• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Red maple (Acer rubrum)
 Water hickory (Carya aquatica)
 Bitternut hickory (Carya cordi...
 Pignut hickory (Carya glabra)
 Pecan (Carya illinoensis)
 Mockernut hickory (Carya tomen...
 Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata)
 Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis...
 Flowering dogwood (Cornus...
 Common persimmon (Diospyros...
 American beech (Fagus grandifo...
 White ash (Fraxinus americana)
 Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvan...
 Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
 Eastern redcedar (Juniperus...
 Sweetgum (Liquidambar styracif...
 Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron...
 Southern magnolia (Magnolia...
 Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica)
 Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica)
 Sand pine (Pinus clausa)
 Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata...
 Slash pine (Pinus elliottii var....
 Longleaf pine (Pinus Palustris...
 Pond pine (Pinus serotina)
 Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)
 Virginia pine (Pinus virginian...
 American sycamore (Platanus...
 Eastern cottonwood (Populus...
 Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
 White oak (Quercus alba)
 Southern red oak (Quercus...
 Cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata...
 Laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia...
 Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata)
 Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus...
 Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlen...
 Water oak (Quercus nigra)
 Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii...
 Willow oak (Quercus phellos)
 Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus)
 Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii...
 Post oak (Quercus stellata)
 Black oak (Quercus velutina)
 Live oak (Quercus virginiana)
 Black locust (Robinia pseudoac...
 Black willow (Salix nigra)
 Baldcypress (Taxodium distichu...
 American basswood (Tilia ameri...
 American elm (Ulmus americana)
 Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra)
 Bibliography






Group Title: Silvical summaries of selected Southeast forest trees : a compilation
Title: Silvical summaries of selected Southeast forest trees
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056162/00001
 Material Information
Title: Silvical summaries of selected Southeast forest trees a compilation
Physical Description: ii, 247 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jokela, Eric Jon, 1953-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Forestry
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: [1986]
 Subjects
Subject: Trees -- Identification -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Forest plants -- Identification -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 247).
Statement of Responsibility: by Eric J. Jokela ... et al..
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056162
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69176994

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Red maple (Acer rubrum)
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Water hickory (Carya aquatica)
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis)
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Pignut hickory (Carya glabra)
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Pecan (Carya illinoensis)
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa)
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata)
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana)
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Common persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    White ash (Fraxinus americana)
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica)
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica)
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Sand pine (Pinus clausa)
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata)
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii)
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Longleaf pine (Pinus Palustris)
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Pond pine (Pinus serotina)
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides)
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    White oak (Quercus alba)
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Southern red oak (Quercus falcata)
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia)
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia)
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata)
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii)
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii)
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Water oak (Quercus nigra)
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii)
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Willow oak (Quercus phellos)
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus)
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii)
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Post oak (Quercus stellata)
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    Black oak (Quercus velutina)
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Live oak (Quercus virginiana)
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Black willow (Salix nigra)
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    American basswood (Tilia americana)
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    American elm (Ulmus americana)
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
    Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra)
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Bibliography
        Page 247
Full Text


SILVICAL SUR
of Selected Southeast


AMARIES
Forest Tree


A COMPILATION BY
E.J. Jokela, S.R. Colbert, and J.E. Smith
Department of Forestry/School of Forest Resources and Conservation
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida


S


I


P15~5~s II












SILVICAL SUMMARIES OF SELECTED
SOUTHEAST FOREST TREES





A COMPILATION

by

E.J. Jokela, S.R. Colbert, and

J.E. Smith 1






























1 Assistant Professor, Graduate Research Assistant, and
Biological Scientist, respectively, Department of Forestry,
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of
Florida.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction .


Genus-species

Acer rubrum ....................

Carya aquatic .................
C. cordiformis ..............
C. glabra ...................
C. illinoensis ..............
C. tomentosa ................

Celtis laevigata ...............

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana .......

Cornus florida .................

Diospyros virginiana ...........

Fagus grandifolia ..............

Fraxinus americana .............
F. pennsylvanica .........

Juglans nigra ..................

Juniperus virginiana ...........

Liquidambar styraciflua ........

Liriodendron tulipifera ........

Magnolia grandiflora ...........

Nyssa aquatica .................
N. sylvatica ................

Pinus clausa ...................
P. echinata .................
P. elliottii var. elliottii .
P. palustris ................
P. serotina ..... ..........
P. taeda ....................
P. virginiana ...............

Platanus occidentalis ..........


Common name

red maple ................. 2

water hickory ............. 7
bitternut hickory ......... 11
pignut hickory ............ 15
pecan ..................... 20
mockernut hickory ......... 24

sugarberry ................ 29

Atlantic white-cedar ...... 34

flowering dogwood ......... 39

common persimmon .......... 44

American beech ............ 49

white ash ................. 54
green ash ................. 59

black walnut .............. 63

eastern redcedar .......... 68

sweetgum .................. 73

Syellow-poplar ............. 78

southern magnolia ......... 84

water tupelo ............. 88
black tupelo .............. 93

sand pine ................. 98
shortleaf pine ............ 103
slash pine ................ 108
longleaf pine ............. 113
pond pine ................ 119
loblolly pine ............. 124
Virginia pine ............. 130

American sycamore ......... 135


page
1









Genus-species


Common name


Populus deltoides .............. eastern cottonwood ........

Prunus serotina ................ black cherry ..............


Quercus
2-
2.

2-
2.
2-
2.
2.
2.
2-
2-
2.
2.
Q2.


alba ...................
falcata ...............
falcata var.
pagodaefolia ......
laurifolia .............
lyrata .................
michauxii .............
muehlenbergii .........
nigra .................
nuttallii ..............
phellos ................
prinus .................
shumardii ..............
stellata .............
velutina ..............
virginiana .............


white oak .................
southern red oak .........

cherrybark oak ............
laurel oak ................
overcup oak ...............
swamp chestnut oak ........
chinkapin oak ..............
water oak .................
Nuttall oak ...............
willow oak ................
chestnut oak ..............
Shumard oak ...............
post oak ..................
black oak .................
live oak ...................


Robinia pseudoacacia ........... black locust ..............

Salix nigra .................... black willow ..............

Taxodium distichum ............. baldcypress ...............

Tilia americana ................ American basswood .........


Ulmus americana ................
U. rubra .... ...............


American elm ..............
slippery elm ..............


Bibliography ...............................................


page

139

144


149
154

158
163
167
171
176
180
185
189
193
198
203
208
213

217

222

226

231

236
242

247









INTRODUCTION


Silvics has been variously defined as: the study of the

life history and'the general characteristics of'forest trees and

stands, with particular reference to environmental factors.

Specifically, silvics concentrates on the principles underlying

the growth, development, and reproduction of single trees, and of

the forest as a biological unit.1 The knowledge and application

of silvics serves as the foundation for the practice of

silviculture.

This compilation, which summarizes the important silvical

characteristics and general uses of selected Southeast forest

trees, was developed to serve as a study aid and field guide for

undergraduate students enrolled in Forestry, Wildlife Ecology,

and Resource Conservation at the University of Florida's School

of Forest Resources and Conservation. The majority of the

information presented in this report was obtained and summarized

directly from "Silvics of Forest Trees of The United States"

(USDA Agr. Handbook 271). Other references utilized are

presented in the bibliography at the end of the document.

Students using this handbook are encouraged to consult these and

other references for more detailed discussion of the silvics and

uses of these species.







1 Smith, D.M. 1986. The Practice of Silviculture. John
Wiley and Sons, New York. 527 p.











RED MAPLE

(Acer rubrum L.)

Other Common Names: Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft
maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple.

Importance Value: Intermediate.

Range: Throughout Eastern U.S. from Atlantic Ocean to the Great
Plains and from southern Florida to Canada. Reaches best
development in mountains of Kentucky, Tennessee, and nearby
states.










Cover Types:

A. Major Component:

1. Gray Birch-Red Maple (19).
2. Black Ash-American Elm-Red Maple (29).
3. Sweetbay-Swamp Tupelo-Red Maple (104).

B. Minor Component: Occurs in 51 other types, including
Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (96), Atlantic White Cedar
(97), Slash Pine-Swamp Tupelo (99), Baldcypress (101),
Baldcypress-Water Tupelo (102), Water Tupelo (103),
Slash Pine-Hardwood (85), Sweetgum-Yellow-Poplar (87),
Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-Willow Oak (92), Sugarberry-
American Elm-Green Ash (93), Black Willow (95), Sand
Live Oak-Cabbage Palmetto (74), Shortleaf Pine (75),
Virginia Pine (79), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (82), Slash
Pine (84), Northern Red Oak-Mockernut Hickory-Sweetgum
(56), White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52), Post Oak-Black Oak
(40), Red Spruce-Sugar Maple-Beech (31), Black Cherry
(29), Hemlock-Yellow Birch (24), Paper Birch (18), White
Pine-Hemlock (23).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Associated with over 70 commercial tree species,
including gray birch, yellow birch, black ash, American
elm, white pine, sugar maple, beech, black cherry,
northern red oak, basswood, red spruce, blackgum, slash
pine, loblolly pine, pin oak, green ash, southern red
oak, chestnut oak, black oak, bur oak, scarlet oak,
tamarack, balsam fir, swamp tupelo, sweetbay,
baldcypress, black willow, and water tupelo.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Occurs on a wide variety of soil textures and
moisture conditions.

2. Found on wet soils, typically river bottom and low
areas, in the South; occurs on very dry.soils in the
North.

3. Best development on moderately well-drained sites,
particularly in Kentucky and Tennessee.

4. Species is poor soil-builder; litter is low in
nitrogen and only intermediate in calcium.











B. Climate

1. Found across a wide variety of climates.

2. Occurs extensively east of the 100th meridian
wherever precipitation is adequate for tree growth.

3. Restricted in north by cold temperatures.

C. Elevation

1. Best development at low to intermediate elevations.

D. Topography

1.* Best growth on well-drained and moist sites.

2. Found on a variety of sites; common on drier
ridges, south and west exposures of upland slopes,
swampy areas, slow-draining flats, along small
steams, bottomlands.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers early in spring before leaves; one of
earliest to flower; subject to frost damage.

2. Strong tendency to be dioecious.

3. Heavy flowering and fruiting frequently results in
leaf tree branches.

4. Flowers are vivid red and buds are large.

B. Seed

1. Good seed crops 48% of years, varying from 1 to 6
years.

2. Samara ripens late spring and is dispersed by wind
over two-week period in late spring to early summer
after leaves emerge.

3. Averages 23,000 seeds/pound.

C. Germination

1. Germinates early summer shortly after dispersal.








5

2. Best seedbed is moist mineral soil with some light;
will tolerate light litter layer, if moist.

3. Will also colonize spoil banks and saturated areas.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts vigorously from stumps; layering possible.

2. Cuttings are difficult to root.

E. Plantability

1. Ornamental plantings successful; preferred for
early and vivid fall color, but display is short.

2. Develops deep root system on drier sites.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intermediate; varies with associated
species.

2. To waterlogging: moderately tolerant; seedlings
recover rapidly from flooding.

G. Early Growth

1. Fast and vigorous; height growth 1 to 2 feet/year.

2. Usually occurs in even-aged stands.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Capable of relatively fast growth; responsive to
release.

2. Tends to be short-lived; maximum age is 150 years.

3. Smallest of major maples; heights to 80 to 90 feet,
dbh to 24 inches.

I. Major Uses

1. Furniture, boxes, crates, pallets, food containers,
paneling, planing-mill products, core stock, veneer,
and pulpwood.

2. Widely planted as an ornamental species.

3. Wildlife: immature seeds are principal food for
gray squirrels and other rodents in early spring.











White-tailed deer and rabbits feed on the young
shoots and leaves.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Very susceptible to insect attack.

2. Affected by borers (gall-making and maple callus
borers), scale insects (cottony maple and maple leaf
scales), and leaf-feeding moths (gypsy moth, linden
looper, and elm spanworm).
Disease

1. Trunk rots are common; including Polyporus and
Fomes.

2. Trunk cankers formed by Nectria and Eutypella.

Physical

1. Poor sites result in poor form and defects.

2. Easily wounded and slow to heal.

3. Fire injury often serious, although sprouting can
increase relative importance in stand afterwards.

4. Not resistant to ice and storm damage.

Animal

1. Deer and rabbits may suppress reproduction.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are no known races and few, if any, hybrids.

2. Ornamental varieties exist.










WATER HICKORY

(Carva aquatica (Michx. f.) Nutt.)

Other Common Names: Swamp hickory, pecan, bitter pecan, wild
pecan.

Importance Value: Low.

Range: Coastal Plain from southeastern Virginia to southern
Florida, west to eastern Texas, and north in the Mississippi
Valley to extreme southern Illinois.


Cover types:

A. Major Component:


Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93).
Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (Type 96).











B. Minor Component: Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-Willow Oak (Type
92), Baldcypress (Type 101), Baldcypress-Water Tupelo
(Type 102).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: American elm, cedar elm, winged elm, green ash,
sugarberry, water locust, pecan, black gum, honey
locust, persimmon, red maple, Nuttall oak, willow oak,
and other bottom-land oaks.

B. Shrub: Hawthorn, swamp-privet, common buttonbush,
dogwood, and planertree.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Best growth in well-drained, moist, light-textured
alluvial soils.

2. Most often found in poorly drained, heavy, clay
flats.

B. Climate

1. Average annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 60
inches with 25 inches during the growing season.

2. Average summer and winter temperatures are 800 and
450 F., respectively.

3. Average frost-free period is 180 to 280 days.

C. Elevation

1. Generally found at lower elevations.

D. Topography

1. Low, wet flats, stream bottoms, sloughs, and
backwaters.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers in April and May.

2. Fruits ripen and fall from September to November of
the same year.










B. Seed

1. Seed production begins at 20 years with optimum
seed-bearing at age 40 to 75 years; heavy crops
borne almost every year.

2. Thrifty trees yield 2 bushels of seed; there are
about 200 cleaned seed/pound.

3. Dissemination by water and animals.

C. Germination

1. Seeds remain dormant until late April to early June;
rarely remain viable until the second spring.

2. Moist, fertile, well-drained woodland soil is best
seedbed.

3. Nearly 80% germination is common.

D. Vegetative

1. Trees up to 24 inches dbh sprout prolifically from
both stump and root.

2. First year growth rate of sprouts is 3 to 4 times
that of seedlings.

E. Plantability

1. Will not become established under shade.

2. Tolerates late spring flooding.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: intolerant, but will persist in the
understory after successful establishment.

2. Waterlogging: highly tolerant

G. Early Growth

1. Requires abundant moisture and light.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Attains heights of 110 feet and dbh of 36 inches on
good sites.









10

2. Average yields of pure stands on good and poor sites
are 12,000 and 4,500 board feet/acre at maturity.

3. Flooding from February to July can increase radial
growth.

I. Major Uses

1. Tool handles, ladders, furniture, sporting goods,
and agricultural implements.

2. Other uses include woodenware, novelties, special
products requiring strong, tough, elastic wood,
smoking meats, and fuelwood.

3. Wildlife: limited use by wildlife due to the
bitterness of the kernels; some limited use by
squirrels and other rodents.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Leaf-feeding forest tent caterpillar is the only
serious insect pest.

Disease

1. Butt and stem rots can be serious.

Physical

1. Shake is a major defect, especially on waterlogged
sites.

2. Susceptible to damage by fire.

Animal

1. Pigs eat seeds and seedlings.

2. Nuts consumed by animals.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. At least two hybrids have been recognized.








11

BITTERNUT HICKORY

(Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch).

Other Common Names: Bitternut, swamp hickory, pecan, pignut.

Importance Value: Low.

Range: Throughout Eastern United States from New Hampshire and
southern Quebec, west to Minnesota, south to eastern Texas and
northern Florida.











Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Does not occur as a major component.

B. Minor Component: White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52), Swamp
Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark Oak (91), White Oak (53).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Black oak, northern red oak, bur oak, shagbark
hickory, white ash, bigtooth aspen, yellow-poplar, white
oak, shingle oak, pignut hickory, black cherry, red
maple, sassafras, beech, elm, sycamore, sweetgum, black
walnut, butternut, swamp chestnut oak, cherrybark.oak,
white ash, shellbark hickory, mockernut hickory, Delta
post oak, Shumard oak, blackgum, willow oak, post oak,
winged elm, swamp hickory, and southern magnolia.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Variety of sites; rich, loamy or gravelly soils.

2. Common on dry, gravelly upland soils in southwestern
range.

B. Climate

1. Mean annual precipitation varies from 25 to 50
inches across range.

2. Average annual temperatures range from 400 to 550
F.; average winter and summer temperatures range
from 15 to 500 F. and from 560 to 800 F.,
respectively.

3. Frost-free period varies from 120 to 240 days.

C. Elevation

1. Generally found at lower elevations.

2. Absent within range in Appalachians and mountain
forests of northern New England and New York.

D. Topography

1. Best development on bottom lands, along streams, and
in low, wet woods.

2. Also found on dry uplands and ravine slopes.










Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers bloom in spring; fruit ripens in autumn.

2. Male catkins produced on branches of either current
or previous year.

B. Seed

1. Seed production begins at age 30 years; optimum
production extends from 50 to 125 years, with some
production until age 175 years.

2. Good seed crops at 3- to 5-year intervals; light
crops produced annually.

3. Dispersed autumn to winter by gravity; animals and
water may play minor role in dissemination.

4. Nuts are bitter to taste.

C. Germination

1. Viability estimated from 70 to 85%.

2. More tolerant of moist seedbed than most hickories.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts vigorously from stump, root collar, and
root; height growth rapid.

E. Plantability

1. Not commonly planted.

2. Susceptible to frost damage.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intolerant to intermediate.

2. To waterlogging: tolerant; more so than most other
hickories.

G. Early Growth

1. Relatively fast; good form.

2. Taproot developed.











H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Relatively fast; heights of 60 to 90 feet and dbh
16 to 20 inches common.

2. Good natural pruning; good apical dominance.

I. Major Uses

1. Tool handles, furniture, ladder'rungs, dowels,
sporting goods, agricultural implements, woodenware
and novelties, and special products requiring
strong, elastic wood.

2. Used for charcoal, fuelwood, and for smoking meats.

3. Wildlife:. fruit generally considered distasteful.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Bark beetles can be serious in drought years.

2. Twig girdlers attack younger trees.

3. Ambrosia beetles are common on logs.

Disease

1. Host to anthracnose, witches' broom, and scab.

Physical

1. Susceptible to fire at all ages, especially in
youth.

Animal

1. No serious problems noted.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are three naturally occurring hybrids; no
evidence for geographic races.








15

PIGNUT HICKORY

(Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet)

Other Common Names: Oval pignut hickory,-red hickory, redheart
hickory, small fruited hickory, pignut, sweet pignut.

Importance Value: Moderate.

Range: From southwestern New Hampshire westward through parts of
southern Vermont into extreme southern Ontario, southern











Michigan, Illinois, and southeastern Kansas, south to eastern
Texas and east to central Florida. Best development in the Lower
Ohio River Basin.

Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Does not occur as a major component.

B. Minor Component: Post Oak-Black Oak (40), White Oak-Red
Oak-Hickory (52).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Southern red oak, white oak, scarlet oak, shingle
oak, live oak, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, blackgum,
mockernut hickory, sourwood, red maple, winged elm,
hackberry, chinkapin, chinkapin oak, Shumard oak,
eastern redcedar, dogwood, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
post oak, black oak, blackjack oak, mockernut hickory,
flowering dogwood.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Well-drained upland soils.

2. Responsive to soil fertility increases.

B. Climate

1. Generally humid climate; average annual
precipitation of 30 to 80 inches, with 20 to 40
inches during growing season.

2. Average annual temperatures vary from 450 to 650 F.;
average winter and summer temperatures range from
200 to 500 F. and 70 to 800 F., respectively.

3. Average growing season varies from 140 to 240 days.

C. Elevation

1. Common at low to medium elevations.

2. Most common hickory in the Appalachians.

D. Topography

1. Dry ridges and hillsides.


2. Moist sites in southern Appalachians.










Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear in spring; fruit ripens in autumn.

2. Male flowers are catkins, female are spikes.

B. Seed

1. Seed production begins at age 30 years; optimum
production from 75 to 200 years, continuing until
age 300 years.

2. Good seed crops every 1 to 2 years with some seed
produced annually; average of 200 seeds/pound.

3. Fruit is pear-shaped with thin, partly dehiscent
husk; thick-shelled nut is unribbed.

4. Dispersed in autumn through winter; dissemination
by gravity, squirrels, and chipmunks.

C. Germination

1. Best seedbed is duff and litter.

2. Taproot with few laterals developed.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts from stumps.

2. Reproduction difficult from cuttings.

E. Plantability

1. No information available.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intolerant (northeast) or tolerant
(southeast).

2. To waterlogging: weakly tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Seedling growth is very slow.

2. Height may only average 17 inches after 5 years.











H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Attains heights of 80 to 90 feet; maximum dbh is 36
to 48 inches.

2.. Stem is often forked.

I. Major Uses

1. Tool handles, furniture, ladder rungs, dowels,
sporting goods, agricultural implements, woodenware
and novelties, and special products requiring
strong, elastic wood.

2. Used for charcoal, fuelwood, and for smoking meats.

3. Wildlife: fruit consumed by red squirrel, eastern
gray squirrel, eastern fox squirrel, chipmunks, and
raccoons.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Hickory shuckworm reduces germination.

2. Affected by hickory bark-beetle, ambrosia beetle,
and powder-post beetle.

3. Attacked by twig girdler and several species of gall
insects.

Disease

1. Susceptible to anthracnose and witches' broom.

2. Bark canker results from Nectria; severe trunk rot
may result from Poria.

Physical

1. Easily damaged by fire and frost.

Animal

1. Sapsucker injury degrades wood.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.








19

K. Races and Hybrids

1. Coast pignut hickory, var. megacarpa, is a
recognized variety extending from western New York
to southern Ohio and southern Illinois, south to
Louisiana and central Florida. Also known as Ashes
hickory, hammock hickory, and southern pignut
hickory.

2. One hybrid has been recorded.











PECAN

(Carya illinoensis (Wangenh. K. Koch)

Other Common Names: Sweet pecan.

Importance Value: Intermediate.

Range: Westward from southern Indiana, Illinois, and southeast
Iowa to eastern Kansas and central Texas, and eastward to western
Mississippi and western Tennessee. Occurs locally in
southwestern Ohio, Kentucky, Alabama, and central Mexico.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Sycamore-Pecan-American Elm (94).

B. Minor Component: Cottonwood (63), Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-
Willow Oak (92), Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (93),
Black Willow (95).










Associated Species:

A. Tree: Same as Major and Minor Component species.

B. Shrub: Many bottomland species, including swamp privet
and roughleaf dogwood.

Habitat Conditions:
A. Soil

1. Most common on well-drained loams not subject to
prolonged overflow.

2. Also occurs on heavy-textured soils.

3. Good development on alluvial soils of relatively
recent origin.

B. Climate

1. Average annual precipitation from 30 to 60 inches
with 25 to 30 inches during the growing season.

2. Average summer and winter temperatures are 800 and
400 F., respectively; growing season averages 150
to 270 days.

3. Humid climate with warm and dry summers.

C. Elevation

1. Primarily a bottomland species.

D. Topography

1. Best development on river front ridges, well-
drained flats, and first bottoms.

2. Rarely found on low clay flats.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers from March to May.

2. Nut matures in September and October; seedfall
occurs from September to December.

3. Pollination may be prevented by excessive rainfall
during flowering.











B. Seed

1. Seed bearing starts at 20 years with optimum
production at age 75 to 225 years; good to fair
crops every year.

2. Annual yield of nuts from mature trees is generally
2 to 3 bushels/tree (about 100 nuts).

3. Seed disseminated by floodwaters, birds, and
animals, especially squirrels.

C. Germination

1. Germination from late April to early June.

D. Vegetative

1. Small stumps, fire-girdled seedlings, and saplings
sprout readily.

2. Budding and stem grafting are used for propagation
of horticultural varieties.

E. Plantability

1. Reproduces readily from seed.

2. Establishment under cottonwood is possible.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: intolerant.

2. Waterlogging: weakly tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Moisture stress and competition limit early growth
and survival.

2. Annual"height growth may average 3 feet after
establishment.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Attains heights and dbh of 100 to 180 feet and 72 to
84 inches, respectively.

2. Medium to very large with tall, straight trunk and
stout, spreading or ascending branches.










3. Vigorous trees respond well to release.

I. Major Uses

1. Tool handles, ladders, furniture, sporting goods,
agricultural implements, and flooring.

2. Other uses include woodenware, novelties, smoking
.meats, fuelwood, and special products requiring
strong, elastic wood.

3. Wildlife: sweet kernels, rich in nutrients, are
favorite food of gray squirrels. Also provides
excellent food for wild hogs, deer, foxes, wild
turkey, and waterfowl.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Bark beetles, pecan carpenterworm, walnut
caterpillar, twig,girdler and obscure scale can each
pose serious threats.

Disease

1. Butt rot can enter through fire wounds.

Physical

1. Susceptible to fire at all ages.

Animal

1. Animals and birds consume seed.

Vines

1. Can deform trees in southern range.

K. Races and Hybrids


1. Four hybrids have been recognized.









24

MOCKERNUT HICKORY

(Carya tomentosa Nutt.)

Other Common Names: Bullnut, hickory, white hickory, whiteheart
hickory, hognut, mockernut.

Importance Value: Low to intermediate.

Range: From New Hampshire west to extreme southern Ontario,
southern Michigan, and southeastern Iowa, south to eastern Texas
and northern Florida. Largest size attained in Lower Ohio River
Basin and in Missouri and Arkansas.










Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Northern Red Oak-Mockernut Hickory
(56).

B. Minor Component: Post Oak-Black Oak (40), White Oak-Red
Oak-Hickory (52), Beech-Sugar Maple (60), Swamp Chestnut
Oak-Cherrybark Oak (91).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: White oak, black oak, post oak, northern red oak,
swamp chestnut oak, Delta post oak, Nuttall oak, water
oak, eastern redcedar, sassafras, sweet birch, sweetgum,
yellow-poplar, shagbark hickory, flowering dogwood,
shortleaf pine, pitch pine, loblolly pine, longleaf
pine, shortleaf pine, pignut hickory, sweetgum, American
elm, green ash, white ash, winged elm, black tupelo.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Best development on deep fertile soils.

B. Climate

1. Average annual precipitation varies from 30 to 60
inches with 20 to 30 inches during the growing
season.

2. Average summer and winter temperatures are 450 to
700 F. and 200 to 550 F., respectively; overall
average temperature ranges from 450 to 700 F.

3. Growing season varies across range from 120 to 320
days.

C. Elevation

1. Grows across a range of elevations, from Coastal
Plain to Piedmont and Cumberland Plateau.

D. Topography

1. In the northern portion of range, generally occurs
on ridges, hillsides, and occasionally on alluvial
bottoms.

2. Most commonly found on fertile uplands; also occurs
on dry south and west slopes, ridges, and sand
dunes.











Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers open early April to late May, depending on
latitude.

2. Fruit ripens in September or October.

B. Seed

1. Dispersed from September through December;
disseminated by gravity and by squirrels.

2. Seed production begins at 25 years, reaches optimum
at age 40 to 125 years, and declines after age 200
years.

3. Good crops occur every 2 to 3 years, with light
crops in other years.

4. Percent germination averages 50 to 75%; average of
90 seed/pound.

C. Germination

1. Best seedbed is moderately moist duff.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts prolifically after fire and cutting.

E. Plantability

1. Seldom cultivated for fruit production.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: intolerant.

2. Waterlogging: intolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Height growth is slow, averaging 20 inches at five
years.


H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. May attains height and dbh of 100 feet and 36 inch-
es, respectively, although normally much smaller.










2. Height growth at age 60 years averages 40 to 45
feet.

3. Responsive to release.

I. Major Uses

1. Tool handles, ladders, furniture, sporting goods,
agricultural implements, and specialty products
requiring strong, tough, and elastic wood.

2. Other uses include woodenware, novelties, smoking
meats, and fuel wood; nut is often consumed by
humans.

3. Wildlife: nuts are a preferred mast for squirrels
and are also eaten by raccoons, chipmunks, and other
rodents. White-tailed deer will browse on young
shoots.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Sawtimber trees destroyed by hickory bark beetle.

2. Hickory spiral borer kills seedlings and young
trees.

3. Trees and logs degraded by pecan carpenterworm.

4. Attacked by hickory twig girdler.

Disease

1. Susceptible to leaf blight, anthracnose, witches'
broom, and scab.

2. Heart and trunk rots can degrade wood.

3. Bark canker and root rots have also been reported.

Physical

1. Seedlings susceptible to frost damage.

2. Easily damaged by fire.

Animal

1. Fruit consumed by raccoon, squirrels, and chipmunks.









28

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. Schneck hickory is a natural cross with pecan that
occurs in Illinois and Iowa.










SUGARBERRY

(Celtis laevigata Willd.)

Other Common Names: Hackberry, sugar hackberry, Texas
sugarberry, and southern hackberry.
Importance Value: Low.

Range: Southeastern Virginia, south to southern Florida, and west
to southern and western Texas and northeastern Mexico. North to
western Oklahoma, southern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois,
southern Indiana, and central Kentucky. Local in Maryland.
Overlaps southern range of hackberry.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash
(93).











B. Minor Component: Cottonwood (63), Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-
Willow Oak (92), Sycamore-Pecan-American Elm (94), Black
Willow (95), Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (96).

Associated species:

A. Tree: Cedar elm, water oak, winged elm, blackgum,
persimmon, honeylocust, red maple.

b. Shrub: Boxelder, swamp-privet,.roughleaf dogwood, and
hawthorn.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Most common on clay soils of broad flats or shallow
sloughs.

2. Thrives, however, on various types of soils.

B. Climate

1. Humid climate except in Oklahoma and Texas where
subhumid to semiarid.

2. Precipitation varies from 20 to 60 inches per year,
with 15 to 30 inches during the frost-free period.

3. Summer temperatures average 800 F. with extremes of
1150; average winter temperatures 300 to 500 F.,
with extremes of 200F.

C. Elevation

1. Occurs across a wide range of elevations

D. Topography

1. Best growth within flood plains; widely
distributed on bottom-lands except in deep
swamps.

2. Found to a minor extent on upland sites.

Life History:

A. Flowering


1. Mid-March to May, depending on latitude.








31

2. Late spring frosts can kill flowers and reduce seed
crop.

B. Seed

1. Between 2,000 and 2,400 cleaned fruit per pound.

2. Disseminated by birds and water.

3. Fruit ripens in September or October, often
remaining on tree until midwinter.

4. Production starts at 15 years; optimum seed-bearing
age 30 to 70 years.

5. Good seed crops in most years, with some seed nearly
every year.

C. Germination

1. Winter dormancy, germination early spring.

2. Establishment common under bottomland hardwoods.

D. Vegetative

1. Can be propagated by cuttings.

2. Small stumps sprout readily.

3. Some sprouting from root collars of fire-damaged
seedlings or saplings.

E. Plantability

1. No information available.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: tolerant; responds to release, suppressing
reproduction of more highly-valued species.

2. Water: weakly tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Slender, but tough; stem 8 to 18 inches in height
in first year.

2. Growth in shade results in crooked, short, often
forked stem; open-grown trees limby with short
boles.











H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Diameter growth is notably slow; small to moderate
in size.

2. Generally of poor form; does not naturally prune
well.

3. Dense even-aged stands, however, can produce well-
pruned, straight stems.

4. Mature forest grown trees average 18 inches dbh and
80 feet in height, with clear bole for 30 feet.

I. Major Uses

1. Furniture, millwork, sporting boxes, crates and
veneer.

2. Wildlife: the fruits are an important component of
many songbird and some mammal diets. It is a
preferred fall and winter food of wild turkey.
Occasionally, white-tailed deer will feed on the
leaves and twigs.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Leaf petiole galls caused by Pachyprsylla venusta
are common.

2. Various scales attack twigs, small branches, and
sometimes trunks, but none are considered serious.

Disease

1. Eastern mistletoe (Phoradendron falvescens) may
cause serious damage, especially in western range.

2. Fire-wounded trees subject to butt rot, which
advances rapidly.

Physical

1. Thin bark results in easy injury by fire.

2. Light burn kills reproduction; heavier burns can
kill even largest trees.








33

Animal

1. No serious problems reported.

Vines

1. No information available.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are no known races or hybrids.









34

ATLANTIC WHITE-CEDAR

(Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.)

Other Common Names: White-cedar, false cypress, swamp-cedar,
southern white-cedar.

Importance Value: Low to intermediate.

Range: Narrow coastal belt 50 to 130 miles wide from southern
Maine to northern Florida and westward to southern Mississippi.










Distribution is exceedingly patchy, since suitable sites are
scarce.

Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Atlantic White Cedar (97).

B. Minor Component: Not identified as a minor component of
any cover type.

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Red maple, blackgum, yellow birch, white pine,
hemlock, blackgum, sweetbay, gray birch, pitch pine,
pond pine, slash pine, sweetbay, swamp tupelo,
baldcypress, redbay, loblolly-bay.

B. Shrub: Sweet pepperbush, swamp azalia, highbush
blueberry, dangleberry, lowbush blueberry, tetterbush,
and fetterbush.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Naturally occurs on wet ground or in swamps,
usually on acidic peat deposits (pH 3.5-5.5) a few
inches to 40 inches in depth.

2. Absent where peat deposits are underlain by clay or
where peat contains appreciable amounts of silt or
clay.

3. Sometimes occurs on sandy soils.

B. Climate

1. Generally humid throughout its range.

2. Average annual precipitation between 40 and 64
inches; rainfall well distributed.

3. Frost-free season 140 to 305 days.

4. Temperature extremes from -30o F in Maine to highs
of over 1000 F.

C. Elevation

1. Elevations generally low, ranging from 3 to 140
feet in inland stands.











2. Occurring at up to 1,500 feet in upland bogs.

D. Topography

1. Coastal areas, wet or swampy ground.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flower buds formed in summer, discernible in fall
or winter.

2. Pollen shed in early April.

3. Cones mature at end of first growing season.

B. Seed

1. Fair to excellent seed crops each year; seed
disseminated from October to March.

2. Wind distributed; generally carried less than 66
feet, but up to 600 feet in open areas.

3. Small seed; average of 460,000 seeds/pound.

C. Germination

1. Germination is commonly delayed for one year; seed
viability varies from 5 to 90%.

2. Fair amount of light and constant moisture are
necessary for germination.

3. Suitable seedbeds include peat, sphagnum moss,
rotten wood, and moist mineral soil; dense slash
and standing water are extremely unsuitable sites.

4. Shallow rooted with short taproot.

D. Vegetative

1. Shoots from lateral branches or dormant buds on
stem will sometimes develop after browsing by
animals or physical injury.

E. Plantability

1. Open conditions are best for successful competition
with hardwoods and shrubs.










F. Tolerance

1. Shade: moderately tolerant of all but dense shrub
thickets or hardwood overstory.

2. Water: moderately tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Height growth of open-grown seedlings may reach 2.5
inches on unfavorable sites and 6 to 10 inches on
favorable sites in first year.

2. Shade-grown seedlings may grow only 1 inch in height
with taproot 2 inches long in first year.

3. More tolerant than gray birch and pitch pine, but
less tolerant than climax hardwoods on swamp sites.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Annual height and diameter growth of 1.0 to 1.5 feet
and 0.1 to 0.15 inches, respectively, common on good
sites until age 40 to 50 years.

2. Height growth slows after 50 years and ceases after
age 100 years, while diameter growth is maintained.

3. Usual maximum stand age is 200 years.

I. Major Uses

1. Poles, posts, shingles, woodenware, water tanks,
boat construction, boxes, and fencing.

2. Wildlife: very limited value for wildlife; white-
tailed deer will occasionally browse the foliage.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. No serious insect enemies, although common bagworm
larvae will feed on foliage.

Disease

1. Susceptible to attack by few fungi and damage is not
usually serious.

2. Keithia chamaecyparissi and Lophodermium juniperinum
attack foliage.











3. Spherical or oblong swelling of bole or branch and
occasional witches broom caused by Gymnosporangium
ellisii.

4. Spindle-shaped burls develop from G. biseptatum.

5. Heartwood of trees or sapwood of cut timbers
attacked by Trametes subrosea.

Physical

1. Subject to windthrow, especially partially opened
stands.

2. Crown fires can eliminate whole stands.

3. Pure stands favored by saltwater flooding.

Animal

1. Deer and meadow mice browse seedlings and saplings.

Vines

1. No information available.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are no known races or hybrids of Atlantic
white-cedar.










FLOWERING DOGWOOD

(Cornus florida L.)

Other Common Names: Dogwood, cornel, boxwood.

Importance Value: Low.

Range: Extreme southwestern Maine west to extreme southern
Ontario, southern Michigan, Illinois, and southeastern Kansas
south to eastern Texas and north-central Florida. A variety
occurs in the mountains of eastern Mexico.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Not a major component of any forest
cover type.

B. Minor Component: Scarlet Oak (41), White Oak-Northern
Red Oak-Hickory (52).












Associated Species:
A. Tree: Scarlet oak, black oak, southern red oak, chestnut
oak, white oak, post oak, hickories, pitch pine,
blackgum, sweetgum, black locust, shortleaf pine,
Virginia pine, yellow-poplar, pignut hickory, shagbark
hickory, mockernut hickory, white ash, red maple, beech,
and blackgum.

Habitat Conditions:
A. Soil

1. Occurs in a variety of soils ranging from deep,
moist soils to well-drained, light, upland soils.

2. Most common on soils of pH 6 to 7.

3. Found on Udults, Udalfs, Orthods, and alluvial
soils.

4. Species improves base status and organic matter
enrichment of soil; biomass contains high levels of
calcium and the litter decomposes rapidly.

B. Climate

1. Average annual precipitation varies across the range
from 30 inches in the North to 80 inches in the
southern Appalachians.

2. Average annual temperature is 700 in the South to
450 in the North.

3. Growing season ranges from 160 days in Michigan to
over 300 days in Florida.

C. Elevation

1. Elevation varies across the range from coastal
plains to Piedmont plateaus and Appalachian and
Cumberland mountains.

2. Occurs as both an upland and lowland species.

D. Topography

1. Found on flats and lower and middle slopes in the
southern Appalachians.

2. Occurs in both upland pine and bottomland mixed
hardwood stands on the Piedmont Plateau.











3. Also common on broad ridge tops and on north and
east aspects of upland sites.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear from March to April.

2. Fruits mature from September to October.

B. Seed

1. Seed falls from October through November.

2. Good seed crop produced about every 2 years.

3. Dissemination by gravity, birds, and animals.

C. Germination

1. Overwinters, germinating in the spring.

2. Freshly gathered seediwill germinate after storage
for 100 to 130 days at 00 to 100 C.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts profusely, especially after winter feelings.

2. Reproduction by layering is good.

E. Plantability

1. Will survive and grow under forest canopy; best
survival is often on stand margins.

2. Moisture stress appears to be major limiting factor.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: very tolerant.

2. Waterlogging: least tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Very rapid root growth.











H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. May attain 40 feet in height and 12 to 18 inches dbh
on good sites.

2. Yield on good sites can be 2 cords/acre.

3. Fairly rapid height growth in first 20 to 30 years.

I. Major Uses

1. Shuttles for textile weaving, spools, bobbin heads,
small pulleys, mallet heads, golf-club heads,
jewelers' blocks, and machinery bearings.

2. Uses are contingent on hardness and close texture
which allow wood to work and stay smooth under
continuous wear.

3. Widely planted and highly valued as an ornamental.

4. Wildlife: excellent wildlife food source. Because
of browse, fruits, and widespread occurrence,
dogwood is one of the most important deer food
plants. It is a preferred food by wild turkey and
is readily eaten by ruffed grouse, quail, many
songbirds, and mammals such as rabbits, fox, black
bear, and chipmunks. The fruits are low in crude
protein and phosphorus, but high in calcium. Browse
is high in calcium, manganese, and cobalt.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Dogwood borer, flat-headed borers, and dogwood scale
are principal insect pests.

Disease

1. Seedlings attacked by leaf spot.

2. Tree may be girdled by basal stem canker caused by
Phytophtora cactorum.
3. Twig blight causes dieback of small twigs.

4. Leaf diseases include Botrytis cinera, Elsinoe
corni, Ascochyta cornicota, and Septoria cornicola.










Physical

1. Susceptible to drought and to flooding.

2. Readily injured by fire.

Animal

1. Deer and rabbits often browse on reproduction.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. At least four clones are propagated as ornamentals.

2. Mexican variety, C. florida var. urbaniana has
grayer twigs and larger drupes.











COMMON PERSIMMON

(Diospyros virginiana L.)

Other Common Names: Persimmon, eastern persimmon.

Importance Value: Low.

Range: Found from southern Connecticut and Long Island to
southern Florida, westward through central Pennsylvania, southern
Ohio, southern Indiana, and central Illinois to southeast Iowa,
and south through eastern Kansas and Oklahoma to east Texas.
Excluded from main range of Appalachian Mountains and in the Oak-
Hickory Type on the Allegheny Plateau.


Cover Types:


A. Major Component: Sassafras-Persimmon Type (Type 64).

B. Minor Component: Southern Scrub Oak (Type 72), Loblolly
Pine-Shortleaf Pine (Type 80), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood,
Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-Willow Oak, Sugarberry-American










Elm-Green Ash (93), Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (96),
Baldcypress (101), Baldcypress-Water Tupelo (102).

Associated Species:

A. Trees: Elms, eastern redcedar, hickories, sugar maple,
yellow-poplar, oaks, boxelder, red maple, sycamore, and
cedar elm.

B. Shrubs: Swamp-privet, roughleaf dogwood, haws,
planertree, shining sumac, smooth sumac, waterlocust,
and common buttonbush.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Best growth on alluvial soils such as clay and
heavy loams.

2. Outside alluvial bottoms, restricted to light,
sandy, well-drained soils, but growth is poor.

3. Common on poorly drained upland soils in Midwest,
but growth very slow.

B. Climate

1. Humid throughout range.

2. Average annual precipitation of 48 inches, with 18
inches falling during growing season.

3. Average maximum temperatures are 950 F summer and
100 F winter.

C. Elevation

1. Ranges from the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain and
Gulf Coastal Plain to the Piedmont and Midwest.

2. Does not occur in main range of Appalachians or on
the Allegheny Plateau.

D. Topography

1. Best growth on terraces of larger streams and first
bottoms of Mississippi River.

2. Other common sites are wet flats, shallow sloughs,
and swamp margins.











Life History:

A. Flowering

1. March to June.

2. Pollination by insects.

B. Seed

1. Fruit ripens September to November, seed falls
September to late winter.

2. Each berry contains 3 to 8 flat, brown seeds about
0.5 inches long.

3. Optimum seed-bearing age 25 to 50 years; good crops
about every 2 years under normal conditions.

4. One-hundred pounds of fruit yields 10 to 30 pounds
of cleaned seed; average of 1,200 seeds/pound.

5. Dissemination by birds, animals, and overflow water.

C. Germination

1. Seeds dormant during winter, germinating in April or
May.

2. Strong taproot developed.

D. Vegetative

1. Propagation by root cutting and grafting is
possible.

2. Stumps and root suckers sprout readily,.especially
after fire.

E. Plantability

1. Natural reproduction in forest understory can be
expected; often prolific in openings.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: very tolerant.

2. Waterlogging: moderately tolerant.










G. Early Growth

1. Seedling height growth of 8 inches is common after
one year.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Growth rate generally slow.

2. Mature trees are 30 to 50 feet in height with 12 to
18 inches dbh on average bottomland sites.

3. Larger trees on poorer sites are not useful for
lumber because of high percentage of heartwood
which checks excessively during seasoning.

I. Major Uses

1. Shuttles for textile weaving, spools, bobbins, golf-
club heads, boxes and crates, shoe lasts, and
handles.

2. Fruit is edible.

3. Wildlife: large, fleshy fruits are valuable food
source for many wildlife species, but especially for
opossum, raccoon, and deer. The fruits are also
eaten by fox, skunks, squirrels, hogs, rabbits,
quail, wild turkey, crows, cattle, and many songbird
species.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Living trees infested by bark and phloem borer.

2. Root borer tunnels in stems and taproots of young
trees and can damage nursery stock.

3. Twig girdler retards growth by cutting off smaller
branches.

4. Webworm and hickory horned devil are principal
defoliators, but cause no serious damage.

5. Powder-post beetle riddles wood of dying and dead
trees.











Disease

1. Cephalosporium diospyri causes persimmon wilt,
characterized by sudden wilting of leaves, followed
by defoliation and death of branches from the top
down.

2. Heartwood and root rots of injured trees caused
by Polysporus spraguei.

Physical

1. Late freezes can damage flowers, causing premature
fruit drop.

2. Prolonged flooding during growing season can kill
young trees.

3. Susceptible to fire: burned trees provide entry
point for decay and reproduction is killed back.

Animal

1. No serious problems noted.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. One variety, Diospyros virginiana var. mosieri,
grows in southern Florida.

2. No natural hybrids or races have been reported.









49

AMERICAN BEECH

(Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.)

Other Common Names: Beech, Carolina beech, white beech, red
beech, gray beech, and ridge beech.

Importance Value: Intermediate.

Range: From Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, to Maine, southern
Quebec, southern Ontario, northern Michigan, and eastern
Wisconsin, south to southern Illinois, southeastern Oklahoma, and
eastern Texas, and east to northern Florida, west into Wisconsin
in the north and into Oklahoma and Texas in the south.











Cover Types:
A. Major Component:

1. Sugar Maple-Beech-Yellow Birch (25).
2. Red Spruce-Sugar Maple-Beech (31).
3. Beech-Sugar Maple (60).
4. Beech-Southern Magnolia (90).

B. Minor Component: Balsam Fir (5), White Pine-Northern
Red Oak-White Ash (20), White Pine-Hemlock (22), Hemlock
(23), Sugar Maple (27), Black Cherry-Sugar Maple (28),
Red Spruce-Yellow Birch (30), Red Spruce (32), Red
Spruce-Fraser Fir (34), White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52),
Northern Red Oak-Basswood-White Ash (54), Swamp Chestnut
Oak-Cherrybark Oak (91).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Sugar maple, yellow birch, American basswood,
black cherry, southern magnolia, eastern white pine, red
spruce, hickories, and oaks.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Generally found on Udalf and Orthox soils.

2. Prefers soils with loamy textures and high humus
content; seldom found on limestone.

3. More common on soils with pH 4.1 to 6.0; seldom
occurs on soils with ph +7.0.

B. Climate

1. Annual precipitation varies from 30 to 50 inches;
10 to 18 inches during the growing season.

2. Mean annual temperatures range from 400 to 700 F.

C. Elevation

1. From relatively low elevations to 6,000 feet in
southern Appalachians.

D. Topography

1. Common on cool, moist northern slopes, alluvial
bottoms; also found on southern slopes.











Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear after leaves in late spring.

2. Monoecious; mature in 1st season.

B. Seed

1. Seed production begins at about age 40 years; good
crops produced every 2 to 3 years.

2. Each bur may have 2 to 3 nuts; nuts are heavy,
averaging 1,600 seeds/pound.

3. Ripen in late autumn; disseminated by gravity,
although birds and rodents may aid dispersal.

C. Germination

1. From early spring to early summer; may be slowed
due to embryo dormancy.

2. Good germination on mineral soil or leaf litter;
success on mor humus is better than on mull humus.

D. Vegetative

1. Young trees stump sprout well; older trees poorly.

2. Readily produces root suckers and will also layer.

E. Plantability

1. Not commonly planted.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: very tolerant; typically climax species.

2. To waterlogging: least tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Relatively slow growth; determinate growth.

2. Better development under moderate canopy.












H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Relatively slow growth; radial growth greatly
affected by soil moisture conditions.

2. Commonly attain heights of 60 to 90 feet and dbh 20
to 30 inches.

3. Tends to prune easily; epicormic branching and
forking of main stem are common.

4. Grows in open to dense stands; responds to release.

I. Major Uses

1. Charcoal production, railroad ties, pulp, slack
cooperage, veneer, fuel wood, boxes, pallets,
furniture, handles, and planing mill products.

2. Wildlife: nuts are important to many wildlife
species, especially squirrels and chipmunks; also
consumed by many game birds, especially the ruffed
and spruce grouse, wood duck, turkey, and
occasionally bobwhite quail. The oily seeds are
also an important component of the diet of black
bear.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Beech scale is vector for Nectria canker which can
result in extensive mortality.

2. Defoliating insects include saddled prominent,
forest tent caterpillar, gypsy moth, and Bruce
spanworm.

Disease

1. Bark disease from Nectria can cause mortality.

2. Attacked by several stem rots (Fomes, Polyporus,
Ustulina) and by shoestring root rot.

Physical

1. Thin bark and large surface roots result in high
susceptibility to fire.


2. Also prone to sunscald and frost cracks.








53


3. Wounds heal slowly, allowing entry to fungi.

Animal

1. Minimal damage; not a preferred browse species.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. Three races or variants recognized in U.S.

2. One variety, Carolina beech, occurs throughout the
Southern States.










WHITE ASH

(Fraxinus americana L.)

Other Common Names: Biltmore ash, Biltmore white ash, smallseed
white ash.

Importance Value: Major.

Range: Extends from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, westward to
eastern Minnesota and southward to eastern Texas and northern
SFlorida.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component:


White Pine-Northern Red Oak-White Ash (20).
Northern Red Oak-Basswood-White Ash (54).










B. Minor Component: Pin Cherry (17), Gray Birch-Red Maple
(19), White Pine (21), White Pine-Hemlock (22), Hemlock
(23), Sugar Maple-Beech-Yellow Birch (25), Sugar Maple
(27), Black Cherry-Sugar Maple (28), Black Cherry (29),
Red Spruce (32), Black Ash-American Elm-Red Maple (39),
Bur Oak (42), White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52), White Oak
(53), Northern Red Oak-Mockernut Hickory-Sweetgum (56),
Yellow-Poplar-Hemlock (58), Silver Maple-American Elm
(62), Cottonwood (63), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (82),
Sweetgum-Yellow-Poplar (87), Beech-Southern Magnolia
(90), Swamp Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark Oak (91).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Eastern white pine, northern red oak, white oak,
sugar maple, red maple, yellow birch, American beech,
black cherry, American basswood, eastern hemlock,
American elm, yellow-poplar.

B. Shrub: Downy serviceberry, pawpaw, American hornbeam,
flowering dogwood, witch-hazel, eastern hophornbeam,
dock-mackie.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Requires good, well-drained soils, high fertility
and soil moisture.

2. Generally on soils with high N and Ca content.

3. pH ranges from 5.0 to 7.5.

B. Climate

1. Annual precipitation varies from 30 to 60 inches.

2. Species tolerates temperature extremes.

3. Normally prefers longer growing season areas.

C. Elevation

1. Tends to be a lower elevation species; rarely
occurs above 3,500 feet.

D. Topography

1. More common on lower slopes; rare in areas of poor
drainage.









2. Found on variety of upland sites.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Dioecious; male flowers more common than female.

2. Flowers appear before leaf buds enlarge in spring;
evenly distributed over entire crown.

3. Male flowers are very sensitive to frost and
rains; pollen is wind-dispersed over short
distances.

4. May abort 2 out of every 3 flower years; about
50% of flowering trees produce good crops.

B. Seed

1. Dispersed by wind in autumn after leaf fall; seed
carries up to 450 feet.

2. Requires 2 to 3 months cold, moist stratification.

3. Male flower abortion reduces number of viable
seeds.

C. Germination

1. Requires only relatively low temperatures;
optimum conditions include full sunlight, high
soil fertility, and high soil moisture.

2. Strong, fast-developing radicle.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts readily from smaller stumps.

2. No reliable methods known for rooting of cuttings.

E. Plantability

1. Safe and reliable on good soils.

2. Control of competing vegetation aids survival.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intermediate; decreasing with age.

2. To waterlogging: tolerant.








G. Early Growth

1. Develops tap root and strong root system; permits
survival under open conditions.

2. Relatively fast growth; strong apical dominance.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Fast growth; early dbh growth may be 2
inches/year.

2. Commonly attains height of 70 to 80 feet and dbh
14 to 16 inches.

3. Prunes easily and early, developing high quality
boles; tends to fork often due to opposite
branching.

I. Major Uses

1. Handles, furniture, vehicle parts, railroad cars,
sporting and athletic goods, boxes, baskets,
pallets, cabinets, and planing-mill products.

2. Other uses include agricultural implements,
woodenware and novelties, cooperage, veneer, and
dairy, poultry, and apiary supplies.

3. Wildlife: seed are eaten by wood ducks, quail,
turkey, grouse, finches, cardinals, and other
songbirds. Twigs are browsed by white-tailed
deer.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Mortality may result from oystershell scale.

2. Sawflys defoliate shade trees.

3. Forest tent caterpillar and green fruitworm
defoliate forest-grown trees.

4. Seed weevils may reduce seed crops.

Disease

1. Anthracnose and Mycosphaerella cause defoliation.

2. Also affected by Nectria cankers and Fomes rots.










Physical

1. Frost may kill terminal bud.

Animal

1. Seed consumption by animals and birds does not
seriously affect reproduction.

2. Deer and cattle heavily browse foliage.

3. Rabbits, beavers, and porcupines may girdle
seedlings.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are several phenotypic variants of leaf form.

2. Three geographic ecotypes recognized: northern,
southern, and intermediate.

3. Easily intergrades with Texas ash, resulting in F.
americana ssp. texensis.










GREEN ASH

(Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.)

Other Common Names: Darlington ash, red ash, white ash, swamp
ash,.water ash.

Importance Value: Moderate.

Range: Extends from Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia to
southeastern Alberta and Montana, and southward to central Texas
and northern Florida.


Cover Types:


A. Major Component: Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash
(93).

B. Minor Component: Aspen (16), Sugar Maple-Basswood (26),
Bur Oak (42), White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52), Silver
Maple-American Elm (62), Cottonwood (63), Pin Oak-
Sweetgum (65), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (82), Sweetgum-
Yellow-Poplar (87), Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-Willow Oak
(92), Sycamore-Pecan-American Elm (94), Black Willow
(95), Overcup Oak-Water Hickory (96).











Associated Species:

A. Tree: Boxelder, red maple, pecan, sugarberry, sweetgum,
American sycamore, eastern.cottonwood, plains
cottonwood, quaking aspen, black willow, willow oak, and
American elm.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Most common on alluvial soils.

2. Also on medium- to coarse-textured sands and loams
with abundant moisture and neutral to alkaline pH.

3. Tolerant of soil alkalinity; suitable mycorrhizae
and organic matter necessary.

4. Growth better on previously uncultivated or
fertilized old-fields with no erosion of A horizon.

B. Climate

1. Subhumid to humid across range.

2. Annual precipitation ranges from 15 to 60 inches;
average summer temperatures range from 650 to 800 F.
and winter temperatures vary from 00 to 550 F.

3. Moisture and winter temperatures limit distribution.

C. Elevation

1. Generally at lower elevations.

D. Topography

1. Most common along rivers and brooks, occasionally
.found in swamps; usually not found in peat bogs.

2. More typical of prairie regions and stream courses.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear before leaf buds enlarge in spring;
flowers distributed over entire crown.


2. Dioecious; pollen is wind-disseminated.








61


3. Samaras develop within a month after pollination;
embryos ripen in late autumn.

B. Seed

1. Wind dispersed from autumn through spring.

2. Cold, moist stratification for 60 to 90 days.

C. Germination

1. Easily germinated.

2. Deep rooting radicle with rapid growth.

D. Vegetative

1. Sprouts readily from smaller trees; relatively few
sprouts produced per stump; very rapid growth.

2. Cuttings from young trees root easily in greenhouse.

E. Plantability

1. Successful in shelterbelt plantings.

2. Better form developed from closer spacings.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intolerant to moderately tolerant.

2. To waterlogging: moderately tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Fast early growth as pioneer species.

2. Branches arise from adventitious buds if terminal
bud is removed; understory seedlings often have
poor form.

3. Seedlings grow 1 to 1.5 feet/year; can tolerate
weed competition during early development.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Heights of 50 to 60 feet and dbh 18 to 24 inches
commonly attained.

2. Extensive root system developed.











3. Growth rate slows considerably with age.

I. Major Uses

1. Handles, furniture, vehicle parts, railroad cars,
sporting and athletic goods, boxes, baskets,
pallets, cabinets, and planing-mill products.

2. Other uses include agricultural implements,
woodenware and novelties, cooperage, veneer, and
dairy, poultry, and apiary supplies.

3. Widely used for shelterbelt plantings.

4. Wildlife: large annual seed crops are an important
food source for wood ducks, quail, turkey, finches,
cardinals, squirrels, and other rodents. Young
twigs are browsed by deer and moose.

J, Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Oystershell scale kills seedlings and small trees.

2. Carpenterworm permits fungus entrance.

3. Defoliation caused by brown-headed and black-headed
ash sawflys.

Disease

1. Anthracnose and Mycosphaerella cause defoliation.

2. Root rot can be serious on heavier soils.

Physical

1. No serious problems noted.

Animal

1. Rabbits and cattle may damage seedlings.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. At least 3 geographic ecotypes exist; difficult to
cross with other ashes.








63

BLACK WALNUT

(Juglans nigra L.)

Other Common Names: Eastern black walnut, American walnut.

Importance Value: Intermediate to low.

Range: Throughout Eastern United States; south from southern
Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southern
Ontario, southern one-half of New York, Vermont, western
Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut, to northwestern
Florida, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana, except for the
Mississippi Valley and Delta regions. West to eastern Texas,
western Oklahoma, central Kansas, to southeastern South Dakota.










Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Does not occur as major component.

B. Minor Component: Eastern Redcedar-Hardwood (48), White
Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52), Northern Red Oak-Mockernut
Hickory-Sweetgum (56), Beech-Sugar Maple (60).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Yellow-poplar, white ash, black cherry,
basswood, beech, sugar maple, oaks, hickories,
American elm, hackberry, green ash, boxelder.

B. Shrub: Kentucky coffeetree.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Sensitive to soil conditions; best development on
deep, well-drained, nearly neutral soils.

2. Common on limestone soils; good growth on deep
loams, loess soils, and fertile alluvial soils.

B. Climate

1. Annual precipitation varies from 25 inches to +70
inches.

2. Mean annual temperatures vary from 450 F. in
northern range to 670 F. in southern portion.

3. Frost-free period varies from 140 to 280 days from
northern range to southern.

C. Elevation

1. Generally at low elevations.

2. Occurs in Appalachians up to 4,000 feet.

D. Topography

1. Primarily occurs in streams and bottomlands.

2. Good growth in coves and bottoms in Appalachians.











Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear late spring.

2. Good seed crops are produced every 2 to 3 years.

B. Seed

1. Production begins at age 8 to 12 years; optimum at
age 30 years, continuing until age 130 years.

2. Limited seed dissemination by gravity and animals.

3. Large, edible fruit, ripens in autumn of 1st year.

C. Germination

1. Germination in spring of 1st or 2nd year; freezing
and thawing break dormancy.

2. Taproot developed.

D. Vegetative

1. Small stumps sprout freely; heart rot is common in
sprouts high on stumps, low sprouts have little rot.

2. Propagation is by grafting or budding.

E. Plantability

1. Very successful; more than 100 varieties used.

2. Withstands severe pruning for form correction.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intolerant.

2. To waterlogging: weakly tolerant.

G. .Early Growth

1. Rapid early growth on good sites.

2. Tends to be limby when open-grown.

3. Usually occurs as scattered single trees in
openings.










H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Young trees have fast growth on good sites; height
growth from 2 to 3 feet/year.

2. Heights of 80 to 120 feet and dbh 24 to 30 inches
are typical; maximum age from 150 to 200 years.

3. Benefits from pruning; epicormic sprouts common.

I. Major Uses

1. Nuts are edible; hulls are used for dyes, medicinal
purposes, and abrasives.

2. Veneer, gunstocks, furniture, fixtures, caskets,
cabinets, piano cases, millwork, sewing machines,
and woodenware and novelties.

3. Wildlife: large, distinctively-flavored nuts serve
as food for red squirrels, eastern gray squirrels,
and for eastern fox squirrel. Nuts also consumed by
red-bellied woodpecker and white-tailed deer.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Walnut caterpillar causes defoliation and reduces
growth.

Disease

1. Stressed trees are susceptible to European canker.

Physical

1. Stem deformities are common.

2. Resistant to damage and decay following fires.

Animal

1. Nuts eaten by squirrels, deer, and woodpeckers.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are over 100 named varieties.








67


I. Special Note: A substance produced by black walnut,
called juglone, is believed to be antagonistic to other
plants.









68

EASTERN REDCEDAR

(Juniperus virginiana L.)

Other Common Names: Redcedar, red juniper.

Importance Value: Low.

Range: Eastern one-half of South Dakota, except for a narrow
belt at the northern edge, and all states east and south
throughout most of Plains States. Lower portions of Lake States,
Ontario, and New England. Not on Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi
Valley or lower Atlantic Coast. Most widely distributed conifer
in eastern one-half of U.S.










Cover Types:

A. Major Component

1. Eastern Redcedar (46).
2. Eastern Redcedar-Pine (47).
3. Eastern Redcedar-Hardwood (48).
4. Eastern Redcedar-Pine-Hardwood (49).

B. Minor Component: Post Oak-Black Oak (40), Gray Birch-
Maple (19), Sassafras-Persimmon (64).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, red and white
oaks, hickories, and black walnut.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Occurs on a wide variety of soils, from rock
outcrops to swampy land; most frequent on
limestone-based soils and drier conditions.

2. Typically low site index species.

3. Not particular tolerant of alkaline soils; pH
varies from 4.7 to 7.8; species tends to increase
soil alkalinity.

B. Climate

1. Climatic conditions vary widely across extensive
range.

2. Average annual precipitation varies from 16 inches
in western portion of range to 40 to 60 inches in
the southern range.

3. Typical of hot, dry areas; well-adapted to
shelterbelt area of Great Plains.

C. Elevation

1. Generally found at lower elevations.

D. Topography

1. Occurs on a variety of sites across extensive range;
found on ridgetops, slopes, and flat lands.











2. Grows on dry exposed sites, abandoned fields, north-
facing slopes, and along streambanks.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Dioecious; both sexes occasionally on same tree.

2. Small, inconspicuous flowers; appear in early
spring; pollen development shows a golden color.

3. Seed matures in one season; 17,600 to 59,000
seeds/pound.

B. Seed

1. Seed production from age 10 to 175 years; best
production between ages 25 to 75 years.

2. Fruits an aromatic, berry-like cone which typically
has one or two seeds.

3. Dispersed by small mammals and many bird species.

C. Germination

1. Most commonly occurs in the early spring of the
second year; some germination in the first and
third years.

2. Embryo dormancy and impermeable seedcoat hinder
germination.

D. Vegetative

1. Does not sprout or sucker.

2. Cuttings, layering, and grafting are successful.

E. Plantability

1. Common as shelterbelt and ornamental species.

2. Drought resistant; microsites are important in
drier sites.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: generally intolerant; varies from very
intolerant to intermediate.










2. To waterlogging: least tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Long, fibrous root system produced in first year,
especially on drier sites; top growth limited
during early development.

2. Often a pioneer species, succeeded by hardwoods.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Relatively slow-growing with long period of seasonal
growth, from early spring to late fall.

2. Height and diameter growth of 30 to 60 feet and 12
to 24 inches, respectively, are typical; medium-
lived tree, generally from 60 to 100 years.

3. Sometimes not considered of tree form .or size.

I. Major Uses

1. Fence posts, moth-repelling liners for closets and
cedar chests, millwork, pencil slats, and woodenware
and novelties.

2. Oils from leaves, twigs, and wood are used for
perfumes and medicine.

3. Christmas trees, shelterbelts, and wildlife cover.

4. Wildlife: berries serve as food for many wildlife
species including bobwhite quail, ruffed grouse,
pheasant, wild turkeys, rabbits, foxes, raccoons,
skunks, opossums, and coyotes. Among the songbirds,
cedar waxwings travel in large flocks to feed on
juniper berries. The trees provide good nesting and
roosting cover for many birds and dense thickets
provide escape cover for deer.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Few cause serious damage; boring insects and
bagworms may damage forest-grown trees.

2. Ornamentals and nursery-grown trees damaged by
juniper webworm and seed-corn maggot.











Disease

1. Nursery-grown trees affected by Phomopsis blight.

2. Wood rots are serious problem in south.

3. Alternate host for cedar-apple rust; do not plant
near orchards.

Physical

1. Thin-bark and roots near surface make fire the
principal enemy of redcedar.

Animal

1. Mice and rabbits can damage seedlings.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. Pronounced variation occurs within species due to
extensive range and varying environmental
conditions.

2. There are many ornamental forms; var. crebra is
recognized in the north.

3. There are no recognized hybrids, although
hybridization is very likely.










SWEETGUM

(Liquidambar styraciflua L.)

Other Common Names: American sweetgum, bilsted, redgum, sapgum,
starleaf gum, gum, sycamore gum, gumwood, and alligator tree.

Importance Value: Intermediate, of the more important commercial
hardwoods of the US.

Range: From Connecticut southward throughout the East to central
Florida and eastern Texas. Found as far west as Missouri,
Arkansas, and Oklahoma and north to southern Illinois. Also
grows in scattered locations in northeastern and central Mexico,
Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component:


Northern Red Oak-Mockernut Hickory-Sweetgum (56).
Pin Oak-Sweetgum (65).
Sweetgum-Yellow-Poplar (87).
Sweetgum-Nuttall Oak-Willow Oak (92).











B. Minor Component: Scarlet Oak (41), Chestnut Oak (44),
Eastern Redcedar-Pine-Hardwood (49), White Pine-
Chestnut Oak (51), White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52),
Yellow-Poplar (57), Longleaf Pine (70), Shortleaf Pine-
Oak (76), Shortleaf Pine-Virginia Pine (77), Virginia
Pine (70), Loblolly Pine-Shortleaf Pine (80), Loblolly
Pine (81), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (82), Slash Pine (84),
Cabbage Palmetto-Slash Pine (86), Live Oak (89), Beech-
Southern Magnolia (90), Swamp Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark
Oak (91), Sycamore-Pecan-American Elm (94), Overcup Oak-
Water Hickory (96), Pond Pine (98), Baldcypress (101),
Baldcypress-Water Tupelo (102).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Same as Major and Minor Components.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil
/
1. Best growth on rich, moist, alluvial clay and loam
soils of river bottoms.

2. Tolerant of a variety of soils.

B. Climate

1. Annual rainfall varies from 40 inches in the
northern range to 60 inches in the southern portion
of range; rainfall during the growing season
averages 20 to 24 inches.

2. 180 frost-free days in northern range and 320 in
southern portion of range.

3. Minimum temperatures are -50 F in the North and 250
F. in the South; maximum temperature is about
1000 F. for most of range.

C. Elevation

1. Absent in the higher elevations (above 2,500 to
3,000 feet) of the Appalachians.

2. Best development in Mexico is at elevations between
4,000 to 5,300 feet, although occurs from 3,550
to 6,500 feet.










D. Topography

1. Best growth on alluvial swamps and poorly drained
areas.

2. In the Mississippi Delta, it is most common on
ridges and flats in moist, moderately drained
first bottoms.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear March to May, depending on latitude
and weather; fruit turns yellow in fall, seeds
mature from September to November.

2. Flower buds extremely sensitive to cold, often
damaged by frost.

3. Under optimum conditions each fruit may average 50
sound seed; under average conditions 7'to 8
sound seed are produced.

4. One bushel of fruit will yield about 12 ounces of
seed (approximately 60,000 seeds).

B. Seed

1. Fair seed crops produced each year, bumper crops
every 2 to 3 years.

2. Seed production begins at 20 to 30 years and
continues until about age 150 years.

3. Wind disseminated; maximum seed dispersal distance
600 feet, but majority falls within 200 feet.

C. Germination

1. Exposed mineral soil and abundant direct sunlight
provide best seedbed.

2. Sod is not a serious hindrance to germination.

D. Vegetative

1. Capable of sprouting until approximately age 50
years; sprout vigor does not decline until third
generation of successive sprouts from same stump.










2. Ten-year-old sprouts often have same size and
appearance as 18- to 20-year-old trees.

E. Plantability

1. Highly desirable for planting on relatively acid
strip-mine spoil banks.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: considered intolerant; young trees will
-endure some competition in pure stands on bottomland
sites, but ability declines with age.

2. Waterlogging: moderately tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Deep taproot and numerous horizontal rootlets
usually develop early; on wet sites, however, the
root system is shallow and spreading with little or
no taproot, while on ridges and hillsides a strong
taproot is developed.

2. Height growth in 5-year-old plantations averages 5
to 8 feet on good sites.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Characterized by long conical crowns that usually
prune themselves under forest conditions.

2. Responds slowly to release, except when young or
below 10 inches dbh.

3. Tendency to fork during development.

I. Major Uses

1. Veneer, slack cooperage, mine props, railroad ties,
pulp, lumber for planing-mill products, furniture,
cabinets for radios, televisions, and kitchens,
boxes, crates, pallets, turned articles.

2. Considerable amount of lumber is shipped to Europe
for use in manufacture of furniture.

3. Wildlife: tree is utilized by wildlife both for
food and nesting. Sweetgums seem to be preferred by
squirrels for building leaf nests and larger trees
are utilized as dens by squirrels and other mammals.
Beavers utilize sweetgum bark as food and squirrels










eagerly seek its buds in early spring. Once the
seed balls have opened, the seed is readily utilized
by quail, wild turkey, doves, wood ducks, squirrels,
and some songbirds. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers are
also heavy users of sweetgums; drilling holes in the
bark in bands as they forage for food.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Very resistant to insect attack.

2. Bark beetles, ambrosia beetle, and darkling beetle
will attack damaged, decadent, or dead trees.

3. Leaf feeders, forest tent caterpillar and luna moth,
will defoliate healthy trees.

Disease

1. Decay organisms, including Fomes geotropus,
Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus tigrinus, and
Polyporus lucidus, become established in fire-
damaged trees.

2. Sweetgum blight results from drought conditions and
is widely distributed.

Physical

1. Highly susceptible to death or injury by fire;
death of sapwood after repeated fires creates entry
point for insects and fungi.

2. Fall frosts often kill late summer shoots.

Animal

1. Hogs, goats, or cattle may damage seedlings.

2. Rodents, especially mice and rabbits, can cause
considerable damage to young seedlings in
plantations.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are no known hybrids or races of sweetgum.








78

YELLOW-POPLAR

(Liriodendron tulipifera L.)

Other Common Names: Tuliptree, tulip-poplar, white-poplar,
whitewood, poplar.

Importance Value: Major, one of the most valuable hardwood
timber species in the U.S.

Range: Practically all of the Eastern United States, from
southern New England west through southern Ontario and Michigan,











south to Louisiana and east to north-central Florida. Most
abundant and best development in the Ohio River Basin and on the
mountain slopes of North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and West
Virginia.

Cover Types:

A. Major Component:

1. Yellow-Poplar (57).
2. Yellow-Poplar-Hemlock (58).
3. Yellow-Poplar-White Oak-Northern Red Oak (59).
4. Sweetgum-Yellow-Poplar (87).

B. Minor Component: White Pine (21), White Pine-Hemlock
(22), White Pine-Chestnut Oak (51), White Oak-Red Oak-
Hickory (52), White Oak (53), Northern Red Oak (55),
Beech-Sugar Maple (60), Sassafras-Persimmon (64),
Loblolly Pine (81), Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (82), Beech-
Southern Magnolia (90), Swamp Chestnut Oak-Cherrybark
Oak (91).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Gums, baldcypress, red maple, loblolly pine,
sweetgum, blackgum, American elm, shortleaf pine,
hickories, black locust, white pine, eastern hemlock,
black walnut, flowering dogwood, sweet birch, basswood,
Carolina silverbell, northern red oak, white ash, black
cherry, cucumbertree, buckeye, American beech, sugar
maple, yellow birch, white oak, black oak, beech.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Naturally occurs and grows well on soils that are
moderately moist, well-drained, and loose textured.

2. Exceptionally good growth occurs on alluvial soils
bordering streams, loamy mountain cove soils, talus
slopes below cliffs and bluffs, and well-watered
gravelly soils.

3. Poor growth under very wet or very dry soil
conditions.

B. Climate

1. Precipitation ranges from 30 inches in Midwest to 80
inches in Southern Appalachians.











2. Optimum development occurs where rainfall is well
distributed over a long growing season.

3. Moderately low winter temperatures (-200 F.) to
about 1000 F. in summers.

C. Elevation

1. Northern limits of range--below 1,000 feet.

2. Southern Appalachians--up to 4,500 feet.

D. Topography

1. Best growth usually on north and east aspects, lower
slope positions, sheltered coves, and gentle concave
landforms.

2. Poorest growth usually on narrow ridges, upper slope
positions, south to west aspects, and steep convex
slopes.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Occurs from April to June after leaves unfold.

2. Bee pollinated.

B. Seed

1. About 80 samaras are produced in each cone-like
fruit; each samara has the potential for two seeds,
but usually one is aborted.

2. Viable seed is disseminated by wind from mid-October
to mid-March; seed may carry 5 times tree height by
strong winds.

3. Strong taproots develop rapidly.

C. Germination

1. Internal dormancy; seed must overwinter or be
stratified.

2. Best seedbed is surface of A horizon or well-
decomposed organic matter in direct sunlight.

3. Strong taproot develops rapidly.










D. Vegetative

1. Smaller diameter trees stump sprout profusely, but
ability decreases with increasing stump diameters.


2. Initial growth rates of sprouts far exceed young
seedlings.

E. Plantability

1. Has not been planted on a large scale basis,
although it is biologically possible.

2. Abandoned fields and pastures are poor planting
sites because of erosion, soil compaction, depleted
nutrient capital, and sod competition.

3. Competing vegetation will likely need to be
controlled on better sites.

4. Spring planting of 1-0 seedlings is preferred over
fall or early winter plantings.

F. Tolerance

1. To shade: intolerant.

2. To waterlogging: least tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Fast-growing, particularly when competition is
absent.

2. Not uncommon for seedlings to grow 10 to 18 feet in
5 years with sprouts 25 feet in height in the same
period.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Second-growth trees may attain heights in excess of
120 feet and diameters of 18 to 24 inches in 50 to
60 years.

2. Responds well to release.

I. Major Uses

1. Veneer, pulp, hat blocks, furniture, cabinetwork,
boxes, crates, pallets, millwork, television
cabinets, fixtures, and coffins.










2. Wildlife: nectar utilized by bees for honey
production. Seeds consumed by quail, finches,
cardinals, rabbits, squirrels, and mice. Young
sprouts are browsed by white-tailed deer and rabbits
eat bark and buds of saplings during winter months.

J. Damaging Agents

insects

1. Tuliptree scale kills terminal leader and causes
crooks.

2. Yellow-poplar weevils feed on buds and foliage
causing chlorotic-looking spots.

3. Root-collar borer damages phloem at stump line,
providing entry for rots, pathogens, and carpenter
ants.

4. Columbian timber beetles degrade and stain wood.

Disease

1. Armillaria mellea common on trees wounded by fire or
logging.

2. Heartrots enter through branch stubs.

3. Stem cankers, including Nectria and Fusarium have
been observed on low-vigor trees.

Physical

1. Fire can kill thin-barked seedlings and saplings.

2. Sleet and glaze storms may cause stem breakage and
damage to the crown.

3. Frost pockets can have significant impacts on early
growth and development.

4. Flooding can cause mortality.

Animal

1. Twigs and foliage often browsed heavily by livestock
and deer.











Vines

1. Wild grapes can completely occupy large areas of
regenerating stands, causing reduced growth,
malformations to stem and crown, and in some cases,
mortality.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. There are no known natural hybrids.










SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA

(Magnolia grandiflora L.)

Other Common Names: Bull-bay, evergreen magnolia.

Importance Value: Intermediate.

Range: Eastern North Carolina along Atlantic coast to Peace
River in DeSoto County, FL, westward along Gulf Coast to Brazos
River Valley in southeastern Texas. Extends inland for about 100
miles, except in the Mississippi Delta, where it grows through
Louisiana and central Mississippi. Planted outside of the
natural range as far north as St. Louis, Missouri, east to
Massachusetts, and along the Pacific Coast to British Columbia.


Cover Types:


A. Major Component:


Beech-Southern Magnolia (90).


B. Minor Component: Southern Redcedar (73), Sand Live Oak-
Cabbage Palmetto (74), Live Oak (89), Swamp Chestnut
Oak-Cherrybark Oak (91).
44











Associated Species:

A. Tree: Sweetgum, blackgum, yellow-poplar, cherrybark
oak, southern red oak, white oak, white ash, hickories,
southern magnolia, live oak, and water oak.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Best growth on moist, well-drained alluvial soils.

2. Found along coast on intrazonal Aquods and Aguepts.

3. Occurs further inland on Udults.

B. Climate

1. Warm-temperate to semitropical.

2. Average annual precipitation in the northeastern and
the southern range is 45 and 55 inches,
respectively; rainfall is well-distributed in
southern range.

3. Average July and January temperatures are 800 and
650 F., respectively; growing season extends from
210 to 240 days.

C. Elevation

1. Normally occurs at less than 200 feet elevation,
extending up to 500 feet.

D. Topography

1. Most common along streams or near swamps in
bottomlands.

2. Also found in low, moist sites in uplands.

3. Not found in first bottoms subject to regular
'flooding.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers from April to June.

2. Fruits mature from September to late fall.










B. Seed

1. Seed production begins as early as age 10 years;
prolific seed producer.

2. Seed falls late autumn to early winter.

3. Dissemination by birds, animals, and flooding.

C. Germination

1. Seed dormancy from lignified seedcoat.

2. Seed killed by light freeze for 48 hours.

3. Does not appear to regenerate in the area dominated
by root and crown of parent.

D. Vegetative

1. No information available.

E. Plantability

1. Seed requires great amount of time to absorb water
to germinate.

2. Persists under shade during establishment.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: moderately tolerant (establishment to
seedling) to moderately intolerant (sapling to
maturity).

2. Waterlogging: weakly tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Growth can be fairly rapid under optimum conditions.

2. Nursery plants grow 18 to 24 inches in one year.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. May attain heights of 60 to 80 feet with 24 to 36
inches dbh in 80 to 120 years.

2. Mature trees commonly have clear boles for up to 40
feet.










I. Major Uses

1. Furniture, fixtures, venetian blinds, interior
finish, sash, doors, general millwork, boxes, and
pulpwood.

2. Widely planted as an ornamental.

3. Wildlife: although seeds are a favorite food of
gray squirrels and are also eaten by other rodents,
wild turkey, bobwhite quail, and many songbirds,
magnolia has a limited value to wildlife.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Scale insects, including magnolia scale, oleander
scale, and tuliptree scale, may cause damage

Disease

1. Leaf spot fungi are common but not serious.

2. Heart rot caused by Fomes geotropus.

Physical

1. No serious problems noted.

Animal

1. Seeds consumed by squirrels, opossums, quail,
turkey, and various other rodents and birds.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids


1. No races or hybrids have been established.











WATER TUPELO

(Nyssa aquatica L.)

Other Common Names: Cotton-gum, sour-gum, tupelo, swamp tupelo,
swamp-gum, tupelo-gum, bay poplar, hazel pine.

Importance Value: Low.

Range: Southeastern Virginia to northern Florida and
southeastern Texas, and north in the Mississippi Valley to
eastern Arkansas, southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois,
western Kentucky, and western Tennessee.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component


Water Tupelo (103).
Baldcypress-Water Tupelo (102).











B. Minor Component: Longleaf Pine-Slash Pine (83), Slash
Pine (83), Slash Pine-Hardwood (85), and Baldcypress
(101).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Black willow, swamp cottonwood, red maple, water
locust, overcup oak, water oak, water hickory, sweetgum,
sweetbay, swamp tupelo, pondcypress, Carolina ash, and
redbay.

B. Shrub: Swamp-privet, common buttonbush, planertree,
supplejack, decumaria, buckvine, wild rose, poison-
sumac, and viburnum.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Nearly always found on alluvial soils ranging in
texture from plastic clay to silt loam.

B. Climate

1. Annual precipitation averages 52 inches with 21
inches in the growing season.

2. Average summer and winter temperatures are 810 F.
and 450 F., respectively.

3. Average of 231 frost-free days.

C. Elevation

1. Most common at sea level but makes good growth in
small ponds at higher elevations.

D. Topography

1. Low, wet flats or sloughs and deep swamps on flood
plains of alluvial streams.

2. Infrequent along drainages of coastal muck swamps;
seldom found in swamp interiors or higher than 5
feet above average stream level.

Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Has both perfect and unisexual flowers; the two
forms are borne on different trees.









90

2. Flowers appear in March or April; fruit matures and
falls between September and October of first year.

3. Pollen is wind disseminated

B. Seed

1. Production begins at 30 years or about 8 inches dbh.

2. Seeding is prolific and heavy crops are produced
nearly every year; many seeds remain viable for 2
years.

3. Approximately 215 to 250 individual drupes/pound and
450 cleaned seeds/pound.

4. Seed dispersal by water and small animals.

C. Germination

1. Generally on very wet sites near middle of summer,
after water has receded..

2. Best seedbed is open, very wet, poorly drained soil.

3. Germination less than 50% even under optimum
conditions.

4. Full light required for germination and development.

D. Vegetative

1. Does not appear to layer well.

E. Plantability

1. Outcompeted on better sites; restricted to drowned
sites where other species cannot survive.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: intolerant.

2. Waterlogging: most tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Generally responsive to release.











H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Height of 70 feet and dbh 20 to 26 inches at 50
years attained under fair conditions.

2. Characterized under forest conditions by a long,
clean bole, strongly buttressed at base, and a
narrow oblong or pyramidal crown.

3. Mature stand may yield 20,000 board feet/acre, Doyle
log rule, on a favorable site.

I. Major Uses

1. Veneer for containers, plywood, pulp, cooperage, .
railroad ties, boxes, pallets, furniture, cabinets,
flooring, platform planking, planing-mill products
and farm vehicles.

2. Other uses include cigar boxes, woodenware,
novelties, fixtures, and handles.

3. Wildlife: annual production of heavy seed crops
makes this an important wildlife food for wood
ducks, squirrels, raccoons, deer, turkeys, and many
songbirds. White-tailed deer also browse twigs and
foliage. Flowers provide some value for honey
production.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Tupelo leaf miner and forest tent caterpillar may
cause some defoliation.

2. Generally not susceptible to insect attack.

Disease

1. Progress of rot is very slow.

Physical

1. Fire can scorch bark and facilitate entrance of
rot.


2. Sharp changes in normal water level, either flooding
or drainage, sharply decrease growth and may cause
mortality.








92

Animal

1. No serious problems noted.

Vines

1. No serious problems noted.

K. Races and Hybrids

1. No races or hybrids of forest-grown water tupelo are
recognized.










BLACK TUPELO

(Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.)

Other Common Names: Blackgum, pepperidge, sour-gum, tupelo,
tupelo-gum, and gum tree.


Importance Value:


Intermediate.


Range: Uplands and in alluvial stream bottoms from southwestern
Maine west to New York, extreme southern Ontario, central
Michigan, Illinois, and central Missouri, and south to eastern
Oklahoma, eastern Texas, and southern Florida. Local in central
and southern Mexico.


Cover Types:

A. Major Component: Not a major component in any type.

B. Minor Component: Occurs as a minor component in 29
cover types including: Post Oak-Black Oak (40), Scarlet










Oak (41), Eastern Redcedar-Hardwood (48), White Pine-
Chestnut Oak (51), White Oak-Red Oak-Hickory (52),
Northern Red Oak-Mockernut Hickory-Sweetgum (56),
Shortleaf Pine. (75), Shortleaf Pine-Oak (76), Virginia
Pine-Southern Red Oak (78), Virginia Pine (79), Loblolly
Pine-Shortleaf Pine (80), Loblolly Pine (81), Longleaf
Pine-Slash Pine (83), Slash Pine-Hardwood (85), Beech-
Southern Magnolia (90), Sugarberry-American Elm-Green
Ash (93), Atlantic White Cedar (97), Slash Pine-Swamp
Tupelo (99), Pondcypress (100).

Associated Species:

A. Tree: Eastern redbud, American hornbeam, Eastern
hophornbeam.

B. Shrub: Pawpaw, bayberry, mountain-laurel, buckwheat-
tree, yaupon, dahoon, swamp cyrilla, dogwood, sourwood,
hawthorn, swamp-privet, common buttonbush, and redbay.

Habitat Conditions:

A. Soil

1. Best growth on well-drained, light-textured soils
on low ridges of second bottoms and on high flats of
silty alluvium.

2. Upland growth best on loams and clay loams of lower
slopes and coves.

B. Climate

1. Annual precipitation averages 49 inches with 18
inches falling in the growing season.

2. Annual temperature averages 570 F. with summer mean
of 740 F. and winter mean of 380 F.

3. Growing season averages 216 days.

C. Elevation

1. From sea level in Coastal Plain to 3,000 feet in
the Appalachian Mountains.

D. Topography

1. Adapted to a wide variety of sites, from creek
bottoms to dry upper and middle slopes.

2. Optimum development on lower slopes and terraces.










Life History:

A. Flowering

1. Flowers appear in spring.

2. Fruit ripens and falls in autumn.

B. Seed

1. Distributed mainly by small animals and by water.

2. Receding water usually deposits seed on favorable
seedbed.

C. Germination

1. Seed overwinters on cool, damp soil and germinates
the following spring.

D. Vegetative

1. Can be successfully layered.

2. Root suckering may occur around dying trees or
stumps.

E. Plantability

1. Will persist on unfavorable sites with overhead
competition.

2. Full sunlight required for optimum early
development.

F. Tolerance

1. Shade: intermediate.

2. Waterlogging: most tolerant.

G. Early Growth

1. Often grows in mixture with other species.

H. Sapling Size to Maturity

1. Mature height of 120 feet with dbh exceeding 48
inches on favorable sites.

2. Diameter growth on medium sites averages 4 to 5
inches for 10 years.











3. Usually in intermediate crown class, rarely attains
dominance except on mountain sites.

4. Slightly responsive to release.

I. Major Uses

1. Veneer for containers, plywood, pulp, cooperage,
railroad ties, lumber for boxes, crates, and
pallets, furniture, cabinets, flooring, platform
planking, planing-mill products, farm vehicles,
cigar boxes, woodenware, novelties, fixtures, and
handles.

2. Root wood is used locally for bottle corks and fish-
net floats.

3. Honey produced from tupelo flowers is highly valued.

4. Wildlife: very important food source for wildlife.
Black tupelo fruit are considered staple food for
wild turkey. Fruits are high in crude fat and
fiber, low in crude protein, and contain moderate to
high levels of phosphorus and calcium. It is a food
source for wood ducks, many songbird species, black
bear, and fox. White-tailed deer and beaver browse
the twigs and foliage of young trees and sprouts.
Flowers are an excellent source of nectar for bees.

J. Damaging Agents

Insects

1. Attacked by tupelo leaf miner and forest tent
caterpillar.

Disease

1. Trunk lesion, Fusarium solani, causes swellings and
dead areas in cambium, degrading wood.

2. Fire damaged trees susceptible to heart rot.

Physical

1. Hot fires cause mortality, cull, and increase
susceptibility to insects and diseases.

Animal


1. No serious problems noted.




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