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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 82-02
Title: Planting instructions and rhizome sources for florigraze rhizoma peanut
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056119/00001
 Material Information
Title: Planting instructions and rhizome sources for florigraze rhizoma peanut
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Prine, G. M ( Gordon Madison ), 1928-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981?]
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peanuts -- Planting -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Gordon M. Prine.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1981."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056119
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62587322

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    Historic note
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    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
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        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





j i


- Ol Agronomy Research Report AY 82-02 August, 1981
Planting Instructions and Rhizome Sources --

for Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut

Gordon M. Prine i OCT G 1981

The purpose of this publication is to provide additional infor- .
.A.. Univ. of Florida
mation on the establishment of Florigraze rhizoma peanut and list --

those persons who have received Florigraze rhizomes from Florida

Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. and IFAS Agronomy Department. The

potential and culture of Florigraze rhizoma peanut is described in
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Circular S-275, "Florigraze

Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume". This circular can be

obtained from any Florida County Extention Office or by writing this

author.

Now with established source of commercial planting material,

persons interested in growing Florigraze can obtain rhizomes from

growers who have already received rhizomes and wish to dig them for
sale. Tables 1 and 2 list growers who have planted Florigraze and who
may have rhizomes available for sale. Only growers who received

Florigraze peanut in 1980 or earlier will have rhizomes developed

enough to dig in 1981-82 winter. There should be enough Florigraze

rhizomes available from commercial growers to plant 1000 acres (400 ha)

in 1981-82 winter and 2000 acres (800 ha) in 1982-83 winter.

Research in 1980 and 1981 indicate the most economical and
practical way to dig rhizomes is with a bermudagrass sprig harvester.

These harvesters separate rhizomes cleanly from the soil but breaks

1
*Professor, University of Florida, IFAS, Agronomy Department, Gainesville

Florida 32611, Phone (904) 392-1811.





-2-
. .. .- .- ." *.c' ; .:.

rhizome mat into pieces 8 to 12 inches long. Each of these rhizome -.

pieces has one to four growing points which can develop into a new

shoot. The resulting plants are weak and do not spread as rapidly

as when we dug bigger sections of rhizomes with a modified potato digger.

SHowever, this can be overcome by more uniform distribution of rhizome

pieces.

Forty bushels of rhizomes are needed to achieve coverage by end

Sof the first season. This amount is the same regardless of digging

method. Row width for rhizomes dug with bermudagrass sprig harvester

should not exceed 24 inches (60 cm) and narrower widths are better.

The rhizomes can be planted in rows by hand or.with a bermudagrass

sprig planter. When planted with sprig planter, the rhizomes are

scattered uniformly in row. If planted by hand the rhizomes can be

placed in hills in drill 24 inches (60 cm) or less apart (not further

apart row width). The more uniformly the rhizomes pieces are distri-

buted across the field, the better will be the coverage during the

first season.

Regardless of how you plant Florigraze rhizomes, they should be

completely covered with soil approximately 3 inches deep in sand and

2 inches deep in clay. The easiest way to plant is to broadcast rhizome

pieces on the surface and harrow in. If done carefully and packed after-

ward, this is often a successful method of planting. It usually results

in rhizomes being planted at different depths and parts of rhizomes

sticking above the ground. Those rhizome pieces started too shallow

or too deep will often die, so the broadcast and harrow method is not

as dependable as planting in shallow furrows and covering to a uniform

depth.








The best time for planting Florigraze peanut is January and February
when peanut top growth is frosted. We had fewer plants surviving when

planted in mid-March compared to January and February during the dry

year of 1981.
Weed Control

Weeds are the worst pest in growing Florigraze. No herbicides are

specifically registered for use on rhizoma peanuts, as it is a new crop

of limited acreage. Table 3 gives information on herbicides we have

found experimentally to be useful in controlling weeds in establishment

of rhizoma peanuts. Some of these herbicides may be registered for

use on rhizoma peanut in the future. One of the biggest weed problems

for rhizoma peanut is perennial grass. This problem can be minimized

by planting on soil which does not have a perennial grass growing and

separating out grass pieces that may be in mixture with the Florigraze
rhizomes at planting. We are working on herbicide techniques for taking

perennial grasses out of rhizoma peanut but no satisfactory methods are

available yet.

The forage of rhizoma peanut and accompanying vegetation cannot be

used as feed for livestock if certain herbicides are applied, so be sure

to check label on herbicide containers. In the establishment year, the

forage yield is so low that grazing or cutting for hay is not practical.

It may be practical to use a herbicide at this time, remembering that this
may render the forage unusable as a feed. By decreasing weed competition,

better peanut coverage and overall plant development can be increased.

If the forage is usable for feed, the top growth can be harvested at

the end of the first growing season without affecting peanut coverage.
Top growth contaminated by herbicides can be destroyed by burning
after frost occurs with little or no damage to the peanut.





-4-


Steps for Establishing Florigraze
1. Locate commercial rhizome grower and get name on.list to receive

rhizomes in January or February.
2. Select well-drained soil area free of perennial grasses. Lime

soil with dolomite limestone if pH is below 5.7. Work soil into

seed bed by January 1.

3. Have your dealer special order inoculant two months before you need

it, as dealers do not usually carry peanut inoculant in winter.
4. Incorporate trifluralin or benefin herbicide into soil before

planting peanut. Also apply vernolate if nutsedge is.present.

Fertilize with 300 pounds/acre (336 Kg/ha) of 0-10-20 or similar

-analysis fertilizer and work in with herbicide.

5. Plant 40 bushels/acre of rhizomes as uniformly.as possible

over land at 2 to 3 (5 to 6 cm) inches in depth in January or.

February. Hills of peanuts dug with bermudagrass sprig digger.

should not be more than 24 inches (60 cm) apart. Pick out perennial

grass parts by hand that might be mixed with peanut rhizomes for

pure stands.

6. Inoculate with peanut inoculant at planting. The inoculant

can be sprayed or dusted on moist rhizomes before planting

or applied in soil with rhizomes as they are planted with

a sprayer for liquid inoculant or a granular applicator

for granular inoculant.

7. If weeds are emerging, apply alachlor and dinoseb herbicides in

tank mixwhen about 25% of rhizomes have sent up new shoots (March

or early April).








8. Fertilize in July or August.with an additional 300 pounds/acre
(336 Kg/ha) of 0-10-20 fertilizer.

9. Spray broadleaf weeds with 2,4-DB or bentazon herbicide as needed

anytime during season.

10. Mow any tall weeds not controlled by herbicides just above peanut

top growth or to 6 inches (15 cm) if peanut growth is above

this height.

11. Irrigate during droughts, if irrigation is available. Irrigation

is not necessary for peanut survival if weeds are controlled, but

does insure more rapid growth of peanut in drought years. \

12. Contact the author if you have a problem in establishment or finding

a rhizome source.




Table 1. Growers receiving enough Florigraze peanut rhizomes to plant
a demonstration planting, usually 1/2 acre or less in size.


Established
in winter
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1977
1978


1977
S1976
1978
1979
1980
1980
1980.
1980
1980
1980


John S. W. Davis II.
Morgan McJunkin
Carl Wainwright
Glenn Herneming
Jim Huber
B. F. Gordon
Keith Free
Donald Smith
Randall Buchanan
Bob Woodward

John Schmarje
Dan Bowman
Tommy Cothron
Mitchell Keen
Joseph Grygorowicz
C. Hardy Keller
Forrest Cornnell
E. M. Ahmed
Glenn Ezell
Jack Barga

Larry Johnson
Jim Beagle
Charlie Adams
Tim Murhee
Morris Lester
Jim Brown
Rick Goff
Leon McCallum
San Souci Farms

Charles Kelly
Bill Womble
R. T. Clay
Mike Sweat
Hinton Goodwin
Paul Still
Jerry Pitts
Ray Smith
Carthell Smith
John Renaud


1980
1980
1980
-1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


1981
1981
1981.
1981
1981
1981
1981
198.1
1981

1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


Clewiston
Lake Placid
Live Oak
Williston
Bronson
Brooksville
Laurel Hill
Wausaw
SMadison County
Gadsden County

Liberty County.4.
Gadsden County.
Valdosta, GA
Old Town
Caryville
Perry
Perry
Williston
Perry
Homosassa


Inverness
Inverness
Citrus County
Keystone Heights
Columbia County
Columbia County
Columbia County
Old Town
Ocala

Gainesville
Bronson
Grandin
Maclenny
Tifton, GA
Newberry
Bonifay
Bonifay
Bonifay
Chiefland


SFlorida or other
Grower Name location
Raymond Hodges Old Town
Jim Kilcrease Ocala
Ralph Stancil Ocala
Kanapaha Ranch Archer
Clifton Shiver Mayo
M. A. Schack Greenwood
Hugh Popenoe Gainesville
Rance Andrews Jasper
Kent Doke Alachua
W. F. Van Ness Inverness







S L. Continued.....


Established
in winter
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


Grower Name
James Wershow
Bernard Lewis
Myron Pierce
Donald Smith
J. E. Smith
U. S. Harrison
Charles Riley


Florida or other
location
Alachua
Quincy
Bonifay
Chipley
Chipley
Chipley
Chipley


Table 2. Commercial rhizoma growers purchasing enough Florigraze rhizomes to
plant 1 acre or more from Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc.


Established
in winter
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
.1980 & 81
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


Grower Name
Frank Tomkow*
A. C.. Peace**t
Kent Doke**t
Morgan McJunkin**
C. T. Terry*
Roger Pittman
Joel Sapp
Friedrich Schroeder
Alto Straughn
W. K. Shephard
Sammy Long & Cecil Perry*
Guy Mosteller
Larry Woods
Garron Patton*
Lester Terrel
Schoal River Ranch*
Steve Simmons*
Robert Pender
5-J Ranch
Dewitt Smith*
Harry Smith
Marshall Bros. Farm
Harold McGill*
Jim Kelley*
Henry Douglass**
Southern States Nurseries**
Robert L. Reddish*
Owen Easters*
Luis Hechavarria
-Lemuel E. Cunningham
Luther E. Jones
E. H. Updike
Charles E. Peace**


Florida or other
location
Trilby
Valdosta, GA
Alachua
Lake Placid
Lake City
Citra
Sparr
Ocala'
Gainesville
Archer
Bellville
Ocala
Reddick
Melrose
Earlton
Crestview
Green Cove Springs
Greenwood
Ocala
Coolidge, GA
Dothan, AL
Adel, GA


Sumner, GA
Gainesville
Zephyrhills (
Macclenny
Gainesville
Lenox, GA
Jacksonville
Crystal River
Brooksville
Ocala
Valdosta, GA


Bar Ranch)


i j?







Table 2. Continued......


Established
in winter
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


Grower Name
William R. Ploss*
Curtis Womble
Harold Sigman
John Gavin*
Tom Thompson*
Ben Fish
Benny Joe Bennett
Bill Kinner
Wayne Day**
Day Parrish*
Bill Schwickle*


Florida or other
location-
Gainesville
Hawthorne
Bainbridge, GA
Lake Park, GA
Boni fay
Sanderson
Sanderson
Madison
Greenville
Alachua
Trenton


* Purchased enough rhizomes to plant 2 acres
**Purchased enough rhizomes to plant 5 acres
t This grower has indicated he plans to sell


or more.
or more.
rhizomes in winter of 1981-82.


Note: All growers who received Florigraze planting material in 1979 or
earlier and a few in 1980, should have rhizomes ready for digging in
winter of 1981-82. Florigraze rhizome systems normally are developed
enough to dig one growing season after complete coverage is obtained.
In other words, growers wishing to dig rhizomes in winter of 1981-82
should have had their Florigraze approaching 100% ground cover in
late fall of 1980. After rhizomes are dug, Florigraze can -normally
be dug again for rhizomes in two years without replanting.




'V .-9-

Table 3. Herbicides found in experiments to be useful in controlling weeds in
establishing rhizoma peanuts.


Trade Name and
cast Rate/Acre
of Commercial


Broad-
(Rate/ha)
productt


Common Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
of Active Ingredient


Weeds Controlled
and Remarks


PREPLANT
Balan
3-4 qt./A
(7.0-9.4 liters/ha)







Treflan
1.0-1.5 pt./A
.(1.2-1.75 liters/ha)


Vernam 7E
2.3-2.9 pt./A
(2.69-3.4 liters/ha)


benefit
1.13-1.5 Ib./A
(1.27-1.68 kg/ha)







trifluralin
0.5-0.75 1b ./A
(.56-.84 kg/ha)


vernolate
2.0-2.5 Ib./A
(2.24-2.8 kg/ha)


At Shoot Emergence After Planting and in Spring


Lasso
2-3 qt./A
(4.7-7.0 liters/ha)
+
Premerge 3
4 to 8 qt./A
(9.3 to 18.7 liters/ha)


alachlor
2.0-3.0 Ib./A
(2.2-3.4 kg/ha)
+
dinoseb
3 to 6 Ib./A
(3.4 to 6.7 kg/ha)


Annual grasses and also hard-to-
control grasses such as sandbur,
signalgrass and Texas panicum.
Good control of Florida pusley
and pigweed. Incorporate into
the soil to a depth of 2-3 inch-
es (5-7.6 cm) within 8 hours -
after application. May be applied
anytime within 10 weeks prior to
planting up to the day of planting

S Good control of annual grasses and
certain broadleaf weeds. Poor
control of cocklebur, sick epod
S (coffeeweed), morningglory, and
ragweed. Incorporate thoroughly
according to label directions.

Suppresses nutsedge. Controls
most annual grasses, Fla. pusley
and pigweed. Tank mix with tri-
fluralin or benefit for best
broad spectrum control. Incorpor-
ate into the soil to a depth of 3
inches (7.6 cm) immediately after
application. If possible, combine
application and incorporation in
the same operation.


Excellent control of emerged seed-
ling weeds with preemergence con-
trol of annual grasses and broad-
leaf weeds. Use high rate of
alachlor if Fla. beggarweed is a
problem. Apply when one or' more
new shoot appears on 25 to 30 per-
cent of planted hills. Peanuts
that emerge a few days prior to
treatment may be injured but should
recover with little or no reduction,
in final peanut growth.


' "
N




-10-


Table 3. Continued.....


Trade Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
of Commercial Product

POSTEMERGENCE
Butyrac
or
Butoxone
1 qt/A
(2.3 liters/ha)







Basagran
.75-1.5 qt/A
(1.75 to 3.5 liters/ha)


Common Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
of Active Ingredient


Weeds Controlled
and Remarks


2,4-DB Controls many broadleaf weeds
0.50 Ib./A including morningglory and
cocklebur. No effect on Flori-
da beggarweed. Apply 2 to 12
(.56 kg/ha) weeks after planting. A second
application may be made 3 weeks
later. After peanut establish-
ment, can be used as needed
except should not apply more
than 1.5 Ibs./A (1.68 kg/ha)
2,4-DB per annum. Do not apply
to drought stressed peanuts.
bentazon Good control of cocklebur,
.75-1.5 lb./A) bristly starbur, and yellow nut-
(0.84 to 1.68 kg/ha) sedge. Rate depends on weed
species and size; therefore, refer
to the label. Good spray coverage
is essential for control. Do not
apply to peanuts which have been
subjected to stress.


Note:. Always read herbicide label carefully before applying.


"
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