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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 89-01
Title: Effect of cropping system, tillage management and soil type on soil organic matter
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056120/00001
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Title: Effect of cropping system, tillage management and soil type on soil organic matter
Physical Description: 27 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Corella Vargas, Josâe Francisco, 1957-
Gallaher, Raymond N
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1989?
 Subjects
Subject: Humus -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cropping systems -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 8-9).
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 89-01
Statement of Responsibility: J.F. Corella and R.N. Gallaher.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00056120
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62587754

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









^- 9/ Lihrary

Agronomy Research Report, AY-89-01. F3 28 199(

Effect of Cropping System, Tillage Management.and Soil Type
on Soil Organic Matter. -

J. F. Corella and R. N. Gallaher
Graduate Research Assistant (Federal Research Scientist, Ministerio
de Agriculture y Ganaderia, Costa Rica) and Professor of Agronomy,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of
Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 32611.

ABSTRACT

Some reports advocate that no-tillage management builds up
soil organic matter (SOM) compared with conventional tillage, while
others disagree for some environments. The purpose of this study
was to determine the influence of cropping history and soil type
on changes in SOM as affected by long-term no-tillage (NT) and
conventional tillage (CT) treatments. Three soil types and six
cropping systems from seven experiments in Florida and Argentina
were included in this study. Soil samples were collected in 0.05
m increments from the 0.00 to 0.15 m depth and in a 0.15 m
increment from the 0.15 to 0.30 m depth in all seven experiments.
In every treatment of all experiments SOM decreased progressively
with increasing soil depth. Always NT was higher in SOM near the
soil surface compared with CT. Amounts of SOM between tillage was
the same in 5 of the 7 cropping systems studied when averaged over
the 0.00 to 0.30 m depth suggesting that NT may build up SOM
compared with CT. Build-up of SOM at the soil surface is offset by
a proportionate loss in the lower depths within the 0.00 to 0.30
X m sampled area.



= Minimum tillage and double-cropping systems are being adopted
_ rapidly by the agricultural community in the United States.
z Minimum-tillage is described as "planting directly into an
Unprepared seed-bed and the elimination of tillage operations
w through harvest, whereas, multiple-cropping is growing two or more
I crops in the same year on the same land area" (Gallaher, 1979a).
I The increasing use of minimum-tillage and double-cropping in
the southeastern United States requires a better understanding of
their effect on soil organic matter (SOM) content Gallaher, 1979b.
Several authors (Corella and Gallaher, 1988; Ferrer et al., 1984;
Gallaher, 1979b; Gallaher and Ferrer, 1987; Ortiz and Gallaher,
1984) report that the amount and distribution of SOM-from decay of
residues will be altered after several years in a reduced-tillage
system. Two indiana studies (Cruz, 1982; Fernandez, 1976) on soils
differing widely in natural SOM content, showed that SOM increased
near the soil surface (0.00-0.10 m) with reduced tillage, and was
maintained or increased slightly below the 0.08 to 0.10 m soil
depth with no-tillage treatments compared with conventional tillage
treatments at the 0.00 to 0.05 m depth in a 6 yr-old experiment.









Ortiz and Gallaher (1984) found that no-tillage treatments had 11%
more SOM than conventional tillage treatments in the 0.00 to 0.05
m depth. While residues were not placed below the surface by
tillage, apparently SOM was maintained because of additions from
the decaying plant roots and' lower soil temperature in the no-
tillage system, which reduced SOM loss from oxidation. Even though
residues are incorporated to the depth of tillage with moldboard
plowing, higher soil temperatures lead to increased oxidation and
a lower SOM level (Sprague and Triplett, 1986). The same behavior
has been found by Ferrer et al., 1984; Gallaher, 1979a; Gallaher
and Ferrer,1987, in the Southeastern United States, where the
temperature and moisture regime are conducive to rapid residue
decomposition.
In Ohio, SOM was measured in the top 0.00 to 0.075 m of soil
after 18 yr of uninterrupted corn without tillage and with plowing
(Dick, 1983). The increase for no-tillage over plowing treatments
were 2.5 times on a dark silty clay loam and 2.2 times on a light-
colored silt loam. Below 0.075 m, SOM was about equal for the two
systems on the light soil, but was reduced for no-tillage on the
dark soil, possibly through restricted rooting. Research in
Kentucky (Blevins et al. 1977) showed that the SOM level in the
top 0.05 m of soil under an original bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.)
sod was reduced only slightly after 5 yr of continuous corn (Zea
mays L.) when no-tillage planting, cover crops, and high fertility
levels were used. Moldboard plowing reduced SOM by 4.6% in the
0.00-0.05 m layer.
Different cropping systems had an effect upon the C and N
status of soil in a short time period (Spargue and Triplett, 1986).
In general, systems returning small amounts of residue resulted in
larger losses of C and N than systems returning large amount of
residue. For systems containing corn there is no evidence that the
capacity to mineralize soil N has increased relative to other
cropping systems. These results suggest the following ranking of
the monocropping systems studied for C and N conservation and
possibly long-term soil productivity: 1.- Corn-corn-corn-sugar beet
(Beta vulgaris L.) greater or equal to 2.- corn-corn-navy bean (
Phaseolus vulgaris L.)-sugar beet equal to 3.- oat( Avena sativa
L.)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-navy bean-sugar beet equal to 4.-
corn-sugar beet greater than 5.- oat-navy bean-sugar beet equal
to 6.- Navy bean-sugar beet.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of
cropping history and soil type on changes in SOM as affected by
long-term no-tillage and conventional tillage treatments.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Three soil types and six cropping systems from seven
experiments in Florida and Argentina were included in this study.
The experiments from Argentina were under investigation by INTA
(Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agricola) at Marcos Juarez,
C6rdoba. The first experiment was an uninterrupted monocrop soybean











(Glycine max L. Merr.) and was begun in 1975. This experiment had
been in place for 10 yr at the time of sampling. Tillage treatment
included: a. conventional tillage, and b. no-tillage. The second
experiment was a continuous corn monocrop rotation and was started
in 1974. This experiment was 11 yr old when sampled for this
research. Tillage treatments'were the same as for experiment one.
Experiment three was a wheat (Triticum aestivum.)/ soybean double
cropping system that was begun in 1979 and had been under
investigation for 6 yr. Tillage treatments were the same as for
experiment one. Each experiment was in a randomized complete block;
the soil where those experiments were located is a Typic Argiudoll.
The experiments from Florida were under research by IFAS
(Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences) at Williston and
Gainesville. The experimental field located at Williston was a
Hernando loamy fine sand (a member of the fine, mixed, thermic
family of Typic Haplustalf) with a slope of 2 to 5%. Corn had been
grown for the previous 6 yr. The experiment was started in the fall
of 1977 with four tillage treatments a. no-tillage, b. no-tillage
plus subsoiling, c. conventional tillage, and d. conventional
tillage plus subsoiling. The experimental design was a randomized
complete block.
The experimental fields located at Gainesville were on an
Arredondo loamy sand (Loamy siliceous, hyperthermic, Grossarenic
Paleudult). The experiments at this location were: a. rye (Secale
cereale L.) -summer crop (grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. or
corn), b. oat-grain sorghum, and c. oat-soybean. The rye-summer
crop cropping system was begun in the fall of 1978 with no-tillage
and conventional tillage as treatments. During the first 4 yr the
summer crop grown was sorghum and in the last 6 yr the summer crop
was corn. The experimental design was a randomized complete block.
The second cropping system was oat-sorghum. The experiment began
in the fall of 1977 with four tillage treatments a. no-tillage, b.
no-tillage plus subsoiling, c. conventional tillage, and d.
conventional tillage plus subsoiling. The experimental design was
a randomized complete block. The oat-soybean double cropping system
also was planted in the fall of 1977 with the same tillage
treatments and design as the oat-sorghum cropping system.
Soil samples were taken at random in each plot from all seven
experiments; samples were collected in 0.05 increments from the
0.00 to 0.15 m depth and in a 0.15 m increment from the 0.15 to
0.30 m depth. Soil was air dried, stored and shipped to the
Agronomy Research Lab at Gainesville, Florida. Soil samples were
ground with a stainless steel grinder, sieved to pass 0.002 m in
a stainless steel sieve, and stored for chemical analysis. Soil
depth was treated as a split plot in the statistical analysis.
Soil organic matter was determined (Walkley, 1947 and Allison,
1965) as follows: 1. Weigh 1.0 g of soil into a 500 ml erlenmeyer
flask. 2. Pipette 10 ml of 1 M K2Cr20O solution into the flask. 3.
Add 20 ml of concentrated H2SO4 and mix by gentle rotation for 1
minute. 4. Add 10 ml of 85% H3PO4, 0.2g NaF, and 10 drops of
diphenylamine indicator and. 5. Titrate with 0.5 M Ferrous Ammonium
Sulfate Solution until the color changes from dull green to a











turbid blue. Add the titration solution drop by drop until the end
point when the color sharply shifts to a brilliant green. 6.
Prepare a flask (without soil) in the same way and titrate to
determine the blank titrant. 7. Calculations: XOM= 10(1-T/S)*0.67
where S = blank tritation in ml of Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate
solution and T = sample titration in ml Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate
solution. Each analysis was replicated three times. The statistical
analysis was done using the MSTAT, 1987 (version 4.0) a software
program for the design, management, and analysis of Agronomic
Research experiments.

RESULTS

The SOM Content decreased at a steady rate with depth in the
rye-summer crop double cropping system. No-tillage treatments
showed a higher SOM content at the depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10,
and 0.15 to 0.30 m compare with CT plots (table 1). The decreasing
rates of SOM with increasing soil depth was higher in the NT
treatments than CT plots. Regression equations were non linear,
highly significant, had negative slopes and high coefficients of
determination (Fig 1.)
Oat-soybean double cropping showed that the NT treatments had
the highest SOM contents at the 0.00-0.05 m depth than any of the
other treatments. The Conventionally managed plots showed higher
SOM contents at the depths of 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.15 m (Table 2).
The regression equations were significant or highly significant,
with a negative slope, and coefficients of determination greater
than 0.900 (fig. 2). No-tillage plots showed greater rates of SOM
decrease as soil depth increased than CT plots.
The 11 yr-old oat-sorghum double cropping system showed a
similar SOM behavior to the oat-soybean double cropping. The NT
treatment had the highest SOM content at the 0.00 to 0.05 m depth
and the lowest SOM values in the following depths than the other
treatments. Conventional tillage plots showed higher SOM contents
at the 0.10-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m depths (table 3). Regression
equations, which showed that SOM decreased as soil depth increased,
had a significant or highly significant F test, non-linear curves,
and coefficients of determination of 0.900 or higher (fig. 3).
The wheat-soybean double cropping system (table 4) showed a
highly significant effect between SOM contents and tillage
treatments. The SOM content in the NT treatment at the depth of
0.00-0.05 m was higher (0.55 g kg-1) than CT treated plots and equal
or lower in the next two depths. Conventional tillage treatments
showed low rates of decrease for SOM in the first three depths, and
then a big decrease at the fourth depth (1.29 g kg-1). Regression
equations were highly significant and had coefficients of
determination greater than 0.900 (fig. 4).
The soybean monocrop system (table 5) showed higher SOM
contents at the 0.00-0.05 m depth in NT plots compared with CT
plots; however, this different was not found in other depths. The
rate as SOM decreased was higher in NT treatments (greater slope)









than CT treatments. The regression equations were significant with
coefficients of determination greater than 0.900 (fig. 5).
The corn monocrop cropping system (Marco JuArez, Argentina)
showed a decrease of SOM with depth in both tillage treatments;
nevertheless, the rate of decrease was higher in NT plots. No-
tillage treatments had a higher SOM in all the depths, especially
at the 0.00-0.05 m depth (table 6). Regression equations were
significant with high coefficients of determination (fig. 5).
The corn monocrop cropping system (Williston, Florida) showed
that SOM decreased as soil depth increased. No-tillage treatments
had the highest SOM contents than any other tillage treatments at
the first three soil depths studied (table 7). Regression
equations were significant and highly significant with high
coefficients of determination (fig. 7).

DISCUSSION

Based on the effect of cropping systems effect on SOM
contents, we can distinguish two groups. The first group was formed
by soybean monocrop, wheat-soybean, oat-soybean and oat-sorghum
double cropping systems (Tables 2,3,4,5), all showed higher SOM at
the 0.00-0.05 m depth in the NT treatments than the CT plots
although SOM was higher at the next depths in CT. Generally,
cropping systems in which soybean was involved showed a higher SOM
at 0.15-0.30 m in NT treated plots. The same SOM behavior was found-
by Ortiz, 1985 in oat-soybean and oat-sorghum double cropping
systems and Gallaher et al., 1987 in soybean monocrop and wheat-
soybean double cropping systems.
The Second cropping systems (tables 1,6, and 7) group was
formed by rye-summer crop and corn monocrop (Marcos Judrez,
Argentina and Williston, Florida). Corn monocrop and rye-summer
crop (4 yr grain sorghum and 6 yr corn) showed a higher SOM content
in NT treatments in all soil depths studied (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10,
0.10-0.15, and 0.15-0.30 m) compared with CT plots. These data are
in agreement with the values reported by Gallaher, 1987 and Maurya,
1986 for corn monocrop in an Argentina Mollisol and sandy loam of
Nigeria. Corn monocrop at Williston, Florida showed the same
behavior at the first three depths studied (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10
and 0.10-0.15 m), but at the 0.15-0.30 m depth the SOM content was
higher in CT treatments. Similar results were found by Ferrer and
Gallaher, 1984 in a Corn monocrop and Ike, 1987 in corn-cotton
(Gossypium hirsutum L.) double cropping system in a Guinea Alfisol.
Florida experiments showed that corn monocrop and rye-summer crop
(4 yr grain sorghum and 6 yr corn) were less efficient to
accumulate SOM at the soil surface (0.00-0.05 m) than oat-sorghum
and oat-soybean double cropping. Argentina field experiments showed
a similar SOM accumulation pattern because corn monocrop was the
least efficient to accumulate SOM at the 0.00-0.05 m depth compared
with wheat-soybean double cropping and soybean monocrop. This
ranking of efficiency of SOM accumulation does not agree with
Spargue and Triplett (1986) whose reported continuous corn as one
of the more efficient in SOM accumulation; however, the cropping













systems involved in this study were different.
Several researchers found that NT and minimum tillage
practices had higher SOM content at the soil surface as compared
with CT systems (Barber, 1979; Blevins, 1977; Dick, 1983; Corella
and Gallaher, 1988; Gallaher and Ortiz, 1984; Gallaher and Ferrer,
1988; and Spargue and Tripplet, 1986);. Gallaher and Ferrer, 1987
found in corn monocrop that SOM was 36% higher with NT treatments
than CT treatments at the 0.00-0.05 m depth and few differences
were found at the deeper layers. Ortiz and Gallaher, 1984 and
Ortiz, 1985 found high SOM in NT in oat-soybean and oat-sorghum
double cropping systems at the 0.00-0.05 depth than CT plots, but
SOM contents were higher in CT plots at deeper depths. Maurya, 1986
found NT plots with more SOM than the tillage plots in a corn-wheat
double cropping system. All these works agree with data found in
this research. However; the data behavior of this study does not
agree with studies done by Hargrove et al.(1982) who reported no
increase in SOM after 5 years of NT management and Bloom et al.,
1982 (cited by Spargue and Triplett, 1986) found that changes in
SOM due to continuous corn were small in Mollisols of Minnesota.
A study conducted by Bruniard, 1988 showed that tillage
management changed the root pattern distribution in the soil
profile. The root density of soybean in an oat-soybean double
cropping system was higher in the 0.00-0.05 m depth in NT managed
plots. The root density of oat was also slightly higher in the_.N
treatments. The differences in SOM concentrations in the 0.00-0.05
m soil increment layer between NT and CT treatments may be due to
(i) less-soil residue interaction as a result of NT, (ii) a lower
rate of biological oxidation, (iii) less erosion of soil high in
SOM, (iv) crop root system behavior (v) crop residue input, and
(vi) redistribution of SOM from lower depths to the soil surface.
When soil samples of the first three depths (0.00-0.05, 0.05-
0.10 and 0.10-0.15 m) were combined, in order to make a comparison
between equal soil depths, 0.00-0.15 and 0.15 to 0.30 m;
significant differences were found between depths in all the
cropping systems studied. No-tillage treatments showed higher SOM
contents than CT in all depths (table 8). Soil samples were
combined in three depth categories (0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30 and 0.00-
0.30 m) in order to study the effect of sampling depths on SOM
contents. Greater SOM content was found in NT treatments at the
0.00-0.15 m depth than CT treatments, in the following cropping
systems: corn monocrop in both locations, oat-soybean and oat-
sorghum (table 9). At the second depth category (0.15-0.30 m) SOM
was higher in rye-summer crop, wheat-soybean and soybean monocrop
cropping systems in the NT plots; however, corn monocrop at the two
sites and oat-sorghum showed a lower SOM in the NT plots (table
10). When soil samples were combined over the 0.00 to 0.30 m depth;
significant differences between NT and CT plots were found in the
following cropping systems: Rye-summer crop, corn monocrop in both
locations, and wheat-soybean and soybean monocrop (table 11).
In all the cropping systems studied SOM content decreased with
increasing soil depth, and NT treatments had a higher SOM content
near the soil surface (0.00-0.05 m) than CT plots. Argentina's













Mollisols had a total SOM (0.00-0.30 m) of 2.16 g kg-1 which is
higher than Florida's Ultisols and Alfisol (1.27 g kg-1).
The decrease in SOM contents found in this experiment with
increasing soil depth are agree with studies conducted by several
authors (Barber, 1979; Corella and Gallaher, 1988; Dick, 1983;
Gallaher and Ortiz, 1984; and Gallaher and Ferrer). The SOM
contents decreased as soil depth increased, because that organic
residues from plants, animals, microbial activity, and 02 are
concentrated near the soil surface.
SUMMARY
The main facts found by this study were: a. SOM decreased as
the soil sample was taken deeper into the soil profile, b. No-
tillage treatment at the 0.00-0.05 m depth showed a higher SOM
content than conventionally tilled plots regardless of the cropping
system involved. c. Two cropping system groups with a similar SOM
distribution pattern trough the soil depth studied was found. The
first was formed by soybean monocrop, wheat-soybean, oat-soybean
and oat-sorghum, and the second was formed by corn monocrop at the
locations studied and rye-summer crop. d. When soil samples were
combined to compare equal soil depths (0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m)
a significant effect was found between SOM and tillage treatments.
e. The combined 0.00-0.30 m depth showed a higher SOM content in
the no-tillage treatments in 5 of the 7 cropping systems studied














LITERATURE CITED.

Allison, F.E. 1965. Organic carbon. IN Black, D.D., Evans,
J.L., White, L.E., Ensminger, and F.E. Clarks (eds.) Methods of
soil analysis. Part 2. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.

Blevins R.L., G.W. Thomas; and P.L. Cornelius. 1977. Influence
of no-tillage and nitrogen fertilization on certain soil properties
after 5 years of continuous corn. Agron. J. 69:383-386.

Barber, S. A. 1979. Corn residue management and soil organic
matter. Agron. J. 71:625-627.

Bruniard G.C. 1988. Double cropped soybean/oat root growth and
development affected by tillage. MSc. Thesis. Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville, FL.

Corella J.F. and R.N. Gallaher. 1988. Effect of cropping
system, tillage management and soil type on soil organic matter.
IN 52nd annual meeting of Florida Academy of Science. 51(1):4.

Cruz J.C. 1982. Effect of crop rotation and tillage system on
some soil properties, root distribution and crop production. Ph.D.
Thesis, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN.

Dick W.A. 1983. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
concentration and pH in soil profile as affected by tillage
intensity. Soil. Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 47:102-107.

Fernandez B. 1976. The effect of the tillage systems on soil
physical properties. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, W. Lafayette,
IN.

Ferrer M.B., R.N. Gallaher, and B.G. Volk. 1984. Soil nitrogen
and organic matter changes as affected by tillage after six years
of corn. p. 189-192. IN Touchton and R.E. Stevenson (eds.) Proc.
of the seventh annual southeastern no-tillage system conf. AL.
Agric. Exp. Stn. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Gallaher R.N. 1979a. Multiple cropping minimum tillage.
Multicropping Minimum Tillage Facts. MMT. 1. IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville. pp. 3-7.

Gallaher 1979b. Soil Organic matter in long term multicropping
and/or minimum tillage trials in Florida by cropping systems and
Tillage. Agron. Res. Rept. AY-83-16. Agron. Dept. .University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL.













Gallaher R.N. and M. B. Ferrer. 1987. Effect of no-tillage vs.
conventional tillage on soil organic matter contents. Commun. in
Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 18(9),-1061-1076.

Gallaher, R.N., A. Lattanzi and H. Marelli. 1987. Chemical
analyses of a Typic Argiudoll-in Marcos JuArez, Cordoba, Argentina
affected by cropping system, tillage, and soil depth. Agron. Res.
Rept. AY-87-03. Agron. Dept. University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL.

Hargrove, W.L., J.T. Reid, J.T. Touchton, and R.N. Gallaher.
1982. Influence of tillage practices on the fertility status of an
acid soil double cropped to wheat and soybean. Agron. J. 74:684-
687.

Ike, I.F. 1987. Influence of tillage practice and nitrogen and
phosphorus fertilizer rates on crop yields in the tropical savanna.
Soil Science. 143 (1):213-219

Maurya, P.R. 1986. Effect of tillage and residue management
on maize and wheat yield and on physical properties of an irrigated
sandy loam soil in northern Nigeria. Soil & Tillage Res., 8:161-170

MSTAT. 1987. A software program for the design, management,
and analysis of agronomic research data. Michigan State University,
Michigan.

Ortiz, R.A. and R.N. Gallaher. 1984. Organic matter and
nitrogen in an Ultisol as affected by tillage system after seven
years. IN Touchton, J.T. and R.E. Stevenson (eds.) Proc. of Seventh
Southeastern no-tillage systems conference. AL. Agric. Exp. Stn.
Auburn University. Auburn, AL.

Ortiz, R.A. 1985. Soil chemical and physical properties
affected by long-term oat-soybean versus oat-grain sorghum double
cropping systems. Msc. Thesis. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.

Sprague A. and G.V. Triplett. No-tillage and surface-tillage
agriculture. Willey-Intrerscience publication. 1986. New York, NY.
465 p.

Walkley, A. 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for
determining organic carbon in soil. Soil. Sci. 65:251-264.















Table 1. Effect of tillage and rye-summer crop (corn or grain
sorghum) double cropping on soil organic matter content in a loamy
sand Ultisol of Florida.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth Tillage managements

No-tillage Conventional tillage

---(m)--- -----------------(g kg )-------------------
0.00-0.05 2.05 AW* 1.62 AX
0.05-0.10 1.41 BW 1.32 BX
0.10-0.15 1.14 CX 1.34 BW
0.15-0.30 0.88 DW 0.74 CX

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, X) are not
significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 2 tillage
treatments or soil depths. k




















Fig 1. Rye-summer crop effect on soil organic matter
in a Florida, Ultisol.


o Y =2.78-0.85X+0.09X2 r2=0.93

SYCY =3.13-2.43X+1.07 -0O.15X3 r2=0.99

S.









S,_-/---.
-- I //~


Depth (m)


2.50


2.00


1.50


1.00


5-l






0
FIl

t-1


0.50















Table 2. Effect of 11 years of tillage and oat-soybean double
cropping on soil organic matter content in a loamy sand Ultisol of
Florida.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth 'Tillage managements

NT NT+ CT CT+

--(m)--- -------------------(g kg- )-------------------------
0.00-0.05 2.89 AW* 2.20 AX 2.12 AY 1.98 AZ
0.05-0.10 1.55 BX 1.47 BY 1.65 BW 1.72 BW
0.10-0.15 1.09 CY 1.23 CX 1.45 CW 1.53 CW
0.15-0.30 1.00 DWX 1.10 DW 0.50 DY 1.07 DX

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, X, Y, Z) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 4 tillage
treatments or soil depths.
NT= no-tillage, NT+= no-tillage plus subsoiling, CT= conventional
tillage and CT+= conventional tillage plus subsoiling.





















Fig 2. Oat-soybean double cropping effect on soil organic
matter under different tillage management in a
Florida, Ultisol.


0 U.)
Depth (m) i
10 0
0 ,-.


3.00


2.50-



2.00.


0-4

ho


(U
a,-


1.50+


1.00-


Y NT=4.73-2.17X+0.31X2 r2=0.99
oYNT =3.14-1.11X+0.15X2 r2=0.98
NT+
SYT =2.12+0.06X-0.11X2 r2=0.96
CT 2.04-0.05X-0.05 2
AY =2.04-0.05X-0.05X2 r2=0.97
CT+


-. --


I I I / /


0.50














Table 3. Effect of 11 years of tillage and oat-sorghum double
cropping on soil organic matter content in a loamy sand Ultisol of
Florida.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth Tillage managements
NT NT+ CT CT+

---(m)-- ---------------------- (g kg) -------------------
0.00-0.05 2.87 AW* 2.19 AX 1.94 AY 1.68 AZ
0.05-0.10 1.54 BX 1.59 BWX 1.64 BW 1.54 BX
0.10-0.15 1.13 CY 1.27 CX 1.44 CW 1.43 CW
0.15-0.30 0.90 DY 0.91 DXY 1.04 DW 1.00 DWX

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, X, Y, Z) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range
test(P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 4 tillage
treatments or soil depths.
NT= no-tillage, NT+= no-tillage plus subsoiling, CT= conventional
tillage and CT+= conventional tillage plus subsoiling.


















Fig 3. Oat-sorghum effect on soil organic matter under
different tillage management in a Florida, Ultisol.


o Y =4.57-2.01X+0.27X r2=0.98
*YNT =2.81-0.70X+0.06X2 r2=0.99
NT+
* Yc AY =2.12-0.16X-0.02X2 r2=0.97
AY =1.58+0.16X-0.07X2 r2=0.96
\CT+

N'


I I II //


Depth (m)


3.20


2.70


2.20


1.70


1.20-


0.70















Table 4. Effect of Seven years of tillage and wheat-soybean double
cropping on soil organic matter content in a Typic Argiudoll of
Argentina.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth Tillage managements

No-tillage Conventional tillage

---()-- ----------------(g kg )----------------
0.00-0.05 3.44 AWs 2.89 AY
0.05-0.10 2.68 BY 2.80 AW
0.10-0.15 2.43 CY 2.70 BW
0.15-0.30 1.68 DW 1.41 CY

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, Y) are not
significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 2 tillage
treatments or soil depths.












17






Fig 4. Wheat-soybean effect on soil organic matter under
different tillage management in an Argentina,
Mollisol.


Depth (m)


3.60


3.10-


2.60-


2.10-


1.60-


1.10-


OY =3.96-0.57X+0.0004X2 r2=0.96
"'-* Y =4.12-2.19X+1.16X2-0.19X3 r2=0.99
S-- CT













-f//
-






----














Table 5. Effect of 11 years of tillage and soybean monocropping on
soil organic matter content in a Typic Argiudoll of Argentina.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth Tillage management

No-tillage Conventional tillage

---(m)--- ------------------(g kg1) -------------------
0.00-0.05 3.36 AW* 2.94 AY
0.05-0.10 2.72 BW 2.73 BW
0.10-0.15 2.36 CY 2.53 CW
0.15-0.30 1.67 DW 1.12 DY

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, Y) are not
significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 2 tillage
treatments or soil depths.



















Fig 5. Soybean monocrop effect on soil organic matter
under different tillage management in an
Argentina, Mollisol.

3.50
*Y T=4.90-2.19X+0.76X2 r2=0.99
NT
-O 0Y =2.26+0.92X-0.29X2 r2=0.96
S 3.00


2.50



S 2.00


S 1.50




0 0
oo -//
1O 0 LO C
o 7 Depth (m) O

SCLO














Table 6. Effect of 12 years of tillage and corn monocropping on
soil organic matter content in a Typic Argiudoll of Argentina.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth Tillage management

No-tillage Conventional tillage

--(m)--- ---------------(g kg-')------------------
0.00-0.05 3.27 AW* 2.94 AY
0.05-0.10 2.88 BW 2.85 AW
0.10-0.15 2.57 CW 2.45 BW
0.15-0.30 1.73 DW 1.63 CY

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, Y) are not
significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 2 tillage
treatments soil depths.




















Fig 6. Corn monocrop effect on soil organic matter under
tillage management in an Argentina, Mollisol.


OYY =5.76-3.14X+1.17X2-0.16X3 r2=0.99
NT
YT=2.84+0.16X-0.4X2-O.02X3 r2=0.99
SCT


O.
5-,







9___If
^^^^-*--


Depth (m)


4.00



3.50



3.001


2.00


1.50


2.504















Table 7. Effect of six years of tillage and corn monocropping on
soil organic matter content in an Alfisol of Florida.

Organic matter content
Soil
Depth Tillage management

NT NT+ CT CT+

--(m)--- ----------------------(g kg) ----------------------
0.00-0.05 2.07 AW* 1.90 AX 1.66 AY 1.52 AZ
0.05-0.10 1.69 BW 1.59 BX 1.40 BY 1.26 BZ
0.10-0.15 1.46 CW 1.51 CW 1.20 CX 1.17 CX
0.15-0.30 0.87 DY 1.00 DX 1.06 DWX 1.10 CW

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A, B, C, D) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, X, Y, Z) are not
significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test
(P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 4 tillage
treatments or soil depths.
NT= no-tillage, NT+= no-tillage plus subsoiling, CT= conventional
tillage and CT+= conventional tillage plus subsoiling.




















Fig 7. Corn monocrop effect on soil organic matter under
different tillage management in a Florida, Alfisol.


/ /
u


I' Depth (m)


2.40


2.00


1.60




1.20-


OYT =2.21-0.12-0.005X2 r2=0.97

YNTY =1.93-0.02X-0.05X2 r2=0.93

- A=Y =1.97-0.34X+0.03X2 r2=0.97

.... AY =1.64-0.38X+0.05X2 r2=0.93




"""".....................................-

..----... C +.
.


I--I /- 1


0.BO

0

0
0
0














Table 8. Effect of tillage and soil depth on soil organic matter
content in seven long-term minimum tillage experiments.

Cropping Organic matter content
System
Tillage management
Depth
No-tillage Conventional tillage

--(m)--- ------------------(g kg )-------------------
Rye-summer crop, Ultisol, Florida.
0.00-0.15 1.53 AW* 1.44 AX
0.15-0.30 0.89 BW 0.74 BX
Oat-soybean, Ultisol, Florida.
0.00-0.15 1.75 AW 1.63 AX
0.15-0.30 1.05 BW 0.98 BW
Oat-sorghum, Ultisol, Florida.
0.00-0.15 1.76 AW 1.61 AX
0.15-0.30 0.90 BX 1.02 BW
Corn monocrop, Alfisol, Florida.
0.00-0.15 1.70 AW 1.37 AX
0.15-0.30 0.93 BX 1.07 BW
Wheat-soybean, Mollisol,Argentina.
0.00-0.15 2.85 AW 2.79 AX
0.15-0.30 1.68 BW 1.41 BX
Soybean monocrop, Mollisol,Argentina.
0.00-0.15 2.75 AW 2.69 AW
0.15-0.30 1.62 BX 1.73 BW
Corn monocrop,Mollisol,Argentina.
0.00-0.15 2.83 AW 2.73 AX
0.15-0.30 1.67 BW 1.12 BX

Data in columns followed by the same letter (A. B) are not


significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
Data in rows followed by the same letter (W, Y)
significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 2
treatments.


are not

tillage














Table 3-9. Cropping systems effect on soil organic matter content
in seven cropping system-minimum tillage long term
experiments.

Cropping Location Organic matter content
System (0-15 cm Depth)
NT CT Difference
-------------(g kg-)-------------
Corn monocrop* Florida 1.70 A 1.37 B +0.33
Corn monocrop Argentina 2.83 A 2.73 B +0.10
Rye-summer crop Florida 1.53 A* 1.44 B +0.09
Oat-soybean Florida 1.75 A 1.63 B +0.12
Wheat-soybean Argentina 2.85 A 2.79 A +0.06
Soybean monocrop Argentina 2.75 A 2.69 A +0.06
Oat-Sorghum Florida 1.76 A 1.61 B +0.15

Data in rows followed by the same letter (A,B) are not
significantly different according to F test(P=0.05).
NT = No-tillage, CT = Conventional tillage.
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 7 experiments.














Table 3-10. Cropping systems effect on soil organic matter content
in seven cropping system-minimum tillage long-term experiments.

Cropping Location Organic matter content
System (15-30 cm Depth)
NT CT Difference

--------------(g kg1)--------------
Corn monocrop* Florida 0.93 B 1.07 A -0.14
Corn monocrop Argentina 1.67 A 1.73 A -0.06
Rye-summer crop Florida 0.89 A* 0.74 B +0.15
Oat-soybean Florida 1.05 A 0.98 A +0.07
Wheat-soybean Argentina 1.68 A 1.41 B +0.27
Soybean monocrop Argentina 1.62 A 1.12 B +0.50
Oat-sorghum Florida 0.90 A 1.02 A -0.03

Data in rows followed by the same letter (A,B) are not
significantly different according to F test(P=0.05).
NT = No-tillage, CT = Conventional tillage.
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 7 experiments.













Table 3-11. Overall tillage influence on soil organic matter
content in seven long-term minimum tillage experiments.

Cropping Location' Organic matter content
System (0-30 cm depth)
NT CT difference

-------------(g kg-)------------
Corn monocrop Argentina 2.70 A 2.46 B +0.24
Corn monocrop* Florida,USA 1.51 A 1.30 B +0.21
Oat-sorghum Florida,USA 1.55 A 1.46 A +0.09
Rye-summer crop Florida,USA 1.37 A* 1.26 B +0.11
Oat-soybean Florida,USA 1.57 A 1.51 A +0.06
wheat-soybean Argentina 2.55 A 2.45 B +0.10
Soybean monocrop Argentina 2.52 A 2.33 B +0.19

Data in rows followed by the same letter (A, B) are not
significantly different according to F test (P=0.05).
NT = No-tillage, CT = Conventional tillage.
* All means are the average of 3 replications x 7 experiments.




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