



The null hypothesis tested during the research is

stated below. The hypothesis will be tested using a general

linear model.

Ho: No difference exists in the quantity of fuelwood

consumed between households cooking with a Lorena

stove and households cooking with a traditional

three stone fire.

The remainder of this thesis provides a literature

review of improved cookstoves in developing countries and

research results from monitoring the improved cookstove

program implemented by KSCDP in Western Uganda. Chapter 2

briefly addresses the history of improved cookstoves and the











difficulties encountered when implementing an improved

cookstove program. A variety of stove types, past results

of program monitoring and critical factors of improved

cookstove programs are also described. Chapter 3 presents

the perceptions of the Lorena mud stove and the traditional

three stone fire of members from three parishes in Western

Uganda. It also assesses the attitudes towards conservation

of members from each parish. Chapter 4 provides a

comparison of fuelwood consumption of the traditional three

stone fire and the Lorena mud stove. Conclusions and

recommendations are provided in Chapter 5.















CHAPTER 2
IMPROVED COOKSTOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


Introduction

Increasing rates of deforestation combined with growing

populations and predictions of the lack of sustainable

energy supplies for many developing countries within the

next century prompted the Food and Agriculture Organization

of the United Nations (FAO) and the Economic Commission for

Africa to hold a workshop on Firewood and Energy Development

for Rural African Women in December 1980 (FAO 1981). From

that workshop evolved several strategies to reduce firewood

consumption, one being to encourage the use of improved

stoves designed to suit local conditions, thereby promoting

the more efficient use of wood. It is believed that

traditional methods of cooking with firewood do not utilize

90 to 97% of the total heat produced, while improved stoves

can achieve efficiencies of 20 to 30% (Islam et al. 1984).

Given the fact that in many countries firewood and charcoal

are estimated to be approximately 90 percent of total

inanimate energy consumed (Agarwal 1983), a stove that

conserves fuel could play a major role in conservation

efforts. The 1980 workshop was not the first time improved

10















CHAPTER 2
IMPROVED COOKSTOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


Introduction

Increasing rates of deforestation combined with growing

populations and predictions of the lack of sustainable

energy supplies for many developing countries within the

next century prompted the Food and Agriculture Organization

of the United Nations (FAO) and the Economic Commission for

Africa to hold a workshop on Firewood and Energy Development

for Rural African Women in December 1980 (FAO 1981). From

that workshop evolved several strategies to reduce firewood

consumption, one being to encourage the use of improved

stoves designed to suit local conditions, thereby promoting

the more efficient use of wood. It is believed that

traditional methods of cooking with firewood do not utilize

90 to 97% of the total heat produced, while improved stoves

can achieve efficiencies of 20 to 30% (Islam et al. 1984).

Given the fact that in many countries firewood and charcoal

are estimated to be approximately 90 percent of total

inanimate energy consumed (Agarwal 1983), a stove that

conserves fuel could play a major role in conservation

efforts. The 1980 workshop was not the first time improved

10











cookstoves had been considered. The first emergence of

improved cookstoves began in pre-independence India, and

were introduced for reasons not directly related to

conservation. It was Mahatma Ghandi who first drew

attention to the "smokeless chula", a version of the

traditional Indian stove that included a chimney, to improve

the health and living conditions of rural women by reducing

smoke emitted from cooking fires (Joseph et al. 1990).

The second phase of improved cookstove introduction

began in the late 1970s. Predictions by the World Bank and

the United Nations of future acute fuelwood shortages

throughout the developing world (Millington et al. 1994)

prompted stove programs to focus on the energy efficiency of

improved stoves (Barnes et al. 1994). It was a widely held

belief at this time that improved cookstoves could be a

major contributor to the solution of the fuelwood shortages.



The third phase of improved cookstove programs,

hereafter called ICPs, began in the mid eighties. In this

phase, the focus of the programs shifted from energy

conservation to a more development oriented concern (Joseph

et al. 1990). For example, the use of improved cookstoves

was seen as a new step in the energy ladder between

traditional biomass stoves and modern fuels and appliances











(Barnes et al. 1994).

Between 1977 and 1985, over 42,900,000 improved

cookstoves were disseminated in developing countries

(Caceres et al. 1989). Despite the numbers of stoves

disseminated, the experience with improved cookstove

promotion has been, for the most part, discouraging. As of

1984, ten to twenty percent of stoves introduced have fallen

into disuse, and twenty to thirty percent are used only

intermittently (Manibog 1984). Manibog (1984) ascribes the

beleaguered success of these programs to technical,

economic, and socio/cultural factors. He describes these

factors as follows:

1. Technical--disagreements on the concepts and

measurements of efficiency; discrepancy between field

and lab performance; superior performance of well-

tended fires; declining stove performance due to stove

deterioration; complexity of design; and unavailability

of materials

2. Economic--direct relationship between stoves with

excellent fuel performance and high cost; stove

benefits not perceived where fuelwood is noncommercial;

and the unclear role of subsidies

3. Socio/cultural--strong competition from open fire;

unknown determinants of user acceptance; and improper











stove use

Other explanations offered for the failure of ICPs are

that the programs emphasize fuel economy, while villagers

are more interested in stoves that allow speedy cooking and

are more versatile, and that villagers' priorities may be

different from stove promoters (Gill 1987). For example, a

study in India examined the reactions of village women to an

improved stove that had been provided by extension workers.

While the women said that they liked the improved stove,

they were not willing to pay 20 rupees for it. On the other

hand, the women were willing to pay for a spinning device

which also cost 20 rupees, as it enabled them to increase

their income (Caceres et al. 1989). In this instance the

perceived needs on the part of the extension workers

(reduced firewood consumption) were not the same as the

perceived needs of the women (economic gain), thus the stove

was not adopted.

Although evaluations of ICPs have determined many of

them to be failures, there are a number of very successful

programs. An increasing number of stove promotion groups--

seen as moving from being "tinkerers" to "thinkers"--now

recognize and are in a better position to deal with

technical, economic, and social constraints and the errors

in program formation and implementation (Manibog 1984).











Many factors justify the continued support for ICP's,

including significant technological advances, more positive

responses from users, recognition of past mistakes, and the

greater availability and exchange of information (Foley et

al. 1984). Furthermore, in areas of heavy deforestation

where fuelwood is in short supply, the use of more efficient

stoves is usually more economically viable than planting new

trees (Barnes et al. 1994). While environmental problems

such as deforestation and increased energy consumption have

complex solutions involving many factors, improved

cookstoves can make a definitive contribution to these

solutions and at the same time improve the daily living

conditions of their users.



Stove Types

Stewart(1992) classified stoves from around the world

into four different categories: chimney stoves; multi-pot

chimneyless stoves; single-pot chimneyless stoves; and

charcoal stoves.

Chimney stoves. The basic design of this stove has a

firebox with a door or opening at one side. The first

pothole is directly over the firebox. After heating the

first pothole, heat and smoke pass from the firebox through

a tunnel and under the remaining potholes, leaving through a









15

chimney. The use of more than two potholes does not reduce

fuel consumption, as the third pothole increases resistance

to the flow of gases, thus heat is lost in the stove. Third

potholes are generally only useful for warming food or

water, and if not covered when the stove is in use can

increase fuel consumption. Stoves in this category include

the Magan Chula, Nepali Insert stove, UNICEF New Nepali

stove, Nada Chula, Thai moulded stove, Pogbi stove,

Community stove (the only single-pot chimney stove) and the

Lorena stove.

Multi-pot chimneyless stoves. The design of this stove

usually resembles the traditional stove in the area, thus

there is a wide range of stoves which can be classified as

multi-pot chimneyless stoves. The improvement over

traditional stoves is primarily due to an enclosed firebox,

a tight fitting pot and a baffle under the second pothole

that is partially shielded. Exhaust gaps are either

adjacent to one of the potholes or at the back of the

firebox. These stoves are usually cheaper to construct than

chimney stoves, and in the field' their performance is not

likely to be notably worse than laboratory performances due

to the lack of problems linked to installation and

maintenance of a chimney. Stoves in this category include

the Tungku Sae, Tungku Lowon, Sri Lankan pottery liner and

the Teri stove.











Single-pot chimneyless stoves. Design guidelines for

these stoves are dependent on the method by which the cook

expects to operate the stove and thus are highly variable.

The firebox is enclosed by metal, pottery or a mud mix, with

a door or opening at the base of the firebox. The single

pothole is directly above the firebox, and an exhaust gap is

usually adjacent to the pothole. These stoves are a direct

progression of the three stone, and have the highest

constant field performance. Stoves in this category include

the Noflie stove, Louga stove, Alor Island stove, Gambian

ceramic woodstove, Kuni Mbili and Waste-burning stove from

Kenya.

Charcoal stoves. Charcoal stoves are generally more

efficient than traditional wood stoves, although there is

usually no net savings of fuel since 60 to 80% of the

potential energy is lost when converting wood to charcoal.

Advantages of using charcoal include a lower fuel transport

cost, smokeless fires and convenience. Similar to the

single-pot chimneyless stoves, charcoal stoves have one

pothole directly over the firebox and no chimney. Generally

these stoves are constructed from pottery, cement or metal.

Many stoves have a ceramic or clay liner inside the body of

the stove for insulation and reducing heat loss, making the

stove considerably more expensive than traditional stoves.

Research on charcoal stoves has shown that the most











important factors affecting stove performance are wall

material, liner material and the area of the exhaust gap.

Stoves in this category include the Thai Bucket stove,

Dodoma stove, Timco stove, Kenyan ceramic jiko,

Cement/vermiculite lined stove from Kenya and the Rajamundry

cast iron stove.



Improved Cookstove Monitoring

The complex process of improved cookstove development

and dissemination requires careful planning, monitoring and

evaluation. However, many improved cookstove programs lack

the resources, time and personnel to monitor and/or evaluate

their programs after implementation. As a result,

information concerning stove use, stove performance, fuel

savings and perceived benefits and disadvantages of both the

new and traditional stoves is not collected. This

information is often crucial to the success of current and

future improved cookstove programs.

A wide variety of methods for monitoring stove programs

exist, yet they are often time consuming and difficult to

conduct under field conditions. Monitoring methods can be

classified in two general categories: surveys and technical

tests. Some methods will contain aspects of both

categories.

Surveys











important factors affecting stove performance are wall

material, liner material and the area of the exhaust gap.

Stoves in this category include the Thai Bucket stove,

Dodoma stove, Timco stove, Kenyan ceramic jiko,

Cement/vermiculite lined stove from Kenya and the Rajamundry

cast iron stove.



Improved Cookstove Monitoring

The complex process of improved cookstove development

and dissemination requires careful planning, monitoring and

evaluation. However, many improved cookstove programs lack

the resources, time and personnel to monitor and/or evaluate

their programs after implementation. As a result,

information concerning stove use, stove performance, fuel

savings and perceived benefits and disadvantages of both the

new and traditional stoves is not collected. This

information is often crucial to the success of current and

future improved cookstove programs.

A wide variety of methods for monitoring stove programs

exist, yet they are often time consuming and difficult to

conduct under field conditions. Monitoring methods can be

classified in two general categories: surveys and technical

tests. Some methods will contain aspects of both

categories.

Surveys











A simple technique used to monitor an improved

cookstove programs is surveying both the users and non-users

of a new stove. Surveying can be conducted in numerous

manners, including formal/informal interviews, group

discussions and written questionnaires (if literacy rates

permit). They can be used to collect information on stove

use, stove condition, stove maintenance, stove performance,

perceived benefits and disadvantages of the new and

traditional stoves, perceived fuel savings and numerous

other topics. As there is no standard format for conducting

surveys of improved cookstove programs, the implementing

organization must decide which information is most important

and how it will be collected. Most often more than one

survey method is required.

Technical Tests

Technical tests are generally more complex than surveys

and require skilled conductors for accurate results.

Technical tests are classified in three categories: field

tests, controlled cooking tests and water boiling tests

(Stewart 1992). Following are brief descriptions of each

category. Detailed descriptions of specific test procedures

are contained in Chapter 4.

Water boiling tests. Water boiling tests are usually

conducted at the stove development stage of a program. They

can be used for stove assessment and optimization, but are









19

better suited to compare the differences between new stoves

and the traditional stove. Water Boiling Tests can also be

used to determine the percentage of heat utilized, or

Thermal Efficiency of a stove. When Controlled Cooking

Tests and Field Tests cannot be undertaken, Water Boiling

Tests can be used to approximate fuel savings between two

stoves.

Controlled cooking tests. Controlled cooking tests are

used as an intermediate step between water boiling tests and

field tests. These tests determine the amount of fuel

needed to cook a typical meal, and results are referred to

as Specific Fuel Consumption. Controlled cooking tests

compare the fuel consumed and the cooking time of a specific

meal on different stoves.

Field tests. Field tests are used to compare fuel

consumption between two stove types under field conditions.

They require considerably greater resources than Water

Boiling and Controlled Cooking Tests and are not attempted

in many improved cookstove programs because they are

difficult to conduct. However, they can provide detailed

information on fuel consumption and stove performance in the

field (Stewart et al. 1992).


Past Results of Improved Cookstove Monitoring









20

Monitoring stove programs with both technical tests and

surveys allows for program modifications to meet both the

objectives of the program and the needs of the stove users.

Technical testing of stoves under field conditions is an

important component of an improved cookstove program as it

can provide detailed information concerning stove use and

stove performance. Technical tests in the field also

quantify differences in fuelwood consumption between two

stove types under realistic conditions, which may assist the

implementing organization in determining any alterations in

stove construction. Unfortunately, monitoring activities of

improved cookstove programs have produced few technical

tests results. This is particularly true for field tests,

perhaps due to the difficulty in collecting the necessary

data. Stewart (1992) and Karekezi and Walubengo (1991) have

cited fuel savings of up to 40% for improved stoves under

laboratory conditions; however, few published reports of

field tests exist.

Unlike technical tests, monitoring through the use of

surveys has been frequently conducted, and has revealed

useful information concerning stove adoption, perceived

benefits of improved and traditional stoves and successful

dissemination strategies employed by stove programs. Results

from monitoring activities of several improved cookstove

programs are described below.













The Nada Chula Program in India

The Nada Chula Program began in 1980 in Nada village,

India. The initial stove design--a modification of the

traditional chula with an attached chimney--was developed by

the Indian government in collaboration with a woman from

Nada, and was further refined in close cooperation with

village women. When demand for the improved chula

increased, non-governmental organizations began training

groups of local women to build the improved chulas, and the

women became known as "chula mistris" (stove builders). By

the mid eighties four more non-governmental organizations

became involved in improved chula dissemination and

continued to train local women in stove construction. The

Nada Chula Program eventually disseminated over 3,000

improved cookstoves in four regions of India. In 1985 an

evaluation was conducted and it was determined that nearly

45% of the improved chulas disseminated by the four non-

governmental organizations were still in use (Joseph et al.

1990). This is considered a fairly high success rate for an

ICP.

The evaluation also determined reasons for stove

adoption and benefits of the stove. Reasons given by

respondents for stove adoption included smoke removal (65%);









22

fuel savings (46%); time savings (14%); and personal comfort

(13%). After using the stove, perceived benefits included

smoke removal (73%); fuel savings (21%); time savings (24%);

and personal comfort(29%) (Joseph et al. 1990).

The ASTRA Program in India

In the early 1980's researchers at the Indian Institute

of Science's Center for the Application of Science and

Technology to Rural Areas (ASTRA) developed a two and three

pan sand-clay improved stove with a grate and a chimney. In

a pilot project the government disseminated 200 ASTRA stoves

to three villages in the state of Karnataka. Village

responses were extremely favorable, and the state government

of Karnataka began an elaborate dissemination program in

1983. To organize the dissemination program, the Karnataka

State Council for Science and Technology developed a stove

training program in which local artisans were trained to

build the ASTRA stove in a 12 day workshop. The Department

of Rural Development then launched a publicity campaign via

village meetings, and trained stove artisans built stoves in

households where one was requested.

In 1988 ASTRA undertook an evaluation of the stove

program and found that 60% of 3,294 ASTRA stoves surveyed

were still in use five years after construction. While the

evaluation showed an extremely high success rate, it also











revealed some problems in dissemination and design. The

inability of the stove to accept and use a wide range of

cooking pot sizes appeared to be a significant operational

problem- one that may have been avoided if developers had

sought more local input initially. Also, it was concluded

that housewives need to be provided with information about

improved stoves before purchasing or receiving a stove, and

user instruction should be heavily provided by the stove

builder.

The Lorena Stove Program in Guatemala

After the 1976 earthquake in Guatemala, ICADA Choqui, a

non-governmental organization, designed a fuel efficient

stove to improve the living conditions in rural areas in

Guatemala. The technology was transferred to other

government and non-governmental organizations, and by 1982

more than 30 institutions were active in the improved

cookstove field (Foley et al. 1984). These institutions

disseminated six models of improved cookstoves, but the

majority of introduced stoves were Lorena stoves a high

mass, typically owner built, sand/clay stove. By 1982 over

7,000 Lorena stoves had been introduced in rural areas in

Guatemala. The implementing organizations generally held a

two to three day training session on materials and methods

of stove construction, and upon completion of the training











participants were capable of building their own cookstove.

One drawback of these early training programs however, was

that many of the participants were men who proved unable to

teach their wives how to use the newly constructed stoves

(Foley and Moss 1983). An extension agent component dealing

with stove instruction was later added to many programs.

In 1985 the first large scale survey of improved

cookstoves in Guatemala, concerned primarily with Lorena

stoves, was carried out. The survey gained insight as to

why non-users rejected the improved stoves. Reasons for

rejection included increased fuelwood consumption; shorter

than projected durability; smoke not eliminated; and

sometimes longer cooking times. Among the users, reasons

for adoption included cleanliness; prevention of disease;

saves fuelwood; prevents accidents; and eliminates smoke.

(Joseph et al. 1994). Because smoke elimination and

increased fuelwood consumption are given as reasons for both

adoption and rejection, inadequate training and lack of

thorough instruction on stove use may be to blame, rather

than stove design problems. The survey also rated different

diffusion methods, and determined that the most efficient

diffusion techniques were village meetings, training

courses, and visiting stove users, respectively. Diffusion

methods that did not work well included mass media, such as









25

radio and newspapers, and posters displaying drawings of the

improved stove.

The Improved Jiko Program in Kenya

The traditional charcoal stove in Kenya, called a jiko,

was first introduced in the early 1900's by the Indian

community. It was made of scrap metal, was not insulated,

and thus lost large amounts of heat. Due to increased

charcoal consumption (expected to increase 6.7% per year

between 1980 and 2000) work on improved jikos began in 1977

at Kenyatta University (Hyman 1987). Work on improved jikos

has been ongoing, and has led to the development of the

ceramic lined jiko with a bell bottom. The improved jikos

are very popular and are being adopted in significant

numbers in and around Nairobi, with production rates at

3,000 to 5,000 per month in 1987 (Hyman 1987). The Kenya

Renewable Energy Development Project (KREDP) has been the

primary supporter of stove dissemination, and has trained

local metal artisans in the production of the metal "shell"

of the stove through mobile training units. The ceramic

liners, for the most part, have been mass produced in

private industry, and the metal "shell" and ceramic liner

were then assembled in larger enterprises and sold to the

public. In some instances ceramic liners were sold

wholesale directly to metal artisans, who then sold the

completed stoves from their workplace.











KREDP confined most of it's marketing and

demonstrations to displays and exhibits. Improved stoves

and traditional stoves were compared in agricultural fairs,

and demonstrations actively involved the audience. It was

found that audience members became frustrated if the

improved stoves were not sold at the demonstrations (Hyman

1987). Very few demonstrations were made at local markets

or institutions, as KREDP feared a demand for the improved

stove that could not be met by production rates if the stove

were too widely publicized. A major thrust for the improved

stove came when the Kenyan army began distributing them to

soldiers, who prepare their own food. Local people observed

soldiers using the new stoves, soldiers informed their

friends and relatives, and demand for the improved jiko

increased (Hyman 1987).

While most households purchase improved jikos for their

energy savings, an improved stove can also be a status

symbol (Hyman 1987). However, the price of a status symbol

is a definite drawback for lower income families, and the

main adopters of the stove are the urban middle class.

It is estimated that the improved stove industry has

captured 10% of the traditional stove market, and that

annual savings in fuel amount to 1.5 million tons of wood

(Reid et al. 1988). Several factors have led to the











success of this program, including the reliance on local

artisans to produce the stove, and the fact that the stove

can pay for itself in one month where fuel (charcoal) is

purchased (Reid et al. 1988). Also, during the development

phase of the late 70s and early 80s there was a fair amount

of local input into the design of the stove, and assurance

was made that the stove could cook the local foods.

The Ban ak Suuf Program in Senegal

In April 1980 several appropriate technology

consultants from the Aprovecho Institute visited Senegal to

begin an ICP using a suitable stove design. Initially the

Guatemalan Lorena stove was introduced, but the large size

of the stove quickly proved unsuitable for Senegal.

However, smaller models of the Lorena stove were developed

using input from local people, and several different models

soon became available, the most popular being the Louga

stove. Coumba Gaye, a prominent local woman who trained

many other women in Louga stove construction, was one of the

first persons involved in stove dissemination programs in

Senegal. Now the majority of Louga stoves are designed,

built, and disseminated by Senegalese women (Foley et al.

1984).

In 1982 members of the Center for Study and Research on

Renewable Energy and the Peace Corps evaluated the Ban ak











Suuf Program and found that about 65% of the 5,000 stoves

built between 1980 and 1982 were still in use (Foley et al.

1984). Again input from local people appears to be a key

element of success, and the use of women as disseminators

perhaps also enhances the adoption rate. It should be noted

that the evaluation of this program occurred only two years

after stoves were disseminated, and the percentage of stoves

still in use is likely to drop after a longer period of

time.

Improved Cookstoves in China

In 1983, the Chinese government undertook a massive

improved cookstove dissemination campaign, and through

intense coordination with county governments and the Bureau

of Environmental Protection and Energy(BEPE), the program

became the most successful ICP to date, disseminating over

129 million stoves in ten years (Smith et al. 1994).

Each year beginning in 1983, BEPE chose 100 pilot

counties whose government would sign an improved stove

implementation contract with BEPE. BEPE agreed to pay each

county U.S. $5,000 in return for a 90% dissemination rate of

improved stoves with 18% efficiency. Counties could choose

their own stove promotional policies, and most dealt mainly

with economic incentives and regulation. The following are

some policies enacted by several counties to ensure improved











stove adoption:

-only those households using improved stoves are

allowed to cut fuelwood in the mountains at

preferential prices

-village leaders will have their yearly bonuses reduced

if they do not participate in improved cookstove

programs

-craftsmen who persist in making traditional stoves

will be fined, and those who take training for improved

cookstove construction will be rewarded

-all new houses must have improved cookstoves to

receive construction permits

(Smith et al. 1994).

Research and development in the mid 80s was aimed

primarily at stove design and matching local conditions of

fuel and cooking needs, thus by the late 80s highly

efficient stoves designed to meet users needs were being

disseminated and adoption increased. Other important issues

that may have contributed to the success of the ICP in China

include the attractiveness of the stove (in many households

it is displayed as a centerpiece in the kitchen); the

increase in fuel prices; and the health benefits associated

with the use of improved stoves (hundreds of papers have

been published in China on the effects of unvented











traditional coal cookstoves) (Smith et al. 1994).

The Smokeless Ghanian Oven

In the early 1960s the Department of Social Welfare and

Community Development of Ghana developed the Smokeless

Ghanian Oven, a modification of the chula stove in India.

The stove was widely publicized by organizations working in

Ghana including the FAO and the Canadian Hunger Foundation,

and the Ghanian government also encouraged installation and

use of the improved stove. Despite these efforts, the stove

was not adopted by the public. As part of a rural energy

survey in 1977, villages where the stove had been installed

were revisited, and it was concluded that all of the stoves

had either never been adopted or had fallen into disuse

shortly after installation. Complaints from women included

the need for larger pieces of wood for the improved stove

than for open fires; the stove was unsuited to local ways of

cooking; the stove required that women stand while cooking

when they preferred to sit; and the potholes were too small

for many pots (Foley and Moss 1983).

Improved Woodstoves in Burundi

In 1983 the FAO made an attempt to disseminate a two

pot fixed mud stove (based on a UNICEF design) into rural

areas surrounding Gitega, the second largest town in

Burundi. The UNICEF/FAO stove was field tested in several











traditional coal cookstoves) (Smith et al. 1994).

The Smokeless Ghanian Oven

In the early 1960s the Department of Social Welfare and

Community Development of Ghana developed the Smokeless

Ghanian Oven, a modification of the chula stove in India.

The stove was widely publicized by organizations working in

Ghana including the FAO and the Canadian Hunger Foundation,

and the Ghanian government also encouraged installation and

use of the improved stove. Despite these efforts, the stove

was not adopted by the public. As part of a rural energy

survey in 1977, villages where the stove had been installed

were revisited, and it was concluded that all of the stoves

had either never been adopted or had fallen into disuse

shortly after installation. Complaints from women included

the need for larger pieces of wood for the improved stove

than for open fires; the stove was unsuited to local ways of

cooking; the stove required that women stand while cooking

when they preferred to sit; and the potholes were too small

for many pots (Foley and Moss 1983).

Improved Woodstoves in Burundi

In 1983 the FAO made an attempt to disseminate a two

pot fixed mud stove (based on a UNICEF design) into rural

areas surrounding Gitega, the second largest town in

Burundi. The UNICEF/FAO stove was field tested in several









31

households, but encountered major difficulties, the biggest

being a very high price that not even urban dwellers could

afford (Karekezi and Walubengo 1991). Very few households

adopted the stove, and the project was quickly terminated.

In 1986 a technical assistance team from China started

work on improved woodstoves, again in Gitega, and produced a

high mass stove costing nearly double what the UNICEF/FAO

stove had cost. No effort was made to review the past

history of improved stoves, and, not surprisingly, this

effort also failed.

The New Nepali Insert Stove

In 1982 UNICEF began disseminating the New Nepali

Insert stove. Nearly 5,000 stoves were distributed

throughout Nepal. After one year approximately 70% of the

users stated that they were using the stove for the

preparation of all their meals, but most used traditional

stoves for preparing livestock feed, liquor and snacks

(Stewart 1992). Similarly, 12,000 New Nepali Chulas were

distributed in and around Kathmandu, and after one year 90%

of the users stated that they prepared most of their meals

on the stove but also cooked on the traditional stove

because it prepared all types of food properly. Ninety

three percent of the New Nepali Chula users thought that the

stove was saving fuel, but the majority felt that the stove

cooked slower than the traditional stove.











Many other countries have embarked on ICPs, including

Upper Volta, Uganda, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nepal,

Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. Some have had more success than

others; however, it is clear that if programs are to succeed

care must be taken to ensure that stoves are based on a

clear recognition of what people themselves want (Foley and

Moss 1983).



Elements of Successful ICPs

A general review of improved cookstove programs

indicates considerable variability in many aspects of the

programs. Therefore, it is useful to analyze case studies

and evaluations of programs to determine elements that may

be correlated with success. To accomplish this a content

analysis on reports of improved cookstove programs was

conducted.

Reports selected for this analysis were located through

the LUIS (Library User Information Systems) database, which

includes published books and reports, proceedings from

workshops and conferences, and foreign and domestic

documents. Four CD-ROM databases were also used to locate

reports. These databases included AGRICOLA (counterpart to

Bibliography of Agriculture); AGRISEARCH (current research

in Agriculture); CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau); and

NISC (Wildlife Review and Fisheries). Keywords used to









33

locate reports in each database included: Stove; Improved

Stove; Improved Cookstove; and Fuel Efficient Stove. The

analysis encompassed all geographic regions. Seven items

contained reports of multiple programs. Four additional

reports were located through the Literature Cited sections

of the available reports. A total of twenty six reports

were located through the search methods. Twenty three of

these reports contained adequate data describing the

program; however, only ten reports indicated the success of

the program. Several of the programs were self-reporting

and thus may not have a completely objective evaluation, as

success was based on both the number of stoves still in use

(50% or greater) and on feedback from stove users. From

these ten reports, seven stated that the program was

successful and three stated that the program was not

successful. Content analysis was performed on twenty six

variables selected based on a literature review of

conservation and development programs and, more

specifically, a review of the improved cookstove literature.

Selected variables represent six categories of program

elements discussed in the majority of the conservation and

development literature and elements of improved cookstove

programs discussed by experts in the field. Reports were

then systematically surveyed to ascertain presence or











absence of each of the twenty six variables and compared

among reported successful and unsuccessful program results.

Table 1 summarizes the presence or absence of variables for

the ten programs indicating their success and the thirteen

programs whose success was not reported.

Statistical analysis was not conducted on the data due

to the small sample size of successful and unsuccessful

programs(10). However, some inferences can be drawn from

the data. These are discussed by category.

Stove Design and Construction

The data indicates that the stove design should include

input from potential users, as at least 70% of the programs

that reported success stated that the local input was sought

before design and dissemination of the stove. Also,

programs with stove construction by trained local artisans

appear to be more successful than construction by women or

voluntary construction by families or individuals desiring a

stove. Programs in which stoves were mass fabricated,

either by trained artisans or industries, also appeared to

have higher success than building stoves upon request only.

At least 43% of the programs that reported success stated

that stoves were constructed with locally available

materials and over 50% of the stoves from successful

programs were similar to the traditional stove of the

region.











Table 1. Elements of Improved Cookstove Programs


Program Elements Successful Unsuccessful Not
___ Reported
Y=yes; N=no; Y N NA Y N NA Y N NA
NA=not available

Stove Construction
and Design

Design includes 5 2 3 1 12
input from
potential stove
users

Local construction 4 3 1 2 7 6
by trained
artisans

Construction by 1 6 1 2 3 10
women

Self-construction 1 6 1 2 4 9

Mass fabrication 5 2 1 2 5 8

Construction with 3 1 3 2 1 6 2 5
locally available
materials

Stove similar to 4 1 2 2 1 6 1 6
traditional stove

Stove Mechanics

M=more; L=less; M L S NA M L S NA M L S NA
S=similar

Stove requires 1 3 3 3 3 1 9
M/L/S maintenance
than traditional
stove

Stove is M/L/S in 2 1 2 2 2 1 7 6
cost to traditional
stove












Program Elements Successful Unsuccessful Not
Reported
Stove offers M/L/S 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 8
variety to
traditional stove

Y N NA Y N NA Y N NA

Stove saves fuel 6 1 2 1 9 4

Stove saves time 2 5 3 8 1 4

Stove eliminates 3 4 1 2 3 5 5
smoke/accidents

Program Planning P C B NA P C B NA P C B NA

P=purchased
C=collected
B=both

Program targets 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 6
region where fuel
is P/C/B
G=government G N MNA G N M NA G N M NA
N=NGO
M=multiple
agencies

Program planning, 2 5 1 2 1 1 10 1
promotion and
dissemination
involves G/N/M

Y N NA Y N NA Y N NA
Program targets 6 1 2 1 8 5
region where fuel
is scarce

Program targets 2 5 3 1 12
region where smoke
causes health
problem

Program has goals 5 2 1 2 7 6
and objectives












Program Elements Successful Unsuccessful Not
Reported


Program has a 6 1 1 2 10 1 2
promotion and
dissemination plan
Program has a 5 2 3 3 1 9
monitoring and
evaluation plan

Program Y N NA Y N NA Y N NA
Implementation
Stove is promoted 5 2 1 2 5 4 4
with help from
existing community
organizations

Stove is pilot 4 3 3 3 1 9
tested

Program Monitoring
and Evaluation

Stove is monitored 4 3 3 1 1 11
by tests/surveys
Program not 4 3 3 1 1 11
monitored

Stove price is 3 3 1 3 2 4 7
subsidized











Stove Mechanics

At least 43% of the successful programs disseminated

stoves that required less maintenance than the traditional

stove. Surprisingly less than half of the successful

programs offered stoves with more variety than the

traditional stove; however, at least 85% of the successful

programs offered stoves which saved fuel. Stoves that saved

time and eliminated or reduced smoke also appeared to

influence success but data is inconclusive as information

concerning both of these variables for the majority of the

programs was not available. Barnes et al. (1994) suggest

other mechanical factors which may be accountable for

program success, including adjustable power outputs of the

stove and stove acceptability of different sizes of wood.

Program Planning

Over 70% of successful programs planned, promoted and

disseminated improved cookstoves with multiple agency

cooperation--the remaining programs were government

sponsored. At least 85% of the successful programs targeted

areas where fuel was scarce. Barnes et al. (1994) suggest

that stove programs target a region where traditional fuel

and/or stoves are purchased or fuel is hard to collect so

that potential stove users feel the need for reducing

fuelwood consumption, and it is not simply a need perceived











Stove Mechanics

At least 43% of the successful programs disseminated

stoves that required less maintenance than the traditional

stove. Surprisingly less than half of the successful

programs offered stoves with more variety than the

traditional stove; however, at least 85% of the successful

programs offered stoves which saved fuel. Stoves that saved

time and eliminated or reduced smoke also appeared to

influence success but data is inconclusive as information

concerning both of these variables for the majority of the

programs was not available. Barnes et al. (1994) suggest

other mechanical factors which may be accountable for

program success, including adjustable power outputs of the

stove and stove acceptability of different sizes of wood.

Program Planning

Over 70% of successful programs planned, promoted and

disseminated improved cookstoves with multiple agency

cooperation--the remaining programs were government

sponsored. At least 85% of the successful programs targeted

areas where fuel was scarce. Barnes et al. (1994) suggest

that stove programs target a region where traditional fuel

and/or stoves are purchased or fuel is hard to collect so

that potential stove users feel the need for reducing

fuelwood consumption, and it is not simply a need perceived











by those outside the community. Less than 30% of those

programs stated that smoke caused health problems in the

area of implementation. Seventy-one percent of successful

programs had clear goals and objectives, 86% had a promotion

and dissemination plan and 71% had a monitoring and

evaluation plan before embarking on the program.

Program Implementation

The majority (71%) of stove programs that were

successful used existing community organizations to

disseminate the stove. Also, 57% of the successful programs

pilot tested the stove before widespread implementation.

Field testing can insure that the improved stove can do the

cooking job, is culturally and personally acceptable, and

provides fuel savings (Baldwin et al. 1985). However, it

is important to accept that there are some situations where

it is simply not feasible to introduce improved stoves due

to cultural constraints. For example, in a Nepalese village

several households use improved stoves while others in the

same village do not, even though families using the improved

stoves proclaim large fuel savings. Two explanations have

been offered for the failure of adoption. First, the users

and non-users are of different religions, and to the non-

user the open fire houses the "family spirit". Second,

religion influences whether the family consumes alcohol,









40
which requires a wide, open fire for brewing (Agarwal 1983).

In this case, the improved stove was not acceptable to some

households for cultural reasons that would be difficult if

not impossible to overcome, thus it was not adopted.

Program Monitoring and Evaluation

The lack of monitoring and evaluation has been cited

frequently throughout the improved cookstove literature, and

experts suggest that the lack of these activities has often

led to program failure. This is supported by the content

analysis, as at least half of the successful programs were

monitored by tests and questionnaires.

Finally, the presence or absence of a subsidy does not

appear to affect the success of the program, as the number

of subsidized and unsubsidized programs that reported

success were equal.



Conclusion

One of the most encouraging aspects of improved stove

promotion is that they do have a unique place in terms of

economic and social development.' ICPs can also provide

environmental benefits such as reduced fuelwood consumption,

though this is somewhat controversial and depends on stove

design, proper usage, and the numbers of stoves adopted in a

community. To determine whether improved stoves are

conserving fuelwood in relation to traditional stoves,









40
which requires a wide, open fire for brewing (Agarwal 1983).

In this case, the improved stove was not acceptable to some

households for cultural reasons that would be difficult if

not impossible to overcome, thus it was not adopted.

Program Monitoring and Evaluation

The lack of monitoring and evaluation has been cited

frequently throughout the improved cookstove literature, and

experts suggest that the lack of these activities has often

led to program failure. This is supported by the content

analysis, as at least half of the successful programs were

monitored by tests and questionnaires.

Finally, the presence or absence of a subsidy does not

appear to affect the success of the program, as the number

of subsidized and unsubsidized programs that reported

success were equal.



Conclusion

One of the most encouraging aspects of improved stove

promotion is that they do have a unique place in terms of

economic and social development.' ICPs can also provide

environmental benefits such as reduced fuelwood consumption,

though this is somewhat controversial and depends on stove

design, proper usage, and the numbers of stoves adopted in a

community. To determine whether improved stoves are

conserving fuelwood in relation to traditional stoves,











monitoring programs must be undertaken after the initial

stove introduction.

Before introducing improved stoves in a particular

area, the potential economic, social, and environmental

benefits of improved stoves must be evaluated, and it must

also be determined whether viable adoption strategies can be

implemented. In many cases potential benefits of improved

stoves are considerable; however, the question of viable

adoption strategies is much more difficult to assess. Many

stove programs have been undertaken in areas where the

population has little interest in improved stoves. In other

cases stoves have been too expensive to adopt, too complex

to operate, or incompatible with the local culture.

However, the overall lesson from past ICP's is that improved

stoves can be successfully implemented in a variety of

settings if they are attuned to local conditions and if

potential users perceive a need for improved stoves.















CHAPTER 3
ATTITUDES TOWARDS IMPROVED COOKSTOVES INTRODUCED IN WESTERN
UGANDA


Introduction

It is crucial for any organization implementing an

improved cookstove program to understand homemakers

attitudes towards both the new and traditional stoves in the

areas) of implementation. Knowledge of peoples attitudes

and perceptions aids the implementing organization in

modifying the stove design to meet the needs of stove users

and non-users. Knowledge of perceptions of the new stove

are also useful when monitoring and evaluating an improved

cookstove program. For example, if the improved stove is

not fuel efficient yet users report a reduction of accidents

and burns while cooking, secondary outcomes of the program

that may have been ignored have been successful. Knowledge

of perceptions may also facilitate other organizations in

the planning stage of an improved cookstove program when

developing marketing and dissemination strategies for their

stove.

People's perceptions of a new stove can be obtained by

using a variety of techniques, the simplest being a survey















CHAPTER 3
ATTITUDES TOWARDS IMPROVED COOKSTOVES INTRODUCED IN WESTERN
UGANDA


Introduction

It is crucial for any organization implementing an

improved cookstove program to understand homemakers

attitudes towards both the new and traditional stoves in the

areas) of implementation. Knowledge of peoples attitudes

and perceptions aids the implementing organization in

modifying the stove design to meet the needs of stove users

and non-users. Knowledge of perceptions of the new stove

are also useful when monitoring and evaluating an improved

cookstove program. For example, if the improved stove is

not fuel efficient yet users report a reduction of accidents

and burns while cooking, secondary outcomes of the program

that may have been ignored have been successful. Knowledge

of perceptions may also facilitate other organizations in

the planning stage of an improved cookstove program when

developing marketing and dissemination strategies for their

stove.

People's perceptions of a new stove can be obtained by

using a variety of techniques, the simplest being a survey











(Jacobson 1994). Surveys of both the stove users and non-

users can be conducted through formal/informal interviews

and written questionnaires (if literacy rates permit).

Through surveys information on stove use, stove condition,

stove maintenance, stove performance, reasons for stove

adoption and non-adoption, perceived benefits and

disadvantages of the new and traditional stoves, perceived

fuel savings and numerous other topics can be collected. As

there is no standard format for conducting surveys of

improved cookstove programs, the implementing organization

must decide which information is most important and how it

will be collected.

Methods

Adoption and Impact Survey

Adoption and Impact Surveys were conducted in each

parish from November 1995 to April 1996. Ugandan parish

extension officers working in collaboration with KSCDP

provided lists of stove users and non-users, and survey

participants were randomly selected from each list. A

sample of 81 users, 84 non-users' and 3 ex-users participated

in the survey. The sample sizes from each parish are given

below.

Parish Users Non-Users Ex-Users
Kiziba 27 30 3
Kahangi 29 29 0
Matayisa/Bundinyama 25 25 0











(Jacobson 1994). Surveys of both the stove users and non-

users can be conducted through formal/informal interviews

and written questionnaires (if literacy rates permit).

Through surveys information on stove use, stove condition,

stove maintenance, stove performance, reasons for stove

adoption and non-adoption, perceived benefits and

disadvantages of the new and traditional stoves, perceived

fuel savings and numerous other topics can be collected. As

there is no standard format for conducting surveys of

improved cookstove programs, the implementing organization

must decide which information is most important and how it

will be collected.

Methods

Adoption and Impact Survey

Adoption and Impact Surveys were conducted in each

parish from November 1995 to April 1996. Ugandan parish

extension officers working in collaboration with KSCDP

provided lists of stove users and non-users, and survey

participants were randomly selected from each list. A

sample of 81 users, 84 non-users' and 3 ex-users participated

in the survey. The sample sizes from each parish are given

below.

Parish Users Non-Users Ex-Users
Kiziba 27 30 3
Kahangi 29 29 0
Matayisa/Bundinyama 25 25 0











The Adoption and Impact Survey was divided into eight

sections, each concerned with ascertaining specific

information on some aspect of the improved cookstove

program. The type of data collected in each section is

described below.

Cooking Practices types of foods commonly cooked in

each parish, types of pans and utensils used when

cooking,cooking frequencies and the number of stoves in

use in the household.

Stove Promotion and Perceptions reasons for stove

adoption and benefits and disadvantages of the

traditional three stone fire and the Lorena stove.

Stove Condition stove maintenance, modifications and

dimensions.

Fuelwood Collection and Consumption fuelwood

collection locations, frequencies and perceptions of

the local fuelwood supply.

Attitudes Towards Conservation opinions of National

Parks,wildlife and resource utilization.

Non-Adoption of the Stove reasons for non-adoption of

the stove.

Non-Use of the Stove After Adoption stove problems

and reasons the Lorena stove is no longer in use.

Baseline Data number and ages of people cooked for in

the household and the main source of income.









45
Survey data were collected through informal interviews

and discussions with household members. Direct observation

was also used to substantiate and supplement interviews and

discussions. Households were visited one or two times per

day for a period of four days. In most instances, the

researcher was accompanied by a field assistant and the

stove promoter, who provided language interpretation.

Visits ranged from approximately fifteen to forty-five

minutes, depending on the number of persons present. Most

visits occurred in the kitchen while women were preparing

dinner or lunch so that cooking practices could be observed.

This also created an informal setting where respondents may

have felt less inhibited during discussions.

The survey target group consisted of women from each

household who were responsible for preparing meals.

However, there were often other family members present,

which generally prompted group discussions revealing

information that may have otherwise been unmentioned.



Study Sites

Kiziba Parish

Kiziba parish is located in the Kabarole district of

western Uganda, at the southern tip of Kibale National Park

(Fig. 2). The climate is tropical with two rainfall peaks

from March to May and September to November (Howard 1991).









45
Survey data were collected through informal interviews

and discussions with household members. Direct observation

was also used to substantiate and supplement interviews and

discussions. Households were visited one or two times per

day for a period of four days. In most instances, the

researcher was accompanied by a field assistant and the

stove promoter, who provided language interpretation.

Visits ranged from approximately fifteen to forty-five

minutes, depending on the number of persons present. Most

visits occurred in the kitchen while women were preparing

dinner or lunch so that cooking practices could be observed.

This also created an informal setting where respondents may

have felt less inhibited during discussions.

The survey target group consisted of women from each

household who were responsible for preparing meals.

However, there were often other family members present,

which generally prompted group discussions revealing

information that may have otherwise been unmentioned.



Study Sites

Kiziba Parish

Kiziba parish is located in the Kabarole district of

western Uganda, at the southern tip of Kibale National Park

(Fig. 2). The climate is tropical with two rainfall peaks

from March to May and September to November (Howard 1991).











Annual precipitation ranges from 1,100-1,600 mm;

temperatures range from 14-27 degrees Celsius (Howard 1991).

The majority of the population in Kiziba belongs to the

Bakiga ethnic group. The Bakiga emigrated to Kiziba in the

1940s and have established agricultural plots for

subsistence farming. Subsistence crops including bananas,

maize, sweet potatoes, beans and groundnuts are grown on

private land. Surplus is sold either at local markets or

larger markets in the neighboring town of Kamwenge.

Rapid Rural Appraisal conducted by KSCDP (1993) found

that fuelwood is collected by women and children but does

not meet the requirements of most households. Woodlots

consisting mainly of Eucalyptus trees have been planted, but

a majority of the lots have been damaged by termites. The

planting has been done primarily by men, as women do not own

land and therefore are not allowed to plant trees.

Frequently cited problems in Kiziba include soil erosion,

termites, prolonged drought, crop damage/raiding by

wildlife, inadequate marketing system for any surplus crops,

road conditions, lack of health services, lack of fuelwood,

graduated tax assessments on woodlots and need of income

generating activities.

Cookstove research in Kiziba was conducted during April

1996. Research was conducted in three villages: Nyabitusi

I; Masaka II; Omwibale.











Kahangi Parish

Kahangi parish is also located in the Kabarole district

of western Uganda, at the northern tip of Kibale National

Park (Fig. 2). The climate is similar to Kiziba. The

majority of the population belongs to the Batooro ethnic

group. The Batooro have traditionally occupied this area of

Uganda.

The primary economic activity is commercial tea

cultivation. Subsistence crops including bananas, maize,

sweet potatoes and beans are cultivated on private land.

Surplus produce is sold at local markets and markets in

surrounding towns.

Rapid Rural Appraisal conducted by KSCDP (1993) found

that frequently cited problems in Kahangi include fuelwood

scarcity, lack of potable water, drought, termites and

other pests, lack of seedlings for planting trees, shortage

of land, crop damage/raiding by wildlife, low soil

fertility, lack of extension services, lack of hybrid crops,

poor markets, low wages, lack of capital to finance income

generating activities and lack of access to forest.

Cookstove research in Kahangi was conducted from late

January to late February 1996. Research was conducted in

six villages: Kyansimbi; Nyabwina; Kiangabukama;

Kyawankada; Kitoma; Bitungu. The majority of the population

in each village are Batooro.










Matayisa Parish

Matayisa parish is located the Bundibuggyo district of

western Uganda, near the southern tip of Semuliki National

Park (Fig. 3). The climate is tropical, with rainfall peaks

from March to May and September to December (Howard 1991).

Average annual rainfall is 1,2500 mm; temperatures range

from 18 to 30 degrees Celsius (Howard 1991). Matayisa is

bordered by the Tokwe and Humya rivers to the north and

east, respectively. The majority of the population belongs

to the Bwamba ethnic group, who have traditionally occupied

this area of Uganda.

The primary economic activities are the commercial

cultivation of coffee and cocoa. Subsistence crops

including maize, rice, soybean and bananas are also

cultivated, with the surplus sold at local markets or the

town market in Bundibuggyo.

Rapid Rural Appraisal conducted by KSCDP (1994) found

that fuelwood is collected illegally from Semuliki National

Park, as well as public land, private land, and woodlots.

Frequently cited problems in Matayisa include lack of

potable water, crop and tree damage from termites and other

pests, lack of seedlings and knowledge for tree planting,

soil erosion, land shortage, landslides, land fragmentation,

lack of grazing land, lack of adequate market, crop

damage/raiding by wildlife and lack of access to the











National Park.

Cookstove research was conducted from early to late

March 1996. Research was conducted in two villages:

Matayisa; Kanyamwerina. The majority of the population in

both villages are Bwamba.

Bundinyama Parish

Bundinyama parish is located in the Bundibuggyo

district of western Uganda, along the southwestern edge of

Semuliki National Park (Fig. 3). Climate is similar to

Matayisa. The Tokwe and Rwigo rivers form the northern and

southern borders, respectively. The majority of the

population belongs to the Bwamba ethnic group, who have

traditionally occupied this area of Uganda.

The primary economic activities are the commercial

cultivation of coffee and cocoa. Subsistence crops

including rice, maize, yams, soybean and bananas are also

cultivated and sold at local markets and in the town market

in Bundibuggyo.

Rapid Rural Appraisal conducted by KSCDP (1994) found

that fuelwood is collected from public and private land.

Many forest pockets exist on private land and scarcity is

not yet a problem. Frequently cited problems include poor

land fertility and lack of land for agriculture and grazing,

soil erosion, crop damage by insects and lack of veterinary

service for livestock. Periodic flooding of the Tokwe river











renders the parish highly inaccessible during the rainy

season.

Research was conducted from early to mid March 1996.

Research was conducted in three villages: Bundibukusu;

Bundiwerume; Buhonda. The majority of the population from

each village were Bwamba.

Bundinyama and Matayisa are contiguous parishes with

similar environmental surroundings and social structure.

Results from these parishes are therefore combined and

analysed as one parish.


Figure 3. Matayisa/Bundinyama


Figure 2. Kiziba/Kahangi











Adoption and Impact Survey Results and Analysis

The following results are based on the combined sample

of 81 users and 84 non-users, unless otherwise stated.

Results of some survey questions may total over 100% if more

than one response was given.

Baseline Information

Eight ethnic groups were represented in the survey

(Table 2).

Table 2. Ethnic Percentages



Kiziba Parish % Users % Non-Users

Bakiga 78 87

Bakamba 11 3

Munyankole 4 3
Buganda 7 3
Batooro 0 3

Kahangi Parish

Batooro 86 100

Bakiga 10 0
Munyarwanda 3 0

Matayisa/Bundinyama Parishes
Bwamba 96 96

Munyoro 4 0

Buganda 4 4


The majority of respondents (98%) in all three parishes

stated that their main source of income was farming. Most











Adoption and Impact Survey Results and Analysis

The following results are based on the combined sample

of 81 users and 84 non-users, unless otherwise stated.

Results of some survey questions may total over 100% if more

than one response was given.

Baseline Information

Eight ethnic groups were represented in the survey

(Table 2).

Table 2. Ethnic Percentages



Kiziba Parish % Users % Non-Users

Bakiga 78 87

Bakamba 11 3

Munyankole 4 3
Buganda 7 3
Batooro 0 3

Kahangi Parish

Batooro 86 100

Bakiga 10 0
Munyarwanda 3 0

Matayisa/Bundinyama Parishes
Bwamba 96 96

Munyoro 4 0

Buganda 4 4


The majority of respondents (98%) in all three parishes

stated that their main source of income was farming. Most











respondents farmed at the subsistence level, selling any

surplus at the local markets. One respondent from Matayisa

stated that their primary source of income was salaried

employment, and two respondents from Kiziba stated that they

earned equally from farming and employment.

Cooking Practices

Average daily cooking frequencies were 2.7 and 2.4

times per day for users and non-users, respectively (F=1.9;

p=0.002). There was no significant difference in the number

of people cooked for between users (7.1) and non-users (5.8)

(F=1.0; p=0.50). Of the 81 stove users, 62% covered any

potholes that were not in use during cooking with a saucepan

of water or a piece of scrap metal. The majority of the 38%

who did not cover unused potholes claimed that they had no

extra pots or other material suitable for covering. An

average of 2.4 potholes were capable of cooking food.

Generally, the third pothole of the Lorena stove cannot cook

food (Stewart 1992), thus this result was not unfavorable.

No respondent suggested that the stove had changed the types

of food prepared.

Approximately half (52%)of respondents stated that the

Lorena stove was the only stove in use. The remaining 48%

were using both the traditional three stone fire and the

Lorena stove for one or more of the following reasons: pans

too large to fit on stove; other family members preferred











cooking on the three stone because of the difficulty in

lighting the fire in the Lorena stove; three stone fire

provides warmth; stove constructed outside and could not be

used in rain/bad weather; stove could not mingle millet and

roast foods properly (improper food preparation); available

fuelwood, especially reeds, did not burn well in the stove;

both the stove and the three stone fire needed to prepare a

large quantity of food for visitors; insubstantial amount of

heat/smoke radiated to ripen or smoke food, mostly bananas,

placed on a rack above stove (Figure 4).

The most frequently cited reason for using both stoves

was pan size. Eighty percent of the users in Kiziba, 63% in

Matayisa/Bundinyama and 23% in Kahangi stated that their

largest pots could not fit on the stove. Large pots were

used regularly in Kiziba and Matayisa/Bundinyama for making

alcohol. In Matayisa/Bundinyama large pots were also needed

for making palm oil.

In Matayisa/Bundinyama 56% of the users stated that

they used the three stone fire to provide warmth at night.

The percentages were much lower for Kiziba (10%) and Kahangi

(15%). Cultural differences may explain the disparity. It

was observed that people socialized outside in

Matayisa/Bundinyama, and while socializing stayed near the

fire to keep warm and perhaps provide light. Social

gatherings in Kahangi and Kiziba tended to occur indoors









54
where keeping warm may not be as difficult. The majority of

stove users (70%) from Kahangi stated that they used the

three stone when preparing extra food for visitors. This

was much lower in Matayisa/Bundinyama (20%) and Kiziba (0%).

Reasons for these differences are not clear, but could

result from the time of year the survey was conducted.

Surveys in Kahangi were conducted in January, when many

social gatherings and weddings typically occur. Surveys in

Kiziba and Matayisa/Bundinyama were conducted in early

December and late March, respectively, when social events

are infrequent. Cultural differences could also contribute

to the disparity among parishes. In Matayisa/Bundinyama

many of the Bwamba live on compounds with their extended

families and may have more than one stove available for

cooking. The Bakiga of Kiziba and the Batooro of Kahangi

generally do not live on large compounds and have only one

stove available, thus when visitors arrive the three stone

must be used in conjunction with the Lorena stove to prepare

adequate amounts of food.

Users stated that the Lorena stove served several

purposes other than cooking. Drying fuelwood (28%) and

ripening or smoking food (20%) were most frequently cited.

Other functions of the stove included providing warmth (9%),

keeping food warm overnight (1%) and generating heat for

mending things (1%). Approximately 50% of the users stated











that the stove was only used for preparing food.

Stove Promotion and Perception

Approximately half of the respondents (51%) were

informed of the stove through the stove promoter in their

parish. Other sources of information included the parish

extension officer (30%), KSCDP workshops (20%), other

community members (5%) and KSCDP drama performances (1%).

Stoves were constructed by promoters (78%) and

extension officers (25%). Three percent were constructed by

both promoters and extensionists. Among the stove users,

77% of their neighbors also had a Lorena stove while only

20% of the non-users neighbors had a stove.

Respondents stated that they adopted the stove for one

or more of the following reasons: three potholes allowed

pots to cook simultaneously; neighbors or stove promoters

encouraged adoption; fuelwood savings; attractive

appearance; reduced smoke; cooks quickly when using pothole

directly above firebox; enhances and promotes the status of

women; requires less tending than the three stone fire;

reduced accidents; cleanliness/ashes contained in firebox

(Figure 5).

The most frequently cited reasons for stove adoption

were fairly similar among all the parishes. Disparities

occur on the responses saving fuelwood, cooks quickly and

accident reduction. In Kiziba, saving fuelwood was cited by















Lorena Stove Users





Prefer to cook on three st

Provide wa

Rai

Improper food preparation

Fuelwood unacceptable

Extra food for vsito

Ripen/smoke ff
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 0.0 70.0 800 90.0 1000
Pcentge of Respondent

-a Matein


Figure 4. Use of Other Stoves




Lorena Stove Users



Three p
Neighbors influe
Saves fue
Appea
Promoters inn
Smoke Reductio
Cooks quic
Promotion of
Less tending
Accident redu
Cleanline
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0
Percentage of Respondents

m -* t M wVm M M.&lMMsen


Figure 5. Reasons for Adoption











19% of the stove users, whereas in Kahangi and

Matayisa/Bundinyama it was cited by 41% and 28% of users,

respectively. This difference could be due to promotional

strategies by the parish extensionist/stove promoter.

Another possible explanation is that saving fuelwood is

a high priority in Kahangi because it is bordered by Kibale

National Park and commercial tea estates, with limited

access to fuelwood. In Kiziba only 4% of the users stated

that quick cooking was a reason for adoption, while 24% in

Kahangi and 36% in Matayisa/Bundinyama cited this as a

reason for adoption. This difference could also be due to

promotional strategies. Seventeen percent of the stove

users in Kahangi cited accident reduction as a reason for

stove adoption. This reason was not cited in Kiziba or

Matayisa/Bundinyama. At the time the survey was conducted

in Kahangi, two people had recently been hospitalized for

severe burns caused by the three stone fire. These

incidents may have influenced users responses. Among the

stove users the most frequently cited reason for adoption

was the three potholes which allowed pots to cook

simultaneously. Previous research did not suggest that this

was a significant adoption factor, however in Kiziba,

Kahangi and Matayisa/Bundinyama it was clearly the most

notable cause for adoption as well as the most frequently

cited stove benefit.









58

The influence of neighbors was also a suggested reason

for adoption, though not frequently cited (Kiziba 30%;

Kahangi 7%; Matayisa/Bundinyama 16%). It is possible that

people are not aware of their neighbors influence in the

adoption process. For example, 77% of the users neighbors

had a stove, while only 20% of non-users had neighbors with

stoves.

Users and non-users stated benefits and disadvantages

of the both stoves. Lorena stove benefits included the

following: three potholes allowing simultaneous cooking;

fuelwood savings; quick cooking; smoke and accident

reduction; cleanliness; less tending; more comfortable while

cooking due to height of stove; attractive appearance;

accepts a variety of fuelwood species; easy to maintain fire

overnight; introduction of new technology (Figures 6-7).

Lorena stove benefits, as perceived by both the users

and non-users, were similar in all parishes. Among the

stove users three potholes, fuelwood savings, quick cooking

and smoke reduction were the most frequently cited stove

benefits in each parish. Disparities among parishes were

minimal with the exception of accident reduction, which was

cited by 66% of the users in Kahangi and less than 30% of

the users in either Kiziba or Matayisa/Bundinyama. The

aforementioned severe burns in Kahangi may be responsible

for this difference. A high percentage of Kahangi



















Lorena Stove Users


Three
Sams
Cooks quic










0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 800 M0.O 1000
Pe,.iw zg of R*spondsds






Figure 6. Lorena Stove Benefits
Smoke red
Accident red

Less tndi











sAppear
Fuetwood acceptable



















0.0 10.0 3 0.0 40.0 50.0 0.0 70.0 80.0 0.0 100.0

PsMtfag of Responda
M K- M-O M-



Figure 6. Lorena Stove Benefits







Non-Users



Three pothol


Cooks qui
Smoke rd-



Less tendi





0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 80.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0
Percertage or Respnwdet


Figure 7. Lorena Stove Benefits











respondents also stated that less tending is a stove

benefit. As accidents/burns often occur while tending the

fire, this may also be a consequence of the accidents that

occurred there.

Among the non-users, the most frequently cited stove

benefits included three potholes, fuelwood savings,

attractive appearance of the stove, quick cooking and smoke

reduction. Quick cooking was cited more frequently in

Matayisa/Bundinyama than in Kiziba or Kahangi. This may be

due to the fact that three stone fires located outside

rather than in a kitchen or the house will be subjected to

more wind and thus slower cooking speeds. In

Matayisa/Bundinyama 68% of the three stone fires were

located outside, while in Kiziba and Kahangi 0% and 3%,

respectively, of the three stone fires were outside.

Accident reduction was cited by a higher percentage of

Kahangi respondents, and again this may be a consequence of

the severe burn cases.

Problems with the Lorena stove included: the inability

to sufficiently heat all potholes; inability to cook with

large pots due to small pothole size; cracks in the stove

from hot food/water spilling over pot; inability to provide

warmth; inability to burn all types of fuelwood,

particularly reeds; chimney does not remove all smoke; high

fuelwood consumption; heat generated on kitchen/house wall









61
attracts ants; cannot mingle millet or roast foods properly

(improper food preparation); stove does not radiate enough

heat to ripen or smoke food placed on a rack above stove;

requires more maintenance than three stone fire; fire is

difficult to light in the morning (Figures 8-9).

Problems with the Lorena stove frequently cited by

users included the inability of the stove to sufficiently

heat all potholes, potholes are too small to fit all pans,

stove does not provide warmth and chimney malfunctions.

Users from Kiziba experienced more difficulty when trying to

heat all potholes than those in Kahangi or

Matayisa/Bundinyama. This could be due to the stove

construction, as the gradient of the slope beneath the

potholes that channels the heat through the stove may vary,

depending on construction. User error such as leaving pots

uncovered when cooking or using pots that do not fit

properly over the pothole could also result in a reduced

heat transfer from the fire to any of the pots.

The inability of the stove to accept large pots was a

problem in Kiziba and Matayisa/Bundinyama, where large pots

are needed for making local alcoholic drinks and palm oil.

These activities are not practiced frequently in Kahangi,

thus pothole size was not as significant here.

The inability of the stove to provide warmth was a

frequently cited problem in Matayisa/Bundinyama. As















Lorena Stove Users


Heating o
Pothole

Chimney malfunc.o.
Improper food pparator

Fuelwood acceptability
High fueWood consumpt

Ripentsmoke foo
Maintenance
Ughting fire
00 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 80.0 70 80.0 0.0 100.0
PerCtag of Respond


Figure 8. Lorena Stove Problems






Non-Users


Improper food prepa
Fulwood acceptbil
High fuelood consum
Ripen/smoke


Lightng f


0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 0.0
PrwmgM of Re0oxndIa


70.0 0.0 90,0 100.0


Figure 9. Lorena Stove Problems











mentioned above, this may be due to the fact that

socializing occurs outside.

Chimney malfunctions were also more frequently cited in

Matayisa/Bundinyama (42%) than in Kiziba (8%) or Kahangi

(12%). This may be due to construction, as the average

width and height of the chimneys in Matayisa/Bundinyama were

smaller than in Kiziba or Kahangi. Further, a low

percentage of users, 11% in Kiziba and 36% in

Matayisa/Bundinyama cleaned the chimney regularly. The

percentage in Kahangi was considerably higher at 69%. Lack

of regularly cleaning the chimney can result in chimney

malfunctions (smoke not eliminated) as well as reduced stove

performance.

Frequently cited stove problems among non-users were

dissimilar to those of the users, primarily because they did

not have first hand experience with the stove. Non-users

frequently cited the inability of the stove to provide

warmth and the small pothole size as stove problems;

however, the majority of non-users in Kiziba and Kahangi

stated that there were no problems with the Lorena stove.

The inability to provide warmth was cited as a problem by

52% of the non-users in Matayisa/Bundinyama, 27% of the non-

users in Kiziba and 10% of the non-users in Kahangi.

Possible explanations for the higher percentage in

Matayisa/Bundinyama have previously been discussed.











Small pothole size was cited as a problem by 10% of

non-users in Kiziba and 52% of non-users in

Matayisa/Bundinyama. As noted above, residents of these

parishes frequently make a local alcoholic drink and palm

oil, both of which require large pots.

Benefits of the three stone fire included: ability to

use any size pan; proper preparation of all foods; providing

warmth; acceptability of all fuelwood types; low fuelwood

consumption; ease of lighting fire; providing sufficient

heat to ripen and smoke food; quick cooking; three stone

fire has been the traditional stove used in the family

(Figures 10-11).

The need to cook with large pots in Matayisa/Bundinyama

and Kiziba has previously been explained. Providing warmth

was more frequently cited by Matayisa/Bundinyama residents

than by residents in Kiziba and Kahangi, and this disparity

has also been discussed previously. Proper food preparation

was cited as a three stone benefit by 16% of the users in

Matayisa/Bundinyama, 7% of users in Kahangi and 67% of users

in Kiziba. The higher percentages in Kiziba and

Matayisa/Bundinyama could be due to the fact that in both

parishes food (maize in Kiziba and bananas in

Matayisa/Bundinyama) were commonly roasted, and respondents

complained that it was difficult to roast food on the stove.

In Kahangi, the survey was conducted during the millet

















Lorena Stove Users



Pan size adaptabilr

Proper food prepat

Provklades a

Fuemood acceptable

Lowfuetwood consumptn*

Lighting f

Ripenmokes oo

Traditionacultural reason
0.0 10.0 20.0 30. 400 0 00 0. o0 70. 0 90.0 100.0
Pwntage of Rfpndeo





Figure 10. Three Stone Benefits







Non-Users



Provides wm

Fuelwd axlcceptablil

Lighting fir

Ripensmokes ra

Traditionaicultural

Cooks qui


0.0 10.0 20.0 0.0 .o0.o 50.0 00.0 mp .o .o ia0
Peagage of Repoxndet


M- M- Uh


Figure 11. Three Stone Benefits













harvesting season, and respondents complained that it was

difficult to prepare millet, which involved crushing millet

with a heavy spoon or pestle while it cooks, on the stove.

Twenty percent of the users in Matayisa/Bundinyama and 62%

of the users in Kahangi stated that the three stone fire had

no benefits.

Among the non-users providing warmth, ability to cook

with any size pots, ripening/smoking food and

traditional/cultural reasons were the most frequently cited

three stone benefits. Provision of warmth was more

important in Matayisa/Bundinyama, and cooking with large

pots was more important in Matayisa/Bundinyama and Kiziba.

Both of these have been explained previously.

Ripening/smoking food was only cited by respondents in

Matayisa/Bundinyama (20%). Racks for placing food, mostly

bananas, above the three stone for ripening/smoking were

observed in all three parishes; however, these were observed

in Matayisa/Bundinyama more often than in Kiziba or Kahangi.

Traditional/cultural benefits were cited by respondents in

all parishes. Most respondents explained that the three

stone fire had been in their family for generations and they

were unwilling to cook on the new stove for this reason.

Another respondent stated that she had recently given birth

to twins and her mother-in-law felt that cooking on the new

stove would endanger the twins health. Twelve percent of









67

the non-users in Matayisa/Bundinyama and 48% of non-users in

Kahangi stated that the three stone fire had no benefits.

Problems with the three stone fire included: high

fuelwood consumption; smoke; cooks one pot at a time;

accidents; ash/dirty; starts fires; stones unstable;

requires constant tending; exposure to intense heat destroys

pans quickly (Figures 12-13).

Users in Kahangi cited high fuelwood consumption and

smoke less frequently than did users in Matayisa/Bundinyama

and Kiziba. This may be due to the fact that the survey in

Kahangi was conducted during the driest part of the year,

thus fuelwood collected at that time was dry. Dry fuelwood

generally produces less smoke and burns more efficiently

than fuelwood that is damp.

Twenty-two percent of the users in Kiziba cited

accidents as a problem with the three stone. This figure

was much higher in Matayisa/Bundinyama (72%) and Kahangi

(66%). The reason for this disparity is unclear; however,

it could be simply that less accidents have occurred in

Kiziba. Thirty six percent of the users in

Matayisa/Bundinyama cited that the stones used in the three

stone fire were unstable. This problem was not cited by

users in Kiziba or Kahangi.

Among the non-users frequently cited problems of the

three stone fire were high fuelwood consumption, smoke, only
















Lorena Stove Users


High fuelwood


One
Accide




Stones unslabl
Constant tendi
Destroys pa
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 400 500 80.0 70.0 0.0 00.0 100.0
Prctage of Respmdts


I( ~ ~ HD~-ldn


Figure 12. Three Stone Problems









Non-Users


I S0ft AI)ft Sif Sif 7flf -n mn


Perretag. of Reopcndug

Ki M Kh-Wn M- aa


Figure 13. Three Stone Problems


Starts f

Stones nt



Destnoyspa


0.0 10.0 20A









69
cooks one pot at a time and accidents. Three percent of the

non-users in Kahangi, 13% in Kiziba and 8% in

Matayisa/Bundinyama stated that the three stone fire had no

problems.

Stove Condition

Stove ages ranged from 3 to 16 months. The average age

of the Lorena stoves was 8.2 months. Their locations

included kitchen (90%), house (5%) and covered outside (3%).

Most users maintained the stoves by smearing the stove with

mud to cover cracks in the stove body (83%); however only

40% cleaned the chimney regularly and 16% stated that they

did not maintain the stove. Stove modifications made by the

user included: cement reinforcement on the stove top;

chimney built on the outside kitchen wall; chimney

positioned between two potholes; no chimney; grate or cover

affixed to one pothole; two potholes instead of three; stove

built on extended platform. However, the majority of stoves

(82%) had no modifications.

The traditional three stone fire typically lasts a

lifetime, and many stones had been in families for more than

one generation. Survey participants had used the same three

stones since they began cooking. Three stone fires were

located in the kitchen (64%), house (14%), covered outside

(11%) and uncovered outside (11%).

Stove condition was assessed using the following











guidelines: Good condition--less than 10 cracks and no

bricks exposed; Fair condition--11-20 cracks and minimal

brick exposure; Poor condition--more than 20 cracks and

substantial brick exposure.

Ninety-seven percent of the stoves in Kahangi parish

were in good condition, whereas only 52% in

Matayisa/Bundinyama and 63% in Kiziba were in good

condition. Previous research has indicated that the number

of cracks is correlated to stove performance. That

correlation does not clearly emerge from this research, as

the difference in Specific Daily Consumption, which is one

measure of stove performance, between users and non-users

was not larger in Kahangi than in Kiziba or

Matayisa/Bundinyama (see Chapter 4).

Average stove measurements (in cm) for each parish are

listed in Table 3. The stove width is the distance, on the

top surface of the stove, from the edge of the stove to the

wall (including potholes). The stove height is the distance

from the base of the stove to the top surface. Height does

not include the platform or the chimney. The firebox height

is the distance from the bottom of the firebox to the first

pothole, where the bottom of the pan makes contact with the

heat. The firebox opening width is the distance from one

edge of the firebox arch to the other. The firebox opening

height is the distance from the stove bottom to the highest











point in the firebox arch. The chimney width is the

distance from one edge of the chimney to the other, taken at

the center of the chimney. The chimney height is the

distance from the chimney base, at contact point with stove,

to the chimney top. The diameter of chimney opening

measures the diameter of the opening under the third

pothole, on the inside wall of the stove.

Table 3. Average Stove Measurements by Parish




Kiziba Kahangi Matayisa/
SBundinyama
Stove width (cm) 60.5 84.6 90.2
Stove height (cm) 29.7 33.3 32.5
Firebox height (cm) 24.9 23.1 25.9
Firebox opening width (cm) 19.3 20.3 15.5
Firebox opening height (cm) 20.1 21.8 18.8
Chimney width (cm) 25.9 28.7 24.9
Chimney height (cm) 29.5 54.1 24.6
Diameter chimney opening (cm) 6.6 7.1 4.6


There is a range of designs for the Lorena stove,

depending on the materials available for construction. As

the stoves in Kiziba, Kahangi and Matayisa/Bundinyama were

constructed from bricks and clay, stove dimensions depended

primarily on the size of the bricks. There was little

variance among the average stove height, firebox height,











firebox opening width, firebox opening height and chimney

width. The differences in stove width and diameter of

chimney opening are most likely due to the stove promoters

construction methods.

Non-Adoption of the Lorena Stove

All of non-users had heard of or seen the Lorena stove.

Sources of information include the stove promoter (39%),

other community members (42%), extension officer (10%),

KSCDP workshop (7%) and Local Council Secretary for Women

(5%). Reasons that non-users do not use the Lorena stove

included: lack of money/bricks; lack of kitchen or

permanent house; stove is not the traditional

stove/adversity to change; stove benefits are not perceived;

stove does not accept all fuelwood types; improper food

preparation; stove does not provide warmth; other family

members prefer to cook on three stone fire and refuse to

construct a stove; stove cannot accommodate all pan sizes

(Figure 14).

The most frequently cited reasons in all parishes for

not adopting the stove were lack of money and/or bricks,

lack of a kitchen or permanent house and

traditional/cultural reasons. Most respondents stated more

than one reason for non-adoption.

A smaller percentage of respondents from Kiziba and

Kahangi stated that they lacked a kitchen or permanent house




















Non-Users



Moneyibrick

Kitchen/permanent ho

Traditional/cultural r

Benefits not perceive

Fuelwood acceptable

Improper food prepare

Doesn't provide wa

Prefer to cook on three stone

Pothole siz
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0
Percentage of Respondents


SKiziba Kahangi MatayisalBundinyama


Figure 14. Reasons for Non-adoption









74
than did respondents in Matayisa/Bundinyama. This may be a

cultural difference, as the Bwamba frequently socialize

outside where the three stone fire is located. A kitchen

may not be as desirable as in Kahangi and Kiziba.

The only respondents to state that fuelwood

acceptability prevented them from constructing a stove were

those from Kiziba. This could be due to the fact that reeds

are sometimes used for cooking and respondents felt that

reeds would not burn well in the stove.

Fuelwood Collection

The majority of stove users (94%) and non-users (99%)

collected rather than purchased fuelwood (Table 4). There

was some difference between users and non-users in the

number of times per week fuelwood was collected, time spent

on each collection and number of persons collecting. Users

collected 2.1 times per week, taking 1.5 hours and 1.5

persons per collection. Non-users collected 2.7 times per

week, taking 1.5 hours and 1.3 persons per collection.

Calculating an index of effort invested in fuelwood

collection, (collection per week X collection time X number

of persons collecting) shows that non-users spend

approximately 10% more energy collecting fuelwood than

users.

The majority of both users (52%) and non-users (61%)

stated that fuelwood collection was easier in the past. Ten











percent of users and 2% of non-users said that collection

was more difficult in the past. Thirty-three percent and

29% of users and non-users, respectively, stated that there

has been no change in their collection pattern. Four

percent of users and 8% of non-users could not respond to

the question as they had recently (within one year) moved to

the area.

Fifty percent of Lorena stove users and 26% of non-

users felt that the future supply of fuelwood would meet

their domestic demands.

A disparity between users and non-users occurred when

discussing future fuelwood supply. Fifty percent of the

users and 26% of non-users felt that the future supply will

meet their domestic demands. This may be due to the fact

that users perceive a fuelwood savings when cooking on the

Lorena stove.











Table 4. Fuelwood Collection




Kiziba Kahangi Matayisa/
Bundinyama

Family Land U 55.6% U 44.8% U 100.0%
N 43.3% N 24.1% N 96.0%
Surrounding/ U 51.9% U 41.4% U 28.0%
Public land N 73.3% N 65.5% N 40.0%
Tea Estate U 0.0% U 58.6% U 0.0%
N 0.0% N 65.5% N 0.0%
National Park U 11.1% U 0.0% U 0.0%
N 20.0% N 0.0% N 0.0%
U = Lorena stove user; N = non-user



Attitudes Towards Conservation in Western Uganda

The majority of all respondents (85% of users and 83%

of non-users) felt that conserving fuelwood is important.

Fuelwood scarcity, saving time and labor savings were the

most frequently cited reasons for fuelwood conservation.

Other reasons included saving money, saving the forest and

enabling pans to last longer (less heat exposure).

Sixty-three percent of the users and 7% of the non-

users in Kiziba stated that fuelwood conservation was

important because it saved time. This may be due to the age

difference between users and non-users. Users tended to be

older women with larger families, while non-users were

younger and had smaller families. Older women with large











families may have more duties and responsibilities than

younger women with small families, and thus are more

concerned with saving time.

All of the users and non-users were aware of Kibale

and/or Semuliki National Parks. Reasons cited for the

preservation/importance of National Parks included: revenue

for the government; local income from tourism; important for

future generations; contain medicinal plants; home for

wildlife; reduces crop raiding/destruction by providing

suitable habitat for animals; brings rain; acts as a

windbreaker (Figures 15-16).

Many respondents felt that the presence of parks

ensures rain. Disparities on this response between users

and non-users and among the three parishes may be the result

of environmental education efforts. For example, only 45%

of the non-users from Kahangi suggested that the presence of

National Parks brings rain, whereas 79% of the users felt

that National Parks ensure rain. It is possible that stove

users may have a stronger conservation ethic and thus may be

more inclined to attend community meetings designed to raise

awareness of National Park benefits. This may also be the

reason that 24% of the non-users in Kahangi and 37% of non-

users in Kiziba stated that they did not know the importance

or benefits of National Parks, whereas all of the users

stated at least one benefit of National Parks.












78


Lorena Stove Users



Rai
Govemment men
Local income from tourism


Medicinal pla

Home for wild
Prevents crop raiding


0.0 10.0 2D.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 W.0 70.0 0.0 00.0 1000
Perentage of Repondets

m- M- MA



Figure 15. Importance of Parks






Non-Users




Iment rven
D fvM tours
re general
,dicinal
mne for wilif
is crop
Windbreaks
Don't
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 400 50.0 60.0 700 0.0 0.0 100.0
Porcetage of Rspondeits


h K Ma driasaaz p


Figure 16. Importance of Parks











Other frequently cited reasons for maintaining parks

were the generation of revenue for the government and local

income from tourists. This finding is similar to results

from Newmark's (1993) study in Tanzania, in which people

living around National Parks cited revenue and foreign

exchange as the most frequent justification for maintaining

protected areas.

In Kahangi and Kiziba, only a small percentage of non-

users implied that National Parks were important because of

income generated from tourists. As both parishes border

Kibale National Park, it is possible that tourist numbers

are not high enough there to financially affect the local

communities. Further, tourists cannot enter the park from

Kiziba or Kahangi and thus find accommodations closer to the

main park entrance in Bigodi parish. Matayisa/Bundinyama

parishes lie between Semuliki National Park and the town of

Bundibuggyo, where the majority of tourists find

accommodations. Thus these parishes may receive more direct

benefits from tourism than Kiziba or Kahangi.

Utilitarian benefits of National Parks were the most

frequently cited by all respondents. This is to be expected

given the difficult living conditions of the area. However,

providing a home for wildlife and the need for future

generations to see wildlife were also cited as non-

utilitarian benefits of National Parks.











The conservation of National Parks/resource

conservation was one of the strategies used for stove

promotion, thus it is possible that those who adopt the

stove do so in part because they possess a stronger

conservation ethic than non-adopters. For example, 80% and

58% of users and non-users, respectively, felt that it is

generally important to have National Parks in Uganda. To

help determine whether stove adopters do indeed have a

stronger conservation ethic than non-adopters, Chi-square

analysis was performed on selected survey responses related

to conservation. Table 5 shows various reasons that users

and non-users felt it is beneficial to have National Parks

and Reserves in Uganda and results of the Chi-square

analysis.

Results of the Chi-square analysis indicate that there

are marginal differences between the proportions of Lorena

stove users and non-users stating that Parks/Reserves

provide local income from tourism (p=0.04), Parks/Reserves

generate revenue for the government (p=0.06) and don't know

the benefits of Parks/Reserves (p=0.07). This may indicate

a stronger conservation ethic held by users, particularly

since users were less inclined to state that they did not

know the benefits of Parks/Reserves. However, it is clear

that the majority of benefits of Parks/Reserves perceived by

both users and non-users are utilitarian.












Table 5. The Benefits of National Parks/Reserves in Uganda




Responses to the Benefits Number Number of Chi-
of National of Users Non- Square
Parks/Reserves in Uganda Stating Users
Response Stating
(N=81) Response
(N=84)
Parks/Reserves act as a 1 3 0.95
shield from wind p=0.33

Parks/Reserves prevent 8 6 0.34
crop raiding by p=0.56
providing space for
wildlife

Parks/Reserves provide a 9 5 1.41
home for all types of p=0.24
wildlife

Parks/Reserves contain 6 6 0.00
medicinal plants p=0.32

Parks/Reserves should be 7 4 0.10
maintained for future p=0.32
generations to enjoy

Parks/Reserves provide 17 8 4.22
local income from p=0.04
tourism

Parks/Reserves generate 29 19 3.47
revenue for the p=0.06
government

Parks/Reserves ensure 44 36 2.17
rain p=0.14

Don't know the 9 18 3.21
benefits of p=0.07
Parks/Reserves
i S




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