• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Main














Group Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; BRA1982-24
Title: Weed control in spring transplanted cauliflower
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056147/00001
 Material Information
Title: Weed control in spring transplanted cauliflower
Series Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; BRA1982-24
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Gilreath, J. P.
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1982
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056147
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62410025

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Agricultural Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
5007-60th Street East
Bradenton, Florida 33508-9324

Bradenton AREC Research Report BRA 1982-24 December 1982


WEED CONTROL IN SPRING TRANSPLANTED CAULIFLOWER1

J. P. Gilreath2


Weed control is a major problem in vegetable production on sandy soils
in Florida. The long growing season and production under different environ-
mental conditions during spring and fall result in considerable diversity
of weed species present and in their severity of infestation. Lack of
weed control increases harvest costs, while reducing yield and quality of
marketable produce and effectiveness of pesticides. Weed control in
cauliflower is further hindered by the recent loss of 2 of &he 4 previously
registered herbicides. Of the remaining materials, Dacthal is presently
in short supply and is generally unavailable, while Treflan offers erratic
weed control on sandy soils with low organic matter content (1). Therefore,
field evaluation of a number of newer herbicides was conducted in the
spring of 1982 to find additional materials which offer acceptable weed
control and are not phytotoxic to cauliflower.

Materials and Methods

Five-week old 'Early Snowball A' cauliflower plants were transplanted on
February 5, 1982 into Myakka fine sand (pH 6.4) which had been fumigated with
ethylene dibromide at 6 gal/acre. Plants were grown on unmulched beds to
facilitate evaluation of compounds for weed control. Five hundred lb./acre
of 6-6-6 fertilizer with micronutrients and 600 lb./acre of superphosphate
(20% P 05 with micronutrients) were applied broadcast and incorporated prior
to transplanting. Subsequent nutrition was supplied by sidedressing with
18-0-25 (with 1.2% Mg) as needed to supply a total of 220 lb. N; 108 lb. P205
and 280 lb. K2O per acre. Plot size was 4.5 ft. x 12 ft. with 10 plants per
plot spaced 1 ft. apart in a single row. Experimental design was randomized
complete block with 4 replications.

Treatments consisted of a weedy check, A hoed check, Goal (0.5 lb. a.i./
acre preplant incorporated), Dual and Prowl (2 and 0.75 lb. a.i./acre,
respectively, pretransplant) Dacthal, and Devrinol (9 and 2 lb. a.i./acre,
respectively, preemergence post transplant), Fusilade (0.125, 0.25 and 0.50
lb. a.i./acre postemergence), paraquat + Dacthal (0.5 + 8 lb. a.i./acre post-
emergence directed spray), and Hoe 00661 + Dacthal (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 + 8 lb.
a.i./acre postemergence directed spray) (Table 1). All applications of Fusilade
included 1 quart/acre of Agridex crop oil. Preplant incorporated (ppi February
5), pretransplant (pre-t February 5), post-transplant (post-t February 5) and
postemergence over the top (post (post February 24 and March 2) herbicide
treatments were applied with a CO2 backpack plot sprayer operated at 3 mph and
23 psi pressure with two 11004 Unijet nozzles delivering 26.6 gal/acre. Ppi

IMention of a specific herbicide does not constitute an endorsement by the
author or the University of Florida.
2Weed scientist.








treatments were incorporated with a rolling incorporator. Postemergence
directed spray (post d) treatments were applied February 25 using a CO
sprayer fitted with a TK-4 floodjet nozzle and operated at a speed of 3 mph
and 17 psi pressure delivering 42.9 gal of preparation/acre. Hoed checks were
hoed weekly for the entire season.

Grass and broadleaf weeds were 2 to 3 inches tall at the time of the post
d treatments and grasses were at the 2 to 4 leaf stage at the time of the post
treatments. Weed control ratings were made March 8 and April 1, using a 0 to 10
scale where 0 = no control and 10 = 100% control. Predominant weed species
were crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel), goosegrass (Eleusine indica
(L.) Gaertn.), pigweed (Amaranthus viridis L.) and lambsquarters (Chenopodium
album L.). Crop plant vigor was evaluated March 8 using a 0 to 10 scale where
0 = all plants dead and 10 = optimum vigor or no phytotoxicity. Curds were
harvested, counted and weighed April 1 and 9.

Results and Discussion

Excellent grass and broadleaf weed control was obtained with all of the
herbicide treatments, except Fusilade at both evaluation dates (Table 1).
Herbicidal control of both crabgrass and goosegrass was not significantly
different from the hoed check at either date of evaluation. Dual, Hoe 00661
(0.5 and 0.75 lb. a.i./acre) + Dacthal and Fusilade (0.5 lb. a.i./acre)
provided significantly better crabgrass control than Prowl at both dates,
but these treatments were not significantly different from the other herbicide
treatments. Control of goosegrass at both dates was significantly less in
plots treated with Prowl than where treated with the other materials except
Dacthal and Hoe 00661 (0.5 lb. a.i./acre) + Dacthal. Fusilade, a new post-
emergence grass herbicide, effected excellent control of both grass species
and holds promise for grass control in a number of vegetable crops. No
pigweed or lambsquarters control ratings were made for Fusilade because it
has only postemergence activity on grasses.

Excellent control of pigweed was provided by all the other herbicide
treatments throughout the growing season, although control with Devrinol
was significantly less than that offered by the hoed check and several other
treatments. At the first evaluation, Devrinol provided less control of
pigweed than any of the other herbicides except a combination of Hoe 00661
(0.25 lb. a.i./acre) and Dacthal. By the final evaluation only Goal, Dual and
Hoe 00661 (0.5 lb. a.i./acre) + Dacthal afforded significantly better .pigweed
control than Devrinol. Control of lambsquarter was not significantly
different from the hoed check with any of the herbicide treatments.

Vigor of.cauliflower plants was generally good; however, Dual significantly
reduce vigor compared to the hoed check (Table 2). Yield data include both
the number and weight of curds per 10 plant plot for each harvest and total.
There were no significant differences in numbers of curds at the first harvest
relative to the hoed check.

Dual tended to delay curd development, producing the lowest number of
curds in the first harvest and the significantly largest number in the last
harvest. None of the remaining treatments were significantly different in
number of curds cut in the last harvest. None of the herbicide treatments
significantly affected curd weight relative to the control at the first
harvest. The tendency of Dual to delay curd development was further demon-
strated by the low weight for the first harvest and the significantly
greatest yield at the final harvest. None of the remaining treatments were






-3-


significantly different from the hoed check in curd production at the last
harvest. There were no significant differences among treatments for total
season harvest. Low yields in plots treatment with Fusilade were believed
to be due to competition by pigweed and lambsquarters and not due to phyto-
toxicity. The weedy check, Prowl and Hoe 00661 (0.25 and 0.75 lb. a.i./acre)
+ Dacthal depressed curd size to the point of being nonmarketable.

Based on weed control and early yield, the best treatments overall were
Devrinol, Goal, and a combination of Hoe 00661 (0.75 lb. a.i./acre) +
Dacthal. These results may or may not be applicable to mulched culture.



Literature Cited

1. William, R. D. 1980. Weed control guide for commercial vegetable
production in Florida. Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser. Circ. 196G.








herbicide treatment on cauliflower plant vigor and yield. Bradenton, FL. Spring 1982.


Treatment


(lb. a.i./acre)


application


Vigor ratingy
March 8


Number of curdsx Weight
April 1 April 9 Total April 1


of curds'~ (lb.)


of curdsi (lb.)
April 9 Total


Weedy check
Hoed check
Goal
Dual
Prowl
Dacthal
Devrinol
Paraquat + Dacthal
Hoe 00661 + Dacthal
Hoe 00661 + Dacthal
Hoe 00661 + Dacthal
Fusilade + crop oil*
Fusilade + crop oil*
Fusilade + crop oil*


0.5
2.0
0.75
8.0
2.0
0.5 + 8.0
0.25 + 8.0
0.50 + 8.0
0.75 + 8.0
0.125
0.25
0.50


Zppi = preplant incorporated, pre-t = pretransplant,
post = post emergence to grass over top of crop has


post-t = post transplant,
become established.


post d = post transplant, directed sprays


YVigor was rated on a visual scale of 0 to 10 where 0 = all plants dead and 10 = optimum growth.
Xyield is per 10 plants at one foot spacing in a single row per bed.
WMean separation within columns by Duncan's new multiple range test, 5% level (lower case letters) or non-significant
(no letters).
1 qt/acre Agridex crop oil.


ppi
pre-t
pre-t
post-t
post-t
post d
post d
post d
post d
post
post
post


9.6
9.2
9.1
7.4
8.4
9.1
9.2
9.2
9.5
9.8
9.0
9.4
9.1
9.4


4.8
4.2
4.8
2.5
3.5
4.8
6.5
4.8
6.5
4.5
6.0
3.8
2.8
3.8


3.5
3.0
3.2
7.2
3.8
3.2
2.2
3.8
2.2
3.2
3.2
4.8
3.2
2.5


8.2 abc 5.8 abc 4.0 9 .~


8.2
7.2
8.0
9.8
7.2
8.0
8.8
8.5
8.8
7.8
9.2
8.5
6.0
6.2


abc
abc
abc
a
abc
abc
ab
abc
ab
abc
a
abc
c
abc


5.8
7.5
8.8
2.6
4.6
7.4
10.8
7.2
7.6
6.5
8.6
5.3
4.1
4.8


abc
abc
ab
c
bc
abc
a
abc
abc
abc
ab
abc
bc
bc


4.0
4.8
5.8
12.0
5.6
5.5
3.7
5.3
1.8
5.5
4.0
7.0
6.1
4.8


9.8
12.3
14.6
14.6
10.1
13.0
14.4
12.6
9.3
12.0
12.6
12.3
10.2
9.6


v


Table 2. Influence of


---


--








Table 2. Influence of herbicide treatment on cauliflower plant vigor and yield. Bradenton, FL. Spring 1982.
Vigor ratingy Number of curdsx Weight of curdsx (lb.)
Treatment (lb. a.i./acre) application March 8 April 1 April 9 Total April 1 April 9 Total

Weedy check 9.6 aW 4.8 ab 3.5 b 8.2 abc 5.8 abc 4.0 bc 9.8
Hoed check 9.2 ab 4.2 ab 3.0 b 7.2 abc 7.5 abc 4.8 bc 12.3
Goal 0.5 ppi 9.1 ab 4.8 ab 3.2 b 8.0 abc 8.8 ab 5.8 bc 14.6
Dual 2.0 pre-t 7.4 c 2.5 b 7.2 a 9.8 a 2.6 c 12.0 a 14.6
Prowl 0.75 pre-t 8.4 b 3.5 ab 3.8 b 7.2 abc 4.6 bc 5.6 bc 10.1
Dacthal 8.0 post-t 9.1 ab 4.8 ab 3.2 b 8.0 abc 7.4 abc 5.5 bc 13.0
Devrinol 2.0 post-t 9.2 ab 6.5 a 2.2 b 8.8 ab 10.8 a 3.7 bc 14.4
Paraquat + Dacthal 0.5 + 8.0 post d 9.2 ab 4.8 ab 3.8 b 8.5 abc 7.2 abc 5.3 bc 12.6
Hoe 00661 + Dacthal 0.25 + 8.0 post d 9.5 ab 6.5 a 2.2 b 8.8 ab 7.6 abc 1.8 c 9.3
Hoe 00661 + Dacthal 0.50 + 8.0 post d 9.8 a 4.5 ab 3.2 b 7.8 abc 6.5 abc 5.5 bc 12.0
Hoe 00661 + Dacthal 0.75 + 8.0 post d 9.0 ab 6.0 a 3.2 b 9.2 a 8.6 ab 4.0 bc 12.6
Fusilade + crop oil* 0.125 post 9.4 ab 3.8 ab 4.8 b 8.5 abc 5.3 abc 7.0 b 12.3
Fusilade + crop oil* 0.25 post 9.1 ab 2.8 b 3.2 b 6.0 c 4.1 bc 6.1 bc 10.2
Fusilade + crop oil* 0.50 post 9.4 ab 3.8 ab 2.5 b 6.2 abc 4.8 bc 4.8 bc 9.6


ZPpi = preplant incorporated, pre-t = pretransplant, post-t = post transplant,
post = post emergence to grass over top of crop has become established.


post d = post transplant, directed sprays


Yvigor was rated on a visual scale of 0 to 10 where 0 = all plants dead and 10 = optimum growth.
XYield is per 10 plants at one foot spacing in a single row per bed.
"Mean separation within columns by Duncan's new multiple range test, 5% level (lower case letters) or non-significant
(no letters).
1 qt/acre Agridex crop oil.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs