• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Preface
 Introduction
 Information base for this...
 Results
 Conclusions
 Appendices 1-2: Rice variety devote...
 Appendices 3-5: Chemical fertilizer...
 Appendices 6-7: Cropping patterns,...






Group Title: Networking paper - Farming Systems Support Project - no. 8
Title: Impact of cropping systems program at Sukchaina
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056173/00001
 Material Information
Title: Impact of cropping systems program at Sukchaina
Series Title: Networking paper
Physical Description: 10 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Singh, B. K
Sayre, Kenneth Dean, 1945-
Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: Farming Systems Support Project, International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesvill,e Fla.
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Cropping systems -- Nepal   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems -- Research -- Nepal   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: B.K. Singh and K.D. Sayre.
General Note: "His majesty's Government Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Integrated Cereals Project, Agronomy Division, Cropping Systems Program, Nepal, January, 1985."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056173
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 68939465

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Information base for this report
        Page 2
        Rice varieties
            Page 3
    Results
        Page 3
        Rice varieties
            Page 3
        Fertilizer application to rice
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Rice yields - Land use
            Page 6
            Page 7
    Conclusions
        Page 8
    Appendices 1-2: Rice variety devote to different parcels surveyed in Sukchaina in 1981 and 1984 - Rice seed sales in 1984 by farmers in Sukchaina
        Page 9
    Appendices 3-5: Chemical fertilizer application (kg/ha) to rice in surveyed parcels at Sukchaina - Compost application to rice in surveyed parcels at Sukchaina during 1981 and 1984 - Rice yield performance (t/ha) of different varieties at Sukchaina from parcel surveys in 1981 and 1984
        Page 10
    Appendices 6-7: Cropping patterns, land utilization index (LUI) and multiple cropping index (MCI) in surveyed parcels at Sukchaina in 1981 and 1984 - Economic performance of different improved cropping pattern at Sukchaina
        Page 11
Full Text

0/. OR


IMPACT OP CROPPING SYSTEMS PROGRAM


AT SlKCHAINA













By

B.K. Stagh


and


LD. SayTe
























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Do" or ISatepon









or* 6wnra^ aiws
AGRON~f W^B O


IJem uy 1985


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Sukchaina is one of thousands 6f villages in Nepal.. It is located in the
Terai three kilometers ftom Birgar~) the district head quarters of Parsa
District. The word tSukch.na" has several interpretation "Dry land
"Deprived of Peace and Happiness" or "itestless", All these meanings reflect the
agricultural production situation in Sukchaina which has a reputation as being
the poorest nmongst all its neighboring villages.

Seven years have passed since 1977 when the Cropping Systems i ropram selected
Sukchaina as one in a network of Crcpj ing Systems Research sites in Nepal and
established the first trials in fields of farmers from the village. If you ask
a Sukchaina villager todny what the Cronl.ing Systems Program has gan tt6 his
village, he is likely to reply, "We are still dry land farmers and more restless
but we have now found peace an, happiness".
This report attempts to document some of the changes since 1977 that have
occurred in Sukchaidn village, through the efforts of the Cropping Systems
Program in its research and extension activities with farmers in Sukcheina Village.









IMPACT OF THE GiLiING SYSTEMS IROGR.iAM AT SUK.CHAINA*


By: B.K. Sinph and
K.D. Sayre**

I, IINTOlRUCT ON
If you study a map of 1'arsa District in Nepal, you will find Sukchaint,
a village of approximately 100 households and 100 ha rf cultivated land
surrounded by a network rf irrip-tion channels. However, these channels are
useless to the farmers cf Sukchinea because they are designed to deliver
irrigation water to cthor aEijininr areas. Sukchaina, because of its location
and topogra~ hy has been by- passed ; left as an island of rainfed agriculture.
It is representative, hcwover, of thousands of hectares of rminfed, rioe-
growing lands in Ne-~ls Terai area. In 1977, the Cropping Systems Program
selected Sukohaina Villnge, one of a network of Crppinr Systems Research
Sites in Nepal, as an appropriate location to test new crop-production
technologies. for the rrinnfed areas of the Terai.

The Crcpliinr Systems i program has implemented a novel approach to identify
useful, improved crop-iroduction technologies in several well-defined socio-
agro-olimatic situations in Nepal.

The approach strives to bring -together biological scientists, socio-
economists and farmers to work together as a team in farmers' fields to
identify improved practices to increase crop productionn ran economic wellobeing.
After developing a thoreugh understanding of the conditions that exist within
the area encompassed by the Cropping Systems Research Site, research trials
are designed and implemented with full participation of carefully selected
farmers to test new innovations and. tc evaluate their utility.

The Crop- ing Systems Apiroach seeks to elevate farm income by increasing
total crop production df farms though identification of innovations that are
compatible with the agronomic and climatic conditions, the farm resource
availabilities capitala, labor, power and management capability) anrd the
existing crol:inf systems. This differs to some extent from the more traditio-
nal commodity-based re~en.rch and production approaches that fc cus on increa-
sing yield of a single crop such as rice, wheat, maize etc.

The Croiping Systems Approach strives to. increase trtal crop production
,per year of farms by improving the crop performances in the predominant,
existing crol ing patterns or by increasing the intensity of land use by
adding additional, relevant crops to the existing patterns or by a combina-
tion of both approaches.

The biological scientists are aware of the most recent technological
advances available front the various comnmcnity:programs and research disciplines.
iaper Presented at the 12th Summer Crops Workshop Held at iampur A(ri-
cultural F:-rm from January 28 to February 1, 1985.
** Agronomist and Sanior Cropping Systems Research Agronomist, respectively;
IADS//CP, Pulchowk, Nepal.








//2//
The sccio-eccnrmists assist these scientists in deciding what technologies
to try by devel-ping a "screen" to shift out the relevant technologies worthy
for test, bbased 9n their knowledge, developed through observation, surveys
and interview w ithin the site, of the prevailing conditions. The selected
farmers agr e to try these technologies in their fields in cropping patterns
and component technology trials and pass judgement on the feasibility of the
innovations. Once useful new technologies are identified, they are extended
to the farmers within the site and to farmers in other sirilr.r areas.

This approach has been followed at Sukchaina and other Cropping Systems
Research sites. This re-ort attempts to document the success that the Cropping
Systems program and the Sukchaina farmers hnve achieved in increasing crop
production in Sukchaina.

II. INFOrMaTION BASE FOi THIS ILEOrlT
The seven years that the Cropling Systems Program has spent in Sukchaina
can be divided into twc broal periods : 1977 1980 research phase and
1980 to the present --extension andl research phase. Throughout this time,
various surveys have been conducted to determine what changes have been taking
place.

The first survey, ccn-ucted in 1977, was a reconnaissance survey to
describe the existing situation before the research phase was initiated. This
survey was instrumental in helping the researchers plan the initial trials
that were established. It lso forms a baseline for measuring changes that
are observed in succeeding surveys. This survey indicated that : 1) 95% of
the cultivated area in Sukchaina was rainfed; 2) the average land holding was
'483 ha per household; 3) over 50% of the cultivated area was under a rice
monocrop and 4) more than 30 lccal rice varieties were being grown over 80%
of the rice area. The farm size distribution was as follows:


In 1981, ccinciiing with the beginning of the extension and research
phase, a parcel tc, parcel survey of 122 parcels belonging to 40 farmers was
conducted. This survey sought information about croiping pattern being
followed, crop varieties, crop yields, fertilizer application availability
of irrigation plus several other factors about each parcel. In 1984, a
second survey using basically the same questionnaire was conducted with the
same 40 f r amrs concerning the same 122 parcels (one parcel, it turned out,
had been sold). In a.'dition, in 984 a Key Informant Survey was conducted
with five kncwlcJger.ble Sukchainr farmers concerning the current, general
agricultural situation in their village. This report compiles and briefly
summarizes the results of these three surveys, emphasizing those conducted
in 1981 and 1984, tc -locument the striking changes that have occurred at
Sukchaina from 1977 to 1984.


Farm Size (ha) % of Householis

Landless 5.2
0 1.5 63.8
1.5 3.0 20.2
3.0 & above 10.4







// 3 //
III. RESULTS
The main criteria that has been used in this report to illustrate changes
in crop production strategies th.t have occurred at Sukchaina involve changes
in rice varieties, fertilizer ai,.lication to rice cropping patterns, cropping
intensity is measured by Land Utlization In ex (LUI) and Multiple Cropping
Index (MCI) rnd rico yields. Each of these will be separately discussed.

A. Rice Varieties
The reconnnissnnce survey and other observations luring 1977
indicated that mrny different t local varieties were beinp grown in Suk-
ch?.in..

Each locnl vnrioty hacl defined characteristics recognized by farmers.
For exarple, Anr ndci had good poi ping quality, Basmati very fine, aromatic
grain, r. ':, strr.w yield, Kasturi also fine aromatic rain and Handiful-
somewhat drought tolerant and comparatively gocd grain and straw yield
under minimum inputs. All, however, were generally low in grain yield
and most were late in, maturity. Farmers tended to grow certain varieties
in association with certain cropping patterns and land types.

The Crop-ing Systems Researchers realized at the onset that it
would be necessary to test end identify several improved rice varieties
to adapt to the existing cropping patterns and land types or for use in
new alternative patterns. No single improved variety would fit all situaf
tions. Farmers not .only considered grain yield but also maturity to fit
certain patterns, straw yield, threshing characteristics, grain charao-
teristics for ccnsunption and marketing -nd probably other factors.
Emphasis, however, was given to identify sound improved varieties that
were earlier than most of the locals. The strategy was to make better
use of residual moisture from the monsoon rain through earlier rice
harvest to allow planting of winter crops at the appropriate time and to
spread peak labor requirements.

The figure below illustrates the changes that have occurred in use
of rico varieties in Sukchnina from 1977 to 1984.

CHANGES IN USE (F EICE VARIETIES AT SUCHAINA Fl OM 1977 TO 198L.
1977 1981 1984


RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
(1977)







// 3 //
III. RESULTS
The main criteria that has been used in this report to illustrate changes
in crop production strategies th.t have occurred at Sukchaina involve changes
in rice varieties, fertilizer ai,.lication to rice cropping patterns, cropping
intensity is measured by Land Utlization In ex (LUI) and Multiple Cropping
Index (MCI) rnd rico yields. Each of these will be separately discussed.

A. Rice Varieties
The reconnnissnnce survey and other observations luring 1977
indicated that mrny different t local varieties were beinp grown in Suk-
ch?.in..

Each locnl vnrioty hacl defined characteristics recognized by farmers.
For exarple, Anr ndci had good poi ping quality, Basmati very fine, aromatic
grain, r. ':, strr.w yield, Kasturi also fine aromatic rain and Handiful-
somewhat drought tolerant and comparatively gocd grain and straw yield
under minimum inputs. All, however, were generally low in grain yield
and most were late in, maturity. Farmers tended to grow certain varieties
in association with certain cropping patterns and land types.

The Crop-ing Systems Researchers realized at the onset that it
would be necessary to test end identify several improved rice varieties
to adapt to the existing cropping patterns and land types or for use in
new alternative patterns. No single improved variety would fit all situaf
tions. Farmers not .only considered grain yield but also maturity to fit
certain patterns, straw yield, threshing characteristics, grain charao-
teristics for ccnsunption and marketing -nd probably other factors.
Emphasis, however, was given to identify sound improved varieties that
were earlier than most of the locals. The strategy was to make better
use of residual moisture from the monsoon rain through earlier rice
harvest to allow planting of winter crops at the appropriate time and to
spread peak labor requirements.

The figure below illustrates the changes that have occurred in use
of rico varieties in Sukchnina from 1977 to 1984.

CHANGES IN USE (F EICE VARIETIES AT SUCHAINA Fl OM 1977 TO 198L.
1977 1981 1984


RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
(1977)







// 3 //
III. RESULTS
The main criteria that has been used in this report to illustrate changes
in crop production strategies th.t have occurred at Sukchaina involve changes
in rice varieties, fertilizer ai,.lication to rice cropping patterns, cropping
intensity is measured by Land Utlization In ex (LUI) and Multiple Cropping
Index (MCI) rnd rico yields. Each of these will be separately discussed.

A. Rice Varieties
The reconnnissnnce survey and other observations luring 1977
indicated that mrny different t local varieties were beinp grown in Suk-
ch?.in..

Each locnl vnrioty hacl defined characteristics recognized by farmers.
For exarple, Anr ndci had good poi ping quality, Basmati very fine, aromatic
grain, r. ':, strr.w yield, Kasturi also fine aromatic rain and Handiful-
somewhat drought tolerant and comparatively gocd grain and straw yield
under minimum inputs. All, however, were generally low in grain yield
and most were late in, maturity. Farmers tended to grow certain varieties
in association with certain cropping patterns and land types.

The Crop-ing Systems Researchers realized at the onset that it
would be necessary to test end identify several improved rice varieties
to adapt to the existing cropping patterns and land types or for use in
new alternative patterns. No single improved variety would fit all situaf
tions. Farmers not .only considered grain yield but also maturity to fit
certain patterns, straw yield, threshing characteristics, grain charao-
teristics for ccnsunption and marketing -nd probably other factors.
Emphasis, however, was given to identify sound improved varieties that
were earlier than most of the locals. The strategy was to make better
use of residual moisture from the monsoon rain through earlier rice
harvest to allow planting of winter crops at the appropriate time and to
spread peak labor requirements.

The figure below illustrates the changes that have occurred in use
of rico varieties in Sukchnina from 1977 to 1984.

CHANGES IN USE (F EICE VARIETIES AT SUCHAINA Fl OM 1977 TO 198L.
1977 1981 1984


RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
(1977)








//41//
In 1977, 80% of the area was planted to local varieties and 20% was
planted to the two existing improved varieties, Masuli and CH-45. By
1981, coinciding with the research phase, 54% of the area was planted
to four improved varieties versus 46% for local var eties. Bindeshwari
and Malika had been identified in the 'research as promising and spread
to other farmers had occurred by farmer-to-farmer seed sale or exchange.

The extension activities were initiated in 1980 (winter season).
Therefore, the period from 1980 to 1984 reflects the impact of this
extension effort. By 1984, 98% of the rice area in Sukchaina was
planted to improved varieties including a still wider sprectrum of
improved varieties. Of the 122 parcels that were surveyed in 1981 and
1984, inly 3 parcels (2%) were planted to local varieties in 1984.
(See Appendix 1 for a variety-by-variety breakdown of the percent of
surveyed parcels planted in 1981 and 1984 to the various varieties.)
The research activities that continued during the 1981 to 1984 period
has continued to identify additional new varieties an, both IR 8423 and
Saryu-49 are entering into general production. In fact, the Sukchaina
farmers are calling IR 8423 by the name, Sukchaina-84 their new
fortune, and have over 2000 kg of seed available for sale or exchange.

This, in fact, has been a curious side effect of the program at
Sukchaina. The farmers at Sukchaina have become recr-pnized as a source
of rice seed of new, high-yielding varieties for rainfed conditions.
Farmers from other areas come to Sukchaina tc buy seed of the new
varieties. ,ppendix 2 presents an estimate of the amounts of seed
sold in 1984 and available for sale during 1985. The Key Informant
Survey in 1984 indicated that seed had been sold or given to farmers
from other areas in Parsa District from Bara, Rautahat, Sarlahi,
Mahottari, Dhanusha and Chitwan Districts and also to India.

B. Fertilizer Application to, Rice
The Cropping Systems Program has followed an integrated approach
to developing relevat fertilizer recommendations for the important
cropping patterns in all the Cropping Systems Research sites. The
approach has involved determining economically feasible fertilizer
rates for each crop in the patterns that considers the fertilizer appli-
cations being made for other crops in the pattern and potential
residual effects. In Sukchaina, the findings have shown no economic
response to application of K on rice. Similarly, there has been no
economic response to applying F to rice if P is applied to winter crops
at the rate of 20-30 kg/ha ,205 before rice is planted.(

These findings have guided farmers in Sukchaina to establish
economic priorities in buying fertilizer for their cropping patterns
and have helped to maximize scarce capital resources. Recommendations
that have been developed for Sukchaina commonly involve only N for rice
but N and P and where relevant, K, is applied to the succeeding winter
crops. Residual effects of P and K applied to the winter crops appear
to provide sufficient amounts for the following rice crop, at least at
the current N levels being recommended for rice.







//5//
The figure below illustrates the changes that have occurred in
Sukchaina in N application to rice from 1981 to 1984 based on the
parcel-to-parcel surveys conducted in 1981 and 1984.

CHLUJGE IN FEiTaILIZE APJPLICiTIONj SuCHAItNA


40 -

+45|
/Z LOCL* 0+ %5C


30 / IMPROVEDD
N-J/ha. 27 .7



20 -t xxx
XXX
xxx
XXX
20

1981 1984
In 1984, only three parcels surveyed were planted, to local
varieties. The average N application for these three parcels
was 30 k8/ha.

The averago'N application to local varieties in 1981 was 23 Ik/ha.
In 1984, cut of -the 122 parcels surveyed, only three parcels were
planted to local varieties. Average N application to these "parcels
was 30 ,/ha (not shown in the figure) a modest increase as compared to
1981.

The average N application to improved varieties of rice in 1981
was 27.7 kg/ha. This increased to 40.2 k/ha in 1984, an increase of
45%. In 1981, 25% of the surveyed parcels (involving both lotal and
improved varieties) did not receive any chemical fertilizer. This dropped
to zero in the 1984 survey. (Appenrilx 3 illustrates the application
rates for different rice varieties in the parcels surveyed in 1981 and-
1984 and the number of parcels receiving. different fertilizer application
rates for each variety.)

It was of interest to note from the surveys that most farmers were
applying N as both basal and top-dress in 1984 as recommended by the
Cropping Systems program, whereas in 1981 mcst farmers were applying N
only as top-dress. However, the compost application practices to -rice
remained almost the same comparing the survey results for 1981 and 1984
(See Appendix 4 for a summary ofcompost application information from
the surveys).








// 6//
The results clearly indicate that there has been marked changes in
the rates of N application to rice between 1981 and 1984 at Sukchaina.
This has coincided with the rapid increase in the area planted to
improved rice varieties.

C. Rice Yields
The surveys conducted in 1981 and 1984 questioned farmers about
the rico yields obtained in each survey parcel. The figure below
illustrates the average yields for both local and improved varieties in
1981 and 1984.
TICE YTELD PELFOIMANCE. SKICHAINA

3.0 -....-

2.51
Yield -d
Ct/h. /.xx/ LOCL
2.0- K I OV.VED1.73 +45.1% +79.3%


1.5 1.40 1
xx -xxx

1981 1984

In 1981, the average yield of local varieties was 1.47 t/ha. In
1984, in the three parcels in which local varieties had been planted,
the average yield was 1.40 t/ha, essentially the same. The situation
for improved varieties was strikingLy different. Average yield of
improved varieties in 1981 was 1.73 t/hA whereas in 1984 it was 2.51
t/ha, an increase of 45%. This coincides with the increase in N
application to rice in 19 84 compared to 1981. (See Appendix 5 for
a summary of the rice yield performance of the major improved and
local varieties in 1981 and 1984.) Therefore, it seems clear that
the adoption of improved rice varieties combined with increased N
application has substantially increased rice yields at Sukchaina.
D. Land Use
The results drawn from the initial 1977 reconnaissance survey
indicated that 50% of the cultivated land in Sukchaina was planted to
a rice monocrop (Rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping pattern). In the parcel
survey conducted in 1981, the area under Rice-Fallow-Fallow had dropped
to 45%. In 1984, after the influence of the extension effort by the
Cropping Systems Program beginning in 1981, the area planted to Rice-
Fcllow-Fallow in the surveyed parcels was only 2%. Extensive changes
in the cropping patterns being followed in the surveyed parcels had
occurred between 1981 and 1984. Farmers shifted from Rice-Fallow-Fallow
to other more intensive patterns such as Rice-Mixed Crops-Fallow with
lentil, mustard and linseed being the major component crops in the










Mixed Crops situation; Ilice-Mustard-F allow and, most extensively, to
Rice-Chickpea+Mustexr-Fallow (See Appendix 6 for a presentation of the
croppingpatterns grown in the surveyed parcels in 1981 and 1984).

The figure below presents the average Land Utilization Indioes and
Multiple Cropping Irdices determined from the surveys in 1977, 1981
and 1984. (Also see Appendix 6 for definitions of LUI and MCI.)
CH;IfiGE IN Li\TD UTILIZATION INDEX (LaX),
AlND MULTIPLE CROPPING IM1DEX (MS.C. SUKCINA


0.7 2.5

(LUI (MCI)
0.6 2.0
(LUI)


0.5 (CI) 1.5




1977 1981 1984

The figure clearly shows the extensive changes in land use that
have occurred particularly from 1981 onwards.

Much of the increase in cropping intensity has resulted from the
adoption of the improved, early maturing rice varieties. This has allowed
farmers to spread out the peak work periods, particularly associated with
rice harvest and lnx!2 preparation for winter crops. More importantly,
however, the early maturing improved varieties like Bindeshwari, Malika,
CH-45 eand I! 8423 c-n be harvested early allowing timel land preparation
for winter crops like wheat, mustard and chickpea. This has allowed a
more effective use of the residual soil moisture after the monsoon rains
and has indirectly increased yields of the winter crops in addition to
the improved cultural and varietal practices that have been developed
for the winter crops.

The Riice-ChicIkoa+Mastard-Fallow pattern has been a major research
contribution in Sukchaina. The identification of a new chickpea variety,
GO-332, high yielding and adapted to the Sukchaina conditions combined
with possible timely planting in late October to early November after
early maturing rice varieties like Bindeshwari has shown dramatic eco-
nomic increases for farmers in Sukchaina. The obvious results that
farmers observed in the Rice-Chickpea-.Follow cropping pattern trials
from 1981-1983 was transplanted into adoption in their fields with the
further improvement that farmer's themselves made by including mustard









mix cropped with the chickpea. Twenty of the surveyed parcels in 1984
were planted to the Rice-Chickpea+M1astard pattern where no parcels
were planted to this pattern in 1981.

Appendix 7 presents a sumnlary of the economic performances of the
improved versions of the cropping patterns' Rice-Wheat-Fallow and Rice-
Chickpea-Fallow as compared to the farmer practice version of Rice-
Wheat-Fallow. Although both improved patterns (averaged over three years
are considerably better than the farmer practice of R-W-F economic
benefits of Rice-Chickpea are outstanding. This illustrates why there
has been a rapid adoption of the improved crop production teebhologLo
in Sukchaina as a result of the Cropping. Systems Program activities.

IV. CONCWSIQ S
The Basic Princil les of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) states,
"In the Present 'State of our country, to impart dynamism t;o te agriculture
sector is a matter of paramount importance, if we really mean to increase
our productive capacity, multiply employment opportunities and fulfill the
minimum need of the people". Furthermore, His Maestv -the King Beiyra
Bir Bikram Shah Deo has stated, "Let us note that any plan of development
directed to raise the living standards of the people can be brought to
fruitition only with the active participation of the people themselves".

The changes that hrwe occurred in increased crop production anr
improved economic returns at Sukchaina Village since the Cropping Systems
Program was initiated in 1977 are a clear example of how the above
directives can be ,successfully implemented. It has been the result of
hard working scientists working together with interested and cooperative
farmers within the frame work of a well-cefined research anrl extension
methodology. The Cropping Systems. Approach demonstrates the need for
understanding the farmers existing conditions and resources, their requirements
and opportunities to design relevant improvements based on available improved
technologies. It means that the Scientist must begin to think as a farmer
and the farmer must begin to understand that science has something to offer.
Together, as a team,, scientists and farmers can develop sound, purpose-
specific field level research to develop solutions to improve crop produc-
tion.

It is difficult to measure the economic contribution of the Cropping
Systems Program at Sukobhina-. The value of food available to those who.did
not have enough is priopss .Sukohaina has changed and is a better place
for its villagers to live today than it was in 1977.

The striking realization is that these changes have occurred in a
rainfed environment that many in Nepal rule out as having potential for
major production increases. This clearly has been shown to be wrong. There
are hundreds of other rainfed Terai villages in Nepal that can benefit from
what has been learned and put into practice at Sukchaina.


IADS/MCDS ds
Lanuar_1985
_Ja~u~y_ ,IS










RTTE VAT~~-TETY DEVOTE TO


AFFENDIX 1
D ELWEFFID FARCEUS SURVEYED IN SUKCHAIRA IN 1981 Up 1984


Variety Tottnl Numblr of Pare al1as
Variety 198 1 1 9 8 4
A. IMPROVED
CH-45 40 32.8* 33 (27.3
Bindeshwari 11 9.0 51 42.2k
Masuli 1 12,3 28.1
---------- ----- U .--- .. ---. ....-.'---- .~.~ _q_

B. LOCAL
H-.ndiful 33 27.0) 1 .8)
Others** 23 18.9 2 166
.. ..-. o ..P- --- ----- --5- .-- -- ...

* Numbers in the pr renthosis indicate percentage
** Basmati, Muturi, Kasturi, lAnndi, Ghiutamari, Ramjen, Khera and Kataynsa.


Ai-tENDIX- 2
RICE SEED SAIES IN 198. BY FAIERS IN SUKLaINI1/

Variety Amount Sold (kg) Variety Amount Sold (k)
Bindeshwari 7,300 Malika 415
In-8423 15 UPRI 15
Lxmard 292 Jnnack 63
CH-45 500 Masuli 500


1/ Spurce: Key Informant Survey, 1984

AMOUNT F RICE SEED AVAILABLE FOR SALE BY
FALuERS IN SUKCHAIi IN 198a

Variety Amrunt (g)

Bindeshwari 14,800
CH-45 760
Saryu-49 500
IR-8423 1,750
P-33 250
Janaki 275
Malika 632
Laxmi 175
Total : 19,145

Source: Key Informant Survey, 1984.


C E -- ----- V ....T









HMEfCAL, ygi'WZER APPE"CATimK KG1 TO BIS
i -Sff pD W ij- $ U
,Q81 ,,, 1Q8Z i.
Variety NPK NiK NFK NPK NEK NFK

IMPiLOVED
CH-45 35:10:0 26:0:0 0:0:0 50:17:0 32:0:0 020:0
*(3)* (30) (7) (13) (20) (0)
Bindeshwari 35:10:0 25:0:o 0:0:0 53:180 36:00o 0:0:0
(3) ( 7) (0) (17) (34) (0)
Masuli 40:12:0 28:0:0 0:0;0 49:15:0 35:0:0 0o0:0
(3) (12) (0) (16 (1618) (0)

Handful 36:15:0 22:0:0- 0:0:0 XI 28.:0:0 X
(3) (25) (5) (1)
Others 34 14:0 20:0:0 0:0:0 X 35t0:0 X
(3) (12) (0) ( 2)
* Numbers in the parenthesis indicate the number of. parcels of the corresponding
variety receiving the indicated rate cf NPK.
The average fertilizer dose is calculated on the basis of only those parcels bhich
received NPK,


COM.OST iPPI 0 TIONS JSURVE
SUKIN


iAve. Appli'ticn ~f Compost to thosi


* Percentage
** Standard Deviaticn.


RICE YIELD iSEIlaI T/HA] .FREN VAIETtES
SUKiCHAIi F iOM 'ES MS .-181. lND 149X
% Increase % Xn1eas. er
Variety 1981 1984 Over 1981 Lc col Vart of 81
CH-45 1.67 0.62 2.15 +0.60 +28.7 +46.2
Bindeshwari 2.09 0.57 2.99 0.37 +43.1 +79.0
Masuli 1.65 0.49 2.16 0.50 +30.1 +29.3
Handiful 1.51 0.55, 1.20 0.00) -.20.6 : -28.2
Other (Local) 1.42 0.50 1.50 0.42) + 5.6, -10.2
* Numbers in the parenthesis are Standard Deviaticn.








APPENDIX-6
CROPPING PATTERNS, Lim UTILIZATION INDEX (LUI) AND NULTIPIE
CROPrING INDEX (MCI) IN SURVEYED PARCELS SWOKCHAINA IN 1981 AND iq

Cropping PaNo. of as L LUI 'M I
Cropping Pattern 1981 1984 1981 1984 1981 1984
Rioe-Wheat 52 60 0.71 0.71 2.0 2.0
Rice-Fallow 49 3 0.34 0.34 1.0 1.0
*Rioe-Mixed Crop 5 22 0.70 0.70 4.0 4*0
Rioe-Barley 4 0 0.70 0 2.0 2.0
Rioe-Chickpea+Mustard 0 20 0 0.73 0 3.0
Rioe-Mistard 0 4 0 0.61 2.0 2.0
Rioe-Lentil 8 7 0.69 0.69 2.0 2.0
Rioeathus .._ 0.73 .73 _. 2.0
Weighted X 122 .121 0.56 0.70 1.68 2.53


Landi Unil cinn Inrrlx -

Multile QCromting ]a- .


The number of days during which crops occupy the land
during a year, divided by 365.


The sum of
during the


the areas planted to different crops harvested
year, divided by the total cultivated area.


Mixed Crop involves varying combinations of Mustard, Lentil, Linseed, Broadbean,
and Peas. Average of 3 crops in the mixed crop situation has been used to
calculate LUI and MI,

ECONOMiC PFoat CE CF iFFE (EN T I R PING ?PAoTEN AT (M$M AINA.(L ml.A)

Cropping Pattern Ytal (ta Returns Tolst (aM e NBCR*
YieldM1, Cost0


A. ROVED PRACTICE
Rioe-Chickp ea-Fallow
Rice-Wheat-Fallow
B. FABLIMIeR'S TFAI
Ri oe-WheatFFallow


4.57
4.40

3.12


15,012
11,558

8,940


5,249
5,977

4,642


9.27
2.43


1.s7)***
0.30)


* MBCR Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio This is oaloulated by dividing the
difference in the Gross Returns of the Improved Practice minus the Gross
Returns of the Prelominant Local Farmer's Practice by the difference in the
Total Variable Costs of the Improved Cropping Pattern minus the Total
Variable Costs of the Predominant Local Farmer Practice.
** Farmer Practice used to calculate the MBCRs of the Improved Practice.
*** Numbers in the parenthesis are Standard Deviation.



IADS/AWDS ds
January _1986




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