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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Agronomy Department ; AY 91-04
Title: Crop nutritional status of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, cowpea and velvetbean in Florida
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Title: Crop nutritional status of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, cowpea and velvetbean in Florida
Physical Description: 8, 25 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
Ahenkora, K
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1991?]
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Subject: Food crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Food crops -- Nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: R.N. Gallaher and K. Ahenkora.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 8).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Chiefly tables.
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Agronomy Department ; AY 91-04
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 62597125

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Full Text


C./I 33


fi (5
q1 -ot


Professor of Agronomy, Agronomy Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 and Biochemist, Ghana Grains
Development Project, Kumasi, Ghana, respectively

ABSTRACT
Crop nutrition is important to the final yield and ultimate
economic returns from agricultural crop production. The objectives
of this research are to determine the nutritional status of corn
(Zea mays L.), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), soybean
(Glycine max L. Merr.)., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), and
velvetbean (Stizolobium deeringianum L.) as affected by location
and cultivar of soybean and cowpea. Crops were grown at seven
locations on the University of Florida, Green Acres Agronomy Farm
in 1991. Each row of the four row plots were 0.75 m wide and 3.75
m long with four replications. Two soybean and seven cowpea
varieties were investigated. Diagnostic leaf tissue and
corresponding soil samples were collected, treated and analyzed for
concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in leaves and
extractable mineral elements and N, pH and organic matter in the
soil. Nitrogen was deficient in the corn and grain sorghum grass
crops. Potassium tended to be low in all crops and Ca and Mg were
low in tissue concentration depending on the crop, cultivar,
location. Copper was the only micronutrient that was low in leaf
tissue and appeared to be a problem for most crops. Nitrogen, K
and Mg all are known to be easily lost from the root zone due to
leaching. It is recommended that these nutrients be applied in
several split increments to help alleviate the losses due to
leaching and to ensure a sufficient level in the leaf tissue.
Copper should be applied as a foliar treatment to solve the low
tissue levels in the crop leaves.

OBJECTIVES
1. Determine the sufficiency status of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn
and Zn in diagnostic leaves of corn (Zea mays L.), grain sorghum
(Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).,
cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), and velvetbean (Stizolobium
deeringianum L.) as affected by location.

2. Determine the sufficiency status of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn
and Zn in diagnostic leaves of soybean and cowpea as affected by
variety.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 !II


j irl ll l ll I I II I I I l lll llJ I IIl l I I ll 1 1 11 11 III
3 1262 05611 3722 :
Agronomy Research Report AY-91-04 LU'jn/ J
Nov 1 9 o9 !
Crop Nutritional Status of Corn, Grai Sorghum, Soy n, C ea
and Velvetbean in Floryjda
SG ersity of Florida
R.N. Gallaher and K.~Snencoa









3. Evaluate the sufficiency status of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn
and Zn in diagnostic leaves of crops in relation to Mehlich I
extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn and soil organic matter
and pH.

4. Provide diagnosis of nutrient status and recommended management
to improve plant health if needed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Several crops and varieties were planted at seven locations on
the Green Acre Agronomy Farm, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida in 1991 (Table 1). These seven
locations were all on various deviations of Arredondo loamy sand to
sandy soil. The experimental sites were dominated by Arenic and
Grossarenic Paleudults (Soil Survey Staff, 1984). Each of the
sites had different multiple cropping histories. The most previous
two crops preceding these plantings are given in Table 1, along
with planting dates and irrigation information.

After conventional tillage of the sites, a Brown Harden in-row
subsoil no-tillage planter was used to lay off rows. All crops
were then planted by hand. Crops were planted in a randomized
complete block design at each location so that economic evaluations
could be made upon collection of final yield data. Each plot
consisted of four rows 0.75 m wide and 3.75 m long. Treatments
were replicated four times.

For crop nutrition evaluation each location was the treatment
for each individual crop analysis such as for corn, grain sorghum,
'California blackeye #5' cowpea and velvetbean. These evaluations
were treated as a randomized complete block for statistical
purposes (Table 1). For soybean the seven locations were treated
as whole plots and the two cultivars were treated as split plots
for statistical purposes (Table 1). Location six and seven were
treated as whole plots and the seven cultivars of cowpea were
treated as split plots for statistical purposes in this evaluation
(Table 1).

Seeding rates and leaf sampling procedures are given in Table
2. Soil samples were taken from the top 0.15 m at the same time of
leaf sampling and processed for nutrient status. Total fertilizer
plant nutrients applied to the crops are also in Table 2. Nitrogen
was applied in four increments for corn and three increments for
grain sorghum. Starter N was applied at planting for the legume
crops. Potassium, S, and Mg were applied in split applications to
all crops. Nitrogen, K, Mg and S are all highly leachable in the
Arredondo soils due to their sandy nature. Split applications of
these nutrients aid in reducing their losses due to leaching from
heavy rainfall periods.

Greatest pesticide management was required for the crops in









the following order: Soybean>corn>grain sorghum>velvetbean>cowpea
(Table 2). Pesticides were applied according to labeled rates,
times and procedures. No herbicides were used in these studies.
Weeds were controlled by two hand weedings and two mechanical
cultivations.

Plant N analysis

Plant leaves were dried in a forced air oven at 70 C for 24
hours until completely dry. Samples were then ground in a Wiley
mill to pass a 2 mm stainless steel screen and stored in air tight
sterile plastic bags. After grinding, all samples were opened and
redried for four hours and resealed immediately after removal from
the oven.

A mixture of 100 mg (0.100 g) of plant sample, 3.2 g of salt-
catalyst (9:1 K2SO4:CuS04), 2 glass beads and 10 ml of H2SO4 was
vortexed in a 100 ml Pyrex test-tube under a hood. To reduce
frothing, 2 ml 30% H202 was added in small increments and tubes were
digested in an aluminum block digester at 370 C for 210 minutes
(Gallaher, 1975). Tubes were capped with small funnels which
allowed for evolving gasses to escape while preserving refluxing
action. Cool digested solutions were vortexed with approximately
50 ml of deionized water, allowed to cool to room temperature,
brought to 75 ml volume, transferred to square Nalgene storage
bottles (glass beads were filtered out), sealed, mixed and stored.
Nitrogen trapped as NH4SO4, was analyzed on a Technicon AutoAnalyzer
II system (manifold, colorimeter) linked to an automatic Technicon
Sampler IV (solution sampler) and an Alpkem Corporation
Proportioning Pump III. A plant standard with a long history of
recorded N concentration values was subjected to the same procedure
and used as a check.

Plant mineral analysis

A 1.00 g sample was weighed into 50 ml pyrex beakers, placed
in a muffle furnace at 480 C and ashed for a minimum of four hours.
Cooled beakers containing ashed samples were carefully transferred
to a laboratory hood. Ash was carefully saturated with 20 ml
deionized H20, 2 ml of concentrated HCl was added and gently boiled
to dryness on a hot plate. This digest procedure results in
precipitation of excessive soluble Si which can interfere with the
analysis of other elements. This water/acid ratio was again added
and brought to a gentle boil on the hot plate and removed so that
dried residue would be in solution. After solutions were cooled to
room temperature they were brought to 100 ml volume for a solution
strength of 0.1 N HC1. Solutions were analyzed for P by
colorimetry, K by flame emission and Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn by
atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Soil N analysis
Soil samples were allowed to air dry over a period of several









days. A stainless steel screen with 2 mm size holes was used to
screen the soil. This was followed by hand mixing the soil to
ensure a representative sample during analysis. Samples were
organized and stored in wooden flats until analysis was complete.

The laboratory procedure for N analysis was identical to plant
analysis except 2.0 g of soil sample was used without glass beads.
Soil particles served the same purpose as boiling beads. The
laboratory plant control sample was also used as a check.

Soil mineral, pH and organic matter analysis

Soil samples were extracted by a double acid procedure
(Mehlich, 1954) and analyzed for P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn as
described for plant mineral analysis. Soil pH was determined with
a 1:2 soil solution ratio in H?0 using a glass electrode. Soil
organic matter (OM) was determined by a modified version of the
Walkley-Black method (Walkley, 1947; Allison, .1965).

Statistics: Plant and soil analysis data were organized in
spreadsheets and the appropriate analysis of variance conducted
using MSTAT (1985) and various microcomputers. Data was tabulated
in 2 way tables and appropriate mean separations were made. Crop
nutrient interpretative values for the five crops were compiled
(Table 3) (Jones, et. al., 1991). Finally tables of means were
compiled for evaluation of the plant nutrient status of the crops
(Tables 4-31).


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Nutritional status of crops is dependent upon several factors.
Some of these include crop species, genotype within a species, type
of soil, cropping history, age of tissue that was sampled and
amounts of fertilizer that were applied. In this study we
investigated the nutritional relationships for five individual
crops affected by some of the above variables.

Corn

Based upon sufficiency values for corn (Jones, et. al., 1991)
(Table 3) our corn ('Pioneer brand 3098') had low levels of N in
the ear leaf at all seven locations. Even though N fertilizer was
applied in four split applications heavy rainfall during the
growing period likely resulted in leaching losses of N and thus
insufficient fertilizer N for a sufficient level in the corn leaf
(Table 4). Other nutrients that were low in corn ear leaf included
K at two locations, Mg at four of the seven locations, Cu at four
locations and Zn at one location (Tables 4 and 5). In general
where these nutrients were low in the ear leaf they were among the
lowest values in the soil (Tables 6 and 7). Potassium and Mg are
easily leached from sandy soils as is the case for N. All other









nutrients were in sufficient quantities in the ear leaf (Tables 4
and 5).

Because of the strong indication that N, K and Mg were leached
from the soil in some of the seven studies, the following should be
implemented in future experiments as well as for growers: 1) Apply
these nutrients in as many applications as practical to avoid
leaching from heavy rainfall. 2) Apply K and Mg in three or more
applications from planting to flowering. 3) When applying large
quantities of K counter with Mg fertilizer in order to avoid
inducement of a Mg deficiency. 4) When applying N in numerous
small increments the applications can extend beyond the flowering
stage.

Grain sorghum

As was the case for corn, N was low in leaves of grain sorghum
at all seven locations (Table 8). Since an adequate quantity of N
fertilizer was applied to this crop it is likely that leaching is
responsible for the low levels in the leaves. Sorghum leaves had
sufficient or high levels of most other plant nutrients with the
exception of Ca and Fe (Table 8 and 9). The low Ca in the leaf
tissue is reflected in a low soil pH and extractable Ca (Table 10).
Low Fe levels in the tissue at three locations is probably of no
concern since the levels were borderline of being sufficient (Table
11). Iron levels in tissue appeared to be positively correlated to
that in the soil.

Low soil pH and extractable Ca likely resulted in low Ca in
grain sorghum leaves at two locations (Tables 8 and 10). Higher
soil K and leaf K at one of the locations (Fallow) likely aided in
reduced uptake of Ca in leaves at that location. This interaction
among cations is common in crops. Because of a pH below 6.0 at
several of the locations and the relatively low extractable Mg it
is recommended that dolomitic limestone be applied three to six
months before grain sorghum is grown again.

Soybean

Soybean leaves had sufficient to high levels of all the
nutrients measured except for K and Cu (Tables 12-14). In the case
of leaf K, it was highly correlated with soil test K. Sufficient
K was found in tissue at only two locations. Copper was low in
soybean tissue at all seven locations. It appears that adequate K
fertilizer was applied to meet the needs of an average soybean
crop. Low soil extractable K values indicate that fertilizer K
must have been leached below the soybean root zone. Of all plant
nutrients K is one of the biggest problems in growing soybean on
this type of soil. Is noted that the two cultivars of soybean
('Howard' and 'Deltapine 105') differed in leaf concentrations of
nutrients for only P and Cu (Tables 13 and 14). Of all the soil
analysis (Tables 15-17) only organic matter and Cu differed between









the plots for the two cultivars and this was for only a small
number of sites.

It is recommended that, under the conditions where these crops
were grown, K fertilizer be applied in at least three increments
from planting to flowering. Increasing the total K applied from
that applied in these experiments by 25% might help alleviate this
problem (Table 2). Foliar application of an appropriate Cu
fertilizer would eliminate the low levels of Cu in the soybean leaf
tissue.

California Blackeye #5

Leaf tissue of 'California blackeye #5' was low in K and Ca at
most of the seven sites (Table 18). At three sites the leaves had
low concentrations of Cu (Table 19). Adding lime to increase the
soil pH to 6.5 would solve the Ca problem. Addition of K in 3 or
more increments would likely solve this problem. The low soil test
K shows the difficulty of maintaining extractable K in these sandy
types of soil (Table 20). Foliar application of Cu should solve
this problem.

Cowpea cultivars

All seven cowpea varieties had low levels of K, Ca and Cu in
diagnostic leaf tissue at both locations (Tables 22-24). These low
concentrations in leaf tissue are likely due to the low extractable
levels in the soil (Tables 25-27).

Varieties differed in nutrient concentrations for all elements
that were measured (Tables 22-24). The 'Whippoorwill' variety was
among the lowest in K and Ca concentrations (Table 22). Varieties
responded differently between the two locations for leaf
concentrations of K, Mg, N, and Fe (Tables 22-24).

Leaf nutrition found in this study could likely be resolved by
liming the soil to a pH of 6.5. Addition of K in such a way and in
sufficient quantities to reduce the possibility of leaching is also
recommended. Foliar application of Cu will likely increase the
leaf Cu to sufficient levels.

Velvetbean

No crop nutrition interpretative values were available for
velvetbean. However, it appeared that for Ca and Fe velvetbean
acted similar to soybean. Concentrations of P, Cu and Zn were
similar in velvetbean and cowpea. Nitrogen and Mn concentrations
in velvetbean were similar to either soybean or cowpea. Neither
soybean nor cowpea interpretative values appeared to be in the
range for use in velvetbean analysis of K and Mg (Table 3).
Utilizing soybean and cowpea interpretative values (Table 3) we see
that all macro cations of Ca, Mg and K would be low in velvetbean








leaves with the exception of Ca when using soybean values (Table
28). The protein elements N and P would be sufficient in
velvetbean leaves based on values for either soybean or cowpea
(Table 28). Micronutrients in velvetbean leaves appear to be
sufficient for Fe, Cu and Zn based on soybean or cowpea. The one
exception was Cu if based on soybean values (Table 29).

Evaluation of soil test values is inconclusive in regard to
nutrient concentrations in velvetbean leaf tissue (Tables 30 and
31). Further correlation analysis may shed more information on our
ability to interpret the sufficiency of nutrients in this crop.
However, since K, Ca and Cu were all low, based on soybean or
cowpea sufficiency values, and since these nutrients were low in
soybean and cowpea we may conclude similar fertility management for
cowpea as we did for soybean and cowpea. Liming to raise the soil
pH to 6.5 and additional K and Cu fertilizer management are likely
needed in order to obtain sufficient levels of these nutrients in
the leaves of velvetbean.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

From tissue analysis and soil test values the following
general recommendations should be implemented if these experiments
are to be repeated in the future or if similar conditions exist on
producers farms.

1. The soil pH should be increased to about 6.5 for good soil-
plant nutrient relationships. This is especially true for the
legume crops in the study. Since soil test Mg was generally low at
all sites in this research, it is recommended that dolomitic
limestone be the source of liming material, so that the soil Mg
level will be increased to adequate levels at all sites. Dolomitic
limestone would also help alleviate the low levels of Ca and Mg in
leaf tissue of legume crops.

2. Nitrogen fertilizer application frequency and amount should be
evaluated in light of its leaching potential in sandy soil. It
appears that four split applications for corn and three for grain
sorghum were not sufficient to obtain sufficient N in the
diagnostic leaf. Splitting this N in 6 to 8 increments from
planting to a short time past flowering would likely solve this
problem. Increasing the total N by 25% may also be needed to solve
the problem.

3. Potassium appeared to be low in leaf tissue of all crops. To
alleviate this problem it is recommended that K be applied in three
split applications from planting to one week before flowering.
This should help avoid leaching from heavy rainfall. If large
applications of K are recommended and soil test Mg is low then Mg
fertilizer should be applied so that the K does not interact with
the uptake of Mg and result in a Mg deficiency (Jones, 1974).










4. In all studies it appears that Cu is low in diagnostic leaves
of most crops. It is most likely that foliar application of a Cu
fertilizer would solve this problem.

LITERATURE CITED

Allison, F.E. 1965. Organic Carbon. p. 1367-78. In C.A. Black,
D.D. Evans, J.L. White, L.E. Ensminger, and F.E. Clark (eds.)
Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.

Fehr, W.R., and C.E. Caviness. 1977. Stages of soybean
development. Special Report 80. Cooperative Extension Service,
Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Iowa State
University, Ames, Iowa.

Gallaher, R.N., C.O. Weldon, and J.G. Futral. 1975. An aluminum
block digester for plant and soil analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
Proc. 39(4):803-806.

Jones, J.B., Jr. 1974. Plant Analysis Handbook for Georgia.
Bulletin 735, Coop. Extn. Service, Univ. of Georgia College of
Agric. and Home Econ, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Ga

Jones, J.B., Jr., B. Wolf, and H.A. Mills. 1991. Plant Analysis
Handbook: A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis, and
Interpretation Guide. Micro-Macro Publishing, Inc., 183 Paradise
Blvd, Suite 108, Athens, Georgia 30607 USA.

Mehlich, A. 1953. Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na and NH4.
North Carolina Soil Test Division (Mimeo, 1953). North Carolina
State University, Raleigh, NC.

MSTAT 4.0-C. 1985. A microcomputer program for the design,
management, and analysis of agronomic research experiments. MSTAT
Development Team, Michigan State University. E. Lansing, MI 48824-
1325.

Soil Survey Staff. 1984. Official series description of the
Arredondo series. United States Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C.

Walkley, A. 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for
determining organic carbon in soil. Soil Sci. 65:251-264.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Assistance and support for this work from Mr. Tim Lang, Mr.
Howard Palmer, Mr. Jim Chichester, Centro Internacional de
Majoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) and the Ghana Grains
Development Project is very much appreciated.












Crops and
Previous
P


Fallow/
Peanut


management at seven locations. Gainesville. Florida. 1991.
Crop Experimental
Tested Cultivar Design Irrigation
Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB No
Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB/SP
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB
Velvetbean 90 day RCB


Two Lupine/ Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB
Corn Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB/SP
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB
Velvetbean 90 day RCB


Planting date
5/28/91


5/23/91


Three Lupine/
Vegetable


Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB
Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB
Velvetbean 90 day RCB


Four Vetch/ Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB
Corn Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB/
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB
Velvetbean 90 day RCB


/SP






'SP


Five Wheat/ Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB
Corn Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB/SP
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB
Velvetbean 90 day RCB


Six Crimson
Clover/
Corn









Seven Rye/
Corn


Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB
Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB/SP
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB/SP
Whippoorwill
Tenn. Brown
Texas Purplehull
Miss. Silver
Purple Knuckle
Pinkeye Purplehull
Velvetbean 90 day RCB/SP

Corn Pioneer 3098 RCB
Grain Sorghum Asgrow Chaparral RCB
Soybean Deltapine 105 RCB/SP
Howard
Cowpea Calif. Blackeye #5 RCB/SP
Whippoorwill
Tenn. Brown
Texas Purplehull
Miss. Silver
Purple Knuckle
Pinkeye Purplehult
Velvetbean 90 day RCB


5/24/91











5/24/91


RCB = Randomized Complete Block experimental design; SP = Split Plot experimental design.
Irrigation by overhead sprinkler.


Table 1.
L ,,-i,


One


5/24/91






5/24/91






5/28/91


t on rops IU


uoca









Table 2. Crop management and sampling information at seven
locations. Florida. 1991.
Crop Seeds Leaves Growth stage
no/sq m no/sample

Corn 7 8-ear leaf Early silk

Grain sorghum 25 8-3rd from head Early head emergence

Soybean 40 25-Youngest mature Mid bloom

Cowpea 16 25-Youngest mature Mid bloom

Velvetbean 4 25-Youngest mature Mid bloom

Age Fertilizer applied
Sampled N P K S Mg Minors
DAP -------------- kg/ha.------------------

Corn 61 185 5 100 55 54

Grain sorghum 61 145 5 100 55 54

Soybean 58 27 5 100 55 54

Cowpea 45 27 5 100 55 54

Velvetbean 80 27 5 100 55 54

Pesticides applied, amount and stage of growth

Corn Methomyl (Lannate L); 1 L/ha; Seedling stage
Carbofuran (Furadan); 0.15 kg ai/ha; At planting

Grain sorghum Methomyl (Lannate L); 1 L/ha; Seedling stage
Carbofuran (Furadan); 0.10 kg ai/ha; At planting

Soybean Methomyl (Lannate L); 2 L/ha; As needed by label
Chlorothalonil (Bravo 720); 2 L; As needed/label
Benomyl (Benlate WP); 1.12 kg ai/ha; As needed/label
Potassium salt of fatty acids-49% (Safersoap) at 3.75
L/ha plus 1 L/ha of Crop Oil Concentrate (Paraffin
base petroleum oil and fatty acid esters) were
applied two times.

Cowpea Methomyl (Lannate L); 1 L/ha; As needed


Velvetbean Methomyl (Lannate L); 1 L/ha; As needed

DAP = Days after planting
Minors =












Table 3. Crop nutrition interpretative values for five crops from Jones, et. at, 1991.
Nutrients
N P K
Crop Low Sufficient High Low Sufficient High Low Sufficient High
---------------------------------------- g/kg ------------------------------------
Corn 20.0-26.0 27.0-40.0 >4.0 2.00-2.90 3.00-5.00 >5.00 10.0-11.9 12.0-20.0 >20.0


Grain 25.0-29.0 30.0-40.0 >4.0 1.30-1.40 1.50-2.50
Sorghum

Soybean 31.0-40.0 40.1-55.0 >55.1 1.60-2.50 2.60-5.00

Cowpea 30.0-39.9 40.0-50.0 >50.0 2.50-2.90 3.00-6.00

Velvetbean Use soybean or cowpea Use cowpea


>2.50 <10.0


>5.10

>6.00


10.0-15.0 >15.0


12.6-17.0 17.1-25.0

18.0-21.9 22.0-30.0

Nothing comparable


>25.1

>30.0


Ca
Crop Low Sufficient High
------------------------- g/
Corn 1.00-2.00 2.20-10.0 >10.0

Grain <2.00 2.00-6.00 >6.00
Sorghum


Nutrients
Mg
Low Sufficient High
'kg --------------------------
1.00-1.90 2.00-10.0 >10.0

<1.0 1.00-5.00 >5.00


Cu
Low Sufficient High
------------ mg/kg ---------
2-5 6-20 21-70

<10 10-30 >30


Soybe

Cowpe

Velvet



Crop

Corn

Grair
Sorgh


ean 2.10-3.50 3.60-20.0 >20.1 1.10-2.50 2.60-10.0 >10.1 5-9 10-30 31-50

ea 15.0-19.9 20.0-30.0 >30.0 2.50-2.90 3.00-5.00 >5.00 <6 6-25 >25

etbean Use soybean Nothing comparable Use cowpea

Nutrients
Fe Mn Zn
Low Sufficient High Low Sufficient High Low Sufficient High
--------------------------------------- mg/kg ---------------------------------------
10-20 21-250 251-350 10-19 20-200 201-300 15-24 25-100 101-150

<40 40-80 >80 <8 8-40 >40 <7 7-16 >16
rum


Soybean 31-50 51-350

Cowpea 40-49 50-100

Velvetbean Use soybean


350-500 15-20 21-100 101-250

>100 <50 50-300 >300

Use soybean or cowpea


10-20 21-50

18-19 20-100

Use cowpea


51-75

>100










TABLE 4.
Concentration of Macro-nutrients in Ear Leaves of Pioneer P3098 Corn
Nutrient
Location Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
---------------------------- g/Kg--------------------------------

Fallow 2.6 c S 1.31 c L 20.9 a S 2.87 a S 23.8 a L
3 Wheat 3.0 bc S 1.99 bc S 16.7 bc L 2.74 a S 19.7 b L
4 Clover 4.3 a S 2.73 a S 15.9 c L 2.70 a S 22.1 ab L
6 Lupine 3.4 bc S 1.85 bc L 20.1 a S 2.65 a S 22.7 ab L
6 Rye 3.4 bc S 2.17 ab S 17.4 bc S 2.91 a S 20.2 b L
8 Vetch 3.9 ab S 1.94 bc L 19.1 ab S 3.13 a S 23.8 a L
10 Lupine 3.4 abc S 1.66 bc L 18.5 ab S 2.49 a S 21.9 ab L
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in
columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level
of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.


TABLE 5.
Concentration of Micro-nutrients in Ear Leaves of Pioneer P3098 Corn
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc
-----------------mg/Kg--------------------------

Fallow 4.5 c L 75.0 a S 34.0 b S 17.0 b L
3 Wheat 3.8 c L 67.5 a S 30.5 b S 27.0 a S
4 Clover 3.5 c L 67.5 a S 21.0 b S 26.0 a S
6 Lupine 7.8 a S 80.0 a S 27.3 b S 28.0 a S
6 Rye 4.5 c L 80.0 a S 26.5 b S 28.3 a S
8 Vetch 7.0 ab S 62.5 a S 48.3 a S 29.5 a S
10 Lupine 6.3 b S 70.0 a S 55.8 a S 27.0 a S
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = sufficient nutrient concentration
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly
different at the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans
multiple range test.









TABLE 6.
pH, Mehlich 1 extractable Macro-nutrients and Kjeldahl Nitrogen at seven locations for
Pioneer P3098 Corn
Nutrient
Location pH Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
----------------------------mg/kg----------------------------------------
Fallow 5.7ab 237a 24.8ab 66.1a 64.3a 375 a
3 Wheat 5.9a 222a 30.Oa 13.1b 32.9c 435 a
4 Clover 5.8ab 324a 37.3a 16.3b 51.1abc 335 a
6 Lupine 5.7ab 269a 31.3a 24.7b 40.3bc 475 a
6 Rye 5.8ab 273a 38.3a 22.7b 45.8bc 413 a
8 Vetch 5.3bc 218a 25.0ab 20.6b 54.8ab 548 a
10 Lupine 5.0b 90b 11.lb 15.1b 36.5bc 363 a
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.



TABLE 7.
Mehlich 1 extractable Minor-Nutrients and Wakley-Black Organic Matter at Seven locations for
Pioneer P3098 Corn
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc Organic Matter
-------------------------mg/kg----------------------- ---------%------
Fallow 0.16abcd 16.5a 4.3 a 0.59b 1.42 a
3 Wheat 0.lld 7.8c 2.3 a 0.95ab 1.44 a
4 Clover 0.12cd 7.8c 3.9 a 1.55a 1.25 a
6 Lupine 0.13bcd 8.9c 2.8 a .1.42a 1.26 a
6 Rye 0.19abc 9.Oc 2.6 a 1.07ab 1.59 a
8 Vetch 0.20ab 10.5bc 3.8 a 1.34a 1.28 a
10 Lupine 0.21a 12.3b 2.8 a 0.57b 1.27 a
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.









TABLE 8.
Concentration of Macro-nutrients in Youngest Mature Leaves of Asgrow Chaparral Sorghum
Nutrient
Location Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
-------------------------------- g/Kg ------------------------------------

Fallow 2.7 cd L 2.01 b H 25.3 a H 3.62 d H 26.4 a L
3 Wheat 2.4 d L 2.14 bc H 18.4 b H 3.38 d S 17.0 d L
4 Clover 4.1 a S 3.48 cd H 19.1 cd H 4.42 bc H 23.2 bc L
6 Lupine 3.2 bc S 2.63 b H 23.0 b H 5.41 a H 25.1 abc L
6 Rye 3.8 ab S 3.35 a H 18.6 cd H 4.45 bc H 22.0 c L
8 Vetch 4.1 a S 2.60 b H 20.4 cd H 5.03 cd H 24.3 ab L
10 Lupine 4.2 a S 2.56 b H 20.9 bc H 3.92 bc H 24.1 abc L
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration; H = High
nutrient concentration. Letters in columns not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple
range test.

TABLE 9.
Concentration of Micro-nutrients in Youngest Mature Leaves of Asgrow Chaparral Sorghum
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc
-------------------------- mg/Kg----------------------

Fallow 6.8 b S 67.5 ab S 41.5 ab S 28.0 a S
3 Wheat 3.8 d S 52.5 c L 27.3 bc S 29.8 a S
4 Clover 5.3 c S 62.5 bc L 24.0 c S 31.5 a H
6 Lupine 9.0 a H 60.0 bc L 32.0 bc S 31.0 a H
6 Rye 6.5 bc S 70.0 ab S 29.5 bc S 32.3 a H
8 Vetch 8.8 a H 67.5 ab S 51.0 a S 30.5 a S
10 Lupine 7.5 b H 77.5 a S 53.5 a S 34.3 a H
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration; H = High
nutrient concentration. Letters in columns not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple
range test.









TABLE 10.
pH, Mehlich 1 extractable Macro-nutrients and Kjeldahl Nitrogen at seven locations for
Asgrow "Chaparrel" grain sorghum
Nutrient
Location pH Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
------------------------mg/kg-----------------------------------
Fallow 5.7bc 221bc 25.6cd 63.1a 58.7ab 450ab
3 Wheat 5.7bc 196bc 28.3bcd 20.6bc 24.5d 448ab
4 Clover 6.3a 360a 40.3ab 14.3c 56.4ab 438abc
6 Lupine 5.9b 289ab 42.6a 26.2b 39.4cd 463ab
6 Rye 6.3a 298ab 40.6ab 15.1c 42.9bc 385bc
8 Vetch 5.7bc 297ab 35.0abc 22.4bc 63.1a 513a
10 Lupine 5.5c 124c 17.2d 17.4bc 43.7bc 333c
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the
0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.

TABLE 11.
Mehlich 1 extractable Minor-Nutrients and Wakley-Black Organic Matter at Seven locations for
Asgrow "Chaparrel" grain sorghum


Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc Organic Matter
--------------------mg/kg ----------------------- ----- % ------
Fallow 0.12 a 16.4a 3.2a 0.33b 1.18 a
3 Wheat 0.11 a 7.6c 2.0b 0.52ab 1.31 a
4 Clover 0.11 a 7.4c 2.6ab 1.45a 1.41 a
6 Lupine 0.13 a 8.2c 3.0a 1.48a 1.37 a
6 Rye 0.18 a 8.0c 2.5ab 1.00ab 1.40 a
8 Vetch 0.19 a 9.6c 3.4a 1.55a 1.50 a
10 Lupine 0.17 a 12.4b 2.0b 1.30ab 1.33 a
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the
0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.









TABLE 12.
Concentration of Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium in two soybean cultivars seven locations
Nutrient
Calcium Magnesium Potassium
Variety Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X
Location -------------------------------- g/Kg ------------------------------------
Fallow 6.18 7.53 6.85ab S 3.45 3.80 3.60bc S 18.9 16.8 17.8a S
3 Wheat 7.25 6.45 6.85ab S 4.14 3.84 3.99a S 15.4 16.8 15.1bcd L
4 Clover 7.45 7.75 7.60a S 3.68 3.85 3.76abc S 13.7 12.1 12.9d L
6 Lupine 7.43 7.53 7.48a S 3.80 4.00 3.90ab S 17.1 16.4 16.7ab S
6 Rye 6.63 7.63 7.13ab S 3.44 3.58 3.51c S 14.6 13.5 14.0cd L
8 Vetch 6.13 6.80 6.46 S 3.40 3.67 3.53c S 15.9 14.4 15.1bcd L
10 Lupine 6.05 6.55 6.30b S 3.84 3.66 3.75abc S 16.9 15.6 16.3abc L
X 6.73 7.18ns 3.68 3.77ns 16.1 14.8ns
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in
columns not followed by the same latter are significantly different at the 0.05 level
of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. NS = No significant difference
between varieties.


TABLE 13.
Concentration of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in two soybean cultivars at seven location
Nurtient
Nitrogen Phosphorus
Variety Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X
Location -------------------------- g/Kg -----------------------------
Fallow 44.7 42.1 43.4c S 3.48a 3.25a ns 3.36 S
3 Wheat 44.9 45.3 45.1bc S 3.66a 3.00ab 3.32 S
4 Clover 48.3 46.0 47.1abc S 3.23b 2.75c 2.99 S
6 Lupine 46.5 47.7 47.lab S 3.09bc 2.73c 2.91 S
6 Rye 43.1 44.5 43.8c S 2.97c 2.77bc ns 2.87 S
8 Vetch 47.2 49.1 48.2a S 3.14 3.13a ns 3.13 S
10 Lupine 46.0 47.9 46.9ab S 3.58a 3.21a 3.40 S
X 45.8 46.1ns 3.31 2.98
S = Sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in columns not followed by the same
latter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability according to
Duncans multiple range test. NS = No significant difference between varieties.
* = Significant difference between varieties at the 0.05 level of probability.









TABLE 14.
Concentration of Copper, Iron, Manganese and Zinc in Two Soybean
cultivars at Seven Locations
Nutrient
Copper Iron
Variety Howard Delta. X Howard Delta X
Location ----------------------mg/kg--------------------------
Fallow 5.25b L 4.25c 4.75 L 92.5 122.5 107.5 a S
3 Wheat 3.75c L 4.00cd 3.86 L 87.5 102.5 95.0 a S
4 Clover 3.25c L 3.00d 3.13 L 100.0 102.5 101.3 a S
6 Lupine 6.25ab L 8.25a* 7.25 L 92.5 105.0 98.8 a S
6 Rye 3.50c L 3.25cd 3.38 L 85.0 95.0 90.0 a S
8 Vetch 6.75a L 7.50a 7.13 L 122.5 105.0 113.8 a S
10 Lupine 6.75a L 6.25b 6.50 L 97.5 100.0 98.8 a S
X 5.07 5.21 96.8 104.6 ns


Nutrient
Manganese Zinc
Variety Howard Delta. X Howard Delta X
Location -----------------------mg/kg-------------------------
Fallow 74.3 76.3 75.3c S 34.3 33.3 33.8d S
3 Wheat 66.3 68.3 67.3cd S 49.3 45.5 47.4bc S
4 Clover 56.3 56.5 56.4d S 46.3 38.0 42.lcd S
6 Lupine 75.5 77.0 76.3c S 58.3 55.5 56.9b H
6 Rye 72.3 58.5 8 65.4cd S 57.5 43.8 50.6bc S
8 Vetch 98.8 95.3 97.0b S 70.5 75.0 72.8a H
10 Lupine 150.0 110.5 130.3a H 53.3 48.0 50.6bc S
X 84.8 77.5 ns 52.8 48.4 ns

L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient
concentration; H = High nutrient concentration. Values in columns
not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the
0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.
ns = non significant differences between varieties; = significant
differences between varieties at the 0.05 level of probability.









TABLE 15.
Mehlich I extractable Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium and pH of soil at seven locations for
rtwo ~owhban cni tiv.rs


CATION
Location Phosphorus Nitrogen Organic Matter
Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X
------------------ mg/kg ----------------------- ------------ % -------------
Fallow 58.3 64.1 61.2 a 385 383 384 f 1.17 bc 1.35 bc ns 1.26
3 Wheat 32.7 26.8 29.8 d 420 450 435 c 1.24 abc 1.08 d ns 1.16
4 Clover 61.6 61.5 61.6 a 398 445 421 f 1.03 abc 1.28 cd 1.15
6 Lupine 42.9 37.1 40.0 cd 470 440 455 b 1.30 ab 1.15 cd ns 1.22
6 Rye 55.7 52.8 54.8 ab 373 390 381 g 1.28 ab 1.29 bcd ns 1.29
8 Vetch 56.2 55.4 55.8 ab 463 500 481 a 1.21 abc 1.66 a 1.43
10 Lupine 41.0 45.9 43.5 abc 388 393 390 e 1.42 a 1.50 ab ns 1.46
X 49.8 49.1 ns 414 429 ns 1.24 1.33
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non significant
difference between varieties at the 0.05 level of probability. = Significant difference
between cultivars at the 0.05 level of probability.


CATION
Location Calcium Magnesium Potassium _pH
Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X
-------------------------- mg/kg ----------------------------
Fallow 226 260 243c 26.2 33.0 29.6b 96.9 94.8 98.4a 5.9 5.9 5.9ab
3 Wheat 240 188 214c 34.6 29.3 32.0b 18.7 20.7 19.7b 6.2 5.9 6.0a
4 Clover 383 373 378a 45.9 42.1 44.0a 30.8 34.5 32.7b 6.1 6.1 6.1a
6 Lupine 291 284 288bc 43.8 37.0 40.4a 30.1 33.1 32.6b 6.0 5.8 5.9ab
6 Rye 274 441 358ab 42.7 45.0 43.9a 29.9 26.3 28.1b 6.0 6.1 6.0a
8 Vetch 246 233 240c 27.2 24.6 25.9b 27.9 25.6 26.8b 5.6 5.5 5.6bc
10 Lupine 85 142 114d 10.3 17.0 13.7c 19.1 25.8 22.5b 5.3 5.5 5.4c
X 249 274 ns 33.0 32.6 ns 36.2 40.0 ns 5.9 5.8 ns
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non significant
difference between varieties at the 0.05 level of probability.

TABLE 16.
Mehlich I extractable Phosphorus, Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Walkley-Black organic matter of soil
at seven locations for two soybean cultivars.









TABLE 17.
Mehlich I extractable Copper,Iron,Manganese and Zinc of soil at seven locations for two
soybean cultivars.
CATION


Le


F.
3
4
6
6
8
1
X


location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc
Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X Howard Delta. X
---------------------------------mg/kg----------------------------------------
allow 0.16bc 0.15a ns 0.16 14.2 15.3 14.8a 3.1 3.2 3.2a 0.43 0.49 0.46e
Wheat 0.llc 0.09b ns 0.10 7.5 7.8 7.7c 2.3 2.0 2.2b 0.86 0.73 0.80d
Clover 0.13bc 0.14a ns 0.14 7.9 7.7 7.8c 2.9 2.6 2.7ab 1.41 1.84 1.63a
Lupine 0.17b 0.15a ns 0.16 8.5 8.6 8.6c 2.7 2.6 2.7ab 1.38 0.93 1.16bc
Rye 0.22a 0.17a 0.20 9.5 11.0 10.3bc 2.6 2.6 2.6ab 0.98 1.01 1.16bc
Vetch 0.14bc 0.16a ns 0.15 9.3 9.3 9.3bc 2.9 2.9 3.0a 1.11 1.39 1.25b
0 Lupine 0.16bc 0.15a ns 0.16 12.3 11.5 11.9b 2.6 2.8 2.7ab 0.90 0.84 0.87cd
0.16 0.14 9.9 10.2 ns 2.7 2.7 ns 1.01 1.03 ns


Values in columns not followed by the same letters are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non significant
difference between cultivars. = Significant difference between cultivars at the 0.05 level
of probability.









TABLE 18.
Concentration of Macro-nutrients in Youngest Mature Leaves of California Blackeye #5
Nutrient
Location Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
------------------------------ g/Kg-----------------------------------

Fallow 11.2 c L 3.87 b S 23.3 a S 3.65 c S 42.1 c S
3 Wheat 12.7 ab L 4.66 a S 18.5 b L 4.12 a S 54.7 a S
4 Clover 13.2 a L 4.63 a S 16.6 b L 4.10 a S 50.2 ab S
6 Lupine 11.1 b L 4.23 ab S 17.5 b L 3.43 b S 47.0 b S
6 Rye 10.9 b L 3.96 b S 15.5 b L 3.64 ab S 46.8 b S
8 Vetch 11.1 b L 4.34 a S 18.1 b L 3.65 ab S 47.7 b S
10 Lupine 13.3 a L. 4.18 a S 16.8 b L 3.51 b S 49.2 b S
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in columns not
followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans multiple range test.

TABLE 19.
Concentration of Micro-nutrients in Youngest Mature Leaves of California blackeye #5
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc
------------------- mg/Kg---------------------------------

Fallow 7.5 ab S 110.0 b H 127.5 bc S 28.3 d S
3 Wheat 5.3 b L 110.0 b H 78.8 cd S 49.0 b S
4 Clover 5.3 bc L 112.5 ab H 65.3 d S 39.0 c S
6 Lupine 9.5 a S 92.5 c S 115.0 bc S 40.8 bc S
6 Rye 5.8 b L 105.0 b H 112.3 bcd S .43.3 bc S
8 Vetch 9.3 a S 100.0 bc S 157.5 b S 55.0 a S
10 Lupine 7.3 ab S 122.5 a H 215.0 a S 47.8 ab S
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration; H = High nutrient
concentration. Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different
at the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.









TABLE 20.
Mehlich I extractable Macro-nutrients and Kjeldahl Nitrogen at seven location for California
Blackeye #5
Nutrient
Location PH Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
-------------------------mg/Kg----------------------------------
Fallow 5.6 bc 243 cd 27.6 bcd 88.4 a 59.5 a 415 a
3 Wheat 5.9 ab 221 cd 29.5 bc 19.6 b 30.7 b 388 a
4 Clover 6.1 a 392 a 48.6 a 28.7 b 59.6 a 385 a
6 Lupine 6.0 ab 295 bc 37.6 b 31.3 b 38.8 ab 420 a
6 Rye 6.2 a 345 ab 54.9 a 27.2 b 46.0 ab 388 a
8 Vetch 5.6 bc 200 cd 23.2 cd 24.5 b 54.2 a 418 a
10 Lupine 5.4 c 170 d 17.7 d 24.4 b 52.1 a 408 a
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.


TABLE 21.
Mehlich extractable Minor-Nutrients and Walkley-Black Organic Matter at seven locations for
California Blackeye #5
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc Organic Matter
-------------------mg/Kg -------------------------- ------ %----
Fallow 0.16 ab 15.8 a 2.99 a 0.77 bc 1.60 a
3 Wheat 0.08 c 7.8 c 2.18 a 0.92 bc 1.58 a
4 Clover 0.16 ab 7.4 c 3.23 a 1.17 ab 1.25 a
6 Lupine 0.15 b 8.2 b 2.65 a 0..93 bc 1.26 a
6 Rye 0.17 ab 9.0 bc 2.37 a 1.52 a 1.59 a
8 Vetch 0.21 a 9.4 bc 2.85 a 1.08 abc 1.28 a
10 Lupine 0.19 ab 11.8 b 3.54 a 0.61 c 1.27 a
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.









TABLE 22.
Concentration of Calcium. Magnesium and Potassium in Seven Varities of Pea at two locations
Nutrient
Calcium Magnesium Potassium
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X Clover Rye X
Variety ----------------------------- g/Kg --------------------------------------
Calif. B.E. 13.2 10.9 12.Oc L 4.63b S 3.96b S 4.30 16.6ab L 15.5a ns L 16.0
Whipporwill 12.3 10.5 11.4c L 4.73b S 3.98b S 4.35 14.0bc L 11.9b L 12.9
Tenn. Brown 16.1 14.5 15.3b L 4.04c S 3.58bc* S 3.81 14.1bc L 15.7a ns L 14.9
Texas Purple 16.3 16.9 15.1b L 5.63a S 4.61a S 5.12 11.7c L 13.8ab ns L 12.7
Miss. Silver 16.2 15.6 15.9ab L 3.84c S 3.38c S 3.61 18.0a L 15.3a L 16.6
Purple Knuckle 12.0 12.7 12.4c L 4.56b S 3.24c S 3.90 14.9b L 16.1a ns L 15.5
Pinkeye 19.8 15.0 17.4a L 4.51b S 3.16c S 3.84 14.5b L 16.4a ns L 15.5
X 15.1 13.3 ns 4.56 3.70 14.8 14.9
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in columns not
followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non significant difference between locations.
* = Significant difference between locations at the 0.05 level of probability.

TABLE 23.
Concentration of Phosphorus and Nitropgen in Seven Varieties of Pea at two locations
Nutrient
Phosphorus NItrogen
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X
Variety ------------------------ g/Kg--------------------------

Calif. B.E. 4.10 3.64 3.87 b S 50.2 a S 46.8 a S 48.5
Whipporwill 4.60 3.34 3.97 b S 46.2 b S 40..9 b S 43.5
Tenn. Brown 4.82 4.37 4.59 a S 40.4 de S 41.6 b ns S 41.0
Texas Purple 3.73 3.64 3.68 bc S 42.7 cd S 43.0 b ns S 42.8
Miss. Silver 3.34 3.18 3.26 c S 44.1 bc S 39.8 b S 41.9
Purple Knuckle 3.80 3.46 3.63 bc S 44.5 bc S 41.6 b ns S 43.0
Pinkeye 3.38 3.23 3.31 c S 37.9 e S 41.0 b ns S 39.4
X 3.97 3.55 43.7 42.1
S = Sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in columns not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range
test. ns = Non significant difference between locations. = Significant difference between
locations at the 0.05 level of probability.










TABLE 24.
Concentration of Minor Elements in seven Pea Cultivars at two
Locations
Nutrient
Copper Iron
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X

Variety -------------- mg/Kg ----------------------------
Calif. B.E. 5.3 5.8 5.5a L 113a H 105a ns H 109
Whipporwill 3.5 5.8 4.6ab L 100b S 78c S 89
Tenn. Brown 3.8 5.8 4.8ab L 95bc S 85bc S 90
Texas Purple 2.8 5.5 4.1b L 103b H 90b S 96
Miss. Silver 3.0 5.0 4.0b L 85c S 85bc ns S 85
Purple Knuckle 2.5 4.8 3.6b L 93bc S 80bc S 86
Pinkeye 4.0 4.8 4.4ab L 85c S 85bc ns S 85
X 3.5 5.3 96 87


Nutrient
Manganese Zinc
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X


Variety
Calif. B.E.
Whipporwill
Tenn. Brown
Texas Purple
Miss. Silver
Purple Knuckle
Pinkeye


62.3 112
74.0 140
65.0 111
82.0 143
82.8 156
59.3 125
68.8 118
71 129


mg/Kg--------------------
89bc S 39.0 43.3 4:
107ab S 28.8 31.5 3'
88c S 37.0 42.5 3!
112ab S 34.8 37.5 3i
119a S 30.3 35.0 3:
92bc S 41.5 34.5 3)
93bc S 35.8 35.6 3l


*


35.3 37.3 *


l.la S
D.lc S
9.8a S
6.1ab S
2.6b S
8.Oa S
6.lab S


L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient
concentration; H = High nutrient concentration. Values in columns
not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the
0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.
ns = Non significant difference between the two locations. =
Significant differences between the two locations at the 0.05 level
of probability.









TABLE 25.
pH, Mehlich I extractable Calcium and Magnesium and Walkley-Black Organic Matter in Soil of
Seven Pea Cultivars at 2 Locations
Nutrient
pH Calcium Magnesium Organic Matter
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X Clover Rye X Clover Rye X
Variety ------------ mg/Kg ---------------- ------- % --------
Calif. B.E. 6.1 6.2 6.1 a 392 345 369 a 48.6 54.9 51.8 a 1.25 1.34 1.29 a
Whipporwill 6.1 5.8 6.0 a 377 254 316 a 46.6 38.5 42.6 a 1.55 1.43 1.49 a
Tenn. Brown 6.2 6.1 6.1 a 399 525 462 a 47.1 44.8 46.0 a 1.36 1.44 1.40 a
Texas Purple 6.3 5.9 6.1 a 402 283 343 a 50.5 45.6 48.1 a 1.39 1.78 1.58 a
Miss. Silver 6.1 6.0 6.1 a 379 289 334 a 46.6 39.8 42.7 a 1.41 1.42 1.41a
Purple Knuckle 6.2 6.0 6.1 a 388 276 332 a 46.5 37.5 42.0 a 1.64 1.77 1.71 a
Pinkeye 6.2 6.0 6.1 a 378 413 396 a 46.2 41.6 43.9 a 1.25 1.35 1.30 a
X 6.2 6.0ns 388 341ns 47.3 43.2ns 1.41 1.50ns
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non significant between
the two locations.


TABLE 26.
Mehlich I Extractable Potassium and Phosphorus and Kjeldahl Nitrogen in soil of Seven Pea
Varieties at Two Location
Nutrient
Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X Clover Rye X
Variety ------------------------ mg/Kg -------------------------------------
Calif. B.E. 28.7 27.1 28.0 a 59.6 46.0 52.8 a 385 388 386a
Whipporwill 24.6 29.3 27.0 a 54.9 54.3 54.6 a 405 443 424bc
Tenn. Brown 26.8 25.7 26.3 a 56.9 47.5 52.2 a 323 385 354a
Texas Purple 29.6 27.5 28.6 a 68.3 47.5 57.9 a 460 285 423bc
Miss. Silver 25.9 22.5 24.2 a 55.5 53.0 54.3 a 448 423 435bc
Purple Knuckle 25.9 27.8 26.9 a 52.2 45.5 48.9 a 463 420 441b
Pinkeye 28.7 40.0 47.9 a 47.9 97.1 72.5 a 533 440 486c
X 27.2 28.6ns 56.5 55.8ns 431 412ns
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non significant between
the two locations.









TABLE 27.
pH. Mehlich I extractable Minor Elements in Soil of Seven Pea Cultivars at Two Locations
Nutrient
Copper Iron Manganese Zinc
Location Clover Rye X Clover Rye X Clover Rye X Clover Rye X
Variety ---------------------------- mg/Kg --------------------------------------
Calif. B.E. 0.16ab 0.17b 0.17 7.4 9.0 8.2a 3.23 2.37 2.80 a 1.17 1.52 1.35 a
Whipporwill 0.18a 0.19ab 0.19 7.7 9.5 8.6a 5.09 2.72 3.91 a 1.20 1.60 1.40 a
Tenn. Brown 0.12b 0.23a 0.18 7.4 11.5 10.2a 2.92 3.36 3.14 a 1.18 2.77 1.98 a
Texas Purple 0.14ab 0.21ab 0.18 7.5 9.2 9.5a 3.84 2.07 2.96 a 1.15 1.35 1.25 a
Miss. Silver 0.14ab 0.20ab 0.17 7.3 8.8 8.3a 6.72 2.27 4.50 a 1.31 1.16 1.24 a
Purple Knuckle 0.13ab 0.17b 0.15 7.0 11.4 7.9a 7.68 2.05 4.87 a 1.22 0.91 1.07 a
Pinkeye 0.12b 0.21ab 0.21 7.1 10.3 9.3a 2.90 2.65 2.78 a 1.86 1.16 1.51 a
X 0.14 6.0ns 7.3 10.3ns 4.63 2.50ns 1.30 1.50ns

Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. ns = Non sigficance between
the two locations.









TABLE 28.
Concentration of Macro-nutrients in Youngest Mature Leaves of Velvetbean
Nutrient


L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration; H = High nutrient
concentration. Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different
at the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test. 1 = Based on
sufficency values for soybean. 2 = Based on sufficiency values for cowpea.


Location Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
-----------------------------------g/Kg----------------------------------------

Fallow 7.2 a S- L2 1.77 c Ll L2 12.5 a Li L2 3.54 a S- S2 39.8 c S! S2
3 Wheat 7.7 a S L 2.17 ab L L 11.2 ab L L 3.37 ab S S 46.2 ab S S
4 Clover 8.2 a S L 2.08 ab L L 7.6 c L L 3.26 ab S S 42.9 abc S S
6 Lupine 7.0 a S L 1.93 bc L L 9.6 abc L L 3.05 b S S 43.5 b S S
6 Rye 7.4 a S L 1.93 bc L L 8.5 bc L L 3.09 b S S 41.9 b S S
8 Vetch 8.1 a S L 2.22 a L L 8.6 bc L L 3.12 b S S 47.1 a S S
10 Lupine 6.8 a S L 2.11 ab L L 10.6 ab L L 3.51 a S S 46.2 ab S S
L = Low nutrient concentration; S = Sufficient nutrient concentration. Values in columns not
followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans multiple range test. 1 = Based on sufficency values for soybean. 2 =
Based on sufficiency values for cowpea.


TABLE 29.
Concentration of Micro-nutrients in Youngest Mature Leaves of Velvetbean
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc
------------------- mg/Kg ---------------------------------------

Fallow 10.8 b S! S2 75.0 a S- S2 132.5 ab HI S2 22.8 d L1 S2
3 Wheat 7.0 c L S 80.0 a S S 64.8 b S S 33.5 bc S S
4 Clover 6.3 c L S 75.0 a S S 68.5 b S S- 30.8 c S S
6 Lupine 10.8 c S S 97.5 a S S 113.0 ab H S 31.8 c S S
6 Rye 9.3 b L S 92.5 a S S 101.5 b H S 34.5 bc S S
8 Vetch 13.5 a S S 87.5 a S S 191.0 a H S 43.5 a S S
10 Lupine 9.5 b L S 85.0 a S S 142.0 ab H S 3738 b S S










TABLE 30.
Mehlich I extractable Macro-nutrients and Kieldahl Nitrogen at seven locations for Velvetbean
Nutrient
Location pH Calcium Magnesium Potassium Phosphorus Nitrogen
--------------------------mg/Kg---------------------------------
Fallow 6.0 bc 228 bc 24.8 c 76.7 a 59.7 a 335 ab
3 Wheat 6.1 ab 249 b 33.8 b 13.5 b 35.1 b 383 bc
4 Clover 6.3 a 397 a 48.7 a 19.4 b 62.1 a 438 ab
6 Lupine 5.8 cd 243 b 38.9 b 24.1 b 32.4 b 483 a
6 Rye 6.0 bc 268 b 41.0 ab 21.5 b 63.4 a 388 b
8 Vetch 5.4 e 141 d 21.6 c 17.8 b 34.5 b 453 ab
10 Lupine 5.6 de 158 cd 21.4 c 21.5 b 41.3 b 403 bc
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.


TABLE 31.
Mehlich I extractable Minor-Nutrients and Walkley-Black Organic Matter at seven locations for
Velvetbean
Nutrient
Location Copper Iron Manganese Zinc Organic Matter
------------------- mg/Kg -------------------------- ---------- % --------
Fallow 0.16 a 16.4 a 3.33 a 0.92 ab 1.38 a
3 Wheat 0.13 a 7.5 c 2.30 a 0.68 b 1.39 a
4 Clover 0.15 a 7.4 c 3.03 a 1.27 a 1.46 a
6 Lupine 0.17 a 8.4 bc 2.65 a 1.11 a 1.48 a
6 Rye 0.20 a 10.2 bc 3.06 a 1.15 a 1.50 a
8 Vetch 0.17 a 10.7 b 2.94 a 1..30 a 1.48 a
10 Lupine 0.14 a 11.2 b 3.23 a 1.10 a 1.48 a
Values in columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans multiple range test.



















APsaN)IX A
cneL atn of sail and dlat mias. &il dH and arnmic matter fcr Pirmer P3098 (bm


pH Ca M K P N C Fe Mi Zn
Ca .696**
Mg .754** .874**
K .047 .166 -.017
SP .036 .486** .256 .643**
ON .055 .157 .138 -.036 .114
I Qi -.650** -.379* -.358+ .032 .200 -.023
L Fe -.486* -.438** -.546** .765** .407* -.155 .342+
In -.030 .367+ .136 .406* .707** .181 .109 .226
Zn .210 .572** .486** -.208 .265 .310+ .033 -.497** .343+
CM .374* .217 .273 .067 -.003 .021 -.174 -.139 -.167 -.161


Ca M~ K P N CQ F Ih


Ca .047 .387* .418* -.474** .122 .008 .057 -.540** .201 .493** -.149
Mg .410* .543** .677** -.496* .063 -.017 -.200 -.679** .114 .510** -.043 .793**
PK -.342+ -.246 -.378* .591** .269 .078 .359+ .606** .121 -.101 -.015 -.407* -.672**
LP .207 .360+ .390* .029 .411* .206 .119 -.090 .260 .104 .054 .302 .381* -.117
AN -.354+ -.114 -.143 .340+ .492** .070 .264 .420* .423* .156 -.174 .134 -.091 .601** .081
N OC -.471** -.319+ -.339+ -.110 -.148 .305 .331+ .100 -.125 .042 -.259 .138 -.235 .485** .033 .336+
T -.029 .162 .160 .161 .099 -.100 .289 .047 .057 .159 .071 .035 .063 .111 .031 -.008 .113
h -.709** -.801** -.744** -.073 -.100 .016 .515** .463** -.030 -.324+ -.236 -.132 -.390* .347+ -.134 .394* .460** -.149
Zn -.198 -.100 .049 -.655** -.362+ .113 .156 -.509** -.352+ .249 -.207 .493** .411* -.318+ .119 -.099 .420* .080 .172

+,*,** = bn laticn significant at the 0.10 to 0.051, 0.05 to 0.010 and < 0.01 level of ptEability,


CM



















APPEN1gX B
OammlatanM of soil ard Ilant MnMalSr sail TIH and arcnic matter far Aagrw 'OtmaMel" ScIrtun


SMI


PH Ca mg K P N (1 Fe M1 Zn
Ca .747**
MY .780** .836*
K -.236 -.151 -.153
SP .032 .414* .100 .319+
ON .025 .413* .334+ .303 .339+
I 1 -.162 -.160 .069 -.057 .161 .013
L B -.576** -.535* -.568** .745** .365* -.089 .171
Mn .069 .423* .299 .392* .539** .527* .070 .080
Zn .094 .195 .184 -.354+ .349+ .035 .202 -.155 -.159
CM .315 .389* .378* -.363* .244 .155 .213 -.417* .025 .416*


C-a 9 K P N -l Fe nP
Ca Mg K P N CI EIt Mh


Ca .206 .277 .082 -.488** .483** -.153 .316+ -.203 .025 .567** .507**
Mg .674** .575** .416* -.584** .142 -.113 -.117 -.571** -.062 .283 .408* .663**
PK -.344+ -.186 -.213 .747** .250 .139 -.058 .662** .294 -.139 -.465** -.271 -.466**
LP .254 .491** .441** -.210 .347+ .308 .096 -.323+ .270 .596** .425* .480** .401* .126
AN -.179 .035 -.127 .411* .639** .187 .229 .523** .408* .314+ -.076 .382* -.022 .680** .497**
N M1 -.163 .040 .174 .129 .333+ .096 .493** .222 .336+ .370* .266 .347+ -.045 .435* .628** .637**
T F -.245 -.349+ -.373* .028 .319+ -.313+ .452** .500** -.197 .306 -.149 .464** .071 .302 .079 .534** .344+
Mn -.684** -.555** -.541** .217 .318+ -.018 .551** .633** -.025 .325+ -.114 .263 -.381 .357+ .086 .563 .526** .679**
Zn -.093 -.263 -.266 -.255 .007 -.153 .190 -.024 -.050 .251 .164 .395* .229 -.061 .220 .269 .125 .399* .325+

+,*,** = baelatin significant at the 0.10 to 0.051, 0.05 to 0.010 and < 0.01 level of pEtabiity, Ispectively.


CM



















APPEN)1X C
&eatr of soil a dndt rmps M soil pH and arnnpn~ic ntterr f rx ; rsrir


S9IL


H Ca MJ K P N 01 e M Zn
Ca .529*
Mg .703* .811**
K .098 .086 .074
S P .070 .407** .275* .423**
O N -.147 .149 .153 -.093 -.000
I Q -.108 .063 .058 .072 .336** -.254*
L Fe -.460** -.076 -.316** .617** .334** -.220+ .276*
Mn -.128 .246+ -.001 .303* .690** .166 .257* .371**
Zn .133 .393** .333** -.422** .325** .317** .092 -.406** .185
CM -.361** -.252+ -.360** -.074 .049 .087 .176 .188 .178 .047


CM Ca Mj K P N Qi Fe Mn


Ca .483** .698** .670** .122 .175 .146 -.039 -.122 .089 .259* -.169
Mg .050 .020 .113 -.054 -.200 .166 -.412* -.122 -.119 -.012 -.117 .511**
P K -.449** -.311* -.290* .405** -.017 .037 .093 .595** .219+-.341** .053 -.253* .034
L P -.289* -.450**-.444** .150 -.030 -.142 -.109 .327** .115 -.266* .126 -.306* .168 .476**
A N -.219+ .034 -.050 -.310* .010 .316** -.223+ -.211 .093 .338** .123 .077 .224+ .098 .068
N CQ -.572** -.465** -.511** -.119 -.183 .268* .106 .122 .121 -.043 .287* -.310* -.007 .393** .060 .363**
T F-.086 .125 .087 .202 .288* .303* -.089 .039 .263* .150 -.154 .073 -.019 .081 -.062 .069 .078
Mn -.716** -.644** -.772** -.205 -.140 -.025 .122 .271* .157 -.135 .320** -.459** -.022 .301* .381** .173 .600** .071
Zn -.360** -.170 -.168 -.481** -.076 .357** .182 .251+ .018 -.260* .221 -.236+ -.123 .002 -.028 .387** .606** -.002 .359**

+,*,** = 0melaticn significant at the 0.10 to 0.051, 0.05 to 0.010 and < 0.01 level of prtability, respectively.


rl On



















APgNOMX D
Crelatimn of sail ard plant ndrals. sail pr ard aranic nmtter fcr Califinia Blackee #5


SmIL
pH ca M K P N oi Fe Mi Zn
Ca .801**
Mg .838** .875**
K -.220 .036 -.070
SP -.179 .243 .037 .361*
ON -.422* -.149 -.181 .152 .215
I O -.200 -.155 -.105 .013 .427* -.011
L Fe -.721** -.462** -.459** .709** .417* .387* .174
Mn -.261 -.068 -.203 .075 .683** .192 .298 .278
Zn .314+ .472** .570** -.163 .189 .337+ .064 -.175 -.141
CM .212 .100 .045 .305 -.027 -.150 -.145 -.103 -.207 -.106


CM Ca


-- K P N T F M
S K P N a, Fe Mn


Ca -.017 .049 -.028 -.190 .106 -.071 -.197 -.198 .015 -.184 -.156
Mg .105 .040 .037 -.429* -.054 .033 -.367* -.394* -.022 .041 .031 .498**
PK -.585* -.370* -.385* .613** .167 .374* -.156 .684** .005 -.128 .168 -.078 -.065
LP .232 .262 .194 -.177 .164 -.209 -.336+ -.204 -.059 .195 -.021 .359+ .596** -.004
AN .082 -.063 -.026 -.711** -.245 -.037 -.327+ -.433* -.064 .138 -.269 .414* .565* -.145 .596**
NQ -.388* -.445** -.423* .012 .009 .170 .552** .222 .049 -.098 -.065 -.302 -.184 .195 -.292 -.138
T F -.312+ -.213 -.281 .051 .235 -.099 .110 .271 .273 -.225 -.449** .334+ .039 -.012 .327 .362+ -.191
Mn -.653** -.595** -.588** .008 .145 .255 .447** .462** .349+ -.265 -.295 .077 -.355+ .018 -.441** -.131 .262 .262
Zn -.217 -.406* -.288 -.722** -.189 .003 .107 -.289 -.002 .092 -.067 .104 .353+ -.308 .198 .482** -.014 -.014 .289

+,*,** = CbOelatic significant at the 0.10 to 0.051, 0.05 to 0.010 and < 0.01 level of prmbbility, respctively.



















APPENX E
OCtelatimn of sail ard plant nmierals. soil tH and arIic natter fir sUEn pER varieties at th locatiras


EH Ca Mj K P N 01 E Mi Zn
Ca .306*
jg .587** .566**
K -.155 -.028 .059
S P -.145 .269* .115 .503*
0 N -.164 .050 -.112 .065 .017
I Q -.353** .247 -.070 -.117 .247 -.051
L F -.548** .471** .018 .132 .343** .101 .664*
Mi .117 .262* .199 .013 .062 .158 -.176 -.069
Zn-.037 .034 -.019 -.053 .051 .007 .141 .056 -.004
CM-.179 .197 -.072 .025 -.081 -.052 .049 .184 .031 .044


CM cQ


MJ K P N QC F Mi


Ca .226+ .252+ .139 -.021 .066 .120 -.190 -.036 -.074 .023 -.127
Mg .124 .039 .308* -.059 -.025 .110 -.326** -.185 .091 .062 -.012 .194
P K -.550** .020 -.161 .192 .136 .051 .141 .474** .058 -.041 .106 .054 -.206
L P .143 .428** .270* -.050 .006 -.376** -.042 .091 .214 .057 -.022 .065 .212 -.027
A N -.023 .191 .276* .001 .066 -.084 .082 .089 .297* -.073 -.077 -.336* .243- .235+ .397**
N C -.558** -.151 -.219+ .015 .078 .001 .585** .417** -.264* .277* -.036 -.186 -.137 .313** -.068 .095
T Fe .116 .239+ .349* -.021 .083 -.188 -.065 .050 .108 -.216+ -.097 -.044 .513** .123 .419** .684** .015
Ml -.426** -.213 -.310* -.029 -.015 .026 .606** .412**-.204 .107 .220+-.123 -.424** .065 -.341**-.114 .450** .266*
Zn-.079 .035 .020 -.108 -.076 -.082 .113 .118 .035 .181 -.101 .007 -.026 .175 -.285* .260* .324* .200 .038

+,*,* = elatiai significant at the 0.10 to 0.051, 0.05 to 0.010 and < 0.01 level of prahility, respetively.


SaIL




















SPPN X F


S..4J.JL.JLa f..OAAJ L LL.IL 114CL Afl .A. LS(2 A 4LI25L *llI..C UL C.V L&L


SOIL
EH Ca MJ K P N C1 Fe Mi Zn
Ca .832**
MY .662** .860**
K .010 .046 -.138
S P .522** .611** .463** .453**
0 N -.287 .174 .335+ -.260 -.176
I Ch -.127 .039 .086 .114 .227 .145
L F -.315 -.329+ -.399* .800** .268 -.325+ .117
Ml .037 .181 -.033 .394* .605** .068 .191 .337+
Zn -.171 .179 .191 -.051 .258 .474** .527** -.040 .406*
M .091 .109 .118 -.134 .148 .140 .276 -.079 .249 .191


CM


Ca MS K P N C1 Fe Mi


Ca .202 .382* .359+ -.042 .366* .342+ -.024 -.089 .193 .278 .032
M -.216 -.071 -.009 -.460** -.151 .420* .021 -.333+ -.150 .305 .059 .563**
P K -.130 -.200 -.228 .581* -.081 -.181 -.156 .509**-.088 -.264 -.252 -.227 -.160
L P -.021 -.033 -.200 .364+ .035 -.095 -.101 .279 .091 -.010 -.192 -.161 .123 .681**
A N -.342+ -.145 -.118 -.355+ -.327+ .464** -.067 -.242 -.108 .256 .199 .129 .681** .137 .286
N Oh -.742** -.646** -.581** .183 -.329+ .089 .222 .405* .014 .108 -.003 -.262 -.053 .098 -.056 .179
T Fe-.356+ -.341+ -.156 -.254 -.275 .149 .337+ -.098 -.190 .162 .035 -.128 .140 -.225 -.199 .118 .161
It -.686** -.450** -.617** .067 -.276 .041 .045 .380* .115 .065 .140 -.165 .097 .029 -.054 .156 .616** .186
Zn -.598** -.631** -.283 -.626* -.444** .290 .010 -.257 -.171 .233 .187 -.027 .491* -.309+ -.196 .655** .327+ .377* .394*

+,*,** = trmnlatim significant at the 0.10 to 0.051, 0.05 to 0.010 and < 0.01 leAel of p ability, espectively.


I A-i .v-iii m, 1 mIML c I




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