A "VILLAGE PROFILE" FOR LIVESTOCK COMPONENT FSR IN JAVA
Edi Basuno and R.J. Petheram
(Institute for Livestock Research, Bogor, Indonesia)
Farming systems research (FSR) starts with the collection of
background information on the region of responsibility of the
program, as a basis for selection of sites for research. These
sites are chosen to represent important agro-ecological land
units (Zandstra et al, 1981), livestock systems (e.g. Thahar and
Petheram, 1983) or socio-economic units.
In Java the most convenient unit to use for FSR sites is usually
the village (or "desa"). Villages have well-defined boundaries,
and are administered by a village head who can provide access to
farms, and also to official village statistics. Although many
villages include more than one land or socio-economic type, it is
generally possible to find villages which are largely
representative of the major units which it is intended to study.
After selection of study villages, the next step is to describe
these sites in terms of key information needed in the FSR
process. To be useful, such a description must enable FSR workers
to identify the main problems in increasing production, and to
suggest new ideas (or technology) for overcoming the constraints
to increasing farmer income (Bernstein et al, 1980).
While the development of methods for acquiring information on
farmers' circumstances is generally seen as a vital part of FSR
(Byerlee and Collinson, 1980; Zandstra, 1981), the means of
presentation of this information is often neglected. If
descriptive data on farming systems are not presented in a clear,
concise way, then they are likely to be ignored, or
misinterpreted by those involved in research and development. The
approach used here to presenting information on FSR sites is that
of the "village profile", a concept taken largely form Bernstein
et al (1980) and modified for ruminant component research.
The aim of a village profile is to communicate, as efficiently as
possible, an agro-economic description of the study area. This
profile must be concise and capable of use by both specialists
and administrators working in the area. An example profile of
Pandansari village in West Java follows.
AN AGRO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF PANDANSARI VILLAGE
WITH A FOCUS ON THE RUMINANT COMPONENT
Outline of the village profile:
1. Reasons for selection of Pandansari for study
2. Main climatic and physical features
3. Map of Pandansari Village
4. Main socio-economic features
5. Main agricultural features cropping
6. Livestock rearing in Pandansari
7. Characteristics of rearers and non-rearers
S. Management and productivity of ruminant enterprises
9. Economic assessment of typical ruminant enterprises
10. Ruminant forage profiles in Pandansari
11. Probable major constraints in ruminant production
A). Animal health constraints
B). Nutritional constraints
C). Management housing, working and breeding
12. Suggested approach to testing ideas on farms
13. Trials needed on research stations
Where possible, each of the topics covered has been summarised to
one page in this profile, usually from a much larger amount of
information. This is intended to simplify the location of
information, for specialists working with the research team.
1. REASONS FOR SELECTION OF PANDANSARI FOR STUDY
The criteria on which Pandansari Village was selected as a site
for study of the ruminant component in farming systems are listed
in order of priority :
1. Close proximity to the Research Institute at Ciawi
to maximise efficiency of use of limited funds
2. Representative of large agroclimatic unit in W.Java
i.e. Med. Altitude/High Rainfall zone (20% of W.Java)
3. Representative of important socio-economic stratum
around Bogor. i.e. rapid urbanisation
4. Representative o-f important land use type
i.e. irrigated ricefield (20% of Java)
5. High density of sheep the ruminant species of
greatest importance in West Java
6. Typical proportions of landowners and landless families
i.e. the average for West Java = 55% landless
2. MAIN CLIMATIC AND PHYSICAL FEATURES
Location and access:
Sub-district : Ciawi
Propinsi : West Java
Desa Pandansari lies on
the main road to Bandung
10 km east of Bogor.
Road access is good to
hamlets I and II, but is
poor to hamlets III and
IV (see Village map p.2).
The Jakarta-Bandung high-
way is being built inside
the eastern boundary.
Altitude: 350 -
km I Pandansari
BOGOR -- -- ,--- To
450 metres above sea level.
Average annual rainfall
rainfall (20 years) = 3770 ma
Long Wet season i.e. 8 months > 200 me
Short Dry season i.e. < 2 months A
Average 500 : +
mm per : + +
month 300 :
J F N A H J J A S 0 N
ography anda Aspegt: Gently sloping, except on stream banks.
Irrigated land is all terraced. The aspect is mainly northerly.
Land areas and Main land use
Total Village Area = 185 hectares
A. fully irrigated (701)
B. semi- irrigated (20%)
C. rainfed land (101)
HOUSEYARDS are well covered
with trees and houses.
road reserves (101 of total)
(40% of total)
Irrigation: A major canal runs through the village, commanding
about 70% of the cultivated area. Other canals are unlined. Above
the main canal, water supply is unreliable in the dry season.
Soils: Mostly deep, red/yellow sandy-clays, with inherently good
drainage (when not puddled for wet rice fields). Bacic to neutral
Podsols of volcanic origin.
4. MAIN SOCIO-ECONOMIC FEATURES
religion: Over 95% of residents are of Islamic faith.
Urbanization: An important feature of Pandansari is the rapid
change associated with proximity to Bogor and Jakarta. Land is
being purchased by outsiders, and people increasingly seek of-farm
employment common trends in numerous Bogor villages.
Total population = 4203
Overall density = 2260 / sq ka
Houseyard density = 6000 / sq ka
No. of families = 800
Ave. family size = 5.8
> 60 yrs.
Males 92.86 Females
Education: There are 2 primary schools in the village. The no. of
Pandansari residents with school experience at various levels are:
. 20 %7.
Qccueatlnas 2of amilvy heads:
Many people have more than one occupation. Generally, family
members engage in any available work which they can fit in with
their farming, livestock rearing or other commitments. Village
occupational structure appears to be changing rapidly. With a
reduction in farm land and farm work and increasing urbanisation,
more people are turning to petty trading, labouring and services,
e.g. security guards.
Wagla: The wage for unskilled labour was from Rupiah 750 to 1000
per day, depending on whether meals were provided.
HsulQa ad veti ~.gs: There were a total of 530 houses, of which
65% were traditional (bamboo, tile, thatch) and 35% were semi-
permanent (brick, tile, tin). A total of 23 bicycles, 15
motorcycles, six cars and one truck were owned in the village.
2QtECrtlio of Land: Mor
landless. Average size of
families was 0.5 hectares. A
is common : owner provides a
receives one fifth of harvest.
e than half the families were
land holding of the other 46% of
land sharing arrangement (ngepak)
11 inputs except labour and tennant
ECag. Cightls: Forage on roadsides, banks and canals is communal.
Crop forage residues are usually available too, after request from
owner. Rice bran is purchased by some poultry rearers from rice
mills in the village at Rp.50 80 per kilogram.
5. MAIN AGRICULTURAL FEATURES CROPPING
Field and perennials crops are considered more profitable than
livestock, but crop residues support important stock enterprises.
CrogSing patterns: There is no standard pattern, although rice is
the main crop grown by most farmers. Other crops become more
important in the dry season and in drier years. Some common
rotations are shown, -or each land-use intensity type :
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1. --RICE- / -- RICE- / RICE- / FULLY
2. --RICE- / ---RICE- / ...SW.POTATO.or.VESS./ LAND
1. RICE-/ --RICE--/ SW.POT.or.MAIZE.or.YAMBEAN/ RICE SEMI-
2. RICE- / mmnmn,, ttmlt1,m cassavaVA, ",,',,,,,/ LAND
3. TRAD.RICE+++++++/ ..SN.POT.or.G.NUTS.../ ++TRAD.RICE
1. RICE- / ..SN.POTATO..or..MAIZE../ RICE- RAIN-FED
2. CASSAVA, -,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,nnm/ t RICE- /
Many variations of these rotations occur. Main factors
influencing choice of crops are profitability and ease of market,
family capital and labour, rainfall and irrigation supply.
Crops in houseyard areas (pekarangan) are important to many
families, including BANANAS, PAPAYA, TARO and perennials such as
CLOVES, NUTMEG, JACKFRUIT, COFFEE, VARIOUS JAMBU, RAMBUTAN,
MANGOSTEEN, HUNI, DUKU and many others fruit and herbs.
In hedgerows around houses and fields, and along canals, are
some useful forage trees such as GLYRICIDIA, LEUCAENA and
CALLIANDRA. Certain trees grown for timber also provide valuable
forage, viz. ALBIZZIA SPP. and MEIOSOPSIS SP.
Offiali agricultural production figures (1983 village records)
RICE 280 tonnes VEGETABLES 30 tonnes
CASSAVA 250 CLOVES 30 "
MAIZE 30 FRUIT 5 "
PEANUTS 15 SWEET POTAT. Not stated
Livestogk and Foragg supplies: No crops are grown specifically
for feed or forage. Yet rearers rely heavily on crop residues
of cassava, sweet potato and legume tops, rice straw and bran.
The total of 96 ruminant livestock units (1 L.U. = 300 kg
liveweight) in Pandansari (60 sheep, 30 buffalo and 6 goat)
were offered an estimated 800 kg of dry forage per year.
6. LIVESTOCK REARING IN PANDANSARI
LiveSt9oc 22B1iatin;0: (1983)
% Families Flock size Density
Population rearing (mode) /sq km
Commercial chickens 18 800
Village chickens 12 700 84 10 9700
Sheep 1 000 30 5 540
Ducks 990 7 3 535
Goats 115 3 4 60
Buffalo 53 2 2 30
Rabbits 290 160
Aiin rCeasons iog kleaina liviesto!: Commercial chickens are
reared by only a few people who have the capital (or collateral
for credit). Buffalo rearing involves high commitments of labour
(and capital) but provides a regular income (ploughing at Rp.1750
/day). Sheep, goats and village poultry are kept mainly as a
part-time activity and a "bank", although some rearers may have
commercial motivation too. Over half of the sheep and goats are
kept on a share-basis (see under 6.). Rabbits are increasing but
not yet economically or nutritionally important in Pandansari.
MAIN REASONS STATED FOR KEEPING LIVESTOCK
Sales Rent Ceremony Security Family Hobby
profit income slaughter (bank) food Pets
Comm. chickens 1 -
Vill. chickens 4 1 2 3 5
Sheep 3 2 1 4
Ducks 3 1 4 2
Goats 3 2 1 4
Buffalo 3 1 4 2 -
Rabbits 2 3 1
Priority is ranked from 1 (highest) to 5, or "-" no relevance.
ICaditionalg hosIn: Livestock housing is all of bamboo, with
thatch or tiles. Except for buffalo, floors are slatted and
usually raised off the ground for cleanliness. Some sheep pens
are at ground level or under the house and rather dirty.
Fed.MLa Craseia: Except for village poultry, which scavenge,
all animals are hand-fed. Ruminants are fed entirely forage,
although some are grazed when forage is scarce. In general, only
commercial chickens receive purchased feed or medicines.
9gCerngmenlat Uivest_ services: Practically no livestock
extension, veterinary or credit services exist, except for
imported chicken rearers. Credit from money lenders is available
but is used mainly for emergency family purposes, e.g. illness,
Traditional remedies are commonly given for animal health
problems. Sick animals are often slaughtered or sold before
before death occurs (as a means of minimising loss).
Mia ting: Livestock are sold locally or through visiting agents
and at markets in Bogor. Commercial eggs and broilers are sold by
contract to outsiders. Rabbit marketing is difficult.
7. CHARACTERISTICS OF REARERS AND NON-REARERS
Pattern of stock ownership: The percentage of households rearing
ruminants (mainly sheep and buffalo) was highest in the two more
rural (or traditional) hamlets. Yet goat density was highest in
the more urban hamlets along the main roads, where many families
were involved in non-agricultural occupations. Village chickens
and ducks were well spread throughout the village.
Land ownership: Over the whole village, similar percentages of
stock rearers and non-rearers owned land, but there were
important differences between hamlets. For instance, the two
more "traditional" hamlets had more land-owning families (50%)
and ruminant ownership (50%), than the more "urban" hamlets (30%
and 15% respectively). In the traditional hamlets 70% of sheep
rearers had land, while in the urban hamlets 90% of sheep rearers
had no land. Over the whole village around 60% of sheep rearers
had land, but 60% of both buffalo and goat rearers were landless.
Commercial chicken rearers all owned land, while 40% of village
poultry rearers were landless.
Stock ownership versus sharing:
Sheep Goat Buffalo
rearers rearers rearers
Share-in most stock 60% 50% 5%
Personally own most stock 40 50 85
Rear for owner on salary 0 0 10
About 60% of sheep, half the goats and 5% of buffalo were not
owned by their rearers but kept on a 50% profit-sharing basis.
Some owners rear both their own and shared-in animals, and
sharers occasionally share out animals too (when family labour is
short). Some animals may be owned by three or more families.
The size of flock kept by sharers was higher than that kept by
owners. e.g. 5.8 versus 3.7 head for sheep sharers and owners
respectively. Land ownership percentage and affluence were
slightly higher amongst owners than share-rearers, except in the
case of goat owners who had lower family monthly expenditure than
Education: Fewer rearers of ruminants (20%) had attended school
than had chicken rearers (43%), or non livestock rearers (57%).
Only 10% of buffalo rearers and 14 % of goat rearers had been to
Non-reaceCs: Two thirds of non-rearing families had once reared
livestock, and only 25% had no interest in rearing again.
Chickens were the animals they most favoured (followed by sheep),
because of the low capital and flexibility of sales. For those
who had never reared, lack of capital (score=43), lack of space
(36) and lack of labour (21) were the most important reasons
S. MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RUMINANTS
Some data on village performance of each species are given below.
Where no data were available from Pandansari estimates were made
from other West Java village data.
BREED OR TYPE NATURE DAILY AGE AT LAMBING OFFSPRING MORTALITY MORTALITY
L.WEIGHT GAIN SALE INTERVAL ILAMBING TO WEANING POST WEAN
SHEEP Javanese thin-
tail (Priangan) 20-45kg 25-60g 12-18@ 9-12 a 1-4(1.5) 301 101
GOATS 1. Bean goat 20-40kg 25-60g 12-18i 9-12 s 1-3(1.5) 35Z 51
2. Etahua 30-70kg 30-70g 15-24a 9-12 @ 1-4(1.5) 40% 51
BUFFALO Smaap 180-500kg 150-500 18-241 18-24@ 1 25% 10%
These data provide only a rough guide to performance. Results of
monitoring will provide better estimates later. The total of 96
livestock units in Pandansari produces about 11 tonnes of
liveweight per year (or 65 kg per hectare / year), from 800
tonnes (D.M.) of forage collected. This represents a conversion
rate of only 1 kg liveweight per 70 kg collected. In addition
though, buffalo provided about 4000 days (x 5 hours) work, amd
265 families gained the security benefits of rearing.
Shate agd ggats: In Pandansari sheep and goat management are
similar. Feed for goats may contain a few tree species that are
not often fed to sheep. Most animals are well housed above-
ground, although some sheep are kept on the ground and even under
houses (where space or security are problems). Feeding is almost
all by hand. Some farmers graze animals when forage for cutting
is in short supply.
Evidence of infusion of blood of the larger Garut strain is seen
in some sheep pens. Most goats are of the small Bean Goat type,
but various degrees of crossing with the larger Etahwa type are
found. Half the rearers have no rams, so must detect oestrus
themselves and borrow rams. Most have never used rams from
outside their hamlet, and pens of "run-down" animals typical of
inbreeding are common.
Selection criteria used at purchase are mainly body size, and
horn size in the case of males. A degree of "negative selection"
probably occurs through the practice of selling-off the fastest
growing males at an early age.
Buf~ALo: Buffalo (70% cows) are kept in pens at ground level.
They are mostly hand-fed in the wet season, but grazed for a
large part of their feeding in dry times. Only forage is fed.
Natural mating occurs, usually during daily washing in canals or
short periods of grazing. Selection at purchase is based mainly
on size and presence of "hair-curls".
Adults are are worked (personally or rented) for about five hours
per day, for 180 to 300 days per year. Ploughing is usually in
pairs but cultivation or levelling is sometimes by single
animals. Some farmers rest cows at the later stages of pregnancy.
performance, lab. ur, c=sts and income i o. ;-ivnL .:,: a- ..a. :vqt.c l s- :
No. A3 sneep per rearer: Feaales 2 1 Farage :iiected/day = 25 :g 4rshn = 7 Kg iry
aias 1 1 Forage :cnsumed//ay = 1 kg frean = .5 kg Iry
Tctal liveweight per pen = 100 kg Lanur/ f-see collection = 1.5 h/day
No. of progeny weanedlyear = 2 (one ,er ewe) Other labour (cleaning) = .5 hi/ay
Average age at sale = 12 months Annual Casts:
Average daily gain = 10 g / day Labour (73 an aays at Rp.500) = Rp. 36 500
Annual income : Maintenance cf pen. and neaic:nes = Rp. 5 000
Shep saies 2Rp.2000) R= .66 000
Hanurs sales (or value; = Rp.14 000 Approximate total annual costs = Rp. 41 500
Approximate gross income = Rp.30 000 Appraximate net annual income 2 Rp. i8 500
A labour cost of only Rp. 500 per day is used because forage is sometimes collected by children, or by
farmers in the course of their nain work, e.g. weeding, or returning from harvesting crops.
The above farmer obtained a return to labour of about p'. 750 per
man day. As a side-line activity, farmers consider this return
justifies the capital and other resources involved. However, the
family divert labour to more paying work when this arises. This
"flexibility" which the small ruminant enterprise provides is
highly valued by some farmers. Sheep sharers obtain only half the
return estimated above.
Goats: The costs and returns from goat rearing are estimated to
be very similar to those shown for sheep. Goats tend to be owned
by less traditional families nearer to main road, who believe
that goats are "cleaner" and easier to feed than sheep (sheep
rearers believe that sheep are cleaner and easiest). Etahwa goats
are much larger than Bean Goats, and consume more feed per head.
Risk of loss from disease is higher in Etahwa because of their
greater value, and farmers tend to give greater care and
attention to Etahwa than to Bean Goats.
Buffalo: Buffalo are kept mainly for renting out for ploughing.
Feeding and care requires far greater daily commitment of labour
(3-5 hours for feeding and washing two animals and 5 hours for
working) than for small ruminant enterprises. Working the fields
is mainly in pairs. The rearer receives Rp.2000 for 5 hours
ploughing (including his labour). Manure is worth about Rp.100
000 per year, and sales (one calf per year from two cows) are
worth abcut Rp. 50 000 per year. Approximate net annual income
;rom two cows is about Rp.330 000. On this basis, return to
farmer's labour is about Rp.2100 per day.
Unlike sheep or goat enterprises, buffalo rearing allows little
time for other work activities. The risk involved in rearing
buffalo is higher than in small ruminants, because of the higher
capital involved, and because incurable diseases are more common.
10. RUMINANT FORAGE PROFILES
E2ogg rC.oiiles for ShlEe and Goats: Sheep and goats receive
very similar forage diets. The profile below shows the
approximate percentages of main "forage types" fed to sheep and
goats, and their crude protein levels in wet and dry seasons :
FORAGE TYPE (a) (b) (c)
Cassava tops 25% 20% 37Z
Grass + weeds
Brass + herbs
- tree + crop
35 14 36
DRY SEASON AVERAGE ANNUAL
(a) (b) (c) Contr Importance
to C.P. Rank
302 201 461 43% 1st
MAIN GENERA / SPECIES
15 14 16 26 2nd Eleusine, Cyperas,
Ageratum, Cammelina spp.
25 10 19 30 8 18 19 3rd Polytrius, Axanopus,
Paspalum, MHiosa putica
10 8 6 15 7 8 7 4th Ipomoea batatas,
25 5 25 10 5 5th Glyricidia, Leucaena,
Glycine, Arachis spp.
5 6 2 5 5 2 2 6th Artocarus, Loranthus sp.
Ave.C.P. = 13i
Ave.C.P. = 10%
(a) = average % composition of diet in that season. (b) = average C. P. of that forage type in that season
(c) = approximate % contribution to total C.P. during that season: i.e. c = a x b / ((a x b)
Goats are sometimes more tree leaves, than sheep usually receive.
FCorae profiles ir Bufjalog: (Symbols explained in table above.)
NET SEASON DRY SEAS
FORAGE TYPE (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c)
Green R.Strau 45% 8% 35% 40% 7% 341
Dry R. Straw 10 5 5 15 4 7
Brass + weeds 25 14 35 10 14 17
Grass + herbs 15 10 15 30 8 30
(roadside, including est. for grazing)
iON ANNUAL AVERAGE
to C.P. Rank
MAIN GENERA / SPECIES
6 5th Oryza sativa
26 2nd Cyperus, Eleusine,
23 3rd Polytrius, Axanopus,
Rice harvest +
Rice harvest +
Cassava + 5 20 10 5 20 12
Ave C.P.= 10% Ave C.P.= 8%
11 4th Hanihot esculentis Dryland fields
The averages above for sheep/goats and buffalo indicate only
approximate levels of nutrition, and data on energy are not
shown. included. Variation between farmers' feed on one day can
be greater than differences between seasons or livestock species.
DQgeltibilitv and Eneray (ME) Value: Forage collected has little
seasonal variation in DM digestibility, but there are variations
between species and months e.g. Cassava leaf 59-71%: Maize leaf
41-53%: Sweet potato tops 50-67%: Polytrius and Axonopus 41-48%.:
Rice-straw 38-50. Dietary Energy (ME) is low, i.e 1,8-2,2 Mcal/kg.
11. PROBABLE MAJOR CONSTRAINTS IN RUMINANT PRODUCTION
Only constraints considered amenable to solution through a
farming systems research approach are dealt with. Many
of these are interrelated (e.g. feeding, health and housing).
The main constraints identified are listed under disciplinary
headings below :
A). ANIMAL HEALTH CONSTRAINTS
Many rearers state that disease is a major risk in rearing : it
is probably a major disincentive to farmers putting more effort
and finance into ruminant enterprises. A large proportion of ex-
rearers of livestock claim that disease was a main reason for
their stopping rearing.
The traditional way of minimising financial loss through animal
sickness is to slaughter and sell or eat the meat. Thus animal
health constraints must be amongst the first tackled, if farmers'
co-operation is sought in farming systems research. Amongst the
many health problems, only a few constitute serious constraints.
These are listed below for each species :
1. Internal parasites (Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus). Treat
with a broad spectrum drug, which also kills tape worm species
which farmers see in the faeces and think are a problem.
Drench (especially young sheep), first 2 treatments 3 weeks
apart, and thereafter 1-2 monthly depending on re-infestation.
2. Cassava leaf poisoning. Prevention by never feeding all
leaves from one plant, feeding fibrous material first and
mixing with other species. Treat with sodium thiosulphate
intravenous injection (drenching less effective).
3. Mortality of young lambs. Handfeeding strategy needed.
4. Abscesses and wounds. Suitable drugs and syringes needed.
Goats: 1. to 4., as listed above for sheep.
5. Mange. Treatment with Asuntol (or Tactic), first 2 treatments
3 days apart, then weekly until cured.
2. High kid mortality. Feed ewes on higher plane of nutrition.
1. Malignant cattaharal fever. No treatment known. Try keeping
buffalo separate from sheep and goats at lambing and kidding.
2. Mange. Wash in Asuntol/oil, twice weekly until cured.
B). NUTRITIONAL CONSTRAINTS
Nutrient deficiencies of forage diets in Pandansari can probably
best be tackled through strategic feeding of certain classes of
stock during critical periods, vis. late pregnancy and early
growth in young stock. The main nutrient problems are :
Forage diets in Pandansari are too low in energy to support
potential growth and reproduction. Possible energy sources
available are :
Cassava roots (fresh, chipped) 6 Rp.400/ kg dry = Rp.35/ Mcal
Onggok (tapioca flour waste) @ Rp. 40/ kg dry = Rp.20/ Mcal
Rice bran @ Rp.80-120/kg = Rp.32-40/Mcal
Higher protein in rice bran gives it advantage over others.
These energy supplements need testing and clear demonstration
under small farm conditions.
Sodium is the only mineral known to be deficient. It may be fed
as sea salt at Rp. 75 per kg. in hanging bamboo salt dispensers.
These need modification to provide more salt (and water) for
sheep and goats. A design for Buffalo salt supply is needed.
Sulphur and other minerals: Sulphur may be deficient in animals
on high Cassava leaf diets. Further investigation needed into
other possible deficiencies in main feeds at certain times of year.
Protein: In general protein levels are high enough to support
higher growth in sheep and goats than occurs at present. In
buffalo especially, the feeding of protein supplement at critical
times could improve performance. Rice bran cost Rp. 50-80 /kg
and has 12-16% crude protein. Poorer quality rice bran (slightly
rancid) could be used than is possible for poultry, but level of
hull must be checked.
Water: Farmers seldom supply water to sheep and goats, other
than that in the forage. In the dry season additional water may
help to increase feed intake and to promote growth.
Feeding management: Ruminants are commonly overfed with forage
of poor average quality digestibilityy). Strategic feeding of
pregnant and young animals may be achieved by separation of
animals in pens for feeding. The highest quality forage (or
supplements) available can then be supplied to certain animals.
An alternative is to offer forage to critical classes of stock
first, and then give the left-over feed to other animals. Dirty
feed troughs may be a factor affecting intake in many ruminant
pens. Cleaning feed troughs can be made much easier by a simple
hinged-front design (see under, housing constraints, below).
ESCAgE imEBovement: Various opportunities for introducing forage
legumes need trial e.g. High yielding Leuceana varieties around
houses ; prolific-seeding legumes on ricefield banks to improve
bank forage and provide better fallow grazing/cutting between
crops; promotion of grain cultivars with high value residues.
C). MANAGEMENT HOUSING, WORKING AND BREEDING
Housing: Sheep and goat pens are generally well designed and
maintained, although great variation exists, and some pens are
very inferior. The main aspects requiring improvement are :
Some pens need raising above ground level on slatted floors
Nearly all feed troughs need modification to ease cleaning
Most pens need more moveable partitions for separating animals
Most pens need easier access to remove and work with stock
Some pens need more open position sunlight and air
Some pens need more space for number of animals kept
Height of pen should allow for good composting process
Simple implements for collecting manure and compost needed
All these improvements can be made relatively cheaply by farmers
using local materials. Some of the best rearers have very
cheaply made pens but with individual animals separated.
Buffalo housing and working Some buffalo pens are poorly
maintained and dirty. Where possible pens should be on slope for
easier drainage, cleaning and manure disposal. Making of proper
manure/compost could greatly increase value of manure. Retention
of urine (using rice straw or hulls) may be valuable, as much
nutrient loss occurs in urine at present.
Ploughing equipment is generally very basic and improved
implements need demonstration in the village. Resting and
special feeding of pregnant females and those with young could
be practiced to improve calving rate.
Mating and breeding Cacatices: Difficulties in farmer detection
of oestrus and lack of farmer knowledge may be causes of
reproductive inefficiency in both large and small ruminants.
Farmer ability to detect aestrus could be tested on farm, and
training in reproductive cycling of ruminants provided if needed.
(Include autopsy of ewe to explain ovulation etc.). Management
should utilise males more frequently for checking oestrus, and
continuous presence of rams where possible.
Early weaning, and extra feeding of ewes and cows could be
practiced to reduce calving/lambing interval. At present rams are
usually best fed as they compete better for feed in trough.
Selective breeding: More attention should be paid to selection
of better males for breeding. At present the fastest-growing
males tend to be sold at an early age, before breeding, while
poorer doers are kept longer to grow out and are often bred from.
In-breeding in many farmer's flocks should be reduced by
borrowing good rams from outside the hamlet.
Selection of females is generally in favour of high reproductive
rate, as poor lambers/calvers are often sold. With better
feeding and parasite control, perhaps there would be natural
selection for higher fecundity too, as more triplets and quads
should survive. Longevity of females is sought after by some
farmers, but many have to sell animals early in times of hardship.
12. SUGGESTED APPROACH TO TESTING IDEAS ON FARMS
Overcoming the major constraints to increasing ruminant
production in Pandansari involves mainly the application of known
technology. This does not reduce the need for involvement of
research scientists. The application of improvements from other
farming systems to small farmers' conditions always requires
farm testing, modification and retrial, until a practical method
acceptable farmers is found. Even the simplest idea such as the
feeding of water requires many months of work in the village.
Farm-testing of new ideas on ruminant husbandry is a slow
process. It means long-term involvement of scientists with
farmers to develop the mutual understanding and confidence
needed. Extension personnel should be involved from the start,
but if this is not possible, then scientists must become directly
involved with farmers.
Because men are so very busy during daylight hours, work with
women rearers or wives of rearers should be actively promoted,
through existing women groups if possible.
One successful approach to gaining farmer co-operation in
livestock trials has been to form "livestock rearer groups". The
performance of member's animals is monitored, and regular
meetings held to discuss important topics, based on major
constraints in the village. Steps in a procedure for forming
farmer groups and running farm-trials are listed below:
1. Obtain permission of village authorities to form groups.
2. Select hamlet based on village agro-economic profile.
3. Seek co-operation of local leader interested in ruminants.
4. Hold meeting to explain and invite farmer participation.
5. Form interest groups : gather framer background information.
6. Number farmers' animals ; start monitoring performance.
7. Provide feedback to farmers on their animal performance.
8. Develop methods of communicating at farmer meetings.
9. Run meetings on major constraint topics, with experts.
10. Invite farmers to try "technology" to overcome constraints.
11. Evaluate success of idea/technology, and farmer reaction.
12. Modify idea (locally or on station) and test again on farms.
13. Demonstrate tried technology to extension agencies.
The initial phase of monitoring traditional management should be
as long as possible (one year minimum). Later, "best-bet" trials
are planned and farmers asked to try various treatments over
time. These are not controlled experiments, but enable trial of
practicalities and farmer opinion of new ideas.
1QfvatevsL i2C ACtiESat!Aion: Farmers are first attracted to
group membership by the idea of knowing the the performance of
their animals. Later, other incentives are needed. These should
not be cash, but in the form of improvements, such as a worm
drench, or salt supplement. Such ideas/technology may become the
subject of trials. It is often necessary to buy farmers' sick
animals or feed samples (for clinical or laboratory examination).
Compensation must be given for animals which die in trials.
13. TRIALS NEEDED ON RESEARCH STATIONS
Most of the known technology suggested for overcoming constraints
to ruminant production in Pandansari requires direct application
and testing on farmers animals or land. Farm trials of those
ideas are likely to generate ideas for technology which need
design and pre-testing on research stations. There are also some
immediate research requirements which may best be tackled on
research stations. Some of these are listed below under species :
Sheeg and goats
Cassava leaf poisoning: Trials needed to test effectiveness of
various preventatives and treatments.
Handfeeding regimes for lambs/kids: Practical village recipes
Water Requirements: Trial needed on water requirement on various
village forage mixtures, at various times of year, and in
relation to the feeding of salt supplements. Effect of giving
extra water on feed intake and performance.
Ability to select for quality from cut forage: Test animals'
ability to select diet of high protein and digestibility from
various types and mixtuires of village forage. This knowledge
could help in design of village rations and feeding practices.
Possibility of feeding green rice straw to small ruminants: Rice
straw is a major underutilized fodder resource in Pandanmsari. At
rice harvest the straw is often green and of medium quality,
which could possibly be fed with supplements to small ruminants.
Chopping, soaking and other simple treatment need investigation.
Detailed study of practical supplementation of major village
feedstuffs to give optimal performance: Forages such as cassava
and sweet potato tops need intensive, but practical study.
Study of fertilizer value of manure/compost practices: This is
needed in conjunction with field study. Methods of retention of
urine in compost (using rice hulls) needs study and evaluation.
Practical and cheap method of inducing oestrus: Because only half
farmers have rams, planned breeding could improve conception rate.
Feeding and management regime for working buffalo: Requires
buffalo working at research station, on village feedstuff.
Disease studies: A priority is the study of Malignant Catarral
Fever, and the production of effective prevention and treatment
measures. Mange (Sarcoptes mite) also needs urgent study.
Supplements for green rice straw diet: Practical supplements for
young stock on main Pandansari buffalo forage i.e. green rice straw
Cheap and effective method of inducing oestrus:
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