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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Proposed academic alliance
 Proposed issues for collaboration...
 Appendix A: University of Florida...
 Appendix B: Itinerary
 Appendix C: Current situation and...
 Appendix D: Workshop with traditional...






Title: Sondeo of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the Guayas River Basin
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056179/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sondeo of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the Guayas River Basin
Physical Description: 38 p. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (Ecuador)
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 2000.
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.
Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (Ecuador)
Conservation of natural resources -- Ecuador -- Santa Elena Peninsula.
Conservation of natural resources -- Ecuador -- Guayas River Watershed.
University cooperation.
Educational assistance, American -- Ecuador.
Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
South America   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America
North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
General Note: "February 7-18, 2000."
General Note: "Working document ESPOL-UF."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056179
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: notis - ocm6986

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Background
            Page 4
        Policy
            Page 5
        Ojective and sondeo
            Page 5
        Methodology
            Page 5
        Description of area
            Page 6
        Natural resources
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Stakeholders
            Page 9
        Workshop with large farmers
            Page 9
        Workshop with traditional producers
            Page 9
    Proposed academic alliance
        Page 10
        ESPOL
            Page 10
        UF
            Page 11
        Possibilities for curriculum development
            Page 12
        Teacher and student exchanges
            Page 12
        Faculty partnerships
            Page 13
        Short course
            Page 13
        Formal course development
            Page 13
        Research
            Page 13
        Proposed issues for collaboration in development
            Page 14
        Library facilities
            Page 14
        ESPOL agricultural schools
            Page 14
    Proposed issues for collaboration in development
        Page 14
        Aquaculture
            Page 14
        Water
            Page 15
            Water capacity
                Page 15
            Water pricing/policy
                Page 15
            Large-small-holder cooperation
                Page 15
            Water delivery systems/programs and training for producers
                Page 16
            Appropriate irrigation technology
                Page 16
        Soil and soil fertility
            Page 17
        Water and soil: Salinization
            Page 17
        Production
            Page 18
        Forest resources
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Marketing and other producer needs
            Page 22
            Marketing
                Page 22
            Credit
                Page 22
            Detailed studies
                Page 23
        Examples of extension programs and projects
            Page 23
        Construction of Albarradas
            Page 23
        Laboratories, diffusion of information and educational programs
            Page 23
        Environmental education programs
            Page 24
        Institutional arrangements
            Page 24
        Santa Elena University
            Page 24
    Appendix A: University of Florida participants (Institute of food and agricultural sciences)
        Page 25
    Appendix B: Itinerary
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Appendix C: Current situation and perspective of the agricultural sector of the Rio Guayas watershed and the Santa Elena peninsula
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Appendix D: Workshop with traditional producers
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text









FIIIiONL MA DELt LUIJIL.
&Myaqw rud





Sondeo of the Santa Elena Peninsula
And the Guayas River Basin



February 7-18, 2000



Working Document
ESPOL-UF




L ..UINIVISY' (W
: ~FLORIDA
Insti o ute S al ant A rErulu ra PI e ninsula








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction 4
Background 4
Policy 5
Objective of Sondeo 5
Methodology 5
Description of Area 6
Natural Resources 7
Stakeholders 9
Workshop with Large Farmers 9
Workshop with Traditional Producers 9
Proposed Academic Alliance 10
ESPOL 10
UF 11
Possibilities for Curriculum Development 12
Teacher and Student Exchanges 12
Faculty Partnerships 13
Short Courses 13
Formal Course Development 13
Research 13
Library Facilities 14
ESPOL Agricultural Schools 14
Proposed Issues for Collaboration in Development 14
Aquaculture 14
Water 15
Water Capacity 15
Water Pricing/Policy 15
Large-Small-holder Cooperation 15
Water Delivery Systems/Programs 16
Appropriate Irrigation Technology 16
Soil and Soil Fertility 17
Water and Soil: Salinization 17
Production 18
Forest Resources 19
Marketing and Other Producer Needs 22
Marketing 22
Credit 22
Detailed Studies 23
Examples of Extension Programs and Projects 23
Construction of Albarradas 23
Laboratories, Diffusion of Information and
Educational Programs 23







Environmental Education Programs 24
Institutional Arrangements 24
Santa Elena University 24
Appendix A 25
Appendix B 26
Appendix C 33
Appendix D 36










INTRODUCTION


Background

In December 1998, the Rector of ESPOL, Victor Bastidas, visited the University of
Florida (UF) campus to explore the possibility of a 'strategic alliance' between the two
universities. ESPOL, established as an engineering and business university, was initiating
degree, research and extension programs in agricultural development and was looking for
a partner to provide needed expertise in agriculture. Because ESPOL was particularly
interested in helping the small farmers of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the greater
Guayas River basin, the Rector initiated talks with Peter Hildebrand, the coordinator of
the Farming Systems Program at UF.

In March 1999, Hildebrand and his PhD graduate student, Elena Bastidas, presented a
one-week introduction to farming systems methodology in a short course for 20
participants from ESPOL as well as other organizations and businesses from the area
around Guayaquil. This course created interest on the part of ESPOL to continue
pursuing the strategic alliance concept and helped convince ESPOL faculty that it was
possible to improve the lives of the small-holders in their area as well as work with the
larger farmers (large farmers) who produce the large majority of the commercial
production in that part of Ecuador.

In May 1999, Richard Beilock (Professor of Food and Resource Economics) and Larry
Connor (former Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of UF), visited
ESPOL to represent UF at the granting of an honorary degree to the President of the
InterAmerican Development Bank and to further explore potential areas of cooperation
between the two universities. Their report to the Vice President for Agriculture and
Natural Sciences, Michael Martin, convinced him that UF should proceed with signing a
cooperative agreement. Following this trip, Beilock, Dorota Haman (Professor of
Agricultural and Biological Engineering) and Ramon Espinel of ESPOL began working
on a proposal on development of the Santa Elena Peninsula to be presented to PROMSA
with a companion proposal to the CFN.

The Cooperative Agreement between the two universities was signed in Guayaquil in
September 1999, during a visit to the campus by Hildebrand and John Gordon, Chair of
Food and Resource Economics at UF. At the same time, during a meeting with various
large farmers and others, it was agreed that a 'Sondeo' with UF and ESPOL professors
should be conducted in early February and arrangements began at that time. On February
6 and 7 eight UF faculty and a facilitator (see Appendix A) arrived in Guayaquil.










INTRODUCTION


Background

In December 1998, the Rector of ESPOL, Victor Bastidas, visited the University of
Florida (UF) campus to explore the possibility of a 'strategic alliance' between the two
universities. ESPOL, established as an engineering and business university, was initiating
degree, research and extension programs in agricultural development and was looking for
a partner to provide needed expertise in agriculture. Because ESPOL was particularly
interested in helping the small farmers of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the greater
Guayas River basin, the Rector initiated talks with Peter Hildebrand, the coordinator of
the Farming Systems Program at UF.

In March 1999, Hildebrand and his PhD graduate student, Elena Bastidas, presented a
one-week introduction to farming systems methodology in a short course for 20
participants from ESPOL as well as other organizations and businesses from the area
around Guayaquil. This course created interest on the part of ESPOL to continue
pursuing the strategic alliance concept and helped convince ESPOL faculty that it was
possible to improve the lives of the small-holders in their area as well as work with the
larger farmers (large farmers) who produce the large majority of the commercial
production in that part of Ecuador.

In May 1999, Richard Beilock (Professor of Food and Resource Economics) and Larry
Connor (former Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of UF), visited
ESPOL to represent UF at the granting of an honorary degree to the President of the
InterAmerican Development Bank and to further explore potential areas of cooperation
between the two universities. Their report to the Vice President for Agriculture and
Natural Sciences, Michael Martin, convinced him that UF should proceed with signing a
cooperative agreement. Following this trip, Beilock, Dorota Haman (Professor of
Agricultural and Biological Engineering) and Ramon Espinel of ESPOL began working
on a proposal on development of the Santa Elena Peninsula to be presented to PROMSA
with a companion proposal to the CFN.

The Cooperative Agreement between the two universities was signed in Guayaquil in
September 1999, during a visit to the campus by Hildebrand and John Gordon, Chair of
Food and Resource Economics at UF. At the same time, during a meeting with various
large farmers and others, it was agreed that a 'Sondeo' with UF and ESPOL professors
should be conducted in early February and arrangements began at that time. On February
6 and 7 eight UF faculty and a facilitator (see Appendix A) arrived in Guayaquil.









Policy


Based on the stated policy of ESPOL, and on what we heard from many people during
our trip, we base our observations, comments and suggestions on our understanding of
the desire of the country to repopulate the Peninsula, to create sustainable agriculture and
an environment in which small-holders can earn an adequate livelihood and have some
confidence in the future. Although large farmers will also be included in the development
activities, there is a much greater challenge in creating and delivering technology to the
small farmers in the Peninsula and the Guayas Basin who have limited access to capital,
water and technology. The University of Florida, with ESPOL, will meet the challenge of
working with both kinds of farmers. In order for the country to achieve the goal of
repopulating the Peninsula and of providing the small-holders an adequate livelihood,
many sectors will have to work together for a sustained period of time and with a stable
vision of what the future should look like. Those of us who participated in this Sondeo
share a confidence that the Peninsula can become a productive, repopulated and important
part of the country, and we are anxious to participate in this endeavor with ESPOL,
CEDEGE (Comision de Estudios para el Desarrollo de la Cuenca del Rio Guayas) and the
other entities involved.

Objective of the Sondeo

The purpose of the SONDEO is to collect information and the expectations of the
productive sectors, government, universities and other experts regarding the development
of agricultural activities in the Guayas Basin and the Santa Elena Peninsula.

Methodology

The methodology followed to reach the proposed objective included the following
activities:

Meeting with specific groups including:

a) Producers of banana, cacao, rice, vegetables, cattle, etc.,
academics, and other agricultural experts.

b) Government officials, representatives of the Minister of
Agriculture and CEDEGE.

Fieldtrips to gain knowledge of the present conditions as well as to meet with
small and medium producers









Policy


Based on the stated policy of ESPOL, and on what we heard from many people during
our trip, we base our observations, comments and suggestions on our understanding of
the desire of the country to repopulate the Peninsula, to create sustainable agriculture and
an environment in which small-holders can earn an adequate livelihood and have some
confidence in the future. Although large farmers will also be included in the development
activities, there is a much greater challenge in creating and delivering technology to the
small farmers in the Peninsula and the Guayas Basin who have limited access to capital,
water and technology. The University of Florida, with ESPOL, will meet the challenge of
working with both kinds of farmers. In order for the country to achieve the goal of
repopulating the Peninsula and of providing the small-holders an adequate livelihood,
many sectors will have to work together for a sustained period of time and with a stable
vision of what the future should look like. Those of us who participated in this Sondeo
share a confidence that the Peninsula can become a productive, repopulated and important
part of the country, and we are anxious to participate in this endeavor with ESPOL,
CEDEGE (Comision de Estudios para el Desarrollo de la Cuenca del Rio Guayas) and the
other entities involved.

Objective of the Sondeo

The purpose of the SONDEO is to collect information and the expectations of the
productive sectors, government, universities and other experts regarding the development
of agricultural activities in the Guayas Basin and the Santa Elena Peninsula.

Methodology

The methodology followed to reach the proposed objective included the following
activities:

Meeting with specific groups including:

a) Producers of banana, cacao, rice, vegetables, cattle, etc.,
academics, and other agricultural experts.

b) Government officials, representatives of the Minister of
Agriculture and CEDEGE.

Fieldtrips to gain knowledge of the present conditions as well as to meet with
small and medium producers









Policy


Based on the stated policy of ESPOL, and on what we heard from many people during
our trip, we base our observations, comments and suggestions on our understanding of
the desire of the country to repopulate the Peninsula, to create sustainable agriculture and
an environment in which small-holders can earn an adequate livelihood and have some
confidence in the future. Although large farmers will also be included in the development
activities, there is a much greater challenge in creating and delivering technology to the
small farmers in the Peninsula and the Guayas Basin who have limited access to capital,
water and technology. The University of Florida, with ESPOL, will meet the challenge of
working with both kinds of farmers. In order for the country to achieve the goal of
repopulating the Peninsula and of providing the small-holders an adequate livelihood,
many sectors will have to work together for a sustained period of time and with a stable
vision of what the future should look like. Those of us who participated in this Sondeo
share a confidence that the Peninsula can become a productive, repopulated and important
part of the country, and we are anxious to participate in this endeavor with ESPOL,
CEDEGE (Comision de Estudios para el Desarrollo de la Cuenca del Rio Guayas) and the
other entities involved.

Objective of the Sondeo

The purpose of the SONDEO is to collect information and the expectations of the
productive sectors, government, universities and other experts regarding the development
of agricultural activities in the Guayas Basin and the Santa Elena Peninsula.

Methodology

The methodology followed to reach the proposed objective included the following
activities:

Meeting with specific groups including:

a) Producers of banana, cacao, rice, vegetables, cattle, etc.,
academics, and other agricultural experts.

b) Government officials, representatives of the Minister of
Agriculture and CEDEGE.

Fieldtrips to gain knowledge of the present conditions as well as to meet with
small and medium producers








Workshops with:


a) large farmers, government representatives

b) traditional producers /small farmers,

c) professors and ESPOL administrators


One of the results of the Sondeo is this working document, which presents the
information collected during the Sondeo, ideas for proposals and possibilities
for collaboration between both universities, as well as, for general agricultural
development.

Description of the area

The Guayas River Basin is the most important hydrographic region on the Pacific slope of
South America. It includes the Daule, Vinces and Babahoyo Rivers, all of which meet
north of Guayaquil. The Guayas discharges an annual average of 30 trillion cubic meters
of water into the Pacific. The basin contains 35,000 km2. The Santa Elena Peninsula
contains 6,000 km2. The two together represent approximately 15% of the area of
Ecuador and 40% of the population. The area includes all of two provinces (Los Rios,
Bolivar) and parts of seven others (Guayas, Manabi, Pichincha, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua,
Chimborazo and Cafiar).

CEDEGE (similar to a combination of the TVA and Corps of Engineers in the U.S.) is the
principal organization for development in the region. It was created in 1965 to plan,
study and design projects for social and economic development of the Guayas River
Basin. In 1970 development of the Santa Elena Peninsula was added to its jurisdiction.
CEDEGE has constructed a number ofirrigation, flood control and drainage works in the
area. In the Santa Elena Peninsula there is a potential to irrigate 42,000 ha which could
produce perennial and annual fruit, cacao, plantains, etc. Another 50,000 ha for rice are
under irrigation in the Daule area. There are other works as well.

During its visit to the Santa Elena Peninsula the University ofFlorida/IFAS team observed
that a series of actual and potential problems exist:

* Large landowners bought much of the land along the secondary and water delivery
canals, making access to irrigation water by small landowners and communes more
costly. Further, the land tenure situation is very confused and often there are two or
more claimants to the same piece of land.

* At the present time, only a fraction of water available in the main delivery canals is
used for irrigation. Of 20,000 ha that can be irrigated, only approximately 7,000 ha








have been planted. For various reasons many landowners have decided to leave their
land fallow. However, if and when all the land adjacent to the canals becomes
irrigated, strong competition for water can be expected between agricultural and
urban sectors.

* Soil salinity, because of poor management of water and soil resources, is already a
problem in some cases and will become a greater problem unless proper management,
including crop selection, is instituted immediately.

* There is a shortage of potable water in the area. This shortage is especially evident in
poor, small communities. A water treatment plant is being built to treat canal water
and provide drinking water to the larger cities in the Santa Elena area. Small
communities are still relying on water delivering trucks.

* Credit is effectively unavailable to communes, small landowners and other small
business entities.

* The cost of agricultural supplies and current irrigation technology is prohibitive for
most of the small producers. Alternative technology should be introduced.

* ESPOL and CEDEGE need assistance in designing and implementing agricultural and
rural development programs.

* Small agricultural producers and, to a limited extent, the institutions that seek to assist
them need assistance.

* ESPOL needs to widen its involvement with the NGOs on the Peninsula that work
with residents, particularly non-farmers, who seek economic diversification.


Natural Resources

Land and water resources are at the core of the agricultural and economic development
prospects for the Santa Elena Peninsula. Agriculture in the area lying west ofProgreso is
almost completely dependent on the availability of water for irrigation. Most small-
holders (small farmers) no longer retain the land commanded by the existing CEDEGE
canals. While they maintain the right to water, no canals have been built to get this water
to their land. Developing such systems would be prohibitively expensive for small-holders
and small farmers.

In the absence of a means to build secondary and tertiary canals to the lands of the small
farmers (comuneros), other alternatives for crop irrigation must be found, if they are to








grow crops. In cases where topography allows, gravity pipe water delivery from the main
canals should be considered as a lower cost alternative of water delivery.
Traditionally, small earthen dams (albarradas) were used in this area to store the runoff
and prolong the growing season. This technology would allow for production of one
good crop per year extending the growing season through collection of rainwater. The
effectiveness and cost of these dams should be investigated. Other methods of rain
harvesting should be evaluated.

In the belt between Progreso and Cerecita, canal water seems to be more available to
small-holders and rainfall is higher as well. The natural vegetation changes abruptly just
west of Progreso with the appearance of the ceibo (Kapok) trees. The UF team did not
visit any small-holders in this area but did visit a very productive, irrigated large holding
that was very impressive. Potentials for cooperation between such producers and
smallholders/small farmers should be explored. The challenges of working with the
smallholders in this area would appear to be much less than working in the area west of
Progreso.

The area to the east of Cerecita is progressively becoming urbanized by the expansion of
Guayaquil and should probably be lower on the list of priorities for efforts by ESPOL in
agricultural development.

In the Guayas basin two distinct types of agriculture were observed during rapid visits.
The area lying near Guayaquil to the east and north towards Daule is low-lying and is
predominantly rice. Both small and large farms are found in the area. The Daule farm of
ESPOL represents this system quite well. Further north, toward Quevedo and further
south toward Naranjal, both large and small banana, cacao (mostly south) and cattle farms
are predominant.

The above description suggests that at least five distinct kinds of farming systems should
be taken into account when discussing agricultural development in the Peninsula and
Guayas basin. In addition, along the coast, shrimp farming is predominant and in some
locations tourism is an important element in development. The five general systems to
consider would be: 1) one-crop per year systems irrigated from small dams, 2) two-crop
or perennial systems irrigated from surface or well water, 3) rice-based systems, 4)
banana, cacao and cattle systems, and 5) urbanized systems.

The need for data relating to land tenure, relationship of ownership to location relative to
distribution canals, and a soils map for the Peninsula must be mentioned before additional
discussions or points are made. Such information should be evaluated prior to initiating
much of the work presented below.










STAKEHOLDERS


In order to develop the region in a sustainable way all the stakeholders must be
included in the development process. Taking this into account workshops were
organized with the key stakeholders of the region including large farmers, traditional
producers, university (ESPOL and other university representatives) and the principal
government and non-government organizations of the region. The results of the
workshops with the large farmers and the traditional producers are presented below.
The results of the workshop with ESPOL professors is detailed in the section "
Possibilities for an academic alliance," while additional information from other
stakeholders is included in the different parts of the document.

Workshop with Large farmers of the Agricultural Sector and
Representatives of the Universities, Government and NGOs.


The objective of this meeting was to gather information regarding the perspectives of
the agricultural development of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the Guayas River Basin
from the point of view of large farmers.

Using the SOWT (Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats) technique, an
analysis of the actual situation and development perspectives of the region was done.
Following there was a discussion of potential strategies to solve some of the
weaknesses that were identified, as well as, a discussion of strategies better to use the
opportunities available in the agricultural sector. Appendix C contains the complete
report of the workshop.

Workshop with Traditional Producers

A workshop took place in the commune Zapotal for identification of problems in the
communes, and doing a general analysis of the parish and some nearby communes.
The directors of 15 comunas work all morning on the selection of their (individual)
problems and an analysis of the causes of these problems. Directing their effort was a
hired sociologist and four or five ESPOL students who are doing their thesis work in
the area. Following lunch the individual comunas presented their findings. Below is a
summary of their most often repeated problems. See Appendix D for a more complete
description.

* Lack of sources of employment
* Lack of both drinking and irrigation water










STAKEHOLDERS


In order to develop the region in a sustainable way all the stakeholders must be
included in the development process. Taking this into account workshops were
organized with the key stakeholders of the region including large farmers, traditional
producers, university (ESPOL and other university representatives) and the principal
government and non-government organizations of the region. The results of the
workshops with the large farmers and the traditional producers are presented below.
The results of the workshop with ESPOL professors is detailed in the section "
Possibilities for an academic alliance," while additional information from other
stakeholders is included in the different parts of the document.

Workshop with Large farmers of the Agricultural Sector and
Representatives of the Universities, Government and NGOs.


The objective of this meeting was to gather information regarding the perspectives of
the agricultural development of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the Guayas River Basin
from the point of view of large farmers.

Using the SOWT (Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats) technique, an
analysis of the actual situation and development perspectives of the region was done.
Following there was a discussion of potential strategies to solve some of the
weaknesses that were identified, as well as, a discussion of strategies better to use the
opportunities available in the agricultural sector. Appendix C contains the complete
report of the workshop.

Workshop with Traditional Producers

A workshop took place in the commune Zapotal for identification of problems in the
communes, and doing a general analysis of the parish and some nearby communes.
The directors of 15 comunas work all morning on the selection of their (individual)
problems and an analysis of the causes of these problems. Directing their effort was a
hired sociologist and four or five ESPOL students who are doing their thesis work in
the area. Following lunch the individual comunas presented their findings. Below is a
summary of their most often repeated problems. See Appendix D for a more complete
description.

* Lack of sources of employment
* Lack of both drinking and irrigation water










STAKEHOLDERS


In order to develop the region in a sustainable way all the stakeholders must be
included in the development process. Taking this into account workshops were
organized with the key stakeholders of the region including large farmers, traditional
producers, university (ESPOL and other university representatives) and the principal
government and non-government organizations of the region. The results of the
workshops with the large farmers and the traditional producers are presented below.
The results of the workshop with ESPOL professors is detailed in the section "
Possibilities for an academic alliance," while additional information from other
stakeholders is included in the different parts of the document.

Workshop with Large farmers of the Agricultural Sector and
Representatives of the Universities, Government and NGOs.


The objective of this meeting was to gather information regarding the perspectives of
the agricultural development of the Santa Elena Peninsula and the Guayas River Basin
from the point of view of large farmers.

Using the SOWT (Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats) technique, an
analysis of the actual situation and development perspectives of the region was done.
Following there was a discussion of potential strategies to solve some of the
weaknesses that were identified, as well as, a discussion of strategies better to use the
opportunities available in the agricultural sector. Appendix C contains the complete
report of the workshop.

Workshop with Traditional Producers

A workshop took place in the commune Zapotal for identification of problems in the
communes, and doing a general analysis of the parish and some nearby communes.
The directors of 15 comunas work all morning on the selection of their (individual)
problems and an analysis of the causes of these problems. Directing their effort was a
hired sociologist and four or five ESPOL students who are doing their thesis work in
the area. Following lunch the individual comunas presented their findings. Below is a
summary of their most often repeated problems. See Appendix D for a more complete
description.

* Lack of sources of employment
* Lack of both drinking and irrigation water








* Poor roads (and poor or no telephones in the villages)
* Poor education and health facilities
* Poor or no sewage or latrine facilities

The lack of water is the base cause of their problems. With no irrigation water it is
very difficult to grow anything of much value except goats and with no drinking (and
washing) water, health problems are exacerbated. Lacking water, the people have to
look for something other than agriculture to make their livelihoods. Not having a
source of employment close at hand means they must travel to the cities or towns to
find work. This process leads to the depopulation of the area, which is what the
government, the empresarios, ESPOL, etc. are trying to reverse.

If the small-holders (comuneros) are to keep and farm their land they must have water.
Either canals must be constructed to reach their land (now mostly far from the existing
canals) or else small dams (locally traditional and called 'albarradas') must be
constructed. Also there needs to be a way for the small-holders to keep their land if
the feeder or lateral canals are to be constructed. Since it is doubtful that the canals
will be constructed, the most logical alternative is the construction of the albarradas.
These should be adequate to provide them with at least one good crop per year on
part of their land and perhaps help establish perennial crops on other parts of their
land.


PROPOSED ACADEMIC ALLIANCE

There are a number of opportunities for the two universities to collaborate in academic
programs based on the strengths and resources of each.

ESPOL

ESPOL was created in 1958, in response to the increasing demand for qualified
technicians required to promote Ecuador's coastal region. For the last 40 years,
ESPOL has been contributing to Ecuador's development by training skilled
professionals, serving the private sector, and carrying out research to further the
nation's development. Its main functions are the formation of professional and
technical persons, scientific research, proposing solutions to problems of the country
and participation in actions that contribute to the creation of a new and more just
Ecuadorian society. The latter includes services of extension.

Academically, ESPOL offers 15 engineering degrees, 7 in technology, and degrees in
oceanography, environmental sciences, tourism, auditing, economics, business and
analysis of information systems. The also offer 15 graduate programs, one of which is
in aquaculture. This latter program has students from six Latin American countries.








* Poor roads (and poor or no telephones in the villages)
* Poor education and health facilities
* Poor or no sewage or latrine facilities

The lack of water is the base cause of their problems. With no irrigation water it is
very difficult to grow anything of much value except goats and with no drinking (and
washing) water, health problems are exacerbated. Lacking water, the people have to
look for something other than agriculture to make their livelihoods. Not having a
source of employment close at hand means they must travel to the cities or towns to
find work. This process leads to the depopulation of the area, which is what the
government, the empresarios, ESPOL, etc. are trying to reverse.

If the small-holders (comuneros) are to keep and farm their land they must have water.
Either canals must be constructed to reach their land (now mostly far from the existing
canals) or else small dams (locally traditional and called 'albarradas') must be
constructed. Also there needs to be a way for the small-holders to keep their land if
the feeder or lateral canals are to be constructed. Since it is doubtful that the canals
will be constructed, the most logical alternative is the construction of the albarradas.
These should be adequate to provide them with at least one good crop per year on
part of their land and perhaps help establish perennial crops on other parts of their
land.


PROPOSED ACADEMIC ALLIANCE

There are a number of opportunities for the two universities to collaborate in academic
programs based on the strengths and resources of each.

ESPOL

ESPOL was created in 1958, in response to the increasing demand for qualified
technicians required to promote Ecuador's coastal region. For the last 40 years,
ESPOL has been contributing to Ecuador's development by training skilled
professionals, serving the private sector, and carrying out research to further the
nation's development. Its main functions are the formation of professional and
technical persons, scientific research, proposing solutions to problems of the country
and participation in actions that contribute to the creation of a new and more just
Ecuadorian society. The latter includes services of extension.

Academically, ESPOL offers 15 engineering degrees, 7 in technology, and degrees in
oceanography, environmental sciences, tourism, auditing, economics, business and
analysis of information systems. The also offer 15 graduate programs, one of which is
in aquaculture. This latter program has students from six Latin American countries.









In December, 1999, ESPOL had more than 9,000 undergraduates, including their pre-
university prep school, and more than 450 graduate students. It has 643 professors of
whom 46 have doctorates, and 143 have Master's degrees.

These programs and activities are take place on five campuses.

Gustavo Galindo. The main campus is Gustavo Galindo with 720 ha. This land area
includes 70 ha of protected forest. It is considered the most modem and functional
campus in Ecuador and one of the best in Latin America.

Las Pefias. This downtown campus in Guayaquil contains 2.5 ha. It specializes in
graduate programs and continuing education.

CENAIM. Located along the Pacific coast north of Santa Elena, this is the national
center for aqui8culture and marine sciences. It is the most important marine
laboratory in Latin America and is administered by a foundation: CENAIM-ESPOL.

Santa Elena. Located in downtown Santa Elena, it offers fishing technology,
executive secretary training and systems programmer degrees.

Daule. Located 5 km north of Daule, it is the site of the Technical Agricultural
School "Galo Plaza Lasso."

UF

The University of Florida is one of the largest and most diverse universities in the U.S. In
UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), with teaching, research and
extension responsibilities, there are at present 20 different departments and some 800 full-
time faculty, most, if not all with the PhD degree. The basic undergraduate degree in
IFAS is the B.S. degree, although other professional degrees are also offered. All
departments offer the MS and PhD degrees as well. The Vice President for Agriculture
and Natural Resources heads IFAS and reports to the President of the University. Under
this Vice President are three deans in agriculture (1. Academic Programs for Agriculture
and Life Sciences, 2. Research, and 3. Extension), one in Natural Resources and
Environment, and one in Veterinary Medicine.

Besides the primary installations on the main campus in Gainesville, IFAS has 15
Research and Education Centers (RECs) around the state. The main functions of the
RECs are research, extension and teaching for the very diverse conditions in the state of
Florida, but some also have formal educational programs. For example, on the Fort
Lauderdale campus several teaching faculty offer a Master of Agriculture degree in
conjunction with faculty from the main campus in Gainesville. Degrees are also offered at
two other RECs.








Possibilities for curriculum development


IFAS professors and administrators can assist ESPOL in development of its curricula and
identification of facilities and professors needed to support its instructional programs.
Possibilities to consider include:

Undergraduate Program:

Assist to develop an undergraduate program in Agricultural and Natural
Resource Sciences at ESPOL

Develop a joint degree program (for example, 2 years at ESPOL, 2 years at
UF) with a B.S. degree from both institutions

Utilize distance education opportunities to dual enroll in classes

Graduate Program:

Develop a graduate degree program in Agricultural and Natural Resource
Sciences at ESPOL (Note: a proposal currently is being considered for a joint
ESPOL/University of Guayaquil M.S. degree in Sustainable Tropical
Agriculture in which support is requested from UF.)

Develop protocol for UF's graduate students to do research at ESPOL and
ESPOL students to conduct research at UF if appropriate.

Faculty from ESPOL and UF serve on graduate committees at the other
institution

Teacher and student exchanges

These activities can be initiated immediately. It is suggested that appropriate ESPOL
faculty make a trip to Florida to visit the main campus as well as some of the RECs
around the state as soon as it can be arranged. This will provide an opportunity for them
not only to become familiar with the University of Florida and the state, but also to
become acquainted with one or more potential research collaborators for future projects.
The University of Florida (with ESPOL collaboration) has submitted a proposal to the
U.S. State Department to help fund this type of interchange but has not yet received
notification of approval. In the meantime, it is understood that other funds may be
available in ESPOL for this purpose as well.








Possibilities for curriculum development


IFAS professors and administrators can assist ESPOL in development of its curricula and
identification of facilities and professors needed to support its instructional programs.
Possibilities to consider include:

Undergraduate Program:

Assist to develop an undergraduate program in Agricultural and Natural
Resource Sciences at ESPOL

Develop a joint degree program (for example, 2 years at ESPOL, 2 years at
UF) with a B.S. degree from both institutions

Utilize distance education opportunities to dual enroll in classes

Graduate Program:

Develop a graduate degree program in Agricultural and Natural Resource
Sciences at ESPOL (Note: a proposal currently is being considered for a joint
ESPOL/University of Guayaquil M.S. degree in Sustainable Tropical
Agriculture in which support is requested from UF.)

Develop protocol for UF's graduate students to do research at ESPOL and
ESPOL students to conduct research at UF if appropriate.

Faculty from ESPOL and UF serve on graduate committees at the other
institution

Teacher and student exchanges

These activities can be initiated immediately. It is suggested that appropriate ESPOL
faculty make a trip to Florida to visit the main campus as well as some of the RECs
around the state as soon as it can be arranged. This will provide an opportunity for them
not only to become familiar with the University of Florida and the state, but also to
become acquainted with one or more potential research collaborators for future projects.
The University of Florida (with ESPOL collaboration) has submitted a proposal to the
U.S. State Department to help fund this type of interchange but has not yet received
notification of approval. In the meantime, it is understood that other funds may be
available in ESPOL for this purpose as well.









Faculty Partnerships


Designated professors at ESPOL and UF should have courtesy or affiliated
appointments at the other institution.

Facilitate an exchange visitation (sabbatical) program for faculty at both
institutions.

Short courses

UF professors can plan and present short courses on a wide number of topics at the
request of ESPOL professors and administration. These would be budgeted separately
and paid from appropriate funds. These courses could be offered in Gainesville if
appropriate, but it may be much more appropriate and cost-efficient to offer them in
Ecuador. Such courses, either undergraduate or graduate, should have an ESPOL
professor counterpart as assistant trainer with the idea that if a second course is offered,
the ESPOL professor would become the lead trainer with support from the UF professor.
ESPOL professors alone could then offer future courses on the same topic.

Formal course development and distance education

UF professors would be available to help with the development of formal courses as well.
Course content and reference materials can be included in this support effort. Formal or
short courses can also be considered by distance education and the ESPOL and UF
facilities will be in contact with each other to assure that there is compatibility in the two
systems.

Research

ESPOL and UF professors can jointly plan and carry out research in Ecuador by several
methods. If funds are available, and both sides approve a project, UF graduate students
could conduct their research in Ecuador on the problems as their thesis or dissertation
research. These graduate students could work with ESPOL students who could also be
conducting their field practical courses or their theses at the same time as part of the
overall project research effort. The UF professor or professors would be expected to visit
the site or sites in Ecuador on at least one and preferably more occasions. On these visits
UF professor would be available to consult on related problems or to further other project
proposals.

UF and ESPOL professors should join forces to search for appropriate funding sources.









Faculty Partnerships


Designated professors at ESPOL and UF should have courtesy or affiliated
appointments at the other institution.

Facilitate an exchange visitation (sabbatical) program for faculty at both
institutions.

Short courses

UF professors can plan and present short courses on a wide number of topics at the
request of ESPOL professors and administration. These would be budgeted separately
and paid from appropriate funds. These courses could be offered in Gainesville if
appropriate, but it may be much more appropriate and cost-efficient to offer them in
Ecuador. Such courses, either undergraduate or graduate, should have an ESPOL
professor counterpart as assistant trainer with the idea that if a second course is offered,
the ESPOL professor would become the lead trainer with support from the UF professor.
ESPOL professors alone could then offer future courses on the same topic.

Formal course development and distance education

UF professors would be available to help with the development of formal courses as well.
Course content and reference materials can be included in this support effort. Formal or
short courses can also be considered by distance education and the ESPOL and UF
facilities will be in contact with each other to assure that there is compatibility in the two
systems.

Research

ESPOL and UF professors can jointly plan and carry out research in Ecuador by several
methods. If funds are available, and both sides approve a project, UF graduate students
could conduct their research in Ecuador on the problems as their thesis or dissertation
research. These graduate students could work with ESPOL students who could also be
conducting their field practical courses or their theses at the same time as part of the
overall project research effort. The UF professor or professors would be expected to visit
the site or sites in Ecuador on at least one and preferably more occasions. On these visits
UF professor would be available to consult on related problems or to further other project
proposals.

UF and ESPOL professors should join forces to search for appropriate funding sources.









Faculty Partnerships


Designated professors at ESPOL and UF should have courtesy or affiliated
appointments at the other institution.

Facilitate an exchange visitation (sabbatical) program for faculty at both
institutions.

Short courses

UF professors can plan and present short courses on a wide number of topics at the
request of ESPOL professors and administration. These would be budgeted separately
and paid from appropriate funds. These courses could be offered in Gainesville if
appropriate, but it may be much more appropriate and cost-efficient to offer them in
Ecuador. Such courses, either undergraduate or graduate, should have an ESPOL
professor counterpart as assistant trainer with the idea that if a second course is offered,
the ESPOL professor would become the lead trainer with support from the UF professor.
ESPOL professors alone could then offer future courses on the same topic.

Formal course development and distance education

UF professors would be available to help with the development of formal courses as well.
Course content and reference materials can be included in this support effort. Formal or
short courses can also be considered by distance education and the ESPOL and UF
facilities will be in contact with each other to assure that there is compatibility in the two
systems.

Research

ESPOL and UF professors can jointly plan and carry out research in Ecuador by several
methods. If funds are available, and both sides approve a project, UF graduate students
could conduct their research in Ecuador on the problems as their thesis or dissertation
research. These graduate students could work with ESPOL students who could also be
conducting their field practical courses or their theses at the same time as part of the
overall project research effort. The UF professor or professors would be expected to visit
the site or sites in Ecuador on at least one and preferably more occasions. On these visits
UF professor would be available to consult on related problems or to further other project
proposals.

UF and ESPOL professors should join forces to search for appropriate funding sources.









Faculty Partnerships


Designated professors at ESPOL and UF should have courtesy or affiliated
appointments at the other institution.

Facilitate an exchange visitation (sabbatical) program for faculty at both
institutions.

Short courses

UF professors can plan and present short courses on a wide number of topics at the
request of ESPOL professors and administration. These would be budgeted separately
and paid from appropriate funds. These courses could be offered in Gainesville if
appropriate, but it may be much more appropriate and cost-efficient to offer them in
Ecuador. Such courses, either undergraduate or graduate, should have an ESPOL
professor counterpart as assistant trainer with the idea that if a second course is offered,
the ESPOL professor would become the lead trainer with support from the UF professor.
ESPOL professors alone could then offer future courses on the same topic.

Formal course development and distance education

UF professors would be available to help with the development of formal courses as well.
Course content and reference materials can be included in this support effort. Formal or
short courses can also be considered by distance education and the ESPOL and UF
facilities will be in contact with each other to assure that there is compatibility in the two
systems.

Research

ESPOL and UF professors can jointly plan and carry out research in Ecuador by several
methods. If funds are available, and both sides approve a project, UF graduate students
could conduct their research in Ecuador on the problems as their thesis or dissertation
research. These graduate students could work with ESPOL students who could also be
conducting their field practical courses or their theses at the same time as part of the
overall project research effort. The UF professor or professors would be expected to visit
the site or sites in Ecuador on at least one and preferably more occasions. On these visits
UF professor would be available to consult on related problems or to further other project
proposals.

UF and ESPOL professors should join forces to search for appropriate funding sources.








Library facilities


CENAIM, the ESPOL aquaculture laboratory, has a very good model for enhancing its
library holdings. It should be possible for UF to support a similar effort to support the
agricultural library ofESPOL. Further possibilities should be explored to enable ESPOL
to access the UF library system over the Internet. However, the library resources of
ESPOL must be enhanced.

ESPOL agricultural schools at Daule and El Triunfo

ESPOL has two agricultural schools that also serve as 'experiment' or 'demonstration'
farms. These schools must get greater scientific support from ESPOL. At present it
seems that they get little support and their experiments and trials are not formed with
scientific experimental design. Because of inadequate design, these "observations" as they
are called do not yield as much information as they should and thus resources are used
inefficiently. Experiment and demonstration farms belonging to ESPOL and CEDEGE
should be used to provide practical experience for the students and to conduct research.
The experiments should be redesigned to allow for scientific evaluation of various
treatments and should not be treated only as demonstration or observation areas. These
practical exercises should be combined with seminars and short courses in various areas
including experimental design techniques.




PROPOSED ISSUES FOR COLLABORATION IN DEVELOPMENT


Based on the two-week trip, some of the more obvious issues that warrant pursuing
follow. These ideas represent areas of possible collaborations between UF-ESPOL. UF
professors would work with ESPOL to develop into full projects those ideas ESPOL
selects. Similarly, ESPOL could present UF with a list of project ideas and interested UF
professors would then collaborate in the development of full projects in selected topics.

Aquaculture

CENAIM is an excellent aquaculture laboratory that has 15 PhD scientists associated with
it. Consideration should be given by UF to send its professionals here before (or instead
of) building its own facility in Fort Pierce.








Library facilities


CENAIM, the ESPOL aquaculture laboratory, has a very good model for enhancing its
library holdings. It should be possible for UF to support a similar effort to support the
agricultural library ofESPOL. Further possibilities should be explored to enable ESPOL
to access the UF library system over the Internet. However, the library resources of
ESPOL must be enhanced.

ESPOL agricultural schools at Daule and El Triunfo

ESPOL has two agricultural schools that also serve as 'experiment' or 'demonstration'
farms. These schools must get greater scientific support from ESPOL. At present it
seems that they get little support and their experiments and trials are not formed with
scientific experimental design. Because of inadequate design, these "observations" as they
are called do not yield as much information as they should and thus resources are used
inefficiently. Experiment and demonstration farms belonging to ESPOL and CEDEGE
should be used to provide practical experience for the students and to conduct research.
The experiments should be redesigned to allow for scientific evaluation of various
treatments and should not be treated only as demonstration or observation areas. These
practical exercises should be combined with seminars and short courses in various areas
including experimental design techniques.




PROPOSED ISSUES FOR COLLABORATION IN DEVELOPMENT


Based on the two-week trip, some of the more obvious issues that warrant pursuing
follow. These ideas represent areas of possible collaborations between UF-ESPOL. UF
professors would work with ESPOL to develop into full projects those ideas ESPOL
selects. Similarly, ESPOL could present UF with a list of project ideas and interested UF
professors would then collaborate in the development of full projects in selected topics.

Aquaculture

CENAIM is an excellent aquaculture laboratory that has 15 PhD scientists associated with
it. Consideration should be given by UF to send its professionals here before (or instead
of) building its own facility in Fort Pierce.








Library facilities


CENAIM, the ESPOL aquaculture laboratory, has a very good model for enhancing its
library holdings. It should be possible for UF to support a similar effort to support the
agricultural library ofESPOL. Further possibilities should be explored to enable ESPOL
to access the UF library system over the Internet. However, the library resources of
ESPOL must be enhanced.

ESPOL agricultural schools at Daule and El Triunfo

ESPOL has two agricultural schools that also serve as 'experiment' or 'demonstration'
farms. These schools must get greater scientific support from ESPOL. At present it
seems that they get little support and their experiments and trials are not formed with
scientific experimental design. Because of inadequate design, these "observations" as they
are called do not yield as much information as they should and thus resources are used
inefficiently. Experiment and demonstration farms belonging to ESPOL and CEDEGE
should be used to provide practical experience for the students and to conduct research.
The experiments should be redesigned to allow for scientific evaluation of various
treatments and should not be treated only as demonstration or observation areas. These
practical exercises should be combined with seminars and short courses in various areas
including experimental design techniques.




PROPOSED ISSUES FOR COLLABORATION IN DEVELOPMENT


Based on the two-week trip, some of the more obvious issues that warrant pursuing
follow. These ideas represent areas of possible collaborations between UF-ESPOL. UF
professors would work with ESPOL to develop into full projects those ideas ESPOL
selects. Similarly, ESPOL could present UF with a list of project ideas and interested UF
professors would then collaborate in the development of full projects in selected topics.

Aquaculture

CENAIM is an excellent aquaculture laboratory that has 15 PhD scientists associated with
it. Consideration should be given by UF to send its professionals here before (or instead
of) building its own facility in Fort Pierce.








Library facilities


CENAIM, the ESPOL aquaculture laboratory, has a very good model for enhancing its
library holdings. It should be possible for UF to support a similar effort to support the
agricultural library ofESPOL. Further possibilities should be explored to enable ESPOL
to access the UF library system over the Internet. However, the library resources of
ESPOL must be enhanced.

ESPOL agricultural schools at Daule and El Triunfo

ESPOL has two agricultural schools that also serve as 'experiment' or 'demonstration'
farms. These schools must get greater scientific support from ESPOL. At present it
seems that they get little support and their experiments and trials are not formed with
scientific experimental design. Because of inadequate design, these "observations" as they
are called do not yield as much information as they should and thus resources are used
inefficiently. Experiment and demonstration farms belonging to ESPOL and CEDEGE
should be used to provide practical experience for the students and to conduct research.
The experiments should be redesigned to allow for scientific evaluation of various
treatments and should not be treated only as demonstration or observation areas. These
practical exercises should be combined with seminars and short courses in various areas
including experimental design techniques.




PROPOSED ISSUES FOR COLLABORATION IN DEVELOPMENT


Based on the two-week trip, some of the more obvious issues that warrant pursuing
follow. These ideas represent areas of possible collaborations between UF-ESPOL. UF
professors would work with ESPOL to develop into full projects those ideas ESPOL
selects. Similarly, ESPOL could present UF with a list of project ideas and interested UF
professors would then collaborate in the development of full projects in selected topics.

Aquaculture

CENAIM is an excellent aquaculture laboratory that has 15 PhD scientists associated with
it. Consideration should be given by UF to send its professionals here before (or instead
of) building its own facility in Fort Pierce.








Library facilities


CENAIM, the ESPOL aquaculture laboratory, has a very good model for enhancing its
library holdings. It should be possible for UF to support a similar effort to support the
agricultural library ofESPOL. Further possibilities should be explored to enable ESPOL
to access the UF library system over the Internet. However, the library resources of
ESPOL must be enhanced.

ESPOL agricultural schools at Daule and El Triunfo

ESPOL has two agricultural schools that also serve as 'experiment' or 'demonstration'
farms. These schools must get greater scientific support from ESPOL. At present it
seems that they get little support and their experiments and trials are not formed with
scientific experimental design. Because of inadequate design, these "observations" as they
are called do not yield as much information as they should and thus resources are used
inefficiently. Experiment and demonstration farms belonging to ESPOL and CEDEGE
should be used to provide practical experience for the students and to conduct research.
The experiments should be redesigned to allow for scientific evaluation of various
treatments and should not be treated only as demonstration or observation areas. These
practical exercises should be combined with seminars and short courses in various areas
including experimental design techniques.




PROPOSED ISSUES FOR COLLABORATION IN DEVELOPMENT


Based on the two-week trip, some of the more obvious issues that warrant pursuing
follow. These ideas represent areas of possible collaborations between UF-ESPOL. UF
professors would work with ESPOL to develop into full projects those ideas ESPOL
selects. Similarly, ESPOL could present UF with a list of project ideas and interested UF
professors would then collaborate in the development of full projects in selected topics.

Aquaculture

CENAIM is an excellent aquaculture laboratory that has 15 PhD scientists associated with
it. Consideration should be given by UF to send its professionals here before (or instead
of) building its own facility in Fort Pierce.











Water


Water and related problems are paramount on the Santa Elena Peninsula. CEDEGE has
become involved in agricultural production through its demonstration farms. To date,
these units have been used for demonstration purposes only and not for scientific
research. The units, however, could be an important part of the research/extension
system. CEDEGE should be involved in the efforts to overcome the problems of the
peninsula.
Water Capacity

The availability of water is central to development. The relationship between water
capacity and potential demand impacts strongly on the emphasis that should be given to
water intensive and extensive development strategies and thus investigation of water
capacity should precede virtually all other analyses.

* The capacity of CEDEGE to bring water into the Peninsula should be compared with
current water usage levels and with various projections of future usage rates.

* These projections should take into account that individuals will develop new uses for
water as it becomes more available. One important such use will be the establishment
and expansion of gardens and very small commercial production units within and
adjacent to smaller or even larger urban areas.

* Groundwater usage and recharge rates should be investigated.

Water Pricing/Policy

There are water-pricing issues that should be carefully investigated.

Large-Small-holder/Comuna Cooperation on Water Access

In many instances, large-holders have direct access to irrigation canals, with smallholders
and communes having no such access. Also, some large-holders have problems securing
labor. Strategies should be explored for extension of tertiary water delivery systems
developed by large-holders to neighboring small-holders/communes. In those instances
in which large-holders experience labor shortages, it might be mutually advantageous to
establish homesteads on the periphery of their lands, supplied with water from the large-
holder delivery systems. Tax or other incentives might be appropriate to encourage such
development. In addition, special credit programs might be established to facilitate











Water


Water and related problems are paramount on the Santa Elena Peninsula. CEDEGE has
become involved in agricultural production through its demonstration farms. To date,
these units have been used for demonstration purposes only and not for scientific
research. The units, however, could be an important part of the research/extension
system. CEDEGE should be involved in the efforts to overcome the problems of the
peninsula.
Water Capacity

The availability of water is central to development. The relationship between water
capacity and potential demand impacts strongly on the emphasis that should be given to
water intensive and extensive development strategies and thus investigation of water
capacity should precede virtually all other analyses.

* The capacity of CEDEGE to bring water into the Peninsula should be compared with
current water usage levels and with various projections of future usage rates.

* These projections should take into account that individuals will develop new uses for
water as it becomes more available. One important such use will be the establishment
and expansion of gardens and very small commercial production units within and
adjacent to smaller or even larger urban areas.

* Groundwater usage and recharge rates should be investigated.

Water Pricing/Policy

There are water-pricing issues that should be carefully investigated.

Large-Small-holder/Comuna Cooperation on Water Access

In many instances, large-holders have direct access to irrigation canals, with smallholders
and communes having no such access. Also, some large-holders have problems securing
labor. Strategies should be explored for extension of tertiary water delivery systems
developed by large-holders to neighboring small-holders/communes. In those instances
in which large-holders experience labor shortages, it might be mutually advantageous to
establish homesteads on the periphery of their lands, supplied with water from the large-
holder delivery systems. Tax or other incentives might be appropriate to encourage such
development. In addition, special credit programs might be established to facilitate











Water


Water and related problems are paramount on the Santa Elena Peninsula. CEDEGE has
become involved in agricultural production through its demonstration farms. To date,
these units have been used for demonstration purposes only and not for scientific
research. The units, however, could be an important part of the research/extension
system. CEDEGE should be involved in the efforts to overcome the problems of the
peninsula.
Water Capacity

The availability of water is central to development. The relationship between water
capacity and potential demand impacts strongly on the emphasis that should be given to
water intensive and extensive development strategies and thus investigation of water
capacity should precede virtually all other analyses.

* The capacity of CEDEGE to bring water into the Peninsula should be compared with
current water usage levels and with various projections of future usage rates.

* These projections should take into account that individuals will develop new uses for
water as it becomes more available. One important such use will be the establishment
and expansion of gardens and very small commercial production units within and
adjacent to smaller or even larger urban areas.

* Groundwater usage and recharge rates should be investigated.

Water Pricing/Policy

There are water-pricing issues that should be carefully investigated.

Large-Small-holder/Comuna Cooperation on Water Access

In many instances, large-holders have direct access to irrigation canals, with smallholders
and communes having no such access. Also, some large-holders have problems securing
labor. Strategies should be explored for extension of tertiary water delivery systems
developed by large-holders to neighboring small-holders/communes. In those instances
in which large-holders experience labor shortages, it might be mutually advantageous to
establish homesteads on the periphery of their lands, supplied with water from the large-
holder delivery systems. Tax or other incentives might be appropriate to encourage such
development. In addition, special credit programs might be established to facilitate











Water


Water and related problems are paramount on the Santa Elena Peninsula. CEDEGE has
become involved in agricultural production through its demonstration farms. To date,
these units have been used for demonstration purposes only and not for scientific
research. The units, however, could be an important part of the research/extension
system. CEDEGE should be involved in the efforts to overcome the problems of the
peninsula.
Water Capacity

The availability of water is central to development. The relationship between water
capacity and potential demand impacts strongly on the emphasis that should be given to
water intensive and extensive development strategies and thus investigation of water
capacity should precede virtually all other analyses.

* The capacity of CEDEGE to bring water into the Peninsula should be compared with
current water usage levels and with various projections of future usage rates.

* These projections should take into account that individuals will develop new uses for
water as it becomes more available. One important such use will be the establishment
and expansion of gardens and very small commercial production units within and
adjacent to smaller or even larger urban areas.

* Groundwater usage and recharge rates should be investigated.

Water Pricing/Policy

There are water-pricing issues that should be carefully investigated.

Large-Small-holder/Comuna Cooperation on Water Access

In many instances, large-holders have direct access to irrigation canals, with smallholders
and communes having no such access. Also, some large-holders have problems securing
labor. Strategies should be explored for extension of tertiary water delivery systems
developed by large-holders to neighboring small-holders/communes. In those instances
in which large-holders experience labor shortages, it might be mutually advantageous to
establish homesteads on the periphery of their lands, supplied with water from the large-
holder delivery systems. Tax or other incentives might be appropriate to encourage such
development. In addition, special credit programs might be established to facilitate








investments by small-holders. Studies related to this series of issues should be researched
through secondary sources covering similar circumstances as well as primary research.

Water Delivery Systems/Programs and Training for Producers

Without expansion of irrigation infrastructure it is not possible to deliver water to the
small farmers. Strategies for the development of secondary and tertiary water delivery
canals must be explored. The technology demonstrated by CEDEGE and used in large
farms is often too expensive for the small farmers.

Appropriate irrigation technologies for small farmers' such as small mechanical pumps
and low-pressure, gravity-fed micro-irrigation should be introduced by educational and
demonstration programs.

Appropriate Irrigation Technology and Increasing the Effectiveness of
Rainfall Through Water Harvesting

Introduction of appropriate, sustainable irrigation technologies for the poorest farmers of
the Peninsula is necessary to the economic development of these farms. A feasibility study
for construction of albarradas, i.e. small earthen dams, on community farms should be
conducted.

Other studies should relate to water harvesting through land forming, mulching, slowing
the rate of runoff, and increasing soil infiltration rates.

Introduction of small mechanical pumps and inexpensive, low pressure, gravity-based
micro-irrigation systems can be very beneficial to the development of areas belonging to
this group of stakeholders. The systems are sufficiently simple that the communities can
produce them locally, which assures higher levels of sustainability. The systems should
first be demonstrated at experimental farms.

Water harvesting techniques can benefit many farmers. These methods prolong the
growing season by capturing water that normally runs off the farm and is lost from the
system. Slowing down the runoff and redirecting water to the areas where it is most
needed result in increased water infiltration. Rainwater can be redirected towards the
plant by reforming the soil surface. Creating concave areas around plants can significantly
increase rain effectiveness especially for small rain events. Mulching techniques can be
used to decrease evaporation losses.

Other rain harvesting techniques should be investigated and demonstrated to the small
farmers.








investments by small-holders. Studies related to this series of issues should be researched
through secondary sources covering similar circumstances as well as primary research.

Water Delivery Systems/Programs and Training for Producers

Without expansion of irrigation infrastructure it is not possible to deliver water to the
small farmers. Strategies for the development of secondary and tertiary water delivery
canals must be explored. The technology demonstrated by CEDEGE and used in large
farms is often too expensive for the small farmers.

Appropriate irrigation technologies for small farmers' such as small mechanical pumps
and low-pressure, gravity-fed micro-irrigation should be introduced by educational and
demonstration programs.

Appropriate Irrigation Technology and Increasing the Effectiveness of
Rainfall Through Water Harvesting

Introduction of appropriate, sustainable irrigation technologies for the poorest farmers of
the Peninsula is necessary to the economic development of these farms. A feasibility study
for construction of albarradas, i.e. small earthen dams, on community farms should be
conducted.

Other studies should relate to water harvesting through land forming, mulching, slowing
the rate of runoff, and increasing soil infiltration rates.

Introduction of small mechanical pumps and inexpensive, low pressure, gravity-based
micro-irrigation systems can be very beneficial to the development of areas belonging to
this group of stakeholders. The systems are sufficiently simple that the communities can
produce them locally, which assures higher levels of sustainability. The systems should
first be demonstrated at experimental farms.

Water harvesting techniques can benefit many farmers. These methods prolong the
growing season by capturing water that normally runs off the farm and is lost from the
system. Slowing down the runoff and redirecting water to the areas where it is most
needed result in increased water infiltration. Rainwater can be redirected towards the
plant by reforming the soil surface. Creating concave areas around plants can significantly
increase rain effectiveness especially for small rain events. Mulching techniques can be
used to decrease evaporation losses.

Other rain harvesting techniques should be investigated and demonstrated to the small
farmers.








Soil and Soil Fertility


The Santa Elena Peninsula became, in effect, a desert because of deforestation, the lack of
reforestation, and poor soil management. Proper soil management is a key component of
the efforts to reestablish the peninsula as a productive, and perhaps even prosperous,
region. There is need for a detailed soil survey to include soil classification as well as
physical and chemical properties of soils in area. Such a survey should utilize a GIS
system whenever practicable.

A soil, water quality, plant tissue analysis laboratory as well as disease and insect
diagnostic laboratory for both extension and research samples should be developed. This
laboratory would be utilized for research, extension and should also serve as a teaching
facility for students.


Water and Soil: Salinization

Once soil is saline, it is difficult and very costly to reclaim. The risk ofsalinization should
be carefully evaluated in the areas prone to these problems. All irrigation water contains
some amount of salts. As a result, long-term irrigation increases soil salinity if drainage is
not available and proper irrigation management or natural rainfall does not wash out the
salts. The drainage can be natural, due to the geological land formation, or artificial,
using surface canals or subsurface drainage pipes.

Shallow groundwater on the Santa Elena Peninsula frequently contains high levels of salts
due to geological formations. Metamorphic marine deposits, typical for the Peninsula,
contain high levels of natural salts that dissolve in water. Irrigation of soils that lack
sufficient drainage usually results in the rise of the water table due to deep percolation of
excess irrigation water. At some point, capillary action will bring the water with salts to
the soil surface, where water quickly evaporates leaving salts behind. In this case, the
installation of artificial drainage allows for salt removal and prevention of the rising water
table. Where alluvial river deposits exist, such as in many of the valleys, the problem of a
high saline water table does not exist due to sufficient natural drainage.

In arid climates, under good drainage conditions, soil can become salinized without
appropriate irrigation management techniques. High salinity water requires increased
irrigation applications in order to remove buildup of salts from the plant root zone.
Appropriate leaching factors must be added to the amount of water that is required for
plant growth. Insufficient rates of irrigation for soil leaching will result in slow salt
accumulation and decreased yields or crop failure.

There is a need to conduct basic fertilizer trials with various crops to determine economic
fertilizer requirements. Also, conduct pesticide and insecticide trials for various crops.








Soil and Soil Fertility


The Santa Elena Peninsula became, in effect, a desert because of deforestation, the lack of
reforestation, and poor soil management. Proper soil management is a key component of
the efforts to reestablish the peninsula as a productive, and perhaps even prosperous,
region. There is need for a detailed soil survey to include soil classification as well as
physical and chemical properties of soils in area. Such a survey should utilize a GIS
system whenever practicable.

A soil, water quality, plant tissue analysis laboratory as well as disease and insect
diagnostic laboratory for both extension and research samples should be developed. This
laboratory would be utilized for research, extension and should also serve as a teaching
facility for students.


Water and Soil: Salinization

Once soil is saline, it is difficult and very costly to reclaim. The risk ofsalinization should
be carefully evaluated in the areas prone to these problems. All irrigation water contains
some amount of salts. As a result, long-term irrigation increases soil salinity if drainage is
not available and proper irrigation management or natural rainfall does not wash out the
salts. The drainage can be natural, due to the geological land formation, or artificial,
using surface canals or subsurface drainage pipes.

Shallow groundwater on the Santa Elena Peninsula frequently contains high levels of salts
due to geological formations. Metamorphic marine deposits, typical for the Peninsula,
contain high levels of natural salts that dissolve in water. Irrigation of soils that lack
sufficient drainage usually results in the rise of the water table due to deep percolation of
excess irrigation water. At some point, capillary action will bring the water with salts to
the soil surface, where water quickly evaporates leaving salts behind. In this case, the
installation of artificial drainage allows for salt removal and prevention of the rising water
table. Where alluvial river deposits exist, such as in many of the valleys, the problem of a
high saline water table does not exist due to sufficient natural drainage.

In arid climates, under good drainage conditions, soil can become salinized without
appropriate irrigation management techniques. High salinity water requires increased
irrigation applications in order to remove buildup of salts from the plant root zone.
Appropriate leaching factors must be added to the amount of water that is required for
plant growth. Insufficient rates of irrigation for soil leaching will result in slow salt
accumulation and decreased yields or crop failure.

There is a need to conduct basic fertilizer trials with various crops to determine economic
fertilizer requirements. Also, conduct pesticide and insecticide trials for various crops.









As a basic research project, a table containing crop sensitivity to salinity, water table, pH,
etc., should be generated. Other research projects should be based upon primary applied
research:

The use of inorganic soil amendments to improve soil structure, drainage (i.e.
gypsum, limestone, etc.), and

The use of organic amendments to increase organic matter in soils (i.e. manure,
sludge, poultry litter, marine wastes, compost etc.).


Plant tolerances and requirements and the results of such experiments and subsequent
analysis should be compared.

Production

Agro-industrial development is a must as agriculture alone cannot sustain the population.
Waste products, such as rice straw and chaff for paper or for charcoal, as well as native or
indigenous plants or plant products; should be considered as raw materials for such
development. Agro-industrial development could also be based upon vegetable
production to serve domestic and foreign fresh markets.

The Santa Elena Peninsula has potential for production of both fruit and vegetables for
export. Fruit and vegetables that do not meet export standards could be available for the
domestic market. Before large-scale production is undertaken, it will be necessary to
compile or obtain by research information critical to successful production:

1. Potential export market windows

2. Appropriate varieties

3. Soils -- pH, salinity, structure, etc.

4. Irrigation potential

s. Nutrition requirements and fertilization

6. Pest management

7. Economics

s. Post-harvest handling









Irrigation will not be available to all producers. Even where available, urban needs will
probably take precedence over agriculture and thus the supply of water for agriculture is
not guaranteed indefinitely into the future. Moreover there are soil salinity problems
related to irrigation. Therefore rainfed production alternatives and techniques should be
studied further, so as to promote the rural economy and provide employment possibilities.

Crops that might be successfully produced and marketed include sweet onions (Allium
cepa), triploid (seedless) watermelons (citrullus lanatus), and many species of baby
vegetables, i.e., immature versions of traditional vegetables. Warm season crops such as
summer squash, haricot vert, and baby corn could be adapted to the climate of the
peninsula. They are labor intensive and their lightweight would not penalize Ecuador
regarding air shipment.

The production of hybrid vegetable seed is another possibility. Because of product
uniformity, earliness, quality, pest tolerance, etc., hybrid vegetables are favored over
open-pollinated types. Production of hybrid seed is labor intensive, requires careful
supervision and quality control, and results in a very high value product. Hybrid seed
production is done on a contractual basis with a seed company. The industry is drawn to
areas with abundant, low-cost labor. Thus, China and Thailand are major producers. Chile
and, to some extent, Mexico are the only significant Latin American producers. Ecuador
possibly could become a significant producer.

The livestock sector, particularly goats, should be reestablished. For goats, greater
quantities of palatable, high biomass browsing materials could be raised. Similarly for
cattle, drought tolerant pastures should be established and a silage production program
investigated. Other aspects should include evaluation of grasses and legumes, fertilization
and grazing systems.

Medicinal plants offer another possibility for domestic and international, particularly
European and Asian, markets. Information concerning the identification, properties,
marketing, and production of these plants should be gathered.

Emerging plant pest and disease problems, particularly as more sustainable control or
avoidance methods are required, will be an increasingly important area for joint activity.

Forest Resources

Deforestation of the Peninsula and the Guayas Basin has been common historically.
The main reasons were to clear land for agriculture and to harvest and utilize forest
products. To a lesser extent urbanization especially around Guayaguil has caused
some deforestation. Today, deforestation continues for the same reasons. Near
Engunga, for example, the forest ecosystem is being cleared for agricultural crops such
as asparagus.









Communities are also still dependent on forest resources; the Atahualpa Comunero
manufactures furniture utilizing tree species in the nearby forests. Yet, the most
desirable tree species for furniture are becoming rare and more difficult to find. These
communities have expressed interest in reforestation programs.

Another example of dependence on a forest resource occurs with a single tree species,
Tagua. For over a hundred years, Ecuadorean families have harvested the seeds for
these trees and manufactured buttons for export. Today, over 30,000 Ecuadorean
families collect and sell Tagua. During our visit, the Fundacion Ecuador Tagua
expressed interest in developing a research program with ESPOL and UF to
investigate gene conservation, genetic improvement and reforestation of this important
economic species.

In Northwest Ecuador a small number of plantations of Eucalyptus have been
established. Wood chips are sold internationally for pulp and paper production. The
potential for establishing plantations in the Peninsula and Guayas Basin needs to be
explored.

As more areas are cleared for agriculture, it becomes apparent that tropical forest
ecosystems are being lost or degraded. These forests are valuable for their
biodiversity, wildlife, watershed qualities, forest resources and recreational potential.
An evaluation of the important ecosystems in the landscape along with efforts to
preserve some areas is critical. Conservation and management of these natural areas
today is so much more economically efficient than destruction, degradation and then
restoration later. There are many opportunities to look at the entire landscape to
assess its natural values and to incorporate these natural areas into the entire plan for
the Peninsula and Guayas Basin.

Current and past deforestation ;n the Peninsula and Guayas Basin mean that there is
great potential for projects to reverse these trends. Communities that are dependent
on forest resources such as the Atahualpa Comunero are candidates for reforestation
projects. Comuneros with their commonly owned lands might also be good locations
to set aside natural areas with fragile or endangered ecosystems. Investigating the
economic and biological potential for establishing pulp and paper plantations (as has
been done in neighboring Colombia and Chile) is another potential project for the area.
Forests in the area were once a valuable resource in the area. Their restoration,
reforestation and sometimes preservation are critical to the long-term economic and
environmental health of the region. A list of possible projects for joint ESPOIJUF
partnering follows:

* Develop and establish teak plantations in the Peninsula and Guayas Basin. Teak is
recognized by many farmers as a valuable wood species. Small woodlots could








accompany any size farm and agroforestry systems also have potential. More information
about silvicultural practices and genetic improvement is needed. In addition there is
potential for irrigation and other practices such as weed control to increase growth.

* Encourage the establishment of natural areas and parks. A study of the entire region
identifying the ecosystems in the landscape as well as corridors and areas of forest
fragmentation is critical to the future functioning and maintenance of natural systems and
watersheds. Developing models (for instance, with comuneros) for the establishment of
natural areas and parks are possible projects. Land-use planning and natural forest
management are critical study areas for to meet these objectives.

* Development of a Neem industry. The development of a neem industry should be
explored. Neem trees could be grown by a great number of comuneros and a processing
plant could be established to produce Neemex from the seed. These processing plants can
be relatively rudimentary and low cost to establish.

* Develop a combined reforestation and marketing project. Working with the Comuna
Atahualpa as a model, establish a combined reforestation and marketing project.
Developing a system to reforest key furniture tree species possibly utilizing irrigation at
least for establishment is critical to the future of the industry. The producers also
expressed a need for a better marketing system for the furniture. These projects could be
combined into a sustainable forestry strategy.

* Increase the production of Tagua (vegetable ivory) on small farms. Working with
Fundacion Ecuador Tagua develop a proposal to increase Tagua production and
sustainability. Both greater farmer participation and increased production by individual
families are possible. The biological studies would investigate gene conservation, genetic
improvement, regeneration and stimulation of early seed production.

Establish plantations of fast-growing trees for paper production. Forest plantations
are already in production in Northwest Ecuador. Establishing test plantations in the
Peninsula and Guayas Basin would determine and demonstrate the potential for
production. Trees to investigate include Eucalyptus, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, and
Prosopis. Some areas may require species with salt tolerance. The possibility ofkenaf
plantations for producing paper also
could be explored.













Marketing and Other Producer Needs


Marketing

Marketing studies must be performed. Market windows, depth and breadth of markets
must be evaluated and prices projected. Production, marketing (e.g. packing), and
transportation costs and product prices must be estimated or projected. Producers should
not promote products for production unless marketing channels are known and
understood. Market evaluation and marketing studies should be performed even for
products that are presently produced and sold by others.

Given the potential for quantity and multi-seasonality of production in the Peninsula,
market niches and windows in the U.S. and other markets must be identified. Some
market insights are given here for several of the crops mentioned in the production
discussion above. Sweet onions do not store well and demand for them is high, especially
in the United States. Sweet onions are presently imported by the U.S. from Uruguay, Peru
and Nicaragua. If the market window is consistent with a potential production season, the
possibility of export to the US should be explored. The demand for seedless watermelon
is increasing in the US. A market niche in a favorable production season may result in a
viable export crop.

Credit

The availability of credit to all but large producers or businessmen is a greater problem
than interest rates charged. Because it is possible for poor landowners and other poor
people to lose all they own, including their land, through nonpayment of debt, making
credit available to such groups of people has some inherent risks that are contrary to
social justice. Any credit system that is developed must be sensitive to that issue. The
credit system, however, must require that borrowers repay loans. Strategies should be
investigated to make credit available for agricultural loans and for non-agricultural loans
to small and medium sized businesses, such as artisans and tourist services. If a special
credit system is created, it should be self-sustaining. Users of such a system should be
trained in use/repayment of credit, enhancing the entrepreneurial capability of users.

The implications should be investigated of the commune system on propensities to make
investments on land and difficulties/opportunities regarding the extension of credit.













Marketing and Other Producer Needs


Marketing

Marketing studies must be performed. Market windows, depth and breadth of markets
must be evaluated and prices projected. Production, marketing (e.g. packing), and
transportation costs and product prices must be estimated or projected. Producers should
not promote products for production unless marketing channels are known and
understood. Market evaluation and marketing studies should be performed even for
products that are presently produced and sold by others.

Given the potential for quantity and multi-seasonality of production in the Peninsula,
market niches and windows in the U.S. and other markets must be identified. Some
market insights are given here for several of the crops mentioned in the production
discussion above. Sweet onions do not store well and demand for them is high, especially
in the United States. Sweet onions are presently imported by the U.S. from Uruguay, Peru
and Nicaragua. If the market window is consistent with a potential production season, the
possibility of export to the US should be explored. The demand for seedless watermelon
is increasing in the US. A market niche in a favorable production season may result in a
viable export crop.

Credit

The availability of credit to all but large producers or businessmen is a greater problem
than interest rates charged. Because it is possible for poor landowners and other poor
people to lose all they own, including their land, through nonpayment of debt, making
credit available to such groups of people has some inherent risks that are contrary to
social justice. Any credit system that is developed must be sensitive to that issue. The
credit system, however, must require that borrowers repay loans. Strategies should be
investigated to make credit available for agricultural loans and for non-agricultural loans
to small and medium sized businesses, such as artisans and tourist services. If a special
credit system is created, it should be self-sustaining. Users of such a system should be
trained in use/repayment of credit, enhancing the entrepreneurial capability of users.

The implications should be investigated of the commune system on propensities to make
investments on land and difficulties/opportunities regarding the extension of credit.













Marketing and Other Producer Needs


Marketing

Marketing studies must be performed. Market windows, depth and breadth of markets
must be evaluated and prices projected. Production, marketing (e.g. packing), and
transportation costs and product prices must be estimated or projected. Producers should
not promote products for production unless marketing channels are known and
understood. Market evaluation and marketing studies should be performed even for
products that are presently produced and sold by others.

Given the potential for quantity and multi-seasonality of production in the Peninsula,
market niches and windows in the U.S. and other markets must be identified. Some
market insights are given here for several of the crops mentioned in the production
discussion above. Sweet onions do not store well and demand for them is high, especially
in the United States. Sweet onions are presently imported by the U.S. from Uruguay, Peru
and Nicaragua. If the market window is consistent with a potential production season, the
possibility of export to the US should be explored. The demand for seedless watermelon
is increasing in the US. A market niche in a favorable production season may result in a
viable export crop.

Credit

The availability of credit to all but large producers or businessmen is a greater problem
than interest rates charged. Because it is possible for poor landowners and other poor
people to lose all they own, including their land, through nonpayment of debt, making
credit available to such groups of people has some inherent risks that are contrary to
social justice. Any credit system that is developed must be sensitive to that issue. The
credit system, however, must require that borrowers repay loans. Strategies should be
investigated to make credit available for agricultural loans and for non-agricultural loans
to small and medium sized businesses, such as artisans and tourist services. If a special
credit system is created, it should be self-sustaining. Users of such a system should be
trained in use/repayment of credit, enhancing the entrepreneurial capability of users.

The implications should be investigated of the commune system on propensities to make
investments on land and difficulties/opportunities regarding the extension of credit.








Programs and/or suggestions for legislation should be developed to mitigate any negative
effects.

Detailed studies of the small holder and commune livelihood systems

It is suggested that as a first step in working with the small farmers a more detailed study
be made of their livelihood systems. Based on data from rapid surveys (Sondeos), linear
programming models should be developed to simulate their existing systems complete
with existing resource constraints and household needs. Once these models are validated
they can be used to help predict potential adaptability of proposed new activities or
technologies under the real conditions of these target farmers.

Examples of Extension Programs or Projects
Construction of Albarradas

Construction of albarradas, small and formerly traditional earthen dams, can provide
additional irrigation water that may allow for at least one and perhaps more good harvests
per year. A program promoting construction of albarradas on individual farms should be
developed. Pilot demonstration dams should be designed and built. The dams should be
shown to a large number of small farmers. To the extent possible, the small farmers
should be involved in their construction. Demonstration of small dam construction,
training in dam building and water harvesting methods for small communities, and training
in basic irrigation design and installation should also be made available to all landowners.

Laboratories, Diffusion of Information and Educational programs

The soil, water quality, disease diagnostic, and plant tissue analysis laboratory should be
used for extension as well as research and teaching purposes. Thus, producers should be
trained in taking such samples and in using results from the laboratory.

Sufficiency levels based on tissue analysis for various crops should be established and
appropriate teaching or information materials should be developed so that producers have
this information readily available.

Once information for vegetable production and marketing is acquired it should be
provided to stakeholders by every appropriate means including meetings, field days,
printed material (Manual del Cultivo de Melon para Exportacion is an excellent example),
video, etc. Similarly for medicinal plants, an educational program should be established
once pertinent information is gathered and evaluated. Early on for vegetables and
medicinal plants, direct technical assistance should be accorded the small producers.








Programs and/or suggestions for legislation should be developed to mitigate any negative
effects.

Detailed studies of the small holder and commune livelihood systems

It is suggested that as a first step in working with the small farmers a more detailed study
be made of their livelihood systems. Based on data from rapid surveys (Sondeos), linear
programming models should be developed to simulate their existing systems complete
with existing resource constraints and household needs. Once these models are validated
they can be used to help predict potential adaptability of proposed new activities or
technologies under the real conditions of these target farmers.

Examples of Extension Programs or Projects
Construction of Albarradas

Construction of albarradas, small and formerly traditional earthen dams, can provide
additional irrigation water that may allow for at least one and perhaps more good harvests
per year. A program promoting construction of albarradas on individual farms should be
developed. Pilot demonstration dams should be designed and built. The dams should be
shown to a large number of small farmers. To the extent possible, the small farmers
should be involved in their construction. Demonstration of small dam construction,
training in dam building and water harvesting methods for small communities, and training
in basic irrigation design and installation should also be made available to all landowners.

Laboratories, Diffusion of Information and Educational programs

The soil, water quality, disease diagnostic, and plant tissue analysis laboratory should be
used for extension as well as research and teaching purposes. Thus, producers should be
trained in taking such samples and in using results from the laboratory.

Sufficiency levels based on tissue analysis for various crops should be established and
appropriate teaching or information materials should be developed so that producers have
this information readily available.

Once information for vegetable production and marketing is acquired it should be
provided to stakeholders by every appropriate means including meetings, field days,
printed material (Manual del Cultivo de Melon para Exportacion is an excellent example),
video, etc. Similarly for medicinal plants, an educational program should be established
once pertinent information is gathered and evaluated. Early on for vegetables and
medicinal plants, direct technical assistance should be accorded the small producers.








Programs and/or suggestions for legislation should be developed to mitigate any negative
effects.

Detailed studies of the small holder and commune livelihood systems

It is suggested that as a first step in working with the small farmers a more detailed study
be made of their livelihood systems. Based on data from rapid surveys (Sondeos), linear
programming models should be developed to simulate their existing systems complete
with existing resource constraints and household needs. Once these models are validated
they can be used to help predict potential adaptability of proposed new activities or
technologies under the real conditions of these target farmers.

Examples of Extension Programs or Projects
Construction of Albarradas

Construction of albarradas, small and formerly traditional earthen dams, can provide
additional irrigation water that may allow for at least one and perhaps more good harvests
per year. A program promoting construction of albarradas on individual farms should be
developed. Pilot demonstration dams should be designed and built. The dams should be
shown to a large number of small farmers. To the extent possible, the small farmers
should be involved in their construction. Demonstration of small dam construction,
training in dam building and water harvesting methods for small communities, and training
in basic irrigation design and installation should also be made available to all landowners.

Laboratories, Diffusion of Information and Educational programs

The soil, water quality, disease diagnostic, and plant tissue analysis laboratory should be
used for extension as well as research and teaching purposes. Thus, producers should be
trained in taking such samples and in using results from the laboratory.

Sufficiency levels based on tissue analysis for various crops should be established and
appropriate teaching or information materials should be developed so that producers have
this information readily available.

Once information for vegetable production and marketing is acquired it should be
provided to stakeholders by every appropriate means including meetings, field days,
printed material (Manual del Cultivo de Melon para Exportacion is an excellent example),
video, etc. Similarly for medicinal plants, an educational program should be established
once pertinent information is gathered and evaluated. Early on for vegetables and
medicinal plants, direct technical assistance should be accorded the small producers.








Programs and/or suggestions for legislation should be developed to mitigate any negative
effects.

Detailed studies of the small holder and commune livelihood systems

It is suggested that as a first step in working with the small farmers a more detailed study
be made of their livelihood systems. Based on data from rapid surveys (Sondeos), linear
programming models should be developed to simulate their existing systems complete
with existing resource constraints and household needs. Once these models are validated
they can be used to help predict potential adaptability of proposed new activities or
technologies under the real conditions of these target farmers.

Examples of Extension Programs or Projects
Construction of Albarradas

Construction of albarradas, small and formerly traditional earthen dams, can provide
additional irrigation water that may allow for at least one and perhaps more good harvests
per year. A program promoting construction of albarradas on individual farms should be
developed. Pilot demonstration dams should be designed and built. The dams should be
shown to a large number of small farmers. To the extent possible, the small farmers
should be involved in their construction. Demonstration of small dam construction,
training in dam building and water harvesting methods for small communities, and training
in basic irrigation design and installation should also be made available to all landowners.

Laboratories, Diffusion of Information and Educational programs

The soil, water quality, disease diagnostic, and plant tissue analysis laboratory should be
used for extension as well as research and teaching purposes. Thus, producers should be
trained in taking such samples and in using results from the laboratory.

Sufficiency levels based on tissue analysis for various crops should be established and
appropriate teaching or information materials should be developed so that producers have
this information readily available.

Once information for vegetable production and marketing is acquired it should be
provided to stakeholders by every appropriate means including meetings, field days,
printed material (Manual del Cultivo de Melon para Exportacion is an excellent example),
video, etc. Similarly for medicinal plants, an educational program should be established
once pertinent information is gathered and evaluated. Early on for vegetables and
medicinal plants, direct technical assistance should be accorded the small producers.








Establish an Environmental Education Program for Farmers and Citizens.

Ecuador's tropical forests are a precious resource. They provide many benefits such as
biodiversity, wildlife, watershed values, recreation, forest products. If citizens and policy-
makers understand these values, there is a greater likelihood for their conservation and
management. Farmers also have small forests or isolated forest resources on their lands,
yet sometimes do not have the information for conservation and management of these
resources. Both groups are ideal opportunities for environmental education to
demonstrate the importance of forest resources to Ecuador.

Institutional Arrangements for Extension

An extension system with no cost to small producers and possibly based on the UF model
should be considered. The system could be sustained through subsidies from ESPOL, the
local governments, and CEDEGE as well as funds obtained from grants and contracts. It
may be possible to incorporate the resources of large producers in this extension effort.

An alternative extension program could be based on the Farming Systems Research-
Extension (FSRE) model. This model combines research conducted on farms with the
farmers, under their conditions and using resources available to them with direct extension
of the results to individual farmers and groups of farmers.

Santa Elena University

This new university requested a broad range of support from UF. We indicated any
support would need to go through ESPOL and that UF did not represent financial
resources. They did mention that they had land upon which to build an experiment station
but that equipping it was very expensive. We suggested they might want to consider not
investing their very scarce resources in an experiment station but rather might consider
using farm systems research methodology. UF (with ESPOL) could present their faculty
a short course on this topic.








Establish an Environmental Education Program for Farmers and Citizens.

Ecuador's tropical forests are a precious resource. They provide many benefits such as
biodiversity, wildlife, watershed values, recreation, forest products. If citizens and policy-
makers understand these values, there is a greater likelihood for their conservation and
management. Farmers also have small forests or isolated forest resources on their lands,
yet sometimes do not have the information for conservation and management of these
resources. Both groups are ideal opportunities for environmental education to
demonstrate the importance of forest resources to Ecuador.

Institutional Arrangements for Extension

An extension system with no cost to small producers and possibly based on the UF model
should be considered. The system could be sustained through subsidies from ESPOL, the
local governments, and CEDEGE as well as funds obtained from grants and contracts. It
may be possible to incorporate the resources of large producers in this extension effort.

An alternative extension program could be based on the Farming Systems Research-
Extension (FSRE) model. This model combines research conducted on farms with the
farmers, under their conditions and using resources available to them with direct extension
of the results to individual farmers and groups of farmers.

Santa Elena University

This new university requested a broad range of support from UF. We indicated any
support would need to go through ESPOL and that UF did not represent financial
resources. They did mention that they had land upon which to build an experiment station
but that equipping it was very expensive. We suggested they might want to consider not
investing their very scarce resources in an experiment station but rather might consider
using farm systems research methodology. UF (with ESPOL) could present their faculty
a short course on this topic.








Establish an Environmental Education Program for Farmers and Citizens.

Ecuador's tropical forests are a precious resource. They provide many benefits such as
biodiversity, wildlife, watershed values, recreation, forest products. If citizens and policy-
makers understand these values, there is a greater likelihood for their conservation and
management. Farmers also have small forests or isolated forest resources on their lands,
yet sometimes do not have the information for conservation and management of these
resources. Both groups are ideal opportunities for environmental education to
demonstrate the importance of forest resources to Ecuador.

Institutional Arrangements for Extension

An extension system with no cost to small producers and possibly based on the UF model
should be considered. The system could be sustained through subsidies from ESPOL, the
local governments, and CEDEGE as well as funds obtained from grants and contracts. It
may be possible to incorporate the resources of large producers in this extension effort.

An alternative extension program could be based on the Farming Systems Research-
Extension (FSRE) model. This model combines research conducted on farms with the
farmers, under their conditions and using resources available to them with direct extension
of the results to individual farmers and groups of farmers.

Santa Elena University

This new university requested a broad range of support from UF. We indicated any
support would need to go through ESPOL and that UF did not represent financial
resources. They did mention that they had land upon which to build an experiment station
but that equipping it was very expensive. We suggested they might want to consider not
investing their very scarce resources in an experiment station but rather might consider
using farm systems research methodology. UF (with ESPOL) could present their faculty
a short course on this topic.








Appendix A

University of Florida Participants (Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

Richard Beilock, Food and Resource Economics

William Brown, Assistant Dean for Research

Mary Duryea, Forest Resources and Conservation

Dorota Haman, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Peter Hildebrand, Food and Resource Economics

Donald Maynard, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center

Jack Rechcigl, Range Cattle Research and Education Center

David Zimet, North Florida Research and Education Center

Elena Bastidas, Food and Resource Economics, Coordinator








Appendix B


Itinerary

PROGRAMACION DIARIA PARA LA VISIT DE LOS PROFESORES DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE
FLORIDA GAINESVILLE


FECHA Y
HORARIO

Domingo 6


Lunes 7

08:30 -
10:30


10:30-
12:30


DETALLE DE
ACTIVIDADES


Arribo aeropuerto e instalaci6n
en Hotel Kennedy


Bienvenida en ESPOL, revision
del program y metodologia de
trabajo

Spot: ESPOL

Visita al Campus Gustavo
Galindo, ireas Agricolas,
Biotecnologia, Reforestaci6n,
Aula Virtual, CEMA


OBSERVACIONES


Hay diversos
calendarios de llegada
y partida


Participan visitantes,
autoridades de ESPOL


Auditorium: Edificio
de la Administraci6n
Central


La ESPOL y su influencia en la
region

Visi6n general de la region: (La
Cuenca y Peninsula de Santa
Elena) aspects
socioecon6micos, ambientales,
politicos, etc.

Exposici6n de objetivos de
Universidad de Florida y ESPOL;
Participan empresarios


Expositores:
Especialistas,
coordinadores y
funcionarios del
CEDEGE

Local: Bankers Club


Almuerzo


13:00-
14:00


14:00-
14:30

14:30-
16:00


18:00-
21:00










Martes 8


Grupo A


08:00


Bosque Protector


Almuerzo


En el area del centro
cientifico


Empresas: ganadera, bananera y
fruticola

Regreso a Guayaquil


Area de Daule (Sector Sur de
la Cuenca del Guayas)


Salida desde el Hotel

Campus Polit6cnico en Daule


Proyecto America (CEDEGE)


Piladoras de arroz en la zona






Almuerzo


Regreso a Guayaquil por el
sector de Salitre J. Bautista
Aguirre

Estaci6n Rio Palenque (Sector
Norte de la Cuenca del
Guayas)

Salida desde el aeropuerto


Este viaje se realizari
en avioneta -
capacidad: 5 personas


Podrin observer:
trabajo acad6mico para
nivel medio;
producci6n ganadera y
apicola; humus
organico; producci6n
agricola: arroz, maiz,
plitano, yuca, papaya,
etc. arboles
maderables; vivero;
manejo de riego y
process agroindustrial

Daule


09:00 -
10:30

11:00-
12:00

12:00-
13:30





13:30-
14:30

14:30


Martes 8


GrupoB


09:00



10:00-
12:00

12:00 -
13:00

13:00 -
16:00

16:00









Mi&coles 9


08:00


08:30 9:30


09:30 -
11:00

11:30-
14:00

11:30 -
14:00


14:30 -
15:30


16:00


Jueves 10


Visit a la Peninsula de Santa
Elena (4 dias y 3 noches)

Salida desde Guayaquil en
direcci6n a Playas

Visita Proyecto de Trasvase de
agua de la Peninsula de Santa
Elena

Visita Granja Experimental de
CEDEGE en Chong6n

Visita a la hacienda Agroficial


Visita a empresas del sector
Cerecita


Visita al area de San Antonio


Area de Playas: Recorrido por
sectors de interns turistico


Faja costera norte de la
Provincia del Guayas


Participa todo el grupo



Participa todo el grupo


Participa un grupo de
visitantes

Participa el otro grupo
(Almuerzos durante las
visits de cada grupo)

Participan todos; visit
a empresa productora
de avestruces

Alojamiento y visit a
la playa en este
balneario


Salida desde Playas


Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e
Investigaciones Marinas
(ESPOL)


Almuerzo


CENAIM


Zona especial de manejo del
program de recursos costeros,
en Manglaralto



Fundaci6n PROPUEBLO, en
Manglaralto


Proyectos de recursos
costeros en agriculture
organica y otros



Proyectos de
artesanias, apicultura,


08:00

10:00-
12:00


12:00 -
13:00

14:00 -
15:00


15:30 -
17:30









reciclaje, etc.


Salida a Salinas


Alojamiento en este
balneario. Hotel
Calipso


Viemes 11


08:00

10:00-
11:30


11:30-
13:00


13:00


15:00 -
17:00


15:00 -
16:30 Grupo
A

15:00-
17:00 Grupo
B


17:00

18:00


SAbado 12


08:00 -
11:30


11:30 -
12:30 Grupo
A


Varios Sectores de la Peninsula
de Santa Elena

Salida desde Salinas

Reuni6n con el alcalde de Santa
Elena y profesores de Ingenieria
Agropecuaria de la carrera de
agriculture de la Universidad de
Santa Elena

Almuerzo y recorrido por el
museo del restaurant Farall6n

Salida de Santa Elena

Area de Engunga:


Empresa productora de
cucurbitaceas y hortalizas
(tomate)

Empresa productora de
espirragos verdes


Salida hacia Punta Carero

Reuni6n con la Junta Directiva
de FUNDAGRO programa
especial)




Recreaci6n en la Playa/Libre


Empresas Artesanales de
Atahualpa


ESPOL colabora con
estos Municipios




Cant6n Santa Elena


Se observari su buen
desarrollo tecnol6gico


Tiene vinculo con
ESPOL


Existe convenio de
cooperaci6n con esta
ONG


Observaci6n de
muebles y artesanias
con madera local


17:30









13:00 -
13:30 Grupo
A

11:30 -
13:30 Grupo
B


14:00 -
14:30

15:00 -
17:30


Bosque Juvenil de Zapotal
(grupo A)


Fincas de comuneros de "El
Az~car"


Almuerzo


Reuni6n de Trabajo con
directives de varias comunas del
area


En el recorrido se
brindari un lunch


Zapotal


Local: Casa comunal
de Zapotal


17:30
Grupo A

17:30
Grupo B

Domingo 13


Salida a Guayaquil


Regreso a Salinas


M. Duryea & D.
Maynard

M. Duryea & D.
Maynard


Salinas


Evaluaci6n parcial de la visit y
redacci6n de borrador para
discusi6n


Almuerzo


Local: Hotel


Club Privado


Regreso al Hotel

Recorrido por area de la
cuenca baja de la region

Salida de Salinas a Guayaquil

Descanso Hotel Kennedy


Almuerzo


Granja de la ESPOL,
Km. 48


Observaci6n de la Granja
Integral San Carlos

Regreso a Guayaquil


09:00 -
12:00


13:00 -
17:00

17:00

Lunes 14

07:00

09:30 -
11:00

11:00 -
13:00


13:00 -
14:00


14:00









Reuni6n de trabajo


16:00 -
17:00

17:00

Martes 15


Mircoles


Salida hacia Puerto L6pez

Visita a la Isla de La Plata


Sector SUR-ESTE de la
region


Salida del Hotel

Hacienda "Agricola Cafia"


Hacienda San Jacinto, propiedad
del president de la asociaci6n de
cacaoteros


Guayaquil


Reuni6n con diferentes
profesores y visit a laboratories
de interns


Almuerzo


Participan: directives,
especialistas y
coordinadores del
convenio


ESPOL


Reuni6n de trabajo con directives
y profesores de la ESPOL


Facilitador:
Washington Macias


En area de Puerto Inca


Esta visit incluye una
reunion con
empresarios del Area y
almuerzo


8:00


09:30-
10:30

10:30 -
14:00



Jueves 17

08:30 -
12:30



12:30 -
13:30


14:00 -
16:30












Charla con Julio Chang sobre las
political del Sector Agropecuario


Visita a CSA (Centro de
Servicios para Acuicultura) y
laboratories

Almuerzo



Con directives ESPOL,
conclusions


Acto social de despedida


Local: Auditorio del
Rectorado


Local: ESPAE-ESPOL


Viemes 18


10:00 -


12.00


12:00-


12:30


13:00-


14:00


15:00 -


16:00


18:00 -
20:00








Appendix C


CURRENT SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVE OF THE AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR OF THE RIO GUAYAS WATERSHED AND THE SANTA ELENA
PENINSULA


STRENGTHS
* Warm climate 365 days a year
* Variety of microclimates
* Efficient hydrologic capacity in the Rio Guayas watershed
* Dam
* Infrastructure and public works provide security to production
* Proximity to Guayaquil and ports for export
* Fertile soils able to be mechanized
* Soils with low chemical use
* Human capital (self-starter character, inexpensive labor1, technical resources)
* Located in the tropical belt of the planet, containing the largest quantity of the world
population
* Presence of CEDEGE
* Abundant biodiversity

WEAKNESSES
* Lack of qualified human resources in determined sectors
* Lack of a productive culture in the Santa Elena Peninsula
* High cost of water for the irrigation system
* Lack of availability of credit, especially long-term
* Lack of economic resources for works constructed and to finish hydraulic works
* Lack of research and extension
* Lack ofphytosanitary control organisms
* Lack of economic studies that allow to make decisions
* Lack of a good marketing system
* Lack of knowledge about post-harvest management
* No promotion of productive investments
* Land tenure. No one knows who the owners are. Speculation.
* Long distances to external markets
* Lack of flexible labor.
* Deficiency in the unskilled labor
* Lack of internal roads


1 Only for the Rio Guayas watershed, for the Santa Elena Peninsula, labor would have to brought for other
sectors








THREATS
* Concentration of the ownership of the land
* Centralism that cuts efficient participation of the public sector
* Political instability and financial isolation
* Agricultural development not accompanied by agribusiness development
* Tendency to indiscriminately open agricultural production to external commerce
* Social insecurity (capital flee)
* Indiscriminant use ofnontraditional products can provoke environmental impact
* Technology is associated with contamination
* Urban development

OPPORTUNITIES
* Demographic growth brings with it growth in demand
* Market niches of products where there is no competition in other countries
* Reconstruction of the San Vicente dam
* Creation of agribusinesses and products for export
* Biodiversity studies will produce new products and the recuperation of ancestral ones
* Development of high technology
* World tendency to consume natural products

Continued...











Topic' What to do
Lack of Strengthen the link between ESPOL and the University of Florida
science Create a center of agricultural and industrial development
and Coordination of state institutions (CORPEI, CEDEGE)
technology Make known the existence of PROMSA
research Soil classification and quality
Integrate the private sector, universities and the State
Use of nontraditional energy sources
Value added production
Scientific and technical development in biotechnology, biogenetics, phytopathology in
cooperation with the University of Florida
Improve agricultural and animal production research from within educational
institutions and strengthen existing research programs such as INIAP
Strengthen producer associations in coordination with research institutions
Agreements between the private sector and universities to carry out agricultural and
animal production research
Define Research the world market
what is to Define the deficit of agricultural products
be planted Strengthen export consortium that do not exist in the country
Prioritize areas that have a greater potential for development using a competitive
focus
First rate collection centers
Planning, to know when to plant
Available resources and how to use them
Training for producers, campesinos, businessmen and the public sector
Establish a system ofphytosanitary protection in accordance with international
standards
Reforestation processes
When and how to plant
Peninsula Develop ecotourism
tourism Satisfy the demand for food and goods that generate tourism
Construction of El Nifo-proof bridges and highways
Abandonm Return to the countryside
ent of the
countryside
Marketing Create incentives for small producers
chain Involve agribusiness
Uncultivat Laws to revert the use of the land to investment projects
ed land
Hoof-and- Establish roadway controls to avoid the spread of sicknesses
mouth Avoid animal control
disease
(aflosa)


SFor all of the topics, the philosophy of DRI should be recuperated.








Appendix D


Workshop with Traditional Producers


GENERAL SUMMARY
A workshop took place in the commune Zapotal for identification of problems in the
communes, and doing a general analysis of the parish and some nearby communes. In
their words:
PROBLEMS:
The principal factor that hinders the development of agricultural and animal
production in the parish is the scarcity of water in the area. A system of irrigation
canals was created to solve this problem, but very few communes have benefited due
to various reasons, among them, the distance between some of the communes and the
canals and the legal and illegal sale of land to non-commune members.


Water salinity is another problem affecting the coastal zones of the parishes. Salinity
prohibits human consumption as well as use for agricultural and animal production.
The creation of new wells and earthen dams or albarradas and the reconstruction of
existing wells and albarradas are necessary in order to deal with the problem of the
deficit of water in Chanduy.
Training, use of technology and specialization of the inhabitants of the communes in
the diverse production activities of the parish, including agriculture, animal production,
fishing and manufacturing, will help in the development of and increase the
productivity of the zone.
The lack of credit for production activities in the parish is also a problem that worsens
the economic and financial situation of the majority of the communes. The lack of
available operating capital does not allow for certain projects to be put in motion and
maintained.
In the area of health, it should be emphasized that little or no medical attention is
offered to the communes. In addition, there is a general lack of medicines available to
fill the needs of the inhabitants of the peninsula.
To wrap up the discussion of the general problems of the communes of the parish, the
transportation system cannot be avoided. The roads are in bad condition, and the lack
of bridge construction makes access to the roads, and furthermore, marketing of
commune production, difficult.
Continued ...








CAUSES:


The lack of government support aggravates the problems that the communes suffer.
Governmental organisms visit the communes to become acquainted with the situation,
but then show disregard for the communes by failing to return and present alternatives
to combat the problems. The same occurs with NGOs, and this generates a lack of
confidence and a feeling of incredulity in respect to any help that may show up in the
future.
One of the causes that stands out is the low income level of the inhabitants of the zone,
and that does not allow them to improve their standard of living.
The lack of sources of employment causes high levels of unemployment, another of the
causes to which the difficulties of subsistence in the parish is attributed.
The communes of the peninsula that participated in this analysis are for the most part
very poor, and this in itself becomes an obstacle for growth and development.
EFFECTS:
The effects of the problems can be determined using the following basic aspects:
health, housing, basic services, communication and land tenure.
In health, effects show up as sicknesses, such as malaria, which occur due to the level
of contamination and the lack of sanitary conditions. The lack of medical attention,
medicines, and maternity care in the dispensaries intensifies the problem. Malnutrition
also affects the communes, and this is due to the lack of nutrition knowledge that
exists at the family level.
In respect to housing, in some of the communes more than one family lives in each
dwelling with up to four families per dwelling in some cases. This provides an
indication of the deficit of housing in the zone.
Education is the base for the development of a sector, and this area suffers from a
shortage of educational infrastructure, primary schools, high schools and technical
schools. Furthermore, the problem of desertion also exists in the educational units.
Among the basic services in the zone where there are problems are potable water,
sewage systems, public lighting, and safety, given the existence of thieves. In some of
the communes, these services do not exist, and in others they need to be improved.
The two types of communication that exist in the zone are the system of public roads
and telephone communication. In terms of the public road system, the roads that exist
are in horrible condition due to lack of maintenance. Others should be created to better
stimulate commerce of the communes. On the other hand, telephone communication is
almost nonexistent due to the lack of telephone lines and the lack of telephone booths
in the communes. Cellular service helps some, but it doesn't fulfill the need for
communication due to high costs that are incurred when this service is used.








Lastly, the question of the land tenure in the communes generates conflicts among the
inhabitants due to both the legal and illegal sale of commune land. Furthermore, the
usurpation of the lands has reduced the expanse of communal property that can be
utilized to carry out production activities.




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