• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Proposed project: Steeplands in...
 Proposed collaboration in the humid...
 A: International contract activities...
 B: The Center for Tropical...
 C: Publications pertinent to this...
 D: Dissertations relationd to tropical...
 E: Research projects related to...
 F: Proyecto de manejo su suelos...






Title: Soil management CRSP : steeplands in the Dominican Republic with a proposal for collaboration in : humid tropics in Peru, acid savannas in Colombia and Brazil
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056161/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil management CRSP : steeplands in the Dominican Republic with a proposal for collaboration in : humid tropics in Peru, acid savannas in Colombia and Brazil
Physical Description: 1 v. (various leaves) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
University of Florida. Center for Latin American Studies.
University of Florida. Center for Tropical Agriculture.
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1980.
 Subjects
Subject: Soil management -- Dominican Republic.
Soil management -- Latin America.
Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Notes
General Note: "August 10, 1980."
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "The attached research proposal constitutes the ...IFAS... faculty input into the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Project. We have emphasized the Steeplands in the Dominican Republic because of our previous experiences with steeplands in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Costa Rica and with mineral-deficient soils in Florida, and the nearness of the Dominican Republic to Florida."--P.(i).
General Note: "Submitted to AID and JRC by Soil Sciences, Agronomy and Food and Resource Economics Departments, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences in cooperation with Center for Latin American Studies, Center for Tropical Agriculture, University of Florida."
General Note: Includes bibliographical references.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056161
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ocm7006

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Proposed project: Steeplands in the Dominican Republic
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Staffing and staff qualifications
            Page 10
            Soil science
                Page 11
                Page 12
                Page 13
                Page 14
            Food and resource economics
                Page 15
            Center for Latin American studies
                Page 15
            Agronomy
                Page 16
        Graduate training opportunities
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
    Proposed collaboration in the humid tropics in Peru and the acid savannas in Colombia and Peru
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    A: International contract activities whithin the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 1965 to present
        Appendix 1
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    B: The Center for Tropical Agriculture
        Appendix 1
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    C: Publications pertinent to this CRSP, by individual
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    D: Dissertations relationd to tropical soils
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    E: Research projects related to this CRSP project
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    F: Proyecto de manejo su suelos de ladera en la República Dominicana (traducción de páginas 1-10).
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
Full Text









Soil Management CRSP: Steeplands in the Dominican Republic

With a Proposal for Collaboration in:

Humid Tropics in Peru
Acid Savannas in Colombia and Brazil










Submitted to AID and JRC

by

Soil Sciences, Agronomy and Food and Resource Economics Departments

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


in cooperation with

Center for Latin American Studies

Center for Tropical Agriculture

University of Florida


August 10, 1980






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

SIFAS INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES



GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 32611
)RIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
OFFICE OF THE DEAN FOR RESEARCH
1022 MCCARTY HALL
TELEPHONE: 904-392-1784
August 12, 1980



Dr. John L. Malcolm
DSB/AGR
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523

Dear Dr. Malcolm:

The attached research proposal constitutes the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida faculty input
into the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Project.
We have emphasized the Steeplands in the Dominican Republic
because of our previous experiences with steeplands in El Salvador,
Guatemala, and Costa Rica and with mineral-deficient soils in
Florida, and the nearness of the Dominican Republic to Florida.
We have also emphasized Farming Systems because they have been
emphasized for small farmers in North Florida and we are devel-
oping a program in this area for both domestic and international
situations.

Additionally, we have indicated an interest in the Humid Tropics
in Peru and the Acid Savannas of Columbia and Brazil because of
the background of experience of our faculty with Ultisols in
North Florida and various tropical areas, and faculty inter-
actions with graduate students from countries where highly
weathered soils predominate. We have not been as specific in
this part of our proposal because the guidelines were quite
general. However, in this area we will be particularly inter-
ested in collaboration with other universities.

We believe we have faculty support for our proposals and that
we can make important contributions to the welfare of people
in these areas. We hope that our proposals will be evaluated
favorably.

Sincerely,



F. Alo sius Wood
Dean for Research

FAW/djh

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.






CONTENTS


Introduction 1

Proposed project: Steeplands in the Dominican Republic 4

Staffing and staff qualifications 10

Soil Science 11

Food and Resource Economics 15

Center for Latin American Studies 15

Agronomy 16

Graduate Training Opportunities 17

Proposed collaboration in the humid tropics in Peru and
the acid savannas in Colombia and Brazil 20

Appendices

A. International contract activities within the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
1965 to Present

B. The Center for Tropical Agriculture

C. Publications pertinent to this CRSP, by individual

D. Dissertations related to tropical soils

E. Research projects related to this CRSP project

F. Proyecto de Manejo de Suelos de Ladera en la Repdblica Dominicana
(Traducci6n de pdginas 1 10).









Introduction


In many tropical countries, heavy concentrations of people live in hill

lands or highlands; their food, fiber and cash crop production is mainly lo-

cated on steeplands. As population increases in these areas, more pressure

is placed on both the renewable and non-renewable resources. Deforestation

gains in intensity, a higher proportion of the land is cropped each year, and

more roads and trails are cut. Soil losses increase, available moisture is

reduced and productivity declines; each in turn places even more pressure on

the land. Downstream results include flooding and siltation which reduce

both usable water supply and water quality. Additional pressures are brought

to bear on the lowlands and valleys as people begin to abandon the steeplands

in search of a livelihood in the towns and cities further down in the watersheds.

Hence, problems of the steeplands are not necessarily confined to the slopes

where small farmers predominate.

The problems of agricultural production on steeplands cannot be solved by

isolated component studies. An approach involving an overview of the systems

involved must be used. The largest immediately relevant system is that in-

cluding both the steeplands in a watershed and the valleys and lowlands with
their towns and cities. The uplands, themselves, represent a sub-system that

is relevant. Finally, the most important for this project, are the various

farming systems utilized by the farmers on the steeplands. To be concerned

only with an increase in productivity on the farms, however, is not an ade-

quate solution. Consideration must be given to general watershed protection,

a source of lumber and firewood, the production of animal feed, and the stabil-
ization or conservation of the soil and water resources on the farms individually

and collectively. All this must also be carried out within the needs, desires

and capabilities of the families who live and work in the steeplands.








Massive reforestation projects work only on large holdings of public or

private land or where small holders are forced off, either economically or

politically, to make way for such projects. Other conservation techniques

are available, but many require investments beyond the means of the rural

poor or tend to reduce incomes for a number of years, both of which require

supplemental credit programs which function well only occasionally or not

at all. Small watershed areas must also be brought into a conservation sys-

tem on a cooperative basis beginning in the upper reaches and working down-

ward. All of these interrelationships require a systematic approach to the

solution of farm and societal problems related to steeplands agriculture.

The University of Florida has a long history of working with farmers to

solve problems of steepland production. For more than a decade, both pre-

sent and former UF faculty have been involved in steeplands projects in Costa

Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, El Salvador and Guatemala. The University

presently has an active project involving steeplands agriculture and erosion

effects in the Dominican Republic, itself. Furthermore, the University is

establishing a strong program in Farming Systems Research and Extension based

heavily on its experiences in El Salvador, Bolivia and Guatemala and building

on a long history of multidisciplinary projects and cooperation both on and

off campus. Soil Science, Agronomy, Anthropology, Food and Resource Economics,

Animal Science and Vegetable Crops, among other departments, are involved in

the Farming Systems effort which is aimed both at domestic and international

situations. Hence, the environment at the University of Florida is eminently

appropriate for undertaking a major project in Steeplands Agriculure.
Florida's subtropical climate and nutrient poor soils make its agricultural

research and extension especially useful to agricultural and related development

in the tropics. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) has a





3

long and distinguished experience with technical assistance and education for

agricultural development and it has an established commitment to international

programs. This experience began 25 years ago in a long-term, technical

assistance contract in Costa Rica. The present experience and commitment

is based on a faculty of more than 900 scientists, fully a third of whom

have worked with agricultural development and education programs abroad.

Both domestic and international programs benefit significantly from this

involvement.








Proposed Project: Steeplands in the Dominican Republic


The Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) approach proposed

for this project is an action-oriented program for the rapid design,

evaluation, and implementation of relevant and realistic solutions to farm

problems. This approach utilizes field teams who provide the principle

thrust, and back-up support from the campus. The FSR/E field team undertakes

the identification of problems and constraints of target farmers through

a rapid and insightful survey technique designed specifically for this

purpose. Farmers are incorporated in the search for and testing of

solutions and the majority of the work is carried out on farms rather

than on experiment stations. Support activities are provided both by

full time FSR/E core on the campus and by FSR/E faculty members participating

part-time from various departments. Because the work is carried out on

farms, research or technology generation and technology transfer activities

are combined rather than separated forces; communication problems are

reduced and the lag from problem identification to technology adoption is

minimized. Hence, cost efficiency, measured in terms of technology

adopted by farmers, is high.

Precisely because the FSR/E approach works upward from specific problems

to the generation and testing of solutions rather than down from research

to a search for areas of applicability, and because of location specificity

of steeplands problems, it is not possible to specify the exact nature the

project will take. Rather, junior and senior level scientists from the

University of Florida, working in an integrated team with scientists

from CENDA, ISA and CESDA and the farmers in the project area or areas

will determine the exact nature of the problems and the type of research








and technology transfer activities necessary to solve them. 1/ However,

some generalizations about the nature of the program can be made.

Major efforts will be directed toward erosion control not only on farms

but also to a more limited extent on road and trail cuts. On-farm erosion

control and soil and water conservation practices must be compatible with

the needs and desires of the farmers and fit within their capabilities to

carry out and finance them while at the same time sustaining family income.

The use of grass waterways or terrace slopes may be combined with other crops

in the system to support livestock and provide some components. into nutrient

recycling. Combinations of subsistence and cash crops will also undoubtedly

be studied as will combinations of annual and perennial crops. Because of

long-term involvement with infertile soils in Florida and the tropics,

University of Florida soil and plant production scientists are eminently

qualified to solve mineral nutrition problems as they are identified.

To the extent possible, new crops and production practices considered will

be compatible with existing infrastructure, so as not to require the

development of a number of other projects. Where it seems impossible to make

progress without some infrastructural changes, the team will work with local

organizations and, if necessary, donor agencies, to establish appropriate

projects.

Both the junior and senior scientists for UF will work in the Dominican

Republic as counterparts in Dominican agencies rather than in a strictly

advisory capacity. That is, they will be expected to work not only in the

orientation and evaluation of the program but also with their counterparts in

the field to carry out and analyze field trials, farm records, and farmer's tests.



1/The proposed senior scientists are those recommended in the General Program
Proposal: 1) Soil and Water Conservation Specialist, 2) Farming Systems
Agronomist and 3) Farming Systems Socioeconomist.








In the annual evaluation of the work both Dominican and UF scientists

would present results and participate in the evaluation of the previous

year's work and the planning of the following year's program. All research

will be sequential. That is, each year's program will be built on results

of the proceeding year.

The establishment of major sites (such as San Jose) will proceed on a

systematic basis according to the estimated 5-year plan of work (Figure 1).

The first year, which is budgeted for only 6 months, will involve the arrival
and settling of the team, and initiation of the work. Along with Dominican

scientists, they will conduct the initial survey, locate farmers willing to

collaborate in research and farm records, and design and prepare the research

projects all in the first primary sitearea (presumably San Jose). The second

year these same activities will be conducted at the second major site (presum-

ablyOcoa-Constanza). Hopefully in the third year, activities can be initiated

in Haiti.

The second year, at the initial site (San Jose), research activities and

farm records will be initiated. Farm records serve as benchmark information

and for purposes of evaluation. The results of the second and succeeding year's

activities should be evaluated at the end of the year for the purpose of making

recommendations and planning the following year's program.

In the third year, promising results will be moved into the farmers' test-

ing program for evaluation. In the fourth year, the acceptability of the tech-

nology tested the previous year by farmers will be evaluated and transfer of the

acceptable technology will be initiated. Farmers' Tests on other new technology

should continue as will research and farm record activities. As always, results

will continue to be evaluated at the end of the year and plans made for the fol-

lowing year based on the evaluation. In the fifth year, all the above activities

will continue along with widespread transfer of acceptable technology.




Proposed 5-Year Plan


1981


Team arrives and
settles in
Conducts Sondeo*
Locates farmers
Designs research


1982

Establishes research
Initiates farm re-
cords
Evaluates first
year's results


Team arrives and
settles in
Conducts Sondeo
Locates farmers
Designs research


Haiti (1)


San Jose


1983

Farmers' Tests of
1st year's re-
sults
Continues research
and farm records
Evaluates results


Establishes re-
search
Initiates farm
records
Evaluates first
year's results


Team arrives and
settles in
Conducts Sondeo
Locates farmers
Designs research


Establishes re-
search
Initiates farm
records
Evaluates first
year's results

Team arrives and
settles in
Conducts Sondeo
Locates farmers
Designs research


1985

Widespread transfer
activities
Continues research,
records, farmers'
tests
Evaluates


1984

Evaluates accepta-
bility
Initiates transfer
Continues research,
records, farmers'
tests
Evaluates

Farmers' Tests of
1st year's results
Continues research
and farm records
Evaluates results


acceptabil-

transfer
research,
farmers'


Farmers' Tests of 1st
year's results
Continues research
and farm records
Evaluates results


Establishes research
Initiates farm records
Evalutes first year's
results


Nepal or **
Peru


Team arrives and
settles in
Conducts Sondeo
Locates farmers
Designs research


*Sondeo is the name of a rapid survey methodology developed for the Farming Systems
":**Would depend on additional funding.


Approach.


Evaluates
ity
Initiates
Continues
records,
tests
Evaluates


Ocoa-
Constanza






Suggested Staffing Pattern


1981 1982 1983 1984 1985


Soil/water Conserv.

Farm Systems Agron.

Farm Systems Econ.

Junior Scientist 1

Junior Scientist 2

Junior Scientist 3

Junior Scientist 4

Junior Scientist 5

Junior Scientist 6


1 San

1 San

1 San

1 San

1 San

1 San


Jose

Jose

Jose

Jose

Jose

Jose


SHaiti (1)

1 Haiti (1)


1 Ocoa

1 Ocoa

1 Ocoa


1 Haiti (2)

i Haiti (2)















Proposed Budget


Salaries

Fringe

Allowances

Overhead

Travel & Transp.

Supplies & Equip.

Other Direct Cost


1981
Total AID UF

141,700 88,100 53,600

23,352 14,242 9,110

60,900 60,900 -

77,705 54,125 23,580

46,450 46,450 -

95,250 95,250 -

7,500 7,500 -

452,857 .366,567 86,290


1982
Total AID UF

320,430 198,430. 122,000

54,260 33,520 20,740

75,900 75,900

158,689 105,009 53,680

21,120 21,120

66,000 66,000

13,530 13,530

709,929 513,509 196,420


1983
Total AID UF

352,473 218,473 134,000

59,687 36,907 22,780

112,530 112,530

183,735 124,775 58,960

100,430 100,430

72,600 72,600

15,972 15,972

897,427 681,687 215,740


1984
Total AID UF

400,631 248,631 152,000

65,656 39,816 25,840

91,839 91,839

192,014 125,134 66,880

26,354 26,354

79,860 79,820

16,371 16,371

872,725 628,005 244,720


1985
Total AID UF

440,665 272,265 168,400

72,221 43,591 28,630

136,152 136,152

222,309 148,209 74,100

121,512 121,512

87,846 87,846 -

19,325 19,325 -

I,100,930 828,900 271,130


5 year total

Salaries 1,655,899 1,025,899 630,000
Fringe 275,176 168,076 107,100
Allowances 477,321 477,321 -
Overhead 834,452 557,252 277,200
T & T 315,866 315,866 -
Sup. & Equ. 401,556 401,556 -
ODC 72,698 72,698 -

4,032,968 3,018,668 1,014,300







Staffing and Staff Qualifications


The IFAS international programs thrust is based upon a
faculty of about 900 of which about 300 have experience
for international work. Both domestic and international
programs benefit significantly from this involvement.
Staff are recognized professionally through normal tenure
and promotion channels for this work and are evaluated
on an equivalent basis recognizing the varied nature of
the job responsibilities. Staff have been tenured while
serving on international assignments when internal staff
are not available. Those hired can work successfully
in either domestic or international work. I will favora-
bly compare our present foreign technical assistance staff
with any in the world and we will continue to maintain
and strengthen that base.l/


The University will not attempt at the present time to name the specific

senior scientists for assignment to the Dominican Republic. The policy of

the University is to name present faculty or to choose new faculty for such

positions via the same screening procedures used for all positions. The quo-

tation from Vice President Tefertiller above indicates the commitment the

University has to faculty in international positions. Junior staff will be

chosen predominately from among the graduate students presently on campus

or those who enter in future years. Many of these graduate students speak

Spanish and/or French and have working experience in other countries. Some

also have experience in the Dominican Republic.

Following is a list of specific senior faculty who will be involved with

the project. The list does not include many other faculty including junior

faculty who may be contributing from time to time or on a full time basis in

the future. The present list is representative of the scope of interests of

the IFAS faculty who will be available as the project develops.


I/Letter from K.R. Tefertiller, Vice President for Agricultural Affairs to
D. Woods Thomas, Executive Director, BIFAD Support Staff, November 22, 1978.








Soil Science


Several of the Soil Science Department faculty have the expertise and

interest in a number of the steeplands problems discussed in the general pro-

ject proposal. A high level of interest exists in the area of maximizing

nitrogen fixation through the proper pairing of cultivar and Rhizobium strain.

A Dominican graduate student of J.B. Sartain plans to initiate an experiment

in this research area in the Dominican Republic during the current year.

Cultivar selection of a number of plant species such as corn, soybeans,

and pinto beans relative to their differential aluminum tolerance is also an

area in which a high level of interest exists. W.G. Blue, J.B. Sartain, and

R.D. Rhue have had research experience in studying acidity and aluminum pro-

blems in soils. With the assistance of D.H. Hubbell the effects of acidity,

low P and drought on rhizobium survival could also be evaluated.

Working cooperatively with the Dominican Republic personnel, G. Kidder,

R.D. Rhue, J.B. Sartain and W.G. Blue, all of whom have a strong soil fertil-

ity base, could develop a sound soil fertility evaluation system for both

agronomic and forage crops. This system could then be used as a foundation

for fertilizer and lime recommendations.

The primary thrust in improving the land resource data base, including

soil characterization and classification evaluation, use and improvement of

soil taxonomy could be directed by V.W. Carlisle. These data would be inval-

uable in establishing sound farming systems for the region.

Presently, outside the area of interest of this CRSP but important to

this CRSP in that another research link will be established with the Dominican

Republic, is thesis research by a Dominican graduate student under the direc-

tion of J.B. Sartain. This study will address the problem of Zn deficiency in

tomatoes in the calcareous soils of the Azua Valley. Information and collabor-








ative links gained in this study may assist in solving problems in the desig-

nated CRSP area in the future.

1. William G. Blue: Professor Soil Chemistry and Fertility (forages). Pri-

mary research area is in tropical soils and pastures. He has been involved

in soil fertility research as it relates to pasture and forage production

for the past 30 years. He teaches a'graduate level soil fertility class and

serves as a guest lecturer in a tropical soils course. Fluent in Spanish.

W.G. Blue has worked in a number of South American and Caribbean coun-

tries on a short term basis. In addition he has had a 2-year residence ex-

perience in Costa Rica working on soil-forage and agronomic problems.

2. Victor W. Carlisle: Professor Soil Genesis and Classification: His re-

search activities are centered around State Project LS-D1437 entitled

"Characterization, Classification, and Mapping of Florida Soils". He has

been involved in a number of different activities in tropical soil areas,

a few of which follow: Consultant, Asociacion Experimental Cafetalera,

Guatemala; U.S. AID, University of Costa Rica; Battelle Memorial Institute

sub-contract investigating soil phase of feasibility study for construction

of an interocean sea level canal across Isthmus of Panama employing nuclear

devices; course coordinator of agricultural course sponsored by the Organi-

zation of Tropical Studies, Inc., Costa Rica and Honduras.

He has chaired graduate committees for a number of students from

Colombia, El Salvador and Costa Rica, and as such has visited these countries

on soil sampling trips. He speaks some spanish.

3. Charles F. Eno: Chairman and Professor, Soil Microbiology. He has served

in the administrative post as Chairman of the Soil Science Department for

the past 15 years. He has a strong interest in tropical agriculture and

has visited Costa Rica, El Salvador and Jamaica in administrative








research capacities. With his experience in administration, he could assist

greatly in the leadership of this Soil Management CRSP. He is marginally

conversational in Spanish.

4. David H. Hubbell: Professor Soil Microbiology. His primary research area

deals with the mechanisms of infection of legumes by Rhizobium. He is cur-

rently the principal investigator on a contract for the "Establishment of

a bean inoculation program acceptable to small farms in developing countries"

with AID. This research was to be conducted in El Salvador but due to

political problems the research was moved to Sanford, Florida.

He has had considerable experience in South and Central America. He

is currently teaching a course in Soil Microbiology in Brazil. He is highly

proficient in Spanish. He is currently advising two graduate students from

South America.

5. Gerald Kidder: Associate Professor, Extension Soil Specialist. Position

responsibilities include Extension support of the Florida soil testing

laboratory of the Soil Science Department. He is primarily responsible

for the dissemination of the soil science information and maintenance of

up-tp-date soil test recommendations from the soil testing laboratory.

He has had 6 years of experience in Costa Rica and Honduras working

with a commercial fruit company. He has a good background relative to the

soil fertility problems of the tropics and communicative skills to get

the research information to the farmers. His Spanish speaking skills are

excellent.-

6. William L. Pritchet: Professor of Forest Soils. Research in intensive

management of forest soils. Three projects involve a) Drainage and water

control for production of slash in the flatwoods; b) effects of intensive

management (including clear cut harvesting, slash disposal, site preparation,








and fertilization) on the environment and on long-term productivity, c)

development of fertilizer recommendations for Southern pines in the Coastal

Plain; d) determination of mappable site factors that influence tree growth.

He teaches a graduate course in forest soils, has had 2 years residence

in Bolivia, and has had experience in Costa Rica, Belize and Trinidad,

Honduras and Venezuela. He is fluent in Spanish.

7. R.D. Rhue: Associate Professor, Soil Chemistry and Fertility. Position

responsibilities involve supervision of the Florida Soil Testing Labora-

tory, investigation of soil fertility problems as they relate to soil test

recommendations and the extension of this research information to the public.

He has performed research in Puerto Rico on a project entitled: "Screen-

ing corn for Al tolerance". He currently has one graduate student from the

Caribbean region under his supervision and served on the committee of a stu-

dent from the Dominican Republic. His conversational skills in Spanish are

weak.

8. Jerry B. Sartain: Associate Professor, Soil Fertility. His research respon-

sibilities involve fertility studies with turfgrasses and agronomic crops,

and include multiple cropping techniques. He has a strong background in

statistics, chemistry and plant physiology. His dissertation research in-

volved screening of soybean cultivars for aluminum toxicity. He is currently

serving as a technical advisor on a project to study legume inoculation

methodology for subsistence farmers in developing countries. He has had

experience in design and initiation of experiments on steeplands in El Sal-

vador.

Currently, he has two graduate students under his supervision from the

Dominican Republic who are performing their thesis research on fertility

problems in the Dominican Republic. He also teaches a course in fertilizers

and soil fertility which places strong emphasis on problems of acid tropical








soils. His conversational Spanish skills are marginal. He plans to up-

grade his skills through Spanish courses offered by the Institute of Food

and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Food and Resource Economics

Peter E. Hildebrand: Visiting Professor, Food and Resource Economics De-

partment. He has responsibility for developing the Farming Systems Research

and Extension Program for the University of Florida. He:has most recently

been with the Rockefeller Foundation in Guatemala where his responsibilities

involved the development of the Socioeconomics unit as an integrated part

of the multidisciplinary technology generation approach used in the Guate-

malan Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA). He created

methodology for rapid regional surveys, crop records with small farmers,

evaluation of acceptability of technology and contributed to the methodol-

ogy for farm trials and farmers' tests.

He has had 15 years experience in farm systems management in

Colombia, El Salvador, Pakistan and Guatemala. He speaks Spanish fluently.

Center for Latin-American Studies

Gustavo A. Antonini: Professor of Latin American Studies and Geography.

He has been involved in a number of research projects in the Caribbeen re-

gion, such as 1) systems analysis of resource utilization in the Dominican

Republic; 2) public policy determinants of urbanization in the Dominican

Republic and Costa Rica, and 3) a cost benefit analysis of farm land use

systems with respect to the soil and water resources of the Yaque del Norte

River Basin in the Dominican Republic. He currently manages the graduate

training program between the University of Florida and the Dominican Re-

public. He speaks Spanish fluently.








soils. His conversational Spanish skills are marginal. He plans to up-

grade his skills through Spanish courses offered by the Institute of Food

and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Food and Resource Economics

Peter E. Hildebrand: Visiting Professor, Food and Resource Economics De-

partment. He has responsibility for developing the Farming Systems Research

and Extension Program for the University of Florida. He:has most recently

been with the Rockefeller Foundation in Guatemala where his responsibilities

involved the development of the Socioeconomics unit as an integrated part

of the multidisciplinary technology generation approach used in the Guate-

malan Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (ICTA). He created

methodology for rapid regional surveys, crop records with small farmers,

evaluation of acceptability of technology and contributed to the methodol-

ogy for farm trials and farmers' tests.

He has had 15 years experience in farm systems management in

Colombia, El Salvador, Pakistan and Guatemala. He speaks Spanish fluently.

Center for Latin-American Studies

Gustavo A. Antonini: Professor of Latin American Studies and Geography.

He has been involved in a number of research projects in the Caribbeen re-

gion, such as 1) systems analysis of resource utilization in the Dominican

Republic; 2) public policy determinants of urbanization in the Dominican

Republic and Costa Rica, and 3) a cost benefit analysis of farm land use

systems with respect to the soil and water resources of the Yaque del Norte

River Basin in the Dominican Republic. He currently manages the graduate

training program between the University of Florida and the Dominican Re-

public. He speaks Spanish fluently.








Agronomy

Gordon M. Prine: Professor Agronomy Department. He conducts research

on development of new crops and plant introductions for the state of

Florida. He is presently working with pigeon peas, perennial peanuts

(Arachis sp.) crotalaria, Kenaf, Desmodiums, mungbeans, chufas, hairy

indigo, late maturing soybeans and miscellaneous tropical legumes. He

has recently released "Florigraze rhizoma multiflorum L.". He is devel-

oping pigeon pea cultivars for forage and grain production. He pioneered

research on minimum tillage, multiple cropping and research on intercrop-

ping under mechanized agriculture in Florida.

He has marginal speaking and writing knowledge of Spanish.








Graduate Training Opportunities

The commitment of IFAS to international agriculture and development is

further emphasized by the significant number of formal graduate and under-

graduate courses with international and tropical agriculture emphasis, and

the large number of international students enrolled in these programs.

More than 40 percent of over 600 graduate students in IFAS programs

are international students representing more than 40 countries.

Several departments of IFAS have developed more than 35 special courses

dealing with tropical agriculture and agricultural development. Certificates

in Tropical Agriculture (Appendix B) may be earned by interested students at

different levels of training. The IFAS reputation in tropical agriculture has

attracted students from most developing countries of the world; at present,

241 agricultural students from abroad are enrolled in IFAS courses, 95 are

Ph.D candidates, 93 are at the M.S. or equivalent level, and 53 are under-

graduates.

In addition to the international experience of the IFAS on-campus faculty,

a large number of faculty in the regional research and education centers as

well as the county staff personnel of the Cooperative Extension Service have

had experience in tropical agriculture and agricultural development work. For

example, the Agricultural Research and Education Centers at Belle Glade and

Homestead particularly are relevant due to similarity to production conditions

in the Caribbean and complementarity in research and extension programs. Also,

a number of other departments of the University have faculty with experience

relevant to international agricultural development. These include the schools

of Veterinary Medicine and Law and the Departnent of Anthropology, Economics,

Education, Geography and Sociology.






18

The Soil Science Department currently has 46 graduate students of which

19 are of foreign origin. Sixteen of these foreign graduate students are from

tropical areas. The list of graduate students from the Caribbean region and

tropical soils areas is extensive. In the past 10 years more than 55 students

from tropical soils areas have received advanced degrees from the Department.

A listing ofsomedegrees awarded in Soil Science since 1970 is given in Appen-

dix D and summarized in the following table.


Students from South America
Degree Total and the Caribbean Region

MA-MAG 7 3
MS-MSA 22 12
Ph.D 26 8

TOTAL 55 23

The Food and Resource Economics Department has had considerable experience

in training graduate students from developing countries as indicated in the

following table.

Degrees Since 1975
MAMRD MS PH.D
Degrees granted to foreign
students 28 9 11
Currently enrolled foreign
students 13 10 11
Degrees granted to domestic
students in international
agriculture 2 1
Currently enrolled domestic
students in international
Agriculture 3 2

In the Agronomy Department, more than half of the graduate students

currently enrolled are from outside the United States. These include 12

who are studying for the MS degree and 18 who are studying for the Ph.D

from 9 Latin American and Caribbean countries.








This CRSP project will complement and be complemented by an on-going

training project in the Center for Latin American Studies. It is an inte-

grated professional training program financed by the Secretariat of State

of Agriculture (SEA) of the Dominican Republic and is in collaboration with

the Association of Caribbean Universities and Research Institutes. A new

phase to this program is being proposed through the Subsecretarfa de Recursos

Naturales of SEA for a program of development, conservation and management

of natural renewable resources to be financed by USAID. The program is being

directed by Dr. Gustavo Antonini.

The Farming Systems Research and Extension Program is proposing a series

of courses to be taught in various countries. One of the these countries

could easily be the Dominican Republic. Under the program, graduate credit

will be available for students properly enrolled in the courses, while others

may take them as short courses. The specific courses to be offered will be

selected for each case, but they will relate to the general area of farming

systems research and extension activities.






Proposed Collaboration in the Humid Tropics in Peru,
and Acid Savannas in Colombia and Brazil


Florida's mineral soils are predominately acid, low in

organic matter and inorganic colloids, and deficient in most of the major

and secondary plant nutrients and some micro-nutrients. Primary mineral

soil orders are ultisols, Spodosols, and Entisols. In addition, there

is a large area of calcareous Entisols in South Florida. These virgin soils

are essentially useless for modern crop production. However, our

research program over the past 90 years, and particularly since World War II,

has demonstrated that these soils are generally highly responsive to

technological inputs; with utilization of modern technology, they are

highly productive. These developments did not occur overnight, but have

been the result of continuous research and extension programs in soils, plant,

pest and engineering sciences; increased crop productivity has been an

evolutionary process.

Our soil science research programs are continuing. We are studying

surface and subsoil acidity, liming, the effects of these on nutrient forms

in soils and their availabilities, the efficiencies of nutrients applied

through fertilizer, and the effects of various cultural practices on long-

term productivity. Plant science research is also proceeding rapidly through

plant breeding for plant adaptation to special soil conditions, and plant

growth analysis which will permit selection of plants which partition a

higher percentage of photosynthate into reusable products. Studies on

integrated pest management are also proceeding rapidly.

We believe that past and present research has direct application
to areas with infertile soils. Research and development with our present

knowledge as the base, will permit farmers in these developing areas to

progress as rapidly as economic and political conditions will permit.








We expect that development in these areas will also be by an evolutionary

process, but our improved knowledge and understanding of agricultural sys-

tems now should encourage accelerated development.

Our faculty has extensive experience with acid, infertile soils in

Florida and in the Tropics during the past 25 years. The Soil Science

Department, University of Florida, has 27 scientists at Gainesville and

approximately 15 at branch research centers. Approximately half of the

faculty has had experience with tropical soils, in several cases through

extended residences in foreign countries. All of these individuals have

expressed an interest in involvement in the Humid Tropics and Acid Savannas

Projects of the CRSP, particular for short-term assignments and supporting

work. In addition, some senior faculty have indicated interests in long-

term assignments (2 years) some time during the next 5 years. The avail-

ability of our present faculty for long-term foreign involvement will de-

pend on the study location and living conditions. Since these have not

been established, no firm commitments have been obtained.

We do not propose to assume leadership for these projects and because

of limited time, we have not attempted to develop joint projects with other
institutions. However, we have had extensive preparation for work in these

areas through personal research in Florida and developing countries including

Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Belize. Also we have had numer-

ous graduate students from these countries who have conducted studies with

soils from their home countries or who have studied soil orders from Florida

which are similar to soils from their home countries. Thus, we have the ex-

pertise to study soil problems which predominate in these areas and have con-

tacts through former students.





22



We want to reiterate that we have a major interest in the Humid

Tropics and Acid Savannas Projects and are seeking a research and

development role in the management of soils in these areas. Qualifications

of our faculty are indicated in the proposal on Steeplands in the

Dominican Republic. Since we have only visited the Carimagua, Colombia

area, we will not attempt to propose specific activities. We have also

not attempted to prepare a budget.













Appendix A


INTERNATIONAL CONTRACT ACTIVITIES WITHIN

THE INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1965 TO PRESENT








AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


Contracts with
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University Florida


Objective:
To determine which crops can be grown in substitution
for coca in the Yungas and Chapare regions at no or
the least appreciable loss in income to the grower
from that which he would have received from production
and sale of coca for legal use.

Staffing*: 16 man year of long-term assignments in
Agronomy, Agricultural Economics, and
Plant Pathology.
17 short-term scientists.

Objective:
Nitrogen Fixation by grasses after inoculation with
spirillum lipoferum in field trials.


Staffing:


8 short-term agronomists and others in
related nitrogen fixation fields.


Objective:
To determine the essential mineral supplements for
grazing animal diets and to increase the efficiency
of lesser developed countries' meat and milk produc-
tion systems with resultant increase in quality and
quantity of individual diets and a subsequent in-
crease in employment and income levels.

Staffing: 10 short-term animal scientists

Objective:
To provide for supportive professional technical and
administrative services to be extended to the Institu-
tion in accordance with the objectives of its National
Agricultural Research Program and in particular to the
National Cattle Project.


Staffing:


8 man years on long-term assignments in
Animal Science and Agronomy.
9 short-term scientists.


Objective:
To strengthen the capabilities in ruminant livestock
development programs for the tropics with emphasis on
nutrition and forage production and use.

Staffing: 22 short-term animal scientist and others
in related fields.


Short-term refers to 1-4 week assignments.


BOLIVIA
1976-1980


NITROGEN
FIXATION
1975-1981


MINERAL
RESEARCH
1974-1980


BRAZIL
1973-1975


211-D
1972-1977


* Staffing is through 1979.









EL SALVADOR
1969-1979


VIETNAM
1969-1975


Objective:
To bring higher incomes and living standards for small
and medium farmers in El Salvador. This objective is
to be attained through increased production and im-
proved marketing of basic grains and vegetables; the
foregoing to be accomplished by providing assistance
to the personnel of the Ministry of Agriculture and
Livestock (MAG) and the National Center for Technical
Agriculture (CENTA), the research, extension and edu-
cation agency of MAG

Staffing: 34 man years on long-term assignments in
Soils, Multiple Crops, Vegetable Crops,
Extension Plant Pathology, Agricultural
Economics, Agronomy, Agricultural Educa-
tion.
70 short-term scientists.

Objective:
To provide technical advice and assistance to the
National Agricultural Center to strengthen the Center
and to insure basic economic and rural development in
Vietnam.


Staffing:


PANAMA
1971


16 man years on long-term assignments in
Vegetable Crops, Dairy Science, Forestry,
Soils, Animal Science.
19 short-term scientists.


Objective:
To assist the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock to
evaluate the present agricultural research and higher
agricultural education program in Panama and make re-
commendations for a five year program designed to
accelerate the development of new farm level technology
in Panama and to improve the related educational func-
tion to the University of Panama School of Agriculture.


Staffing:


NIGER
1972


3 short-term agricultural research and edu-
cation advisors.


Objective:
To study and recommend requirements for the construction
of a refrigerated slaughter house in Maradi, Niger. The
study will include economic justification and technical
designs for plant and equipment.

Staffing: 3 short-term specialists in Agricultural
Engineering, Agricultural Ecnomics and
Meats.









GUYANA
1968-1973


RURAL
ELECTRIFICATION
1972-1973


FEED
COMPOSITION
1970-1972


COSTA RICA
1965-1970


Objective:
To provide Technical Assistance to the Government of
Guyana in its efforts to diversify and develop its
agricultural economy

Staffing: 3 man years on long-term assignments
in Agricultural Economics and Vegetable
Crops.
47 short-term scientists

Objective:
To assist AID in its efforts to determine the social,
cultural and economic effects of rural electrification
in areas of Latin America.

Staffing: 4 short-term Agricultural Economists and
Sociologists.

Objective:
To find low cost feeds -- i) survey of existing data
and analysis of feeds, fodder and agricultural by-
products; 2) analysis of other available feeds; and
3) development of cattle feeding trials and systems
utilizing indigenous feeds to fill in the gaps of
existing research.

Staffing: 9 short-term Animal Scientists.

1) Objective:
To provide assistance to the Government of Costa
Rica for establishing a Technical School of Agricul-
ture, continuation of the corn and bean campaigns,
improvement of pasture grasses, ocffee diversifica-
tion and trial programs for a variety of crops.


Staffing:


1970-1972


10 man years in Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Agricultural Education.


2) Objective:
To provide technical advice and assistance to the
Government of Costa Rica in implementation of an
Agricultural Technical School and establishment of
a Food Technology Laboratory.


Staffing:


1973-1975


2 man years in Agricultural Education
1 short-term in Food Science


3) Objective:
To establish a Food Technology Laboratory.

Staffing: 1 short-term in Food Science.









JAMAICA 1) Objective:
To provide assistance to Government of Jamaica in
developing extension programs in Dairy Science and
Agricultural Engineering.

Staffing: 3 many years in Agricultural Engineering,
Dairy Science.
4 short-term scientists.
1976-1979 2) Objective:
To provide research expertise on the lethal yellow-
ing of coconut disease, its origin and possible con-
trol measures.

Staffing: 2.5 man years in Entomology.
1979 3) Objective:
To review curriculum and staffing of the Jamaican
School of Agriculture and recommend program develop-
ment methods to strengthen the School's academic
base.

Staffing: 6 man months in varied disciplines.

CAMEROON
1890 Objectives:
Design, in a collaborative manner, a project to sup-
port the development of a university center for agri-
culture in Dschang, Cameroon.

Staffing: Design team, 16 man months in varied
disciplines.
MALAWI
1980 Objectives:
Develop the capability of the Department of Agricul-
tural Research to provide socially acceptable and
economically sound research recommendations for small
holder needs in satisfactory quantity and quality, and
in form which is readily usable by extension agents.

Staffing: More than 26 man-years in agronomy, agri-
cultural economics, plant breeding, animal science,
horticulture and farming systems of long term scien-
tists plus 36 man-months of short-term scientists over
a 5-year peroid.








NON AID CONTRACTS
FOR LAST 5 YEARS
WITH
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida


COUNTRY OR
PROJECT


OBJECTIVES


NSF Nat. Sci. Found.


Ecuador 1
National Ag.
Res. Inst. (INIAP)



Ecuador 11 & 111
Int. Bank for Reconst.
and Development -
World Bank


Int. Peanut
Rockefeller
Foundation


Honduras
Banco Nac.
de Fomento


Guatemala
El Salto, Co.


CIP Inter-
national Potato
Center
Rockefeller
Foundation


Development of a substained yield 1976-1977
tropical Agro-Ecosystem in the
upper Amazon Basin.

To provide Technical Assistance to 1970-1977
INIAP in its efforts to diversify,
improve its staff and develop more
rapidly its various research pro-
grams.

To provide international technical 1977-1980
services to INIAP to strengthen its
research and training facilities in
support of the development of the
livestock industries of Ecuador and
to improve its domestic staff.

To work towards a systematic, world- 1976-1978
wide variety development program and
to develop new peanut varieties with
wide soil and climatic adaptation
and broad disease and pest resistance.

To provide the services of technical 1976
advisory personnel in Honduras and
supporting services to assist the BNF
in swine nutrition an'd production,
computer formulation of economic
feed rations for swine, field tests
swine nutrition and setting up of a
port processing plant.


To provide technical assistance to
El Salto in the areas of sugarcane
and sugarcane production.

Define Socio-Economic problems in
terms of transferring and adopting
technology faced by potato farmers
in developing countries.


1976-1977



1975-1978


YEARS





















Appendix B

















The

Center For Tropical Agriculture









The Center for Tropical Agriculture


University of Florida

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



Introduction

Hope for feeding and clothing the world's rapidly expanding population
lies mainly in increasing agricultural productivity in the tropics. Within
this region are the most diverse and potentially productive of all the earth's
underdeveloped resources. Extensive areas of the tropics are endowed with a
year-round combination of sunshine and rainfall for optimum plant growth. And
yet vast areas remain unused. It is a paradox that most of the world's hungry
people live in the tropics.

Recognizing the problem and potential, the Florida Board of Regents
authorized a Center for Tropical Agriculture in January, 1965. The Center
was organized as a component of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(IFAS), the University of Florida's statewide complex of teaching, research, and
extension programs in agriculture. This administrative organization permits
the Center to draw upon findings from applicable research as well as services
of a professional staff of nearly 900 scientists. Approximately one-third of
these scientists, located on the main campus and throughout the State, have had
overseas experience and are engaged in training, research, or service activities
involving tropical agriculture.

Florida is uniquely suited to assist the development of tropical agriculture.
The State's major source of agricultural revenue is from tropical crops. Its
location at the edge of the tropics presents similar production and management
problems. Less than 35 years ago, agricultural yields in Florida were no
higher than the lowest in many tropical countries today. Farm income was corres-
pondingly low. But since 1960 Florida farm income has increased at a more rapid
rate than any other state. Much of this growth can be attributed to the Univer-
sity's research and extension programs. New techniques have been developed in
plant and animal breeding, pest and disease control, and land management. The
subtropical climate of Florida, once considered a liability, is now one of its
greatest assets.

In the southern part of the State, IFAS Research and Education Centers
concentrate on production and management of crops and livestock for warm climates.
These efforts within the State, as well as overseas activities, often involve
several departments working together.

Resources at the University of Florida offer the potential for development
of broader based and more effective international assistance. Medicine, the
social sciences, education, agriculture (also including Forestry and Veterinary
Medicine) all have strong interests in the environment and population of the
tropics. To neglect any one of these desciplines in planning would seriously









limit development. Few Universities have such a combination of complimentary
resources available on one campus.


Training

There is a rising demand for scientists and technicians dedicated to
improving production in lands where hunger is common. This calls for an increase
of University graduates with training in tropical agriculture. They must be
both adaptive and innovative in their approach to technological problems. But
perhaps even more important they must be able to communicate with the people
of the land in which they work.

The highly specialized manpower requirements of agricultural enterprises
in industrialized nations cannot always be reconciled with the needs of the
developing world when planning a curriculum. A new approach is needed in the
training of both U.S. and foreign students for service in international agri-
culture. The continuing effort of the Center for Tropical Agriculture will
be focused on assisting departments in the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences to achieve excellence in their tropical programs.

Graduate Program

An interdisciplinary minor in Tropical Agriculture is offered at the
graduate level in the College of Agriculture. Students in any relevent
field may develop a minor program based on a combination of tropically
oriented courses in agriculture, language and area studies, and thesis re-
search of concern to the tropics. In-depth training is offered in animal
production, agronomy, development economics, plant protection, horticulture,
and soils. Each tropical course provides information for adapting Florida
experience to environmentally similar, but culturally different situations.

Students minoring in Tropical Agriculture may receive credit for courses
in other colleges which improves their background for overseas work. In
addition to excellent language training, courses dealing with cultures and
resources of different regions are available. The Centers for Latin American
and African Studies emphasizes the social, cultural, and political factors in
the development of those regions. Students in the social sciences studying
agrarian problems may increase the effectiveness of their training by taking a
minor in Tropical Agriculture. A Certificate in Tropical Agriculture is
awarded to those graduate students who evidence by their academic preparation a
commitment to a career in tropical work.

Undergraduate Program

An undergraduate student may specialize in tropical agriculture within
any of the 16 major departments in the College of Agriculture. These include
the disciplines of plant sciences, animal sciences, soils, plant pathology,
entomology and nematology, and agricultural economics.









COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE


University of Florida

Tropical Agriculture Specialization Guidelines



Several departments of the College of Agriculture have developed dis-
tinctive courses and programs related to agriculture in the tropics. These
courses and programs have been developed since many areas in Florida have
subtropical or tropical climates and agricultural enterprises in Florida deal
with production problems similar to those found in the tropics. As a result
graduates of the College of Agriculture can qualify for professional work in
tropical agriculture if they desire to do so.

The opportunity to become familiar with tropical agriculture is also
available to graduates of other Colleges of the University. The economic
cultural and social institutions of tropical countries are strongly influenced
by the agriculture of these countries. Thus, students from disciplines other
than agriculture benefit by understanding the agriculture of tropical countries,
an understanding that may be developed from selected courses in the College of
Agriculture.

Certificate in Tropical Agriculture for B.S.A., M. Ag., M.A.M.R.D., M.S.,
and Ph.D. graduates of the College of Agriculture.

The program for a specialization (with certificate) in Tropical
Agriculture for undergraduate and graduate students in the College
of Agriculture provides course selection to broaden the normal degree
requirements. Students enrolled in any one of the existing major pro-
grams in the College of Agriculture may pursue this specialization.
The courses required for this specialization will be determined by
the student in consultation with a departmental advisor from the ap-
proved list of courses as indicated in this Guideline.

Certificate of Tropical Studies for graduates of Colleges other than
Agriculture of the University of Florida.

The certificate program for non-agriculture students desiring to
broaden their major program with courses relating to Tropical Studies
with an emphasis in Agriculture will be determined by the student in
consultation with a departmental advisor and approval of the Dean of
the College of Agriculture. Students interested in this program should
consult the Dean of Agriculture before beginning the program.

Upon completion of the requirements for either the Certificate in Tropical
Agriculture or the Certificate in Tropical Studies the Departmental advisor will
notify the Dean of the College of Agriculture, in writing, that the student has
met the requirements of this certificate. The Dean will review the Departmental
recommendation and upon approval issue the appropriate certificate.









Special Training

The Center for Tropical Agriculture conducts special training programs
in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Foreign
Economic Development Service of the U.S. Department for Agriculture, the Food
and Agriculture Organization and private foundations. Foreign visitors receive
special training in agriculture on the University's campus and at the various
Agricultural Research and Education Centers located throughout the State. These
visitors followed programs in academic training, field production courses, con-
sultation with staff members, and observation of experimental and commercial
crop and livestock management adapted to Florida's subtropical climate.

Special short courses, sponsored by the Center for Tropical Agriculture,
have included fertilizer technology, vegetable production, integrated pest
management, economic development, and resource development. Other special short
courses related to tropical agriculture will be sponsored in the future.

Latin American Livestock Conference

In 1967 the first Latin American Beef Cattle Conference was held on campus
in conjunction with the Florida Beef Cattle Short Course. The Conference was
conducted entirely in Spanish. All papers were published in both Spanish and
English by the Center. A great amount of interest was shown in the Latin
American Beef Cattle Conference and in 1969 it was expanded to include a
three-day program dealing with beef and dairy cattle, swine, poultry and
horses. The broader program, coupled with tours of representative private
livestock enterprises, attracts a large group of foreign visitors from agri-
culture, industry, and government. Attendance in recent years has averaged
in excess of 150 foreign participants.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE


Technical assistance contracts are an integral part of the Center for
Tropical Agriculture and international programs in the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences. They provide a mechanism for carrying out problem-
solving activities jointly with agricultural institutions in the tropics.

Contracts for technical assistance involving the Center have been
financed by international lending institutions, private foundation, foreign
governments, and the U.S. foreign aid program. Provisions of the contracts
may call for specific studies lasting only a few weeks or for technical advice
and assistance programmed over several years. The Center does not enter into
a contract unless it has been assured that arrangements will be continued
over a period of time sufficient to achieve objectives.

Technical assistance contracts have been aimed at the development of useful
institutions to serve agriculture in the tropics and subtropics. Although work
has been concentrated in the tropics of Latin America, the Center has
provided assistance and does have a continuing interest in the tropics of
Africa and Asia.









Both programs, the Certificate in Tropical Agriculture and the Certificate
in Tropical Studies, require work beyond the normal degree requirements. Early
planning in all degree programs is necessary to prevent the need for excessive
extra courses. Credit toward the certificate requirements may be granted for
appropriate courses completed prior to enrolling at the University of Florida
but will be limited to not more than 50 percent of the requirements. However,
this agreement should be reached during the planning stages of the program and
not at time of graduation.

Although not required for the certificate programs, language study in
the major languages of the tropics (Spanish, Portuguese, French) is strongly
recommended.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CERTIFICATE IN TROPICAL AGRICULTURE

The certificate in Tropical Agriculture specialization will
include courses from four basic groups as follows: Area Studies,
International Economics, Tropical Ecosystems, and Tropical Agri-
culture. A total of at least 20 quarter credits from courses which
relate to tropical areas of the world is required from area Studies,
International Economics and Tropical Ecosystems with at least 4
credits from each category. In addition, a minimum of 20 credits
from Tropical Agriculture courses related to production of agricul-
tural commodities in tropical areas of the world is required. Grad-
uate students may apply up to 10 hours of research credit toward
Certificate requirements when the research involved has a clear trop-
ical agriculture relationship.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CERTIFICATE IN TROPICAL STUDIES

The certificate in Tropical Studies will require 20 quarter
credits in courses from these three basic groups of Area Studies,
International Economics and Tropical Ecosystems with at least 4
credits from each and in addition a minimum of 15 credits from Tropical
Agriculture courses.











Courses Meeting Certificate Requirements


I. Area Studies. The following courses related to tropical areas of the world
can be used to fulfill the Area Studies requirements. The current issue of the
appropriate University of Florida catalog should be consulted for course de-
scriptions and required prerequisites.


Anthropology


Cultural Anthropology.
Anthropology and Modern
The Nature of Culture.


5 credits
Life. 5 credits
5 credits


ANT 2451 -
ANT
ANT

ANT
ANT
ANT 5615 -
ANT
ANT 5338 -
ANT 5336 -
ANT 5337 -
ANT 5346 -
ANT 6716 -
ANT 6718 -
ANT
ANT 6387 -


Racial and Cultural Minorities. 5 credits
Contemporary Peoples of Latin America. 5 credits
Native Peoples of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.
4 credits
Africa: Traditional Peoples and Cultures. 4 credits
Peasant Society and Culture. 5 credits
Language and Culture. 5 credits
Regional Cultures of Oceania. 4 credits
Tribal Peoples of Lowland South America. 4 credits
The Peoples of Brazil. 4 credits
Peoples of the Andes. 4 credits
Caribbean Cultural Patterns. 4 credits
Problems of National Integration in Latin America. 5 credits
Directed Culture Change in Latin America. 5 credits
Men and Culture in Southern Africa. 5 credits
Seminar on the Anthropology of Latin America. 5 credits


Economics


ECS 3403 -
ECS 5425 -


ECS
ECS
ECS
ECS


5115
6405
6415
6426


Industry and Trade of Latin America. 3 credits
Financial Institutions and Fiscal Policies of Selected Latin
American Countries. 3 credits
Contemporary Economic Problems in Sub-Sahara Africa. 3 credits
The Economy of Spanish Latin America. 5 credits
The Economy of Brazil. 5 credits
Financial & Fiscal Institutions of Selected Sub-Saharan
Countries. 5 credits


Education


Comparative Education (Latin America).
Comparative Education (Latin America).
Education in Latin America. 4 credits


ANT
ANT
ANT


2410 -
2402 -


EDF 4710
EDF 6712
EDF 6720


5 credits
5 credits










Geography


GEO
GEO
GEO
GEO
GEO
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA
GEA


History


2500 -
2421 -
3502 -
3471 -
3430 -
3300 -
3410 -
3624 -
3753 -
3600 -
4684 -

6309 -
6419 -
6486L-
6469 -
6109 -


AFH 3100 -
AFH 3200 -

LAH 3130 -

LAH 3712 -
ASH 2301 -
ASH 2302 -
ASH 3303 -


AFH 4450 -
AFH 4250 -
AMH 4579 -



LAH 4471 -

LAH 4433 -
LAH 4520 -
LAH 4510 -
LAH 4720 -
LAH 4630 -
HIS 4905 -




HIS 7289 -


Geography of World Economics. 4 credits
Geography of World Societies. 4 cretits
Economic Geography. 4 credits
Political Geography. 4 credits
Population Geography. 4 credits
Geography of Middle America and the Caribbean. 4 credits
Geography of South America. 4 credits
Geography of the Near East. 3 credits
Geography of the Far East. 4 credits
Geography of Africa. 4 credits
Geography of Southern Africa. 4 credits
Land Tenure. 4 credits
Seminar: Middle America and the Caribbean. 5 credits
Seminar: South America. 5 credits
Resource Utilization and Conservation in Latin America. 3 credits
Seminar: Land, Man and Migration in Latin America. 4 credits
Tropical Lands and their Utilization. 15 credits


Africa to 1800. 4 credits
Africa since 1800. 4 credits
Current Latin American Events. 3 credits
Colonial Latin America. 4 credits
Modern Latin American Histroy. 4 credits
The Inter-American System. 3 credits
East Asian Civilizations to 1800 I. 4 credits
East Asian Civilizations to 1800 II. 4 credits
East Asian Civilizations to 1800. 4 credits
South Asian Civilizations to 1700. 4 credits
South Asian Civilizations since 1700. 4 credits
Southern Africa. 4 credits
Modern Africa. 4 credits
Colloquim, History of the Afro-American. 4 credits
Colonial Africa. 4 credits
Cultural Histroy of Latin America. 4 credits
Cultural History of Latin America. 4 credits
Caribbean, The Old Colonial System. 4 credits
Caribbean, 19th and 20th Centuries. 4 credits
Modern Mexico. 4 credits
The Gran Colombian Nations. 4 credtis
Platine Republics. 4 credits
Brazil to 1822. 4 credits
Brazil since 1822. 4 credits
Special Studies. 4 credits
Historical Literature of Latin Americ I. 5 credits
The Historical Literature of Latin America II. 5 credits
Seminar: Brazilian History. (Portuguese required) 5 credits
Seminar in Colonial Spanish America. (Spanish required) 5 credits
Comparative History. (Considerable Latin American Content)
5 credits









Humanities

HUM 2410 Asian Humanities. 5 credits
HUM 2420 African Humanities. 5 credits


Journalism and Communications

MMC 4301 World Communication Systems. 4 credits


Latin American Studies

LAS 4935 Latin American Area Seminar. 5 credits
LAS 6938 Latin American Area Seminar. 5 credits


Political Science

INR 2002 International Relations. 4 credits
INR 3102 The U.S. and World Affairs. 4 credits
CPO 3303 Introduction to Latin American Politics. 4 credits
CPO 3204 African Politics. 4 credits
INR 4204 Comparative Goreign Policy. 4 credits
INR 4244 International Politics of Latin America. 4 credits
CPO 4304 Political Systems of Latin America: Modernization. 4 credits
CPO 5207 Comparative Foreign Policy. 5 credits
CPO 5245 International Politics of Latin America. 5 credits
CPO 5305 Political Systems of Latin America: Modernization. 5 credits
CPO 5306 Contemporary Problems in Latin American Politics. 5 credtis
CPO 6307 Latin American Politics. 4 credits
Seminar in African Government and Politics. 5 credits
Seminar in Latin American Government and Politics I. 5 credits
Seminar in Latin American Government and Politics II. 5 credits
Seminar in Brazilian Government and Politics. 5 credits


Sociology

SOC 2000 Prinicples of Sociology. 4 credits
SOC 3320 Rural Sociology. 4 credits
SOC 3331 Latin American Societies. 4 credits
SOC 4620 Comparative Sociology: Theory and Methods. 4 credits
SOC 4462 Modernization in Latin America. 4 credits
SOC 6321 Seminar: Sociology of Rural Development. 4 credits
SOC 6625 Comparative Sociology: Theory and Methods. 4 credits
SOC 6466 Modernational in Latin America. 4 credits
SOC 6336 Seminar in Spanish American Societies. 4 credits
SOC 6335 Seminar in Brazilian Society. 4 credits
DHE 6111 Seminar in Latin American Population. 4 credits
DHE 6453 Seminar in Demographic Processes and Methods. 4 credits
SOC 6337 Seminar in Contemporary African Societies. 4 credits









II. International Economics: The following courses related to tropical areas
of the world can be used to fulfill this requirement. The current issues of
the appropriate University of Florida catalog should be consulted for course
descriptions and required prerequisites.


Anthropology

ANT 5266 Economic Anthropology. 5 credits


Economics


International Economics. 5 credits
Economic Development. 4 credits
International Economic Relations. 4 credits
Comparative Economic Systems. 4 credits
Foreign Exchange and International Financial
Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems. 4
Theory of Economic Development. 5 credits
Economic Development Seminar. 5 credits
Theory of International Trade. 5 credits
International Economic Relations. 5 credits


Institution.
credits


Food and Resource Economics


AEB
AEB
AEB
AEB
AEB
AEB
AEB


4164
4672
4434
5612
6252
6645
6651


AEB 6674 -
AEB 6625 -


Management of Farms in Tropical Areas. 5 credits
International and Interregional Trade in Agriculture. 3 credits
Land and Water Economics. 4 credits
Foreign Agricultural Development Planning. 5 credits
Foundations of Agricultural Policies. 3 credits
Economic Development and Agriculture. 5 credits
Agricultural's Role in the Growth of Latin American Nations.
4 credits
International Agricultural Policy and Trade. 5 credits
Regional Economics. 5 credits


Marketing


MAR 4243 International Marketing.
MAR 6246 International Marketing.


4 credits
5 credits


III. Tropical Ecosystems: The following courses related to plant and animal dis-
tribution, environment or ecology in tropical areas of the world can be used to
fulfill the tropical Ecosystems requirement. The current issue of the appropriate
University of Floirda catalog should be consulted for course description and re-
quired prerequisites.


ECO
ECS
ECO
ECS
ECO
ECS
ECS
ECS
ECO
ECO


3703
4013
4713
4003
5716
5005
6015
6025
6706
6717


3 credits












AGR 4001C
AGR 6233
AGR 6511
AGR 6249


Man's Major Food Crop Resources. 3 credits
Tropical Pasture and Forage Science. 5 credits
Crop Ecology. 5 credits
Crop Plants in Tropical Environments. 12 credits


Anthropology


ANT 4403 Environment and Cultural Behavior.


4 credits


Introduction to Ecology. 5 credits
Plant Geography. 3 credits
Advanced Ecology. 4 credits
Ecosystems of the Tropics. 4 credits
Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach.
Advanced Tropical Botany. 12 credits


12 credits


Forest Resources


and Conservation


FOR 3003 -
WIS 3401 -
FRN 3011 -

FOR 4151C -

FOR 5645 -
WIS 6452 -


The Ecosystem Man Resource Relationships. 4 credits
Introduction to Forestry. 3 credits
Fundamentals of Wildlife Ecology. 4 credits
Biological Principles of Natural Resources Management. 3 credits
Forest Ecology Silviculture. 5 credits
Range Ecology. 5 credits
Range Ecosystem Management. 5 credits
Range Ecosystem Planning. 4 credits
Wildelife Ecology. 4 credits


Soil Science

SOS 3007 Tropical Soils and Their Environment. 3 credits
SOS 5132 Tropical Soils. 3 credits


Zoology


PCB 4044C
PCB 5415C
PCB 6357C
ZOO 6857C


General Ecology. 5 credits
Behavioral Ecology. 5 credits
Tropical Biology An Ecological Approach.
Advanced Tropical Zoology. 12 credits


12 credits


Veterinary Science


VES 4611 Environmental Toxicology and Public Health. 4 credits


Agronomy


Botany


PCB
BOT
PCB
PCB
BOT
BOT


3043C
5625C
5046C
6356C
6951
6666









IV. Tropical Agriculture: The Tropical Agriculture requirement will be satis-
fied from courses related to production of agricultural commodities in tropical
areas of the world and will be selected from the following courses. The current
issue of the appropriate University of Florida catalog should be consulted for
course descriptions and required prerequisites.


Agricultural Engineering


AGE 4212 -
AGE 4232 -
AGE 4712 -
AGE 6252 -


Animal Sciences

General


ASG
ASG
ASG
ASG
ASG


3404
3403
3312
4334
5221


Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. 4 credits
Drainage and Irrigation Engineering. 4 credits
Animal Waste Management.' 5 credits
Advanced Soil and Water Management Engineering. 4 credits






Applied Animal Nutrition. 3 credits
Basic Animal Nutrition. 3 credits
Principles of Animal Breeding. 5 credits
Reproduction in Farm Animals. 4 credits
Animal Production in the Tropics. 4 credits


Animal Science


Beef Cattle Enterprise Management.
Swine Production. 3 credits
Sheep Production. 2 credits
Meats. 4 credits
Horse Enterprise Management. 4 cr
Animal Nutrition. 5 credits


Dairy Science


DAS 3211 Dairy Cattle Management. 4 credits
DAS 4411 Dairy Cattle Nutrition. 3 credits


Poultry Science


PSE 4223 -
PSE 6415 -
PSE 4311 -


Poultry Management. 4 credits
Advanced Poultry .Nutrition. 4 credits
Poultry Breeding. 3 credits


Entomology and Nematology


ENY 5561 Tropical Entomology.
ENY 5781 Tropical Nematology.


ANS
ANS
ANS
ANS
ANS
ANS


4244
4264
4274
4634
4234
5446


5 credits


edits


4 credits
5 credits









Food Science


HUN 2201 -
VES 4611 -

FOS 4252 -


Fundamentals of Human Nutrition. 4 credits
Environmental Toxicology and Public Health.
Quarter Only)
Food Epidemiology. 4 credits


(Winter Quarter only)
4 credits (Winter


Forest Resources and Conservation


FOR 6170 -


Tropical Forestry. 4 credits


Plant Sciences

General

PLS 4601 Weed Science. 4 credits


Agronomy


3210
4231
4242
4244
4246
4248
6233
6511


Field Crop Science. 4 credits
Forage and Pasture Science. 5 credits
Rice. 5 credits
Sugarcane. 4 credits
Oilseed Crops. 4 credits
Fiber Crops. 4 credits
Tropical Pasture and Forage Science. 5 credits
Crop Ecology. 5 credits


Fruit Crops


3212 -
3212L-
4223 -
4244 -


Introduction to Citrus Culture. 4 credits
Citrus Growing Laboratory. 1 credit
Citrus Production. 4 credits
A Study of Current Citrus Research in Florida.


Horticultural Sciences


6112
6122
6412
6331
6361
6233
6252
6256
4280


Morphology of Horticultural Crops. 5 credits
Taxonomy of Horticultural Crops. 5 credits
Nutrition of Horticultural Crops. 5 credits
Postharvest Physiology. 5 credits
Rootstock-scion Relationships. 5 credits
Citriculture. 5 credits
Advanced Tropical Fruit Crops. 4 credits
Tropcial Fruit Production and Research in Florida.
Orchidology. 4 credits


ORH 6223 Research and Development in Turfgrass Science. 4 credits


AGR
AGR
AGR
AGR
AGR
AGR
AGR
AGR


FRC
FRC
FRC
FRC


5 credits


HOS
HOS
HOS
HOS
HOS
FRC
FRC
FRC
ORH


Ornamental Horticulture


5 credits









Vegetable Crops


3200
3100
4225
4226
3224
3224
4410


Vegetable Gardening. 2 credits
Introduction to World's Vegetables. 2 credits
Commercial Cool-Season Vegetable Crops. 3 credits
Commercial Warm-Season Vegetable Crops. 4 credits
Vegetable Production Laboratory. 9534 (Mon.) 7-9
Vegetable Production Laboratory. 9535 (Wed.) 7-9
Vegetable Crops Nutrition. 3 credits


Plant Pathology

PLD 5053 Tropical Plant Pathology. 4 credits


Soil Science


SOS 3007 Tropical Soils
SOS 4732 Soils Survey.
SOS 5132 Tropical Soils.
SOS 6136 Soil Fertility.


and Their Environment.
3 credits
3 credits
4 credits


4 credits


Veterinary Science


VES 6362 -- Parasitic Diseases in the Tropics and Subtropics.


VEC
VEC
VEC
VEC
VEC
VEC
VEC


5 credits





Appendix C


Publications pertinent to this CRSP by individual

W. G. Blue


Blue, W. G., Luis Andrade, J., Edgard Rey G., Marco Tulio Ramirez, L. L.
Larson, W. E. Schaefer. 1963. Investigations of the Potential for Pasture
Development in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 23:208-221.

Andrade, J., Luis Edgar Rey G., Marco Tulio Ramirez, Adelberto Carrillo Ch.
and W. G. Blue. 1964. The Response of Grasses to Dates and Rates of
Fertilization and Changes in Forage Yield and Protein Production with
Progress of the Dry Season in the Pacific Region of Costa Rica. Tropical
Agric. 41(1): 31-39.

Pritchett, W. L. and W. G. Blue. 1966. Fertilizer use in Costa Rica: An
example for tropical America. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:361-
370.

Blue, W. G. 1969. Fertilizer response with Pangolagrass on Puletan Loamy
fine sand, British Honduras, as indicated by pot experiments. Tropical
Agriculture. (Trin.) 46:25-29.

Gomez, R. E. and W. G. Blue. 1968. Nitrogen status of two alluvial soils
from the humid tropics of Costa Rica. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
28:79-86.

Blue, W. G. 1968. Soil-plant relationships involved in adaptation of
forage crops to tropical climates. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
28:232-240.

Blue, W. G., C. B. Ammerman, J. M. Loaiza, and J. F. Gamble. 1969. Com-
positional analyses of soils, forages, and cattle tissues from beef-producing
areas of Eastern Panama. Bio Science. 19(7):616-618.

Hortenstine, C. C. and W. G. Blue. 1968. Growth responses in three plant
species to lime and phosphorus applied to Puletan loamy fine soil. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:23-28.

Tergas, L. E. and W. G. Blue. 1971. Nitrogen and phosphorus in jaragua-
grass (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf) during the dry season in a tropical
savanna as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Agron. Journal 63:6-9.

Tergas, L. E., W. G. Blue, and J. E. Moore. 1971. Nutritive values of
fertilized jaraguagrass (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf) in the wet-dry
Pacific region of Costa Rica. Trop. Agric. (Trin.) 48:1-8.

Blue, W. G. and L. E. Tergas. 1970. Dry season deterioration of forage
quality in the wet-dry tropics. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 29:224-
238.












Rodulfo, Saturnino and W. G. Blue. 1971. The availability to forage plants
of accumulated phosphorus in Leon fine sand. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 30:167-174.

Downer, A. V. and W. G. Blue. 1972. Retention of applied nutrients in
soils from the Intermediate Savanna of Guyanna. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Proc. 31(1971): 204-207.

Lucas, L. N. and W. G. Blue. 19721 Effects of lime and phosphorus on
selected alluvial Entisols from Eastern Costa Rica:I. Phosphorus retention
and soil phosphorus fractions. Tropical Agric. (Trin.). 49:287-295.

Lucas, L. N. and W. G. Blue. 1973. Effects of lime and phosphorus on
selected alluvial Entisols from Eastern Costa Rica II. Forage plant re-
sponse. Tropical Agr. (Trin.). 50:63-74.

Lucas, L. N. and W. G. Blue. 1972. Pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens
Stent) growth as affected by organic materials and calcium silicate applied
to a soil from Los Diamantes, Costa Rica. Tropical Agr. (Trin.). 49:281-
286.

Zantua, M. I. and W. G. Blue. 1972. Plant response to iron, leaching
and time after liming a virgin alluvial Entisol from Eastern Costa Rica.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 31(1971):165-169.

Velez, Julian and W. G. Blue. 1972. Effect of lime on extractable iron
and aluminum, and phosphorus sorption in a tropical and a temperate soil.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 31(1971):169-173.

Downer, A. V. and W. G. Blue. 1972, Liming in relation to organo-metallic
complexes in soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 31(1971): 204-207.

Ammerman C. B., J. M. Loaiza, W. G. Blue, J. F. Gamble, and F. G. Martin.
1974. Mineral composition of tissues from beef cattle under grazing condi-
tions in Panama. Jour. Animal Sci. 38:158-162.

Velez, J., M. I. Zantua, and W. G. Blue. 1974. Lime induced plant growth
depression in an alluvial Entisol from Costa Rica. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.
38:460-464.

Blue, W. G. 1974. Management of Ultisols and Oxisols. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 33(1973): 126-132.

Rodriquez-Gomez, M., and W. G. Blue. 1974. Effects of lime and micronutrients
on growth and composition of three warm-season grasses on Leon fine sand. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 33(1973): 205-208.

Velez, J. and W. G. Blue. 1974. Pangola digitgrass response to high lime
and phosphorus levels in an Entisol from Costa Rica. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 33(1973): 211-215.













Khomviiai, S., and W. G. Blue. 1977. Effects of lime and potassium sources
on the retention of potassium by some Florida mineral soils. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 36:84-89.


Khomvilai, S. and W. G. Blue. 1977. The effect of potassium carbonate on
potassium calcium, and magnesium contents of agronomic crops on three dif-
ferentially limed soils. Soil anc Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 37:166-171.

Atencio, A. R., and W. G. Blue. 1977. The effect of calcium carbonate on
availability of phosphorus to Guineagrass on an Ultisol. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 37:171-176.

Martinez, B. F., and W. G. Blue. 1977. Effects of calcium carbonate on
chemical characteristics of three Florida soils and response of some agro-
nomic plants. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 37:188-192.

impithuksa, V., and W. G. Blue. 1977. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen
applied to Pensacola bahiagrass on sandy soils as indicated by nitrogen-
15. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 37:213-217.

Blue, W. G. 1978. Forage production and nitrogen contents, and soil
changes during twenty-five years of continuous white-Pensacola bahiagrass
growth on a Florida Spodosol. Agron. J. 71:795-798.

Impithuksa, V., and W. G. Blue. 1978. Distribution of applied nitrogen
in soil -- Pensacola bahiagrass components as indicated by nitrogen 15.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. Presented.

Impithuksa, V., C. L. Dantzman, and W. G. Blue. 1978. Fertilizer nitrogen
utilization by three warm-season grasses on an Alfic Haplaquod as indicated
by nitrogen-15. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 38:93-97.

Coelho, R. W., and W. G. Blue. 1978. Potassium nutrition of the tropical
legume Stylosanthes Sw. in an Aeric Haplaquod. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 38:90-93.

Hendoza, P. E., W. G. Blue and G. O. Mott. 1980. Response of Andropogon
gayanus to lime, P, in a highly weathered Amazon soil from Columbia. Agron.
J. In press.

Blue, W. G., C. L. Dantzman,.and V. Impithuksa. 1979. The response of three
perennial warm-season grasses to fertilizer nitrogen on EauGallie fine sand
(Alfic Haplaquod) in central Florida. Soil and Crop Sci.Soc. Fla. Proc.
39: In press.

Jacome, E., and W. G. Blue. 1979. Corn response to nitrogen and phosphorus
in a Florida Ultisol for simulation of field fertilization techniques used
in E. Salvador. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. rla. Proc. 39: In press.










Atencio, S., and W. G. Blue. 1979. Efecto de la cal, superforfato triple
y fosforita, sobre un suelo Paleudult de la Cuenca del Lago de Maracaibo
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaido,
Venezuela. 5:409-421.

DeSousa, J. C., J. H. Conrad, W. G. Blue and J. R. McDowell. 1979. Inter-
relacoes entire minerals no solo plants forrageiras a tecido animal. 1.
Calcio e fosforo. Pesq. Agropec. Bros. Bracilia. 14:387-395.





J. B. Sartain

Sartain, J. B. and E. J.Kamprath. 1975. Effect of liming a highly Al-
saturated soil on the top and root growth and soybean nodulations. Agron.
J. 67:507-510

Sartain, J. B. and B. G. Volk. 1975. Correlation of soil P level by three
extracting procedures with growth response of millet. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 34:85-88

Volk, B. G., S. D. Schemnity, J. F. Gamble, and J. B. Sartain. 1975.
Baseline data on Everglades soil-plant systems. Elemental compositions,
biomass, and soil depth. In Mineral cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems,
F. G. Howell, J. B. Coentry and M. H. Smith (eds.) ERDA Symposium Series,
pp. 658-672.

Sartain, J. B., H. L. Breland and J. NeSmith. 1976. Evaluation of various
nutrient extractants for Florida soils as influenced by selected soil:
solution ratios and shaking times. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
35:183-186

Volk, B. G.and J. B. Sartain. 1976. Elemental concentrations of drain-
age water from Everglades histisols as affected by cropping systems.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 35:177-183

Fiskell, J. G. A., D. V. Calvert, and J. B. Sartain. 1976. Induced
effects of flooding and nitrate addition of soil properties at various
depths in a modified spodosol. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
35:164-168

Sartain, J. B. and E. J. Kamprath. 1977. Effect on soil Al saturation
on nutrient concentration of soybean tops, roots, and nodules. Agron. J.
69:843-846

Sartain, J. B. and E. J. Kamprath. 1978. Aluminum tolerance of soybean
cultivars based on root elongation in solution culture com-
pared with growth in acid soil. Agron. J. 70:17-20

Synder, G. H., A. E. Kretschmer, Jr. and J. B. Sartain. 1978. Field
response of four tropical legumes to lime and superphosphate. Agron. J.
70:269-275










Sartain, J. B. 1978. Adaptability of the double-acid extractant to Florida
Soils. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 37:204-208

Rhue, R. D. and J. B. Sartain. 1979. A survey of the fertility status
of Florida soils as indicated by selected soil tests results. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 38:112-116

Sartain, J. B., R. B. Forbes, and N. R. Usherwood. 1979. Yield response
of soybeans to P and K fertilization as correlated with soil extractable
and tissue nutritional levels. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 10:1219-1232

Sartain, J. B. and A. T. Dudeck. 1979.- Influence of N fertilization
on the utilization of nutrients by bermudagrass and overseeded ryegrass
turfgrasses. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 92:364-367

D. H. Hubbell

Dazzo, F. B. and D. H. Hubbell. 1975. Concanavalin A: Lack of correla-
tion between binding to Rhizobium and specificity in the Rhizobium-legume
symbiosis. Plant and Soil 42:717-722.

Napoli, C. A., F. B. Dazzo and D. H. Hubbell. 1975. Production of cel-
lulose microfibrils by Rhizobium. Appl. Microbiol. 30:123-131

Dazzo, F. B. and D. H. Hubbell. 1975. Antigenic differences between in-
fective and non-infective strains of Rhizobium trifolii. Appl. Microbiol.
30:172-177

Napoli, C. A. and D. H. Hubbell. 1975. Ultrastructure of Rhizobium-
induced infection threads in clover root hairs. Appl. Microbiol.
30:1003-1009

Dazzo, F. B. and D. H. Hubbell. 1975. Cross reactive antigens and lectin
as determinants of symbiotic specificity in the Rhizobium-clover association.
Appl. Microbiol. 30:1017-1033

Dazzo, F. B. and D. H. Hubbell. 1976. Biological nitrogen fixation. Soil
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 34:71-79

Cerrato, R. F., R. E. de la Cruz and D. H. Hubbell. 1976. Further studies
on a mycoparasitic basidiomycete species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31:60-
62

Dazzo, F. B., C. A. Napoli and D. H. Hubbell. 1976. Adsorption of bacteria
to roots as related to host specificity in the Rhizobium-clover symbiosis.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:166-171

Umali-Garcia, M., D. H. Hubbell and M. H. Gaskins. 1978. Process of in-
fection of Panicum maximum by Spirillum lipoferum. In: Proceedings, Inter-
national Symposium on the Environmental Role of Nitrogen Fixing Blue-Green
Algae and Asymbiotic Bacteria. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 26:378-279

Hubbell, D. H. 1976. Una revision de la infecci6n de las leguminosas por
Rhizobium. In: Proceedings, VIII Latin American Conference on Rhizobium,
Oct. 18-20, CIAT, Cali, Colombia. (Printed in Spanish).









Vasil, I. K. and D. H. Hubbell. 1976. Effect of lectins on cell division
in tissue cultures of soybean and tobacco. In: Symposium on Cell Wall
Biochemistry Related to Specificity in Host-Plant Pathogen Interactions,
Proceedings. Aug. 2-6, Univ. of Tromso, Norway.

Napoli, C. A. and D. H. Hubbell. 1976. Ultrastructure of Rhizobium-
induced infection threads in clover root hairs. In: Symposium on Cell
Wall Biochemistry Related to Specificity in Host-Plant Pathogen Inter-
actions, Proceedings. Aug. 2-6, University of Tromso, Norway.

Hubbell, D. H. 1977. Plant roots and biological nitrogen fixation. Soil
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 36:37-40

Hubbell, D. H. 1977. "Nitrogen Fixation (biological)". Encyclopedia of
Food, Agriculture and Nutrition. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.

Hubbell, D. H. 1977. Association of Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria with Plant
Roots. In: Physiology of Root-Microorganisms Associations: Proc. Symp.
of the Southern Section of the American Society of Plant Physiologists.
(Ed. H. Vines) Atlanta, Georgia.

Vasil, I. K., V. Vasil and D. H. Hubbell. 1977. Engineered plant cell
or fungal association with bacteria that fix nitrogen. In: Brookhaven
Symp. on Genetic Engineering for Nitrogen Fixation (Ed. A. Hollaender,
et al.) Plenum Pub. Corp. New York. 197-211

Vasil, I. K. and D. H. Hubbell. 1977. The role of lectins in cell division
of tissue cultures of soybean and tobacco. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 84:349-35.3

Vasil, V., I. K. Vasil, D. A. Zuberer and D. H. Hubbell. 1978. Forced
association of Spirillum lipoferum with tissue cultures of some tropical
grasses. In "Limitations and Potentials of Biological Nitrogen Fixation
in the Tropics", Eds. J. Dobereiner et al., Plenum Pub. Corp. New York.
351-352

Hubbell, D.H., V.M. Morales and M. Umali-Garcia. 1978. Pectic enzymes in
Rhizobium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:210-213

Gaskins, M. H. and D. H. Hubbell. 1979. Response of nonleguminous plants
to root inoculation with free-living diazotrophic bacteria. New Phytol.
(In press)

Morales, V. M. and D. H. Hubbell. 1979. Effect of pH on growth of cow-
pea type'Rhizobium on synthetic medium. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
(In press)

Tien, T. M., M. H. Gaskins and D. H. Hubbell. 1979. Plant growth sub-
stances produced by Azospitillum brasilense and their effect on the growth
of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
37:1016-1024

Hubbell, D.H. 1979. The potential of associative symbioses between ni-
trogen fixing bacteria and forage grasses. In: Pasture Production in
Acid Soils of the Tropics (Eds. P. A. Sanchez and E. L. Tergas) Proceedings
of a Seminar held at CIAT, Call, Colombia, S. A. (Series 03Eg-5) p. 139-
144









Martinez-Molina, E., V. M. Morales and D. H. Hubbell. 1979. Hydrolytic
enzyme production by Rhizobium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38:1186-1188

Vasil, V., I. K. Vasil, D. A. Zuberer and D. H. Hubbell. 1979. The bi-
ology of Azospirillum-sugar cane association. 1. Establishment of the
association. Z. Pfanzenphysiol. 95:141-147

Umali-Garcia, M., D. H. Hubbell, M. H. Gaskins and F. B. Dazzo. 1980.
Association of Azospirillum with grass roots. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
39:219-226

R. D. Rhue

Rhue, R. D. and C. 0. Grogan. 1976. Screening corn for aluminum toler-
ance. In Proceedings of Workshop on Plant Adaptation to Mineral Stress
in Problem Soils. M. J. Wright (ed.), pp.297-310

Rhue, R. D., and C. 0. Grogan. 1977. Screening corn for aluminum toler-
ance using different Ca and Mg concentrations. Agron. J. 69:755-760

Rhue, R. D. 1979. Differential aluminum tolerance in crop plants. In
Stress Physiology in Crop Plants. Harry Mussell and Richard C. STaples
(eds.), pp. 61-80

Rhue, R. D., C. O. Grogan, E. W. Stockmeyer, and H. L. Everett. 1978.
Genetic control of aluminum tolerance in corn. Crop Sci. 18:1063-1067

Rhue, R. D., and J. B. Sartain. 1979. A survey of the fertility status
of Florida soils as indicated by selected soil test results. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 38:112-116

P. E. Hildebrand

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1975. Sistemas de production agricola y proyectos
de reform agraria. Presented to the 9th Meeting of the Presidents of
Agrarian Reform Institutes of Central America. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E., E. C. French, M. A. Barahona, A. E. Chacon, and
John Bieber. 1975. Manual para multicultivos. Department de Economfa
Agricola, Centro Nacional de Tecnologfa Agropecuaria (CENTA), Ministerio
de Agriculture y Ganaderia, San Salvador, El Salvador, C. A.

Reiche, Carlos E., Peter E. Hildebrand and Sergio Ruano. 1975. Evaluacion
de algunas variedades de sorgo (maicillo) en pequenas y medianas fincas del
oriented de Guatemala. pp. 329-372 In Programa Cooperativo Centroamericano
para el mejormiento de cultivos alimenticios (PCCMCA) Vol II, San Salvador,
El Salvador, C. A.




Andrew, Chris 0. and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1976. Planning and conduct-
ing applied research. MSS Information Corporation. New York.









Busto Brol, Bruno; Osman Calder6n and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1976. Evaluacidn
de la aceptacion de la technologia generada por ICTA para el cultivo de
maiz en el parcelamiento "La Maquina", 1975. ICTA, Guatemala

Busto Brol, Bruno; Osman Calder6n and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1976. Re-
gistros econ6micos de production con agricultores colaboradores del parcel-
amiento "La Maquina". In Informe Annual 1975-76. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1976. Generando tecnologia para agricultores tra-
dicionales: una metodologia multidisciplinaria (Generating technology
for traditional farmers: a multidisciplinary methodology). Prepared
for presentation at the conference on : Developing economics in agrarian
regions: a search for methodology, The Rockefeller Foundation Conference
Center, Bellagio, Italy, August 4-6, 1976, ICTA, Guatemala. (Spanish/
English Publication)

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1976. Multiple cropping systems are dollars and
"sense" agronomy. Chap. 18 In Multiple Cropping. American Society of
Agronomy Special Publication No. 27. Madison, WI

Hildebrand, Peter E., Carlos E. Reiche and Esau Samayoa. 1976. Sistemas
de cultivos de ladera para pequenos y medianos agricultores: La Barranca,
Jutiapa, 1975. In Informe Anual 1975-76. ICTA, Guatemala.

Reiche, Carlos E., Peter E. Hildebrand, Sergio Ruano and Jaime T. Wyld.
1976. El pequeno agricultor y sus sistemas de cultivos en ladera: Ju-
tiapa, Guatemala. In Informe Anual 1975-76. ICTA, Guatemala

Zimet, David J., Chris 0. Andrew and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1976. The
economic potential for increasing vegetable production in the Zapotitan
district, El Salvador. Economics Report 78. Food and Resource Economics
Dept. University of Florida, Gainesville

Andrew, Chris 0. and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1977. Planificaci6n y ejecu-
ci6n de la investigation aplicada. Institute de Ciencia y Tecnologia
Agricolas (ICTA). Guatemala

Busto Brol, Bruno; Osman Calderdn and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1977. Re-
gistros econ6micos de production de maiz con agricultores colaborado-
res del parcelamiento "La Mdquina", 1976. ICTA, Guatemala

De Le6n Prera, Carlos, Jaime T. Wyld and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1977.
Alcance geografico de los sistemas de cultivo en el Area piloto del
ICTA, Regi6n VI, 1975. ICTA, Guatemala

Duarte M., Rolando; Peter E. Hildebrand and Sergio Ruano. 1977. Tec-
nologia y estructura agro-socioecon6mica del minifundio del occidente
de Chimaltenango. ICTA, Guatemala

Godinez, Leonzo H., Luis M. Pando and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1977. Re-
gistrds economics de produccidn con agricultores colaboradores en el
sistema maiz-sorgo y cultivos de maiz y sorgo solo, en piano, Asuncion
Mita, Jutiapa, 1976. ICTA, Guatemala










Hildebrand, Peter E. 1977. Generating small farm technology: an inte-
grated, multidisciplinary system. An invited paper (principal address)
for the 12th West Indian Agricultural Economics Conference, Caribbean
Agro-economic Society. April 24-30, 1977, In Antigua. ICTA, Guatemala

1977. Socioeconomic considerations in multiple
cropping systems. An invited paper prepared for the Round Table Dis-
cussion on Agricultural Production Systems. XVI Annual Reunion of the
Board of Directors, Instituto Interamericano de Ciancias Agricolas
-IICA, Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic, May 18, 1977. ICTA, Guatemala.

Hildebrand, Peter E. and Daniel Cardona. 1977. Sistemas de cultivos
de ladera para pequenos y medianos agricultores, La Barranca, Jutiapa,
1976. ICTA, Guatemala.

Hildebrand, Peter E., Sergio Ruano, Teodoro Lopez, Esau Samayoa and
Rolando Duarte. 1977. Sistemas se cultivos para los agricultores tra-
dicionales del occidente de Chimaltenango. ICTA, Guatemala

Lopez, Jose Teodoro; Sergio Ruano, Rolando Duarte and Peter E. Hildebrand
1977. Registros economicos de producci6n con agricultores colaboradores
del occidente de Chimaltenango, 1976. ICTA, Guatemala

Pando, Luis M., Leonel Ortiz and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1977. Registros
econoiicos de production con agricultores colaboradores en los siste-
mas maiz-frijol-sorgo, maiz-frijol, maiz solo, en ladera, area piloto
ICTA, Region VI, 1976. ICTA, Guatemala

Ruano, Sergio R., Valerio Macz Pacay and Peter E. Hildebrand. 1977.
Evaluaciuo de la aceptacion de la technology generada por ICTA para el
cultivo de maiz en le Region I, 1975. ICTA, Guatemala

Duarte, Rolando y Peter E. Hildebrand. 1978. Technologia y estructura
agro-socioecon6mic del minifundo de Totonicapan, 1977. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1978. An integrated approach to the improvement
of farm production systems. Presented at the seminar on the improvement
of farm production systems. Sponsored by the Club du Sahel. Bamako,
Mali, Feb. 20-March 1

1978. Motivating small farmers to accept change.
Prepared for presentation at the Conference on: Integrated crop and
animal production to optimize resource utilization on small farms in
developing countries. The Rockefeller Foundation.Conference Center,
Bellagio, Italy. Oct. 18-23, 1978. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E. and Sergio Ruano. 1978. Integrated Multidisci-
plinary technology generation for small, traditional farmers of Gua-
temala. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Applied
Anthropology. Merida, Mexico April 2-9. ICTA, Guatemala










Ruano, Sergio; Maria E. Chinchilla y Peter E. Hildebrand. 1978. Eva-
luacion de la aceptabilidad de la tecnologia generada por el ICTA para
los cultivos de maiz y trigo en Quezaltenango. Region I, 1976/77. ICTA,
Guatemala.

Chinchilla, Maria E. y Peter E. Hildebrand. 1979. Evaluaci'n de la
aceptabilidad de la tecnologia generada para los cultivos de maiz y
ajonjoli en el parcelmiento La Maquina, 1977-1978. ICTA, Guatemala

Chinchilla, Maria E. y Peter E. Hildebrand. 1979. Evaluacion de la
aceptabilidad de la tecnolog{a generada para el cultivo de maiz en
Quezaltenango, 1977-1978. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1979. Summary of the sondeo methodology used by
ICTA. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1979. The ICTA farm record project with small
farmers-four years of experience. ICTA, Guatemala

Hildebrand, Peter E. 1979. Generating technology for traditional
farmers the Guatemalan experience. Prepared for presentation in the
symposium on Socioeconomic constraints to crop protection. IX Inter-
national Congress of Plant Protection, Washington, D.C., August 5-11
1979. ICTA, Guatemala

G. A. Antonini

Antonini, G. A. 1977. Urban and Regional Planning in the Caribbean.
Kingston, Jamaica, Association of Caribbean Universities and Research
Institutes (UNICA), (ed).

Antonini, G. A., K. C. Ewel and H. M. Tupper. 1976. Population and Energy
A Systems Analysis of Resource Utilization in the Dominican Republic.
Gainesville, Florida, University of Florida Press.

Antonini, G. A. and Richardson. 1974. Programs Academicos e Investiga-
ciones en Estudios Urbanos en el Caribe. Kingston, Jamaica, Association
of Caribbean Universities and Research Institutes (UNICA).

Antonini, G. A. 1973. Public Policy Determinants of Urbanization in the
Dominican Republic and Costa Rica. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Latin
American Conference, Gainesville, Florida, (ed.)

Antonini, G. A., K. C. Ewel and J.J. Ewel. 1974. Ecological Modelling
of a Tropical Watershed: A Guide to Regional Planning. "In Spatial Aspects
of Development, B. S. Hoyle, editor, London, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Antonini, G. A. 1973. "Urban Resources in the Caribbean." In Vol. III,
Latin American Urban Research, F. F. Rabinovitz and F. M. Trueblood,
editors, Los Angeles, Sage Publication, Inc.

Antonini, G. A. 1973. "Formaci6n de Profesionales en Planificacion Urbana
y Programs de Investigacion en el Caribe." In Revista Interamericana de
Planificaci6n, Vol. VII, No. 27.









Antonini, G. A. 1973. "Data Banks: A New Research Tool." In Population
Dynamics of Latin America, R. N. Thomas, editor, Conference of Latin
Americanists Geographers, 2nd General Session.

Antonini, G. A. 1975. "Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada, Grenadines, Guyana,"
In The World Book Encyclopedia.

Antonini, G. A. 1975. "Evolucion de la Agricultura Tradicional en Santo
Domingo." In Eme-Eme (Estudios Dominicanos), Vol. II, No. 9.

Antonini, G. A. 1972. "Morphology and Surficial Geology of Northwestern
Dominican Republic." In VI Conferencia Geol6gica del Caribe, Margarita,
Venezuela.

Antonini, G. A. 1971. "Peasant Agriculture in Northwestern Dominican
Republic." In The Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. XXXII.

Antonini, G. A. 1970. "El Noroeste de la Republica Dominicana:un Modelo
Morfogenetico de la Evolucion del Paisaje." In Revista de Ciencias Sociales
(Puerto Rico), Vol. XIV, No. 2.

Antonini, G. A. 1970. "Dominican Republic." In Britannica Book of the Year.









G. M. Prine


Prine, G.M. and J.C. Werner. 1977. Forage potential in pigeon peas and
perinnial peanuts. Proc. llth annual conf. on Livestock and Poulty in
Latin America University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Page A-9 to
A-15

Akhanda, A.M., J.T. Mauco, V.E. Green and G.M. Prine. 1978. Relay In-
tercropping peanut, soybean, sweet potato and pigeonpea in corn. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proceedings. 37:95-101.

Prine, G.M., K.J. Boote, W.R. Ocumpaugh, and A.M. Rezende. 1978. Forage
and grain crops planted as a second crop during the warm season in North
and West Florida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proceedings. 37:109-114.

Prine, G.M., O.C. Ruelke, and L.S. Dunavin. 1978. Subterranean clover
production. University of Florida Agronomic Res. Rep. AY 79-2. 8p.


Prine, G.M. 1979. utilization of legumes
zer. Proc. 28th Beef Cattle Shortcourse.
Science Department. Gainesville, Florida


to minimize nitrogen fertili-
University of Florida Animal
147-154.


A.M. Rezende and G.M. Prine. 1977. Double Cropping corn and
during warm season requires narrow rows and high populations.
Abs. 1977 Annual Meeting at Los Angeles, CA. 104p.


soybeans
Agronomic


A.M. Akhanda, G.M. Prine and K. Hinson. 1977. Developing soybean culti-
vars for use as the second crop in warm season double cropping system.
Agronomic Abs. 1977 Annual Meeting at Los Angeles, CA. 47p.

Prine, G.M. 1978. Florigraze perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.),
new forage legumes for tropics and subtropics, Agron. Abs. 1978 Annual
Meeting at Chicago, Illinois. 103p.


Prine, G.M.
Agron. Abs.


1979. Developing a reseeding ryegrass for the southern USA.
1979 Annual Meeting at Fort Colins, Colorado. 73p.


Robertson, W.K., L.C. Hammong, G.M. Prine and F.G. Martin. 1979. Response
of corn on sandy soils to subsoiling irrigation, row spacing, plant popula-
tion and nitrogen fertilization. Agron. Abs. 1979 Annual Meeting at Fort
Collins, Colorado. 181p.

G.M. Prine. 1976. Sulfur-coated urea versus urea and ammonium nitrate
as a nitrogen source for grain sorghum. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 35:35-42.

Robertson, W.K., H.W. Lundy, G.M. Prine and W.L. Currey. 1976. Planting
corn in sod and small grain residues with minimum tillage. Agron. Jour.
68(2):271-274.

Adjei, M.B. and G.M. Prine. 1976. Establishment of perinnial peanuts
(Arachis glabrata Benth.). Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 35:50-53.









Guilarte, T.C., R.E. Perez-Levy and G.M. Prine. 1975. Some double crop-
ping possibilities under irrigation during the warm season in North and
West Florida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc Fla. Proc. 34:138-143.

Myers, A.F. and G.M. Prine. 1975. Reseeding annual ryegrass in a common
bermudagrass pasture. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 34:120-122.

Lundy, H.W., G.M. Prine and W.K. Robertson. 1974. No-till planting sor-
ghum in bahiagrass or ryegrass sod. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
33:30-33.

West, S.H. and G.M. Prine. 1974. Winterkill and hay yeild of Pangola
digitgrass as affected by fall application of N, P and K. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 33:16-20.

Ruelke, O.C. and G.M. Prine. 1973. Fertilization and cutting manage-
ment effects on yield, quality and persistence of 'Florida 66' alfalfa.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Proc. 32:15-17.

Prine, G.M. and V.N. Schroder. 1964. Above-soil environment limits
yields of semi-prolific corn as plant population increases. Crop Sci.
4:361-362.

Burton, G.W. and G.M. Prine. 1958. Forage production of rye, oats and
ryegrass as influenced by fertilization and management. Agron. Journal.
50:260-262.

Burton, G.W., G.M. Prine and J.E. Jackson. 1957. Studies of drought
tolerance and water use of several southern grasses. Agron. Journal.
49:498-503.

Prine, G.M. 1975. Sorghum, corn, kenaf and their mixtures for silage.
Proc. 9th Biennial Grain Sorghum Res. and Utilization Conference. 134-
142.

Prine, G.M. 1973. Perennial peanuts for forage. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 32:33-35.

Prine, G.M. 1970. Grain yeilds of corn and grain sorghum under differ-
ent plant populations and row spacings. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 29:181-189.

Ruelke, O.C. and G.M. Prine. 1969. Row spacing and population effects
on pearlmillet and sorghum-sudangrass. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 29:189-196.

Prine, G.M. and W.K. Robertson. 1968. Three methods of growing corn
and sorghum in Pensacola bahiagrass sod. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 28:193-203.

Ruelke, O.C. and G.M. Prine. 1968. Preliminary evaluation of yield and
protein content of six hybrid bermuda grasses, Pensacola bahiagrass, and
pangolagrass under three fertilization regimes in North Central Florida.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 28:123-129.










Prine, G.M. 1967. Maize culture in perennial grass sods controlled
by herbicides. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:122-132.

Ruelke, O.C. and G.M. Prine. 1967. A new look at alfalfa for Flor-
ida. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 27:106-114.

Prine, G.M. and S.H. West. 1966. Influence of row direction on
yield of blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L). Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:185-188.

Robertson, W.K., G.M. Prine, R.W. Lipscomb and H.W. Lundy. 1966.
Minimum tillage for row crops. Proceedings 1st Pan American Soil
Conservation Congress. 449-457.

Prine, G.M. 1964. Forage poysibilities in the genus Arachis. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:187-196.

Robertson, W.K. and G.M. Prine. 1976. Conserving energy with no-
tillage. University of Florida, IFAS, Fla. Cooperative Extension
Service Energy Cons. Fact Sheet EC-37. 3p.









Appendix Table D


Dissertations Related to Tropical Soils


1. Tergas, L. E. 1968. The effect of nitrogen fertilization
on the movement of nutrients from a tropical grass under soil
moisture stress in a hot savanna. Ph. D. dissertation, Soil
Science Department, University of Florida (Chairman: W. G.
Blue).

2. Lucas, L. N. 1969. Phosphorus availability in alluvial rain-
forest soils from Costa Rica as affected by phosphorus fer-
tilization and soil amendments. Ph. D. dissertation, Soil
Science Department, University of Florida (Chairman: W. G.
Blue).

3. Bazan, R. 1969. The Coastal Pine Ridge soils of British
Honduras and their fertility status. Ph. D. dissertation,
Soil Science Department, University of Florida (Chairman:
W. G. Blue).

4. Downer, A. V. 1972. Factors affecting fertility of selected
Brown Sand soils of Guyana. Ph. D. dissertation, Soil Science
Department, University of Florida (Chairman: W. G. Blue).

5. Ehu, R. A. 1973. A pathological investigation of selected
soils in the Intermediate Savanna of Guyanna. Ph. D. dis-
sertation, Soil Science Department, University of Florida
(Chairman: R. E. Caldwell and Co-Chairman: W. G. Blue).

6. Velez, J. 1975. Lime interactions in soils from Costa Rica
and the Eastern Savanna of Columbia. Ph. D. dissertation,
Soil Science Department, University of Florida (Chairman:
W. G. Blue).

7. Rodriguez, M. 1974. Lime micro-nutrient studies with soils
from Costa Rica and the Eastern Llanos of Columbia. Ph. D.
dissertation, Soil Science Department, University of Florida
(Chairman: W. G. Blue).

8. Werner, J. 1979. Response of two species of Stylosanthesis
Sw. to levels of lime, phosphorus, potassium, and boron on
three mineral soils. Ph. D. dissertation, Agronomy Department,
University of Florida (Chairman: G. O. Mott).

9. Mendoza, P. 1979. Response of Andropogon gavanus to lime
phosphorus and micro-nutrients in a highly weathered amazon
soil from Columbia. Ph. D. dissertation, Soil Science De-
partment, University of Florida (Chairman: G. O. Mott).










10. Khomuilai, S. 1977. Effects of lime, potassium sources and
colloidal phosphate on the retention of potassium by some
Florida mineral soils. Ph. D. dissertation, Soil Science
Department, University of Florida (Chairman: W. G. Blue).

11. Impithuksa, V. 1979. Fertilizer nitrogen distribution in
soil and forage plant systems as indicated by nontracer and
tracer methods. Ph. D. dissertation, Soil Science Depart-
ment, University of Florida Chairman: W. G. Blue).


















Theses Related to Tropical Soils


1. Atencio, A. 1977. The effect of lime on yield and avail-
ability to guinea grass (Panacum Maximum Jacq.) of phosphorus
from superphosphate and rock phosphate in an Ultisol from
Western Venezuela. M. S. Thesis, Soil Science Department,
University of Florida. (Chairman: W. G. Blue)

2. Martinez, B. F. 1977. Effect of lime on chemical character-
istics of a Florida Ultisol, Entisol and Spodosol on response
of some agronomic plants. M. S. Thesis, Soil Science Depart-
ment, University of Florida. (Chairman: W. G. Blue)

3. Hatzell, H. 1979. Prediction of phosphorus requirements of
plants on Ultisols with different residual phosphorus contents.
M. S. Thesis, Soil Science Department, University of Florida.
(Chairman: W. G. Blue)

4. Gomez, R. 1968. Nitrogen status of two alluvial soils from
the humid tropics of Costa Rica. M. S. Thesis, Soil Science
Department, University of Florida. (Chairman: W. G. Blue)

5. Zantua, M. 1972. Investigation of plant growth depression
by lime applied to an alluvial Entisol from Eastern Costa
Rica. M. S. Thesis, Soil Science Department, University
of Florida. (Chairman: W. G. Blue)






APPENDIX E: RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THIS CRSP PROJECT


Projects within the Soil Science Department currently in progress under

which soil management research could be performed.


Principal
Title Investigator


Project No.


Hatch 1358



Hatch 1437


MCI-S 1534


State 1582


State 1612



State 1669


Hatch 1695



Hatch 1783

Grant 1790


State 1876


Hatch 1894



RRF 1895


Hatch 1901


CR-SEA 1980



Hatch 2005


Pasturegrass and legume variety
evaluation under varied fertiliza-
tion and management.

Characterization, classification
and mapping of Florida soils.

Fertilization and nutrition of
southern pine.

Soils and water management in
agronomic crop production.

Economic biological and environmen-
tal aspects of dairy-beef crosses
on pasture and in drydot.

Maximizing efficiency of fertilizer
and water use for vegetables.

Development of soil testing methods
correlation of soil and plant analy-
tical data.

Soil fertility in forage production

Interralations and specificity among
legumes and nitrogen fixation.

Nitrogen fixation by associative
grass-bacteria systems.

Management of multicropping and
maximum tillage systems for the
Southeast.

Associative nitrogen fixation in
grasses.

Evaluation of grasses, legumes and
other crops for forage under various
management practices.

Establishment of a bean inoculation
program applicable to small farms
in developing countries.

Influence of soil fertility and
other parameters on the growth and
quality of turfgrasses.


W. G. Blue



V. W. Carlisle


W. L. Pritchett


D. L. Myhre


W. G. Blue



J. G. A. Fiskell


J. B. Sartain



W. G. Blue

D. H. Hubbell


D. H. Hubbell


W. K. Robertson



D. H. Hubbell


W. G. Blue


D. H. Hubbell



J. B. Sartain


Proiect No.










Food and Resource Economics Departmental Research Projects Related to

Tropical Agriculture, Low Energy Technology and International Trade


Experiment Station


Description

Firm and Enterprise Analysis for Small
Farmers

Economics of IPM in Vegetables

Economics of Legume Production in South
Florida

Multicropping Systems in Forage Production
in South Florida

Estimation of Grass and Grass-clover Re-
sponse to Fertilizer and Water and Eco-
nomic Evaluation of Weather Risk and
Irrigation

Economics of Appropriate Energy Technology

Effect of Borrowing and Debt Servicing on
Developing Country Commitments

Nutritional Status and Food Intake Patterns
of Low Income Households


LET Funded Projects and Areas, 1979-80

Production
Economics Farm Systems Lab

Resource Econ. Economics of Alternative Energy Sources

Community
Development Community and Regional Impact Model


LET Projects and Areas, 1980-81

Production Economics of Firm Level Adoption of Low
Economics Energy Technology

Farming Systems
and Small Farm Identifing Research Needs and Adopting
Research Innovations for Small Farmers


Researchers)


Collette

Boggess


Alvarez


Prevatt



Melton

Kiker


van Blokland


Davis


Melton, et al.

Kiker, Milon


Mulkey, Gordon




Boggess

van Blokland
Gilbert
Hildebrand


Projects

1937


1621

1621


1817


1612



00001

1920


1953








New Projects Related to Tropical Agriculture, Low Energy Technology and


International Trade.


Title XII Strengthening
Grant Projects


Description


A Decision Making Approach to the Adoption
of Small Farm Production Innovation, Cameroon


Other Projects


Description


The economic Feasibility of Certified Maize
Seed Production in the Seven Regions of
Guatemala

Pricing Changes Associated with Marketing
Fresh Flowers and Vegetable from Labor
Intensive Colombian Farms to the U.S.
Consumers


Agricultural Diversification
Income Distribution in Ivory


and Rural
Coast


Alcohol Production for Alternative Energy
Use in Honduras

Impact of the Supervised Credit System on
the Adoption of Modern Agricultural Practices:
The Case of Corn in Guatemala.

Economic Analysis of Livestock Systems in
Zaire


Researchers)

van Blokland
Dodson
(Thesis)


Researchers)

van Blokland
Prentice
(Thesis)

van Blokland
Caro
(Thesis)


Davis, Adama
(Dissertation)

van Blokland
Alvarado (Thesis)

McPherson,
Proenza
(Dissertation)

Simpson, M'Pia
(Thesis)





APPENDIX F


PROYECTO DE MANEJO DE SUELOS Y TIERRAS DE LADERA

EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA






Introducci6n


En muchos pauses tropicales, grandes concentraciones de la poblaci6n

viven en montaias o tierras altas; su producci6n de cultivos alimenticios

y comerciales esta principalmente localizada en terrenos de ladera. Mien-

tras la poblaci6n aumenta en estas areas, se pone mayor presi6n sobre los

recursos renovables y no renovables. La desforestaci6n aumenta en intensi-

dad, cada aio se cultiva una mayor proporci6n de la tierra y se abren mas

carreteras y caminos. Las perdidas de suelo aumentan, la humedad disponi-

ble se reduce y la productividad decrece; cada una de estas a su vez pone

mayor presi6n sobre la tierra.' Problemas de escorrentia propician inunda-

ciones y sedimentaciones que reduce el abastecimiento de agua utilizable

y agua de calidad. Presiones adicionales aparecen sobre los terrenos bajos

y los valles cuando la gente empieza a abandonar las tierras de ladera en

busca de una vida en los pueblos y en las ciudades mas abajo dentro de las

cuencas. Asi pues, los problems de las tierras de ladera no estan nece-

sariamente restringidos a las laderas donde los pequeios agricultores pre-

dominan.

Los problems de producci6n agricola en tierras de ladera no pueden

ser resueltos a trav6s de studios de components aislados. Debe utilizar-

se un enfoque que incluya una vision m6s amplia de los sistemas involucra-

dos. El sistema mas grande y de mayor importancia es el que incluye tanto

a las tierras de ladera en una cuenca asi como a los valles y las tierras








bajas con sus pueblos y sus ciudades. Las tierras altas, por sf mismas,

representan un subsistema que es relevant. Finalmente, y siendo el as-

pecto mas important de este proyecto, estan los various sistemas de pro-

ducci6n utilizados por los agricultores en las tierras de ladera. El di-

rigir los esfuerzos inicamente al incremento de productividad en las fin-

cas, no es una soluci6n adecuada. Se debe de considerar la protecci6n ge-

neral de la cuenca, el recurso de madera y lena, la producci6n de alimen-

tos para animals y.la estabilizacion o conservaci6n del suelo y recursos

de agua en las fincas, individual y colectivamente. Todo esto debe ser

llevado a cabo dentro del context de las necesidades, deseos y capacidades

de las families que viven y trabajan en las tierras de ladera.

Proyectos de reforestaci6n masiva se llevan a cabo inicamente en pro-

piedades grandes publicas o privadas, o bien donde los pequenos propieta-

rios son forzados a abandonar, ya sea econ6mica o polfticamente, para dar

lugar a que se realicen estos proyectos. Otras t6cnicas de conservaci6n

estan disponibles, pero muchas de ellas requieren inversiones que estAn

fuera del alcance de los pobres en el Area rural o bien, tienden a reducir

los ingresos durante un numero de aios; en ambos casos se requieren progra-

mas de credito suplementario que funcionan bien s6lo en muy raras ocasiones.

Las areas de pequehas cuencas tambi6n deben ser trabajadas dentro del sis-

tema de conservaci6n en una base cooperative principiando por las parties

altas y trabajando hacia abajo. Todas estas interrelaciones requieren un

enfoque sistematico para la soluci6n de problems de finca y sociales re-

lacionados a la agriculture de ladera.

La Universidad de Florida tiene una larga historic de trabajo con agri-

cultores para resolver problems de producci6n en laderas. Por mAs de una

decada, personas que son o han sido miembros del cuerpo de profesores de la

Universidad de Florida han estado involucrados en proyectos de ladera en








Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, El Salvador y Guatemala. La uni-

versidad actualmente tiene un proyecto active en el que involucra agricul-

tura de ladera y efectos de erosi6n en la Repablica Dominicana. Ademas, la

universidad esta estableciendo un fuerte program de Investigaci6n y Exten-

si6n en Sistemas de Producci6n (FSR/E) basado principalmente en sus expe-

riencias en El Salvador, Bolivia y Guatemala y diseiado en base a una lar-

ga historic de proyectos y cooperaci6n'multidisciplinaria dentro y fuera

de la universidad. Ciencia de Suelos, Agronomia, Antropologfa, Economfa

Agricola (Food and Resource Economics), Ciencia Animal y Cultivos Hortico-

las, entire otros departamentos, estgn involucrados en los esfuerzos de

FSR/E,el cual esta dirigido a situaciones nacionales e internacionales.

Por lo tanto, el ambiente en la Universidad de Florida es eminentemente

apropiado para llevar a cabo un proyecto en gran escala para agriculture de

ladera.

El clima sub-tropical y la pobreza en nutrients de los suelos de Flo-

rida hace que su investigaci6n y extension agricola sean especialmente Oti-

les al desarrollo agricola en los tr6picos. El Instituto de Ciencias de la

Alimentaci6n y la Agricultura (IFAS) tiene una larga y distinguida experien-

cia con asistencia ticnica y educaci6n para el desarrollo agricola asT como

un compromise establecido a los programs internacionales. Esta experien-

cia di6 inicio hace 25 afos en un contrato de asistencia tecnica a largo

plazo en Costa Rica. La present experiencia y propuesta de proyecto esta

basada en el conocimiento de un cuerpo de profesores de mas de 900 cientifi-

cos, de los cuales un tercio han trabajado en desarrollo agricola y progra-

mas educativos fuera de este pais. Tanto los programs nacionales como in-

ternacionales se benefician significativamente de esta experiencia.

El compromise de IFAS esta ain mas enfatizada por el numero significa-

tivo de cursos formales a nivel de licenciatura y de post-grado con Wnfasis





(4)

en agriculture international y tropical y el gran numero de estudiantes

internacionales inscritos en estos programs. Entre 30 y 40 de mas de los

600 estudiantes graduados en programs de IFAS son estudiantes internacio-

nales que representan a mAs de 40 parses. Mas aun, se han realizado mu-

chos cursos cortos para ticnicos agrfcolas de pauses en vfas de desarrollo.

Por ejemplo, nuestro curso corto en Ganaderfa Tropical, ahora en su trece-

avo afio, ha contribuido a que la ciencia animal trabaje en muchos paTses.








Propuesta de Proyecto

Terrenos de Ladera en la Republica Dominicana


El enfoque de Investigaci6n y Extensi6n en Sistemas de Producci6n

Agropecuaria (FSR/E) propuesto para este proyecto es un program de

acci6n orientado para el diseho rapido, evaluaci6n e implementaci6n de

soluciones reales y relevantes a problems de agricultores. Este enfo-

que utiliza equipos de campo que proven el empuje inicial y reciben apo-

yo de respaldo por parte de la universidad. El equipo de campo FSR/E

Ileva a cabo la identificaci6n de problems y restricciones de los agri-

cultores a traves de una tecnica de muestreo rapida y de fondo diseOada

especificamente para este prop6sito. Los agricultores son incorporados

a la busqueda y prueba de soluciones y la mayorfa del trabajo se realize

mas en fincas que en estaciones experimentales. Las actividades de apoyo

son provistas tanto por el cuerpo de t6cnicos de tiempo complete de FSR/E

en la universidad como por miembros del profesorado del program de FSR/E

participando parte del tiempo representando diversos departamentos. Debi-

do a que el trabajo es realizado en fincas, la investigaci6n o generaci6n

de tecnologfa y las actividades -de transferencia de la misma son fuerzas

combinadas y no fuerzas separadas; los problems de comunicaci6n se redu-

cen y el retraso desde la identificaci6n de problems hasta la adopci6n de

la tecnologfa es minimizado. Por lo tanto, la eficiencia en los costs,

media en t6rminos de tecnologfa adoptada por agricultores, es alta.

Precisamente debido a que el enfoque de FSR/E trabaja partiendo de

problems especTficos hacia la generaci6n y prueba de soluciones y no par-

tiendo de la investigaci6n en busqueda de areas de aplicabilidad, y debido

a la especificidad de sitio en los problems de tierras de ladera, no es

possible especificar la naturaleza exacta que tendra el proyecto Mas bien,








cientTficos de niveles medio y alto de la Universidad de Florida, traba-

jando en un equipo integrado con cientificos del CENDA, ISA, y CESDA y

los agricultores en el area o areas proyecto determinargn la naturaleza

exacta de los problems y el tipo de investigaci6n y actividades de trans-

ferencia de tecnologfa necesarias para resolverlos.-/ Sin embargo, algu-

nas generalizaciones pueden hacerse sobre la naturaleza del program.

Los mayores esfuerzos estargn dirigidos hacia el control de erosion,

no solamente en las fincas si no tambi6n a los cortes de caminos y carrete-

ras, pero en un menor grado. El control de la erosion en fincas, asT como

las practicas de conservacion de suelo y agua, deben ser compatibles con

las necesidades y deseos de los agricultores y encajar dentro de sus capa-

cidades para conducirlas y financiarlas mientras que al mismo tiempo sostie-

nen un ingreso familiar. El uso de barreras vivas y terrazas en pendientes

pueden ser combinados con otros cultivos en el sistema para asT abastecer

un sistema de producci6n pecuaria y proveer algunos components al reci-

claje de nutrients. Indudablemente, tambien las combinaciones de cultivos

de subsistencia y comerciales serfan estudiados asi como la combinaci6n de

cultivos perennes y anuales. Debido a una larga experiencia de trabajo

con los suelos infertiles de Florida y de los tr6picos, los especialistas de

suelos y producci6n de cultivos de la Universidad de Florida estan eminente-

mente calificados para resolver los problems de nutrici6n mineral que se

vayan identificando.

Hasta donde sea possible, los nuevos cultivos y practices bajo studio

ser5n compatibles con la infraestructura existente, en una forma tal que no

se requiera el desarrollo de algunos otros proyectos. Donde parezca impo-

sible hacer progress sin algunos cambios de infraestructura, el equipo

/ Los cientificos propuestos son los que han sido recomendados en la Pro-
puesta General del Programa: 1) Especialista en Conservaci6n de Suelos
y Agua, 2) Agr6nomo para Sistemas de Produccion y 3) Socioeconomista
para Sistemas de Producci6n





trabajarg con organizaciones locales y de ser necesario, agencies donantes

para establecer los proyectos apropiados.

Los cientificos de diferentes niveles de la Universidad de Florida

trabajaran en la Repiblica Dominicana como contraparte en las agencies

dominicanas y no estrictamente como consejeros. Esto es, ellos trabaja-

rdn no solamente en la orientaci6n y evaluaci6n del program sino tambien

con sus contrapartes en el campo al conducir y analizar ensayos de campo,

registros de finca y pruebas con agricultores.

En la evaluaci6n annual del trabajo tanto los cientificos dominicanos

como los de la Universidad de Florida presentarfan los resultados y parti-

ciparfan en la evaluaci6n del trabajo del aio anterior ast como en la pla-

nificaci6n de los programs del aio siguiente. Toda la investigaci6n sera

secuencial. Esto es, el program de cada aio sera dise&ado en base a los

resultados del aio anterior.

El establecimiento de sitios principles (tales como San Jos6) se rea-

lizarg sistematicamente de acuerdo a un plan estimado de trabajo para cinco

anos (Figura 1). El primer aio que esta presupuestado inicamente para seis

meses, involucrarfa la llegada del equipo, establecimiento del mismo e ini-

cio del trabajo. Conjuntamente con cientificos dominicanos, conducirgn la

encuesta inicial, identificaran agricultores que estuviesen dispuestos a

colaborar en el program de investigaci6n y en la conducci6n de registros

de finca y diseiaran y prepararan los proyectos de investigaci6n que se lle-

varfan a cabo en el area del primer sitio principal (presumiblemente San

Jos6). El segundo aio estas mismas actividades seran conducidas en el se-

gundo sitio principal (Ocoa-Constanza). Se espera que en el tercer aio las

actividades puedan ser iniciadas en Haiti.

El segundo aio, en el sitio inicial (San Jos6), las actividades de in-

vestigaci6n y los registros de fincas seran iniciados. Los registros de





(8)


finca sirven como puntos de partida y para prop6sitos de evaluacion. Los

resultados de las actividades del segundo aio y los aios sucesivos deberian

ser evaluados al final del ano con el prop6sito de hacer recomendaciones y

planificar el program del siguiente aio.

En el tercer aio, los resultados prometedores serian llevados al pro-

grama de pruebas con los agricultores para su evaluaci6n. En el cuarto

aio, la aceptabilidad de la tecnologia-probada el aFo anterior por agricul-

tores serfa evaluada y la transferencia de la tecnologfa acceptable seria

iniciada. Las pruebas de agricultores para cada nueva tecnologfa debera

continuarse asi como se continaen las actividades de investigaci6n y re-

gistros de finca. En la misma forma de.antes los resultados continuaran

siendo evaluados al final del aio y la planificaci6n para el afo siguiente

estara basada en la evaluaci6n. En el quinto aio, todas las actividades

anteriormente escritas continuaran al mismo tiempo con una transferencia

masiva de tecnologfa acceptable.






82 83


San Jose Llegada del equlpo y
establecimiento
Conduce Sondeo*
Identifica agricul-
tores
Disefia investiga-
ci6n


Ocoa-
Constanza


Establece la inves-
tigaci6n
Inicia registros de
finca
Evala los resulta-
dos del primer ai.o


Llegada del equipo y
establecimiento
Conduce Sondeo
Identifica agricul-
tores
Disena investlgaci6n


Pruebas con agri-'
cultores de los
resultados del ler
aio
Continda la investi-
gaci6n y los reqis-
tros de finca
Evalda los resultados



Establece la inves-
tigaci6n
Inicia registros de
finca
Evalua los resulta-
dos del primer afio


Evalua la acep-'
tatilidad
Inicia la trans-
ferencia
Continda la inves-
tigaci6n, regis-
tros, pruebas
con agricultores
Evalia


Pruebas con agri-
cultores de los
resultados del
ler aio
Continua la investi-
gaci6n y los re-
gistros de finca
Evalua los resulta-
dos


Actividades de
transferencia
masiva
Continue investi-
gaci6n, regis-
tros, prueba
Eval6a


EvalOa la acepta-
bilidad
Inicia la transfe-
rencia
Contin6a la inves-
tigaci6n, regis-
tros, pruebas
Evalia


Llegada del equipo
y establecimeinto
Conduce Sondeo
Identifica agricul-
tores
Disefa investigacidn


Establece la inves-
tigacidn
Inicia registros de
finca
Evalua los resulta-
dos del primer
afio


Pruebas con agri-
cultores de los
resultados del
ler aio
Continia la inves-
tigaci6n y los
registros de
finca
Evalia los resulta-
dos


Llegada del equipo
y establecimiento
Conduce Sondeo
Identifica agricul-
tores
Diseia investigaci6n


Establece la inves-
tiqaci6n. regis-
tros de finca
Evalia los resul-
tados


Llegada del equi-
no y estable-
cimiento
Conduce Sondeo
Identifica agri-
cultores
Diseia investiga-
ci6n


* Sondeo es el nombre de una metodologfa de encuesta rSpida desarrollada
para el enfoque de Sistemas de Producci6n Agropecuaria.

** Dependerg de una fuente de fondos adicionales


Haiti (1)


Nerpl o **
Peru


84 85




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