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Group Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; GC1981-10
Title: potential of winged bean (psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) as a pre-crop for spring vegetables in west central Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056128/00001
 Material Information
Title: potential of winged bean (psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) as a pre-crop for spring vegetables in west central Florida
Series Title: Research Report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; GC1981-10
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Csizinszky, Alexander Anthony
Publisher: Agricultural Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00056128
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62392913

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




,10 Agricultural Research Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida _
S -C[pP Bradenton, Florida
Bradenton AREC Research Report GC191-1 iioverber 19%1

THE POTENTIAL OF tINGED BEAN (PSOPHOCARPUS TETRAGOI'IOLOBUS (L.) D.C.)
AS A PRE-CROP FOR SPRING VEGETABLES IN WEST CEiTRAL FLORIDA

A. A. Csizinszky

Sweet corn (Zea mays L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum pill.) and zucchini
squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) were grown with or without added fertilizers on plastic
mulched beds following a fall crop of winged beans. The fall crop of winged beans
received 154 kg i, (107 kg NO -P and 47 kn NIH -i), C5 kg P 0-, 213 kg K 0, 22 kg
laO and micronutrients. Vegneable crops in the spring in 6hi split-plots were
fertilized at the same rate as the fall crop of winged beans, or were grown on
residual nutrients alone. Yields of vegetables in the non-fertilized plots were
not significantly different than yields with added fertilizers. Sweet corn had
significantly longer ears in the fertilized plots. Nitrogen, P, K, Ca and rig
content of plant tissues from the fertilized plots were not significantly different
than those from non-fertilized plots.

INTRODUCTION
The winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) is a leguminous plant,
and bacteria in its root nodules are capable to fix atmospheric N. i1asefield
(1961) found up to 627 nodules on the roots of 109 day old wing bean plants.
Fresh weight of the nodules was 23.12 g per plant, the highest recorded for any
legume during the first few months of growth. The winged bean, as a pre-crop, is
used in several areas of the world to enrich the soil (Anon. 1975; I;asefield, 1961;
Pospisil et al., 1971). Hasefield ibidd), quoting Thompstone and Sawyer, reported
that sugar cane yields in Burma increased by 50% when planted after a crop of
winged beans. There are no published reports in the USA on the potential of winged
bean as a pre-crop for vegetables.

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of spring veqe-
table production on residual nutrients alone or with added fertilizers, after a fall
crop of winged beans.

MATERIALS AND I1ETHO)S

In the first week of archh 1979, three different vegetable crops were planted
on ilyakka fine sandy soil following a fall crop of winged beans. The winged beans,
grown in a 20 cm high and 7G cm wide full-bed plastic mulch culture with seepage
irrigation, received 154 kg N (103 kg 110 3-i and 51 kq i!H,-r), C5 kg P2r0, 213 kr
K,O, 22 kg 'IgO per ha and micronutrients. Stakes and strings used to support the
winged beans and plastic mulch were removed from the plant beds. Vines and roots
were rotovated into the soil in mid February, then beds were re-formed before
planting. Each of the three replications of the randomized split-plot design were
divided into three 9 m long plots. Soil fumigant, [1C-33 (66% methylbromide and 33%
chloropicrin), was applied by three chisels per bed at a rate of 165 kg per ha of
5,540 net row m. One-half of each plot received fertilizers at the same rate as
the fall crop of winged beans, while the other half of the plot had only residual
nutrients. Superphosphate (20%), containing Fi 503 fritted micronutrients at a
rate of 40 kg per ton, was broadcast over the fertilized half of the split plots,
then incorporated into the soil. The rest of the fertilizers (1L-0-,'5 + 2 Ng)
were applied in a single band on the top of the soil in the center of the bed for
sweet corn (Zea mays L.), and in two bands, 25 cm from the center of the bed for




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tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Miill.) and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).
Seeds of sweet corn, cv. 'Silver Queen,' were sown in two rows per bed at 20 cm
within row planting distance. Four week old tomato seedlings, cv. 'Flora-Uade,'
were set at 01 cm and seeds of zucchini, cv. 'Burpee's Hybrid,' were sown at 1G cm
spacing in the plots. Irrigation water was provided by the seepage (furrow) method.
Plants were sprayed twice per week to control plant pests. At harvest, the number
and weight of fruits were taken.

Soil samples were taken before and after fertilizer application and after the
harvest of the spring crop from 3 locations across the plant bed and at 3 depths.
Total soluble salts (TSS) in the soil were determined by the saturated paste pro-
cedure (USDA Handbook No. 60, 1954; Geraldson, 1957). Soil and tissue nitrogen
were determined by the Kjeldahl method, P colorimetrically and all other elements
by flame spectrophotometrically.

RESULTS
There were high amounts of residual salts in the soil after the harvest of the
fall winged bean crop (Tables 1, 2, 3 i. 4). The quantity of residual N, both
iH -?- and JO1-d3, was especially high in the soil extracts. The high soil TSS con-
tent, however, had no apparent adverse effect on the germination of sweet corn and
zucchini seeds and the survival of tomato seedlings. Sweet corn plants until two
weeks before harvest showed no signs of nutrient deficiency. Analysis of corn leaf
samples taken at that time revealed less than optimum M, P and ilg content in plants
grown with added fertilizer or with residual fertilizer alone (Table 5). Potassium
and Ca content of corn leaf tissue were adequate for optimum growth (Jones and Eck,
1973; Geraldson, et al., 1973). Tomato leaves in both fertilized and non-fertilized
split plots had adequate levels of plant nutrients ibidd). In the zucchini leaves,
Ca content was less than the optimum considered for best yields in the fertilized
split plots. Levels of N, P, K and 1Ig in the zucchini leaves were adequate in both
the fertilized and non-fertilized treatments. There were no significant differences
between the yields of vegetables grown with added fertilizers or on residual ferti-
lizers alone (Table 6). Length of corn ears was significantly greater with added
fertilizers.

DISCUSSION

Sweet corn and zucchini grown with residual fertilizers alone had equal or high-
er yields than the average yields for these crops in Florida (Brooke, 1979). Tomato
yields with residual fertilizers alone were below and with added fertilizers were
above the average yields for the state ibidd, 1979). The additional fertilizers
used in the fertilized split plots for the spring vegetable crops contributed ap-
proximately 60% of the N and K and 50% of the P of the amount usually applied for
staked fresh market tomatoes with full bed mulch (Marlowe and Geraldson, 1976). A
winged bean crop in the fall, therefore, could reduce the amount of fertilizers
used in the production of spring vegetables. The value of the winged bean as a
tropical legume in the various faming systems is not clear because of its low
productivity potential, compared to other legumes (Rachie, 1973). Winged bean also
has a long harvest season for both green pods and dry seeds, and the dry pods
shatter on the vine. For these reasons it can not be considered as a crop suitable
for planting in large scale farming operations under routine production methods.

On the other hand, winged bean has one of the highest number and weight of
root nodules of any crop investigated so far (Masefield, 1961; newell and Hymowitz,
1979). Soil improving and enriching properties of winged beans have also been
reported (Anonymous, 1975a; Nasefield, 1961; Pospisil et al., 1971). When grown
as a ground crop, the winged bean seldom develops pods (Anonymous, 1975b). Young
leaves and vines are also liked by animals and, because of its high protein content,





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winged bean could be a valuable forage crop (Pospisil et al., 1971).

The soil enriching qualities of the winged bean, coupled with its high
nutrient values as a forage crop, could be utilized in-an energy saving sequential
cropping system. At present, much of the land used for the spring tomato crop in
west central Florida is left fallow during the preceding fall season. By growing
a fall crop of winged beans for animal feed and for enriching the soil with nitro-
gen, vegetables or other crops with reduced fertilizer input could be planted in
the spring for greater utilization of the land resources.


REFERENCES
1. Andrews, 3. J. and A. H. Kassam. 1977. The importance of multiple cropping in
increasing world food supplies. p. 1-10 in R. I. Papendick, P. A. Sanchez
and G. B. Triplett (eds.) Multiple Cropping. Amer. Soc. Agron. (ASA) Special
Publication No. 27. fladison, Wisconsin.

2. Anonymous. 1975a. The winged bean a high protein crop for the tropics.
Fatl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.

3. Anonymous. 1975b. Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value.
Iatl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC

3. Benton-Jones, J., Jr. and H. V. Eck. 1973. Plant analysis as an aid in ferti-
lizing corn and grain sorghum. p. 349-364 in L. H. Walsh and J. D. Beaton
(eds.) Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Inc. iladison, WI.

4. Brooke, D. L. 1979. Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida. Economic
Info. kept. 110. IFAS, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

5. Cerny, K., Maud Kordylas, F. Pospisil, 0. Svabensky and B. Zajic. 1971. !utri-
tive value of the winded bean (Psophocarpus palustris Desv.). Br. J. Hutr.
26:293-299.

6. Csizinszky, A. A. 1979b. Comparison of two winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragono-
lobus (L.) D.C., accessions for green pod and dry seed yield and protein con-
tent in Florida. HortScience 14:406. (Abstr.).

7. Geraldson, C. I. 1957. Soil soluble salts determination of and association
with plant growth. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70:121-126.

8. Geraldson, C. KI., G. K. Klacan and 0. E. Lorenz. 1973. Plant analysis as an
aid in fertilizing vegetable crops. p. 365-379 in L. I:. Ualsh and J. D. Baton
(eds.) Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Inc., Hadison, WI

9. Ilarlowe, G. A., Jr. and C. Hi. Geraldson. 1976. Results of a soluble salt sur-
vey of commercial tomato fields in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 09:13Z-135.

10. iiartin, F. W. and H. Delpin. 1978. Vegetables for the hot, humid tropics.
Part 1. The winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. ARS-USDA-:ew Orleans,
Louisiana.

11. Hasefield, G. B. 1961. Root nodulation and agricultural potential of the
leguminous genus Psophocarpus. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 38:225-229,









12. O'ewell, C. A. and T. Hynowitz. 1979. The winged bean as art agricultural crop.
p. 21-40 in G. A. Ritchie (ed.) ';evw Agricultural Crops. Iestview Press,
Boulder, CO USA

13. Pospisil, F., S. K. Karikari and E. Boanah-iiensah. 1971. Investigations of
winged bean in Ghana. World Crops 23:260-2G4.

14. Rachie, K. 0. 197J. Productivity potentials of edible legumes in the lowland
tropics. pp 71-9C in G. A. Jung (ed.) Crop Tolerance to Suboptimal Land
Conditions. ASA Special Publication No. 32. Hiadison, Wisconsin


15. United States Salinity Laboratory Staff.
saline and alkaline soils. USDA Handbook


1954. Diagnosis and improvement of
io. GO.


- Table 1.


Amount of residual plant
harvest of the fall crop


nutrients
of winged


in the soil
beans .


extract after the


Soil depth TSS Total ii W o03 NH4 P K Ca ih1g
(cm) 3

0-2pp3 16,760 2,277 1853 424 317 180
0-23 16,760 2,277 1853 424 14 317 180 94


ZSaturated
under the


paste extract method, soil samples taken 10 days after plowing
winged bean crop residue.







Table 2. Total soil soluble salt (TSS) content (ppm) at planting and at harvest
of sweet corn from plots with or without added fertilizers .


Sampling time
Soil depth Planting Harvesting
(cm) Ay B C A C

Ion-fertilized plots
0-5 6,260 6,660 6,390 7,140 5,590 5,380
5-13 5,970 3,740 5,330 3,640 3,150 2,800
13-23 6,210 4,430 5,230 4,200 2,940 3,360
TOTAL 18,440 14,830 17,000 14,980 11,680 12,040

Fertilized plots
0-5 9,400 7,460 70,930 3,050 12,320 67,200
5-13 5,860 4,430 9,150 3,150 4,130 S,260
13-23 5,300 5,030 6,430 2,660 3,950 3,890
TOTAL 20,560 16,970 86,510 13,860 20,400 79,350

ZSaturated paste extract method.

A = shoulder, B = mid bed (plant row), C = bed center (fertilizer hand).


Table 3. Total soil soluble salt (TSS) content (ppm) at planting 2nd at harvest
of tomatoes from plots with or without added fertilizers


Sampling time
Soil depth Planting Harvesting
(cm) Ay B C A B C

Non-fertilized split plots
0-5 6,260 6,660 6,390 5,950 6,300 4,790
5-13 5,970 3,740 5,380 2,060 2,210 2,380
13-23 6,210 4,430 5,230 1,090 1,260 1,260
TOTAL 18,440 14,830 17,000 9,100 9,770 8,430

Fertilized split plots
0-5 70,930 9,400 7,460 35,000 10,500 16,300
5-13 9,150 5,860 4,430 8,540 3,570 6,300
13-23 6,430 5,300 5,080 2,690 2,170 3,110
TOTAL 86,510 20,560 16,970 46,230 16,240 26,210

ZSaturated paste extract method.

YA= shoulder (fertilizer band), B = mid bed, C = bed center (plant row).










Table 4. Total soil soluble salt (TSS) content (ppm) at planting and at Parvest
of zucchini squash from plots with or without added fertilizers.


Sampling time
Soil depth Planting Harvesting
(an) A B C A B C
Non-fertilized split plots
0-5 6,260 6,660 6,390 3,780 4,510 4,200
5-13 5,970 3,740 5,380 1,810 2,170 1,680
13-23 6,210 4,430 5,230 1,050 1,190 1,320

TOTAL 18,440 14,830 17,000 6,640 7,870 7,200
Fertilized split plots

0-5 70,930 9,400 7,460 30,800 9,940 6,860
5-13 9,150 5,860 4,430 5,180 2,520 2,240
13-23 6,430 .5,300 5,080 1,400 1,150 1,370

TOTAL 86,510 20,560 16,970 27,380 13,610 10,470


ZSaturated paste extract method.

YA = shoulder (fertilizer band), B = mid bed, C = bed center (plant row).




Table 5. Concentration of minerals in sweet corn, tomato and zucchini squash
leaves grown with residual or with added fertilizers.



Sweet corn Tomatoes Zucchini
Element Fz R F R F R
Concentration &, dry wt basis
N 1.90 1.60 2.70 2.50 4.50 3.90
P 0.18 0.18 0.24 0.23 0.42 0.35
K 2.20 2.30 3.20 2.60 3.50 3.80
Ca 0.40 0.40 2.00 1.50 0.70 1.20
Ng 0.17 0.15 0.59 0.59 0.38 0.43


ZF = added fertilizer, R = residual fertilizer

















Table 6. Yield of sweet corn, tomato and zucchini squash grown with added or with
residual fertilizers after a fall crop of winged beans.



Sweet cornz Tomatoesy Zucchinix
Fv Ru F R F R

Yield per
plant, Kg 0.194 0.154 6.04 5.20 3.52 3.67
No. of fruit
per plant 1.16 1.07 50 42 17 18
Weight per
fruit, gm 167 143 121 123 210 205
Length of
ear, mm 209" 198 --- -----
Yield per
ha, ton 10.6 8.4 54.8 47.2 32.0 33.3


54,485 plants per ha
9,080 plants per ha

9,080 plants per ha
denotes significance
added fertilizer
residual fertilizer


at the 10% level of probability




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