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Group Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; GC1981-12
Title: Effect of fertilizer placement methods on cabbage yields with seepage and trickle irrigation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056130/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of fertilizer placement methods on cabbage yields with seepage and trickle irrigation
Series Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; GC1981-12
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Csizinszky, Alexander Anthony
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00056130
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62393881

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH &
> IFAS, University
Bradenton, Florida

Bradenton AREC Research Report GC1981-12


EDUCATION CENTER
of Florida
33508-9324


,Novrcmber 1981


EFFECT OF FERTILIZER PLACEMENT METHODS ON CABBAGE YIELDS
WITH SEEPAGE AND TRICKLE IRRIGATION

A. A. Csizinszky
Replicated trials were conducted at the AREC-Bradenton in the 1979-
80 fall-winter season (Oct.-Jan) with cabbage, cv. 'Golden Acre', in a
seepage and in a trickle irrigated land to investigate fertilizer place-
ment methods.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental plots were established on Myakka fine sand with the hardpan
at 32 in. The trickle irrigated land was surrounded with a rim ditch, 4 ft
wide and 4 to 5 ft deep, to exclude ground water effects from adjoining fields.

Seven plant beds, 30 in. wide and 9 in. high on 54 in. centers, were
formed between 2 lateral furrows spaced 41 ft apart in both seepage and
trickle irrigated lands. In the trickle irrigated land lateral furrows
served as drainage ditches after heavy rainfall. With both irrigation systems
approximately 7400 linear ft of bed were formed per acre. Fertilizers
applied and yields are reported on this basis.

FERTILIZER PLACEMENT


A. Seepage irrigated land.


Bed.mix consisted of 520 Ib/acre superphosphate (20% P205), and 75 lb/
acre each of 34-0-0 and 18-0-25-2. Superphosphate contained fitted
micronutrients (FN503) at a rate of 80 Ib/ton. Bed mix was broadcast in the
full width of the bed, them mixed into the soil to a depth of 3-4 in. Soil
was fumigated with an MC33 fumigant (66% methyl bromide) applied with 3 chisels
at a rate of 152 Ib/A.

The main fertilizer, 18-0-25-2, at a rate of 1176 Ib/acre, was placed
in 2 different ways:


All applied in a narrow band on the shoulders,
50% applied with the bed mix and 50% banded on
The total amount of nutrients in Ib/acre were:
K20, and 25 Mg.


12 in. from the center.
the shoulders (Table 1).
250 N, 104 P205, 317


B. Trickle irrigated land.

Same types and amount of fertilizers were applied as with seepage
irrigation, however the fertilizer placements were different.
Bed mix was applied in a 12 in. wide band in the center of the bed,
then mixed into the soil to a depth of 3-4 in. Soil was fumigated, then
the 18-0-25-2 fertilizer was placed in 2 different ways:

1. All applied in a 2-3 in, wide band on the top of the soil in the bed
center.

2. 50% applied with the bed mix and f~7 banded on the bed center.








Trickle tuIb (Chapin -d!ble walI, 4 mil thickness, 12 in. pore spacing)
was laid in Ct ci.t : f- tc bhc to a depth of 2 in., so that the tube
was in the micdl cf and surrcun.dcd bry the fertilizers. Beds were covered
with a v.hito 1r.2.5 mil thic!: pc ly.Oth.l n mulch. On Nov. 5th, 12 days
after fumig-ition, si -ek old 'Golden Acre' cabbage seedlings were set in
25 ft long nlot.s in 1 b rows, 14 in. between and 18 in. within row
spacing ([:, l nts/..,cre). In both seepage or trickle irrigated lands
3 plots ware pl,.;t-.d. at ch of the two fertilizer placements and replicated
4 times.

IRRIGATIr, IN
In the seepage irrigated land, irrigation rate was regulated to allow
the water to 1ilow through the fll le.'~i'o of the lateral furrows with a
minimum or no runoff. Ul-nt r was turned off when daily precipitation
exceeded 0.. -'n. In the trickle ir-rigted land, a clock regulated the
time and l* .'-h of w a.te~r application through a solenoid and a 3.5 gal/min.
capacity Dole value. Irntc- :'as applied 3-8 times per day from 13 to 17 min.
at each appli.::ic n '';e vr.",;e of t.'at-r applied was increased by regulating
the length of e flc 1.7 -: < -:h a.pplication as season progressed and plant
size increase '

Soil moit;''re w.s 2t,"r.ci by th' ovon dry method. Soil samples in
the trickle -*ir;ig-t i d r::"" t.'en fr-m the shoulder and tube region and
from the plant ro" a; 3 ldae:t: 0-2, 2-.., and 4-9 in. In the seepage
irrigated plos mnistu-' sramles wer2 taken from the shoulder region and
plant rc', a" he 3 pti' in -ica.te. ..b. v.

Heads .r.;. 3 t-i-s dring .. ,son. Treatment effects on yield
were ccrmpa.r itir: ti: ?-:' -i'ic;tio' treatment only, since field experiments
with seepage. a. trC. ?ik ir?.I--'cr crn not be set up and randomized on the
same piece of J'Fd et t.. ..;. tmTa.

iUEUL 'S ,- DISCUSSION
Amount of i:-atio., wat.e:, ; rainfall~ pin evaporation (P.E.), average
maximum arnd rini.', .ir tm.cm',riLu.ilr- in 10 day interval.;: for the seepage and
trickle systems are an T.c b'i c:; 2 and 3. Irrigation was not correlated with
PE, average ,r"" c n,;r .!.n t3:7peratu 'es. During the season in the
seepage ir'ig::Atd A' 22.2. i;i. cf irrgoaton water was necessary to
maintain the s i'. 'r...e at Jpproxim.tely 18 in. below the bed surface.
In the tri..'cle rig .- p'lot 10% soil moisture content was maintained only
at the 5-C ir. no;i .Ya..' *;:; l2.e p,.nt ro';: and in the bed center, regardless
of the a~roun.t of ir;ri.t'icn :w-.?er applied (Table 4). A total of 8.07 in.
of water w'as pp.id in the tr'icle irrigated land on a gross acre basis,
which is !:co': t '; r.o';n-c 2of rr2pi.red PE.

nlark:e!eta ble yied r cabbage -:xss 471 crates (53 Ib/crate) with the banded and
645 crates p:' .~rcr wit thle ba nd. d m- nixed fertilizer placement in the
seepago irri'' .. (-,b"e 5). Theee yields compare favorably with the
average yiei& of cabbsr-e in Florida (1). Fertilizer placement also affected
average 'e: siz;. ;icre were fc':aer but larger and heavier heads per crate
with the b-pi m: ,,i::er fertilizer placement.

In the tr'ric;le irri9Tted i.nd, fert';ilizer placement had no significant
effect on v-ie'd ain a, e hceV size (Table 5). Yields in the trickle
irrigated lan ;ere pprim-: r ly 10% lo-:w than the average yield of
cabbage in Florida.










The proportion of the yield harvested at each of the 3 cutting dates is
on Table 6. With the banded fertilizer placement, approximately 33% of
the heads were cut at each of the 3 harvest dates. With the banded + mixed
placement, no heads were cut at the 1st, 13.5% were cut on the 2nd and
86.5% on the 3rd harvest date. Banded + mixed fertilizer placement
apparently delayed harvest and resulted in a larger head size.

In the trickle irrigated land fertilizer placement methods had no effect
on the proportion of heads harvested or on the head size at the 3 harvest
dates (Table 6).


1) 'Golden Acre' cabbage had a higher yield per acre in a seepage
irrigated land with 50% banded + 7^) bed mix fertilizer placement,
than with 100% banded fertilizer placement.

2) Higher yields with the FO% banded + 50% bed mix fertilizer placement
were due to heavier weight per head.

3) Fertilizer placement methods in a trickle irrigated land had no
significant effect on cabbage yield or head weight.

REFERENCES
1. Brooke, D. L., 1980. Costs and returns from vegetable crop in Florida.
Economic Information Report 127. University of Florida, IFAS. pp. 24.


Table 1. Fertilizers applied for 'Golden Acre' cabbage.


Fall 1979.


Fertilizer Placement
100% Banded 50% Banded + 50% Mixed

Bed mix Ib/acrez

superphosphate 520 520

34-0-0 75 75

18-0-25-2 75 653

Band

18-0-25-2 1176 588
z7400 linear ft of mulched bed/acre.










Seep Irrigation Schedule for Cabbage.


Period


Oct 29- Nov 8- Nov 18- Nov 28- Dec 8- Dec 18- Dec 28- Jan 7- Jan 17- Jan 27-


Total for


Nov. 7


Irrigation days
in the period

Daily irrigation
rate, A. in.

Total irrigation
for period, A. in.

Rainfall, in.

Total water for
period, A. in.

Open pan evaporation
for period, in.

Average maximum
air temperature,F

Average minimum
air temperature,F


10


0.34


3.40


0.01

3.41


1.61


80.7


63.2


17

10


0.31


3.10


0.46

3.56


1.17


76.4


57.8


27 Dec. 7 17


10


0.33


3.30


0.09

3.39


1.16


80.4


57.9


10


0.29


2.90


1.53

4.43


0.89


70.7


52.3


10


0.27


2.70


0.84

3.54


0.77


77.0


60.0


27 Jan. 6 16


9


0.26


2.34


0.15

2.49


1.13

70.5


47.8


7


0.24


1.68


0.79

2.47


0.82

65.6


43.3


3


0.28


0.84


0.46

1.30


0.89


74.0


54.4


26 Feb. 1


6


0.33


1.98


0.66

2.64


1.03


74.3


52.9


0


0


0


0.06

0.06


0.57


73.7


52.2


Season

75




22.24

5.05

27.29


10.04


-------


Table 2.


Fall 1979.


26 Feb. 1











Trickle Irrigation Schedule for Cabbage, Fall 1979z


Irrigation days in
the period.

Daily irrigation
rate, A. in.

Total irrigation
for period, A. in.

Rainfall, in.

Total water for
period, A. in.

Open pan evaporation
for period, in.

Average maximum air
temperature, -F

Average minimum air
temperature, F


Oct 29-
Nov. 7

10


0.056


0.56


0.01

0.57


1.61


80.7


63.2


Nov 8-
17

10


0.071


0.71


0.46

1.17


1.17


76.4


57.8


Nov 18-
27


10


0.072


0.72


0.09

0.81


1.16


80.4


57.9


Nov 28-
Dec. 7

10


0.072


0.72


1.53

2.25


0.89


70.7


52.3


rtri(j


rerlou
Dec 8-
17


10


0.072


0.72


0.84

1.56


0.77


77.0


60.0


Dec 18-
27


10


0.080


0.80


0.15

0.95


1.13


70.5


47.8


Dec 28- Jan 7- Jan 17- Jan 27-


Jan. 6


10


0.082


0.82


0.79

1.61


0.82


65.6


43.3


16 26 Feb. 1


10


0.090


0.90


0.46

1.36


0.89


74.0


54.4


10


0.106


1.06


0. u6

1.72


1.03


74.3


52.9


10


0.106


1.06


0.06

1.12


0.57


73.7


52.2


ZTrickle irrigation rates are expressed on a gross acre
plastic mulch covered area, multiply figures by 2.342.


basis (43,560 sq.


ft.). To calculate trickle


irrigation rates for the


Total for
Season

100




8.07


5.05

13.12


10.04


Table 3.












Table 4. Average soil moisture content (%) iq plant beds for cabbage with seepage
and trickle irrigation. Fall 1979.

Soil ---------------------------------Irrigation System-----------------
depth Seepage Trickle
in Location in plant bed
A B C A B C
0-2 15.1 16.9 --- 4.4 5.9 8.0
2-5 18.2 18.0 --- 6.5 8.1 3.9
5-9 22.4 22.5 --- 9.1 10.1 10.2
z
Average of 9 sampling dates in 10 day intervals during the season from 4 plots in
both seepage and trickle irrigated land.


A=shoulder region; B=plant row; C=bed center.


Table 5. Yield and head size of
irrigation, fall 1979.


cabbage cv. 'Golden Acre' with seepage and trickle


Fertilizer Placement
Bandedz BandedY 't' 0.05x
+
Parameters Mixed

Seepage irrigation:
Yield/A, 53 lb. crates 471 645 **
Average head size, lb. 2.66 3.63 **
Number of heads per crate 20 14 **
Trickle irrigation:
Yield/A, 53 lb. crates 441 430 NS
Average head size, Ib. 2.43 2.42 NS
Number of heads per crate 21 22 NS
Z


500 Ib./A superphosphate (20% P?05), 74 Ib/A
Ib/A 18-2-25-2 applied in 2 bands on the top


18-0-25+2 was applied
of the plant bed.


as bed mix, 1177


663 lb/A of
as bed mix;


18-2-25+2, 500 lb/A superphosphate (20% PO05) 74 lb/A 34-0-0 applied
589 lb/A 18-0-25 applied in 2 bands on the top of the plant bed.


(**) significantly different at the 5% level, between columns, NS = non-significant.












Table 6. Proportion of the total yield harvested and average head size of the
cabbage at three cutting dates.
Fertilizer placement
Date Banded Banded + mixed
Amount of Average Amount of Average
the total head the total head
harvested size harvested size
(%) (lb) (%) (Ib)

Seepage irrigation
1.9.80 33.3 2.47 --
1.18.80 32.0 2.96 13.5 3.20
1.30.80 34.5 2.48 86.5 3.70
Total 100.0 2.66 100.0 3.50

Drip irrigation
1.9.80 30.0 2.38 35.0 2.70
1.18.80 50.0 2.48 47.0 2.32
2.1.80 20.0 2.66 18.0 2.10
Total 100.0 2.48 100.0 2.42




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