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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agronomy Department ; AY 91-05
Title: Corn forage and forage sorghum double cropping yield, economics, crop nutrient removal and quality
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056108/00001
 Material Information
Title: Corn forage and forage sorghum double cropping yield, economics, crop nutrient removal and quality
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 14 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1991?]
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Double cropping -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by R.N. Gallaher ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Chiefly tables.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62594157

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CORN FORAGE AND FORAGE SORGHUM DOUBLE CROPPING YIELD,
ECONOMICS, CROP NUTRIENT REMOVAL AND QUALITY


BY

R.N. Gallaher, S.A. Ford, R. McSorley and J.M. Bennett

Professors in the Departments of Agronomy, Food and Resource
Economics, Entomology and Nematology, and Agronomy, Respectively,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611
SCentral Science
I ibrar'

NOV 1 9 1991

University of Fiorida

Research supported by project FLA-AGR-02563 of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, the Florida Dairy Producers
Association, the Ciba Geigy, Corp., the FMC Corp., the ICI
Americas, the E.I. Dupont De Nemours & Co., the Asgrow Florida Co.,
the Pioneer Hi-Bred Int., Inc., the DeKalb-Pfizer Genetics, the
Smartway Dairy Farm, The Valent USA Corp., the Conlee Seed Co., -the
Ag-Bag Corp., and the Monsanto Agricultural Co.


Use of trade names does. not indicate endorsement of. the product or
service.









Agronomy Research Report AY-91-05; Agronomy Department, Inst. Food
and Agr. Sci., Agricultural Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.









Agronomy Research Report: AY-91-05


Corn Forage and Forage Sorghum Double Cropping Yield, Economics,
Crop Nutrient Removal, and Quality

R.N. Gallaher, S.A. Ford, R. McSorley and J.M. Bennett

Departments of Agronomy, Food and Resource Economics, Entomology
and Nematology, and Agronomy, respectively, Inst. Food and Agr.
Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, 32611

INTRODUCTION

This is a preliminary research report regarding the evaluation
of management and analysis of 30 cultivars (hybrids and synthetics)
of temperate and tropical corn and forage sorghum and sorghum x
sudangrass. In 1990 support was provided to conduct research on
the following objectives: 1. Supply tropical corn and forage
sorghum for projects in the UF Animal Science and Dairy Science
Departments, University of Florida. 2. Evaluate management
required to efficiently produce double crop tropical corn as a
second silage crop after small grain or corn. 3. Determine the
cost of growing, harvesting and storage of tropical corn silage.
4. Determine the value of tropical corn compared to forage sorghum
and sorghum x sudangrass in the uptake of nutrients.

Data analysis from the 1990 research is almost complete
including the laboratory analyses. The data in this report are
preliminary in nature because data transformations and statistical
analysis will not be complete for a few more months. Even though
the data are preliminary, numerous conclusions can be drawn in
relation to the initial objectives of the research. Results will
be useful in making plans for additional research and should be
immediately useful to those who grow and/or feed silage.

OBJECTIVE ONE

"Supply tropical corn and forage sorghum for projects in the
UF Animal Science and Dairy Science Departments, University of
Florida."

About 15 acres of spring corn were grown at the Pine Acres
Research farm for silage. Both temperate and tropical corn was
grown for ensiling to feed beef cattle. Immediately after harvest
of the spring crop a second crop or double crop planting of
tropical corn followed in sequence. Conventional tillage
management was used on the spring crop and no-tillage management
was used on the fall crop. Estimated silage yields, based on 35%
dry matter, was about 18 tons/acre for the spring crop and about 10
tons/acre for the fall crop. Silage was stored in plastic silage
bags and was fed to beef cattle in the spring of 1991.










About 20 acres of tropical corn and about 30 acres of forage
sorghum were planted using no-tillage management at the end of July
1990 at the Dairy Research Farm. These crops followed a spring
crop of temperate corn that had been harvested for silage. Both
tropical corn and forage sorghum were harvested for silage in the
fall of 1990 and stored in plastic silage bags. This silage was to
be used in dairy feeding trials in 1991. A poor stand of tropical
corn resulted in lower yield than expected. It was estimated that
the fall crop of tropical corn ranged from about 12 tons/acre in
areas with a good stand to about 6 tons/acre in areas that had a
poor stand. The fall crop of forage sorghum gave a yield of about
17 tons/acre.

Nematode densities were evaluated for the corn at the two Pine
Acres sites and at the Dairy Research site (Gallaher, et al. 1991).
A copy of this publication can be obtained from the authors.

OBJECTIVE TWO

"Evaluate management required to efficiently produce double
crop tropical corn as a second silage crop after small grain or
corn."

Multiple cropping is "the growing of two or more crops per
year on the same land." The specific double-cropping system,
"growing two crops on the same land in the same year," in this
research is also called succession cropping. In order to achieve
the maximum potential yield in this type of multiple cropping
system, precise timing of management, and amounts and correct
inputs are necessary in order to control pests and provide proper
plant nutrients and water. Other variables such as row spacing and
plant populations also are important in optimizing the maximum
harvest of sunlight energy for conversion into dry matter. Also,
not all genotypes of a desired crop species will yield the same in
all environments. Therefore, evaluation of existing genotypes in
order to determine the best one for a specific environment is of
most importance. It is usually necessary to develop new genotypes,
through plant breeding, that are adapted to new planting dates for
multiple cropping systems to be successful.

An example of double cropping corn at the Pine Acres Research
Farm is given in Table 1. Note that the spring crop was planted 2
April 1990. In this case a Florida experimental "Synl-MS1-3-T89"
was planted in the spring and followed immediately on 20 July 1990
with a no-tillage planting of the same cultivar after the first
crop was harvested. Yields of both crops would likely have been
greater had they both been planted about three weeks earlier. The
inputs, amounts and units are also given in Table 1. Conventional
tillage was used to grow the spring crop and no-tillage management
was used for the fall crop. One other major difference in the
spring planting and summer planing was need for chemical control of
insects. Note that no insecticide spray was required for the









spring crop but three spray applications were needed for the summer
-planted crop.

Forage yield comparisons among the 30 cultivars and three
planting dates are given in Tables 2-5. A reduction in yield is
observed as planting date is delayed. This decrease is much
greater in temperate corn hybrids than in tropical corn hybrids and
Florida experimental. Combined double crop yield for each of the
cultivars is shown in Table 4. Double crop corn forage yields
peaked at about 30 tons/acre.

Second crop forage sorghum was the "regrowth from the bottom
of the severed sorghum stalk after the originally planted crop was
harvested" for forage. This second crop in succession is called a
"ratoon" crop. Greater forage production occurred with some of the
best sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass hybrids than for corn (Tables
2-4).

OBJECTIVE THREE

"Determine the cost of growing, harvesting and storage of
tropical corn silage."

Examples of cost and returns for inputs to grow corn in double
cropping shows that the corn succeeded by corn was profitable
(Table 1). It has been generally thought that temperate corn
hybrids would be more profitable for planting early but data show
that some tropical hybrids and Florida experimental were very
competitive with temperate hybrids in the 2 April planting (Table
2). Data confirm earlier research which showed that tropical corn
was more profitable than temperate corn when planted in July (Table
3). In this instance both temperate hybrids were unprofitable for
the 20 July planting, but all tropical hybrids and experimental
were profitable (Table 3). Although seed for all cultivars under
investigation may not be available at this time, these data show
that either a good temperate hybrid or an adapted tropical hybrid
or a cultivar being developed by the University of Florida Agronomy
Department would be highly profitable as the spring corn crop for
silage. These data also show that the second crop planted in the
summer should be an adapted tropical hybrid or possibly one being
developed by the University of Florida Agronomy Department in order
to maximize yield and profit.

Since previous research has shown that forage sorghum will
ratoon and provide excellent yields in double cropping systems it
was not surprising that some of the forage sorghum and sorghum X
sudan grass hybrids proved to be very profitable (Tables 2-4). In
this study the 20 May planted forage sorghum and sorghum x
sudangrass hybrids had unexplainably low yields and thus either
provided low profits or were unprofitable (Table 5). The 20 May
crops all followed a crop of temporary winter pasture of rye.
Additional testing is necessary before making definite conclusions










from one year of data. Both temperate and tropical corn were
highly profitable for the 20 May planting (Table 5).
OBJECTIVE FOUR

"Determine the value of tropical corn compared to forage
sorghum and sorghum X sudangrass in the uptake of nutrients."
Knowledge of the exact quantities of plant nutrients removed
by crops is important for several reasons. First, we need to have
this information to know the ratio of uptake of nutrients by
various species so that approaches on how to maintain the
requirements by the crop can be met. Secondly, the information can
aid those who use the crops for food or feed to meet the nutrient
requirements of animals. Thirdly, forage crops not only provide
feed for ruminant animals but can also be useful to remove excess
nutrients in the soil that pose a threat as pollutants.

Nutrient removal data by the 30 cultivars in double cropping
systems are given in Tables 6-8. .Nutrient removal is approximately
proportional to the quantity of dry matter produced. This can be
illustrated by comparing the nutrients removed by the 2 April crops
compared to the 20 July plantings (Tables 6-7). It is also obvious
that double cropping removed greater quantities of nutrients
compared to monocropping (growing one crop per year on the same
soil).

Cultivars differ in nutrient uptake (Tables 6-8). A reminder
is in order that total K removal by forage crops may be equal or
slightly lower than N. Many times growers will apply adequate N to
produce maximum yields for the existing environment and not reach
the yield potential due to inadequate K fertilization. In such
cases some of the N fertilizer will be wasted and add to low profit
margins. It can be noted here that the N + P total content (yield
of nutrients) in these forage crops is approximately equal to the
K + Ca + Mg total content (yield of nutrients). Ratios of nutrient
removals as provided here (Tables 6-8) can also provide a suggested
ratio of nutrients to apply as fertilizer to satisfy crop nutrient
requirements.

There is at least one additional nutrient that was not
determined in these studies that is very important to Florida.
Sulfur is very low in the sandy soils of Florida and must be added
in most cases in order to maximize yield. Sulfur is thought to be
removed by corn and forage sorghum in amounts slightly less than P.
Since S is essential for S-bearing amino acids and thus for
efficient growth of the crops, and is essential for protein
metabolism by animals, it is important to consider its needs in
forage cropping systems in Florida.









FORAGE QUALITY


Forage quality was not a specific consideration in the
proposal to conduct this research. However, it was possible to
determine some of the quality factors in the forage produced
(Tables 2,3,5). Digestibility (In vitro organic matter
digestibility, IVOMD) tended to decrease as planting dates were
delayed. This is consistent with earlier findings. In general the
temperate corn hybrids had higher IVOMD values than tropical corn
hybrids for the 2 April planting. IVOMD values were equal or lower
for the 20 May planting and were lower for the 20 July planting for
temperate hybrids compared to tropical hybrids and cultivars,
respectively. Total minerals and crude protein were lowest for the
2 April planting and highest for the 20 July planting. This is
likely due to a dilution effect. The July crop appeared to produce
a healthy looking plant but had reduced grain yield due to low
solar radiation and temperatures in the fall. Thus, dilution of
nutrients taken up by the vegetative parts of the plants likely
occurred more for the spring corn crop than for the fall corn crop.
These data verify that corn forage tends to be a higher quality
forage than forage sorghum or sorghum x sudangrass. However, some
of the forage sorghum hybrids had IVOMD values equal or only
slightly lower than some of the corn cultivars.

SUMMARY

These data are provided in a research report for researchers
and producers who have immediate need for the information. Care
should be taken on making specific conclusions before adequate
statistical analysis is completed and thorough evaluation of the
data is made. Additional years of data are also necessary before
making definitive conclusions on yield consistency. Additional
genetic development and evaluation and nutrition, tillage, and
cultural management will be essential in order to obtain reliable
information which will make these double cropping systems a
successful strategy for Florida growers.

These data show that double cropping using tropical corn and
forage sorghum can provide adequate yield and high quality forage
to help meet the needs of the ruminant animal industry in Florida.
Many of the cultivar combinations would be profitable for growers
to produce. Precise timing as well as appropriate inputs and
amounts will insure that these systems are grown on Florida farms
with success.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following people and/or organizations contributed to the
success of this research:

Agronomy Department, Inst. Food & Agr. Res. (IFAS), Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Univ. of Florida.










Florida Dairy Producers Association.

Mr. J. Chichester, Chemist, Agronomy Department, Univ. of Florida.

Mr. H. Palmer, Agricultural Technician III, Agronomy Department,
Univ. of Florida.

Mr. T.A. Lang, Graduate Student, Agronomy Department, Univ. of,
Florida.

Mr. J.G. Wasdin, Research Program Coordinator, Animal Science
Department, Univ. of Florida.

Mr. D.L. Wakeman, Professor, Animal Science Department, Univ. of
Florida.

Mr. C. Willis and Dr. J.B. Taylor, Ciba Geigy, Corporation.

Mr. C.D. Applewhite, FMC, Corporation.

Dr. H.D. Yonce, ICI Americas, Inc.

Dr. Eric Seay, E.I. Dupont De Nemours & Co.

Mr. Leonard Douglas, Asgrow Florida Co.

Dr. Paul Rodgers, Mr. Ken Martin, Dr. Jim Wright and Dr. Mike
Fouts, Pioneer Hi-Bred Int., Inc.

Mr. Wilbur Webb, Mr. E. Dean and Dr. B. Maunder, DeKalb-Pfizer
Genetics

Mr. Darell Smart, Smartway Dairy Farm, Augusta, Georgia.

Dr. Jerry C. Hulbert and Mr. T. Rutz, Valent USA Corp.

Mr. W. Moss, Conlee Seed Co.

Mr. B. Cunningham, Ag-Bag Corp.

Dr. L.R. Hawf, Monsanto Agricultural Co.

SYMBOLS

A = Acre; IVOMD = In vitro organic matter digestibility; NDF =
Neutral detergent fiber; OM = Organic matter; Min = Minerals; C.P.
= Crude protein; 4/2 = April 2, 1990; 7/20 = July 20, 1990;
Ton/Acre yield in tables = 35% dry matter; Quality variables
Based on dry matter.













Table 1. Economics of spring


Returns-Silage
Cost-Inputs
Offset Harrow
Levelling Harrow
10-3-10 Fertilizer
Gramoxone
X77 Surfactant
6-9-33 fertilizer
Planter
Seed
Furadan
Sprayer
Atrazine
Lasso
Dual
Gramoxone
X77 Surfactant
Cultivate and sidedress
Sidedress 34-0-0
Broadcast 20-0-14
Broadcast 0-0-60
Broadcast 12-4-8
Sidedress
Sidedress 20-9-5
Sidedress 34-0-0
Sprayer
Lannate
Lannate
Lannate
Irrigation
Chop silage
Wagons
Silage bags
Silage bagger (variable)
Silage bagger (fixed)
Anhydrous ammonia
Land Rent
Tntal rntc-


Net returns


and fall corn forage double cropping. Pine Acres Animal Science Farm. Univ. of Fla.. 1990
---- Florida Synl-MS1-3-T89 ----- ----- Florida Svnl-MS1-3T89 ----- Double Crop
Amount Units Price Total Amount Units Price Total Total
19.8 Tons S40.00 S792.00 10.9 Tons S40.00 S436.00 S1.228.00
------ 2 April 1991 planting ------- ------ 20 July 1991 Planting ------


1
300


1
23
10
1
1.2
2



2
300
500
40
270







6
1
2
0.155
19.8
19.8
99
1


acre
acre
lbs



acre
lbs
lbs
acre
qts
qts



acre
lbs
Ibs
lbs
lbs







inches
acre
acre
bags $
ton
ton
lbs
acre


ac re


$6.94
$4.51
$0.094



$15.18
$1.41
$2.14
$2.14
$2.21
$5.90



$6.09
$0.083
$0.093
$0.095
$0.083







$16.00
$36.61
$15.94
400.00
$1.50
$1.00
$0.15
5M. nn


.- v


$13.88
$4.51
$28.05



$15.18
$32.43
$15.60
$2.14
$2.65
$11.80



$12.18
$24.75
$46.50
$3.80
$22.28







$96.00
$36.61
$31.88
$72.00
$29.70
$19.80
$14.85
S25.00
$561.59
$230.49


1
0.25
500
1
27
13
1
1.2

2
0.75
0.25





2
200
300
3
2
2
2
5
1
2
0.099
10.9

54.5
1


1


pint
pint
lbs
acre
lbs
Ibs
acre
qts

pts
pint
pint





acre
lbs
lbs
acre
pint
pint
pint
inches
acre
acre
bags
ton


$4.16
$1.97
$0.093
$3.71
$1.41
$1.56
$0.47
$2.21

$6.73
$4.16
$1.97





$1.29
$0.091
$0.083
$0.47
$4.11
$4.11
$4.11
$6.00
$10.73
$5.06
$400.00
$1.50


$4.16
$0.49
$46.50
$3.71
$38.07
$20.28
$0.47
$2.65

$13.46
$3.12
$0.49





$2.58
$18.10
$24.75
$1.41
$8.22
$8.22
$8.22
$30.00
$10.73
$10.12
$39.64
$16.35


Ibs $0.15 $8.18
acre $25.00 S25.00
S344.92
$91.08


$13.88
$4.51
$28.05
$4.16
$0.49
$46.50
$18.89
$70.50
$35.88
$2.61
$5.30
$11.80
$13.46
$3.12
$0.49
$12.18
$24.75
$46.50
$3.80
$22.28
$2.58
$18.10
$24.75
$1.41
$8.22
$8.22
$8.22
$126.00
$47.34
$42.00
$111.64
$46.05
$19.80
$23.03
$50.00
$906.51
$321.57






Table 2. Yield, economics and quality of temperate and tropical corn and forage sorghum
wanted 2 A ril 1990 at the IFAS Pine A m


Total Total Net Breakeven Quality
Cultivar Yield Return Cost Return Yield Price IVOMD NDF OM Min C.P


I1

Northrup King 508
Pioneer Brand 3320


Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand

Fl-S1-3-T89
F1-S1-2-S89
Fl-S1-2-S89W
Fl-S1-2-T89
Fl-S1-4-S89
Fl-S1-2-F89
Fl-S1-3-S89
Fl-S1-1-GS89
Fl-S1-1-T89
Fl-S1-2-F89W
F1-S1-1-S89


3230
3210
6875
3098
3072
3214
3078
X304C


DeKalb SX-17
Conlee Cow Vitles
DeKalb FS25E
Asgrow Titan T
Conlee Do Mor
DeKalb X-986
Asgrow Beef Builder
Asgrow Titan R
DeKalb X-991


?on/A ----- $/Acre ------ Ton/A $/Ton
Temperate Corn Hybrids
19.0 760 556 204 13.9 29.3
17.8 712 548 164 13.7 30.8
Tropical Corn Hybrids
20.7 828 568 260 14.2 27.4
18.3 732 551 181 13.8 30.1
17.7 708 547 161 13.7 30.9
17.3 692 544 148 13.6 31.5
17.3 692 544 148 13.6 31.5
16.9 676 541 135 13.5 32.0
16.4 656 538 118 13.5 32.8
16.1 644 536 108 13.4 33.3


19.8
18.9
18.0
17.6
17.3
17.1
16.9
16.6
16.6
16.4
15.7
Forage
23.6
21.2
19.2
18.1
16.1
15.7
15.4
14.8
10.7


Florida Tropical Corn Experimentals


792
756
720
704
692
684
676
664
664
656
628


562
555
549
546
544
543
542
539
539
538
533


Sorghum and
708 562
636 545
576 532
543 524
483 511
471 508
462 506
444 502
321 474


231
201
171
158
148
141
134
125
125
118
95
Sorghum
146
91
44
19
(28)
(37)
(44)
(57)
(253)


14.0
13.9
13.7
13.7
13.6
13.6
13.6
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.3
Sudan
18.7
18.2
17.7
17.5
17.0
16.9
16.9
16.7
15.8


28.4
29.4
30.5
31.1
31.5
31.8
32.1
32.5
32.5
32.8
34.0
Grass
23.8
25.7
27.7
29.0
31.7
32.4
32.9
33.9
44.3


------------ % -------------

71.0 68.4 96.7 3.3 7.2
72.6 66.7 97.4 2.6 6.4


71.6
69.2
71.0
67.3
71.6
66.2
67.2
67.7


67.3
67.4
67.5
68.1
67.3
67.6
68.4
68.9
66.2
67.2
67.5
Hybrids
60.5
66.8
64.6
66.6
60.1
56.9
67.5
64.8
54.6


68.7
68.0
68.7
68.7
68.4
69.3
68.1
66.7

70.6
69.9
69.9
68.8
69.9
68.4
68.9
68.3
67.4
68.1
67.3

63.5
58.4
63.8
61.0
60.5
64.6
60.3
59.6
70.2


97.3
97.0
97.4
97.0
96.7
96.9
96.9
97.1

96.6
96.5
97.0
96.8
96.8
96.6
97.0
96.8
96.5
96.7
96.8

97.1
96.9
96.7
97.0
96.3
96.5
97.1
96.9
96.0


2.7
3.0
2.6
3.0
3.3
3.1
3.1
2.9

3.4
3.5
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.4
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.3
3.2

2.9
3.1
3.3
3.0
3.7
3.5
2.9
3.1
4.0


6.6
5.1
5.9
5.8
7.2
5.9
5.8
5.4

6.0
6.8
5.0
6.1
6.4
6.3
5.4
6.8
7.0
6.8
5.7

6.8
5.7
6.6
6.1
6.9
6.1
5.8
7.5
6.7


DeKalb X-991 10.7 (2531 15.8 44.3 54.6





Table 3. Yield, economics and quality of temperate and tropical corn and forage sorghum
planted 20 July 1990 following spr m


Total Total Net Breakeven Quality
Cultivar Yield Return Cost Return Yield Price IVOMD NDF OM Min C.P


Tc

Northrup King 508
Pioneer Brand 3320


Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer


Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand


Fl-S1-2-F89W
Fl-S1-1-GS89
Fl-S1-2-S89W
F1-S1-2-F89
Fl-S1-4-S89
Fl-S1-1-S89
Fl-S1-1-T89
Fl-S1-2-S89
Fl-S1-3-S89
Fl-S1-2-T89
Fl-S1-3-T89


3098
3214
3072
3230
6875
3078
X304C
3210


1
1
1
1
1
1
1

D
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1


)n/A ----- $/Acre ------ Ton/A
Double Crop Temperate Corn
8.0 320 328 (8) 8.2
5.7 228 314 (86) 7.9
Double Crop Tropical Corn
.3.0 520 357 163 8.9
.1.7 468 350 118 8.7
.1.6 464 349 115 8.7
.1.5 460 349 112 8.7
.1.3 452 347 105 8.7
.0.9 436 345 91 8.6
0.8 432 344 88 8.6
9.6 384 337 47 8.4
double Crop Florida Tropical Corn
2.9 516 357 159 8.9
2.8 512 356 156 8.9
2.3 492 353 139 8.8
2.3 492 353 139 8.8
2.0 480 351 129 8.8
1.9 476 351 125 8.8
1.5 460 349 112 8.7
1.5 460 349 112 8.7
1.0 440 346 95 8.6
0.9 436 345 91 8.6
0.9 436 345 91 8.6


Ratoon Double Crop Forage Sorghum
Conlee Cow Vitles 24.6 738 364 375
DeKalb SX-17 22.9 687 354 334
Asgrow Titan R 21.9 657 348 309
Asgrow Titan T 21.6 648 346 302
DeKalb FS25E 17.1 513 319 194
Asgrow Beef Builder 16.0 480 313 167
Conlee Do Mor 15.5 453 308 145
DeKalb X-986 11.4 342 286 56
DeKalb X-991 7.6 228 263 (35)


$/Ton------------
Hybrids
41.0 61.6 72.4
55.1 46.2 75.0
Hybrids
27.5 64.8 70.7
29.9 64.0 71.6
30.1 64.2 71.3
30.3 64.9 72.1
30.7 64.1 69.9
31.6 64.8 70.8
31.9 63.4 71.2
35.1 66.2 70.4


Experimentals
27.7 64.0
27.8 61.8
28.7 63.9
28.7 64.8
29.3 64.2
29.5 67.5
30.3 60.3
30.3 61.6
31.4 64.6
31.6 61.9
31.6 62.4


73.0
72.9
71.5
72.4
73.1
67.3
72.7
70.8
72.0
72.8
72.0


% -------------

95.2 4.8 9.5
93.8 6.2 11.4


95.1
94.1
94.0
95.2
94.6
94.7
95.2
95.1

95.8
95.0
95.8
95.1
95.5
96.8
94.8
95.2
95.3
95.9
95.4


and Sorghum Sudan Grass Hybrids
12.1 14.8 62.6 63.2 95.1
11.8 15.4 54.9 68.6 94.7
11.6 15.9 60.0 65.8 95.2
11.5 16.0 60.5 66.2 95.6
10.7 18.7 58.4 67.4 94.5
10.4 19.6 60.1 64.9 95.3
10.2 20.4 49.9 67.1 94.9
9.5 25.1 49.0 70.9 94.4
8.8 34.7 55.9 70.9 94.2


4.9
5.9
6.0
4.8
5.4
5.3
4.8
4.9

4.2
5.0
4.2
4.9
4.5
3.2
5.2
4.8
4.7
4.1
4.6

4.9
5.3
4.8
4.4
5.5
4.7
5.1
5.6
;5.8


9.2
8.9
9.8
8.8
9.5
9.5
9.4
8.1

8.4
8.8
7.9
7.9
8.2
5.7
9.0
8.9
8.6
8.1
8.6

7.3
7.5
7.8
7.9
8.1
7.8
8.8
9.1
Q A


.


I






Table 4. Total yield and economics of temperate and tropical corn and
forage sorghum double-cropped and planted 2 April and 20 July 1990
at the IFAS Pine Acres Research Farm
Total Total Net Total
Cultivar Yield Return Cost Return Cost


Northrup King 508
Pioneer Brand 3320

Pioneer Brand 3230
Pioneer Brand 3098
Pioneer Brand 6875
Pioneer Brand 3072
Pioneer Brand 3214
Pioneer Brand 3210
Pioneer Brand 3078
Pioneer Brand X304C

F1-S1-3-T89
F1-S1-2-S89
F1-S1-2-S89W
F1-S1-1-GS89
F1-S1-2-F89
F1-S1-2-F89W
F1-S1-4-S89
F1-S1-2-T89
F1-S1-1-T89
F1-S1-3-S89
F1-S1-1-S89
For.
DeKalb SX-17
Conlee Cow Vitles
Asgrow Titan T
Asgrow Titan R
DeKalb FS25E
Asgrow Beef Builder
Conlee Do Mor
DeKalb X-986
DeKalb X-991


Ton/A
Temperate
27.0
23.5
Tropical
32.2
30.3
29.0
28.9
28.6
27.9
27.3
26.9
Florida 1
30.7
30.4
30.3
29.4
29.4
29.3
29.3
28.5
28.1
27.9
27.6


age Sorghum
46.5
45.8
39.7
36.7
36.3
31.4
31.2
27.1
18.3


and Sorghum
1395 915
1374 909
1191 870
1101 849
1089 851
942 819
936 818
813 794
549 737


------ $/Acre -----
Corn Hybrids (April
1080 884 196
940 862 78
Corn Hybrids (April
1288 916 372
1212 901 311
1160 894 266
1156 893 263
1144 891 253
1116 888 228
1092 883 209
1076 880 196
'ropical Corn (April
1228 906 322
1216 904 312
1212 902 310
1176 895 281
1176 896 280
1172 895 277
1172 895 277
1140 891 249
1124 888 236
1116 888 229
1104 884 220


Sudan Hybrids
481
465
321
252
238
123
118
19
S1RR88


(April
19.7
19.8
21.9
23.1
23.4
26.1
26.2
29.3
40.3


Plus July)


Cultivar Yield Return Cost Return Cost


$/Ton
Plus July Plantings)
32.7
36.7
Plus July Plantings)
28.5
29.7
30.8
30.9
31.2
31.8
32.4
32.7
Plus July Plantings)
29.5
29.7
29.8
30.5
30.5
30.8
30.8
31.3
31.6
31.8
32.0


549 737


(188i


vv


----





Table 5. Yield, economics and quality of temperate and tropical corn and forage sorghum
planted May 20, 1990 at the IFAS Pine Acres Research Farm.
Total Total Net Breakeven Quality
Cultivar Yield Return Cost Return Yield Price IVOMD NDF OM Min C.P


Northrup King 508
Pioneer Brand 3320


Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer
Pioneer


Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand


3230
3210
6875
3098
3072
3214
3078
X304C


Fl-S1-3-T89
Fl-S1-2-S89
F1-S1-2-S89W
F1-S1-2-T89
F1-S1-4-S89
Fl-S1-2-F89
F1-S1-3-S89
Fl-S1-1-GS89
F1-S1-1-T89
F1-S1-2-F89W
F1-S1-1-S89

DeKalb SX-17
Conlee Cow Vitles
DeKalb FS25E
Asgrow Titan T
Conlee Do Mor
DeKalb X-986
Asgrow Beef Builder
Asgrow Titan R
DeKalb X-991


ron/A ----- $/Acre ------
Temperate Corn
16.8 672 385 289
14.8 592 372 220
Tropical Corn
17.5 700 388 312
17.0 680 385 295
18.7 748 395 354
18.7 748 395 353
17.9 716 390 326
18.1 724 394 333
14.8 592 372 220
18.2 728 392 336
Florida Tropical Corn


18.6
16.2
16.2
19.1
13.8
17.9
18.3
17.6
16.0
16.2
14.9


Forage
14.4
10.8
10.8
11.5
14.4
10.1
13.8
10.0
9.6


744
648
648
764
552
716
732
704
640
648
596


394
380
380
397
366
390
392
388
379
380
372


Sorghum and
432 338
324 317
324 317
345 321
432 338
303 313
414 335
300 312
288 310


350
268
268
367
186
326
340
316
261
268
224
Sorghum
94
7
7
24
94
(10)
80
(12)
(22)


Ton/A S/Ton ----------- % -------


Hybrids
9.6 22.8
9.3 25.1


Hybrids
9.7
9.6
9.9
9.9
9.8
9.8
9.3
9.8


22.2
22.6
21.1
21.1
21.8
21.6
25.1
21.5


Experimentals
9.9 21.2
9.5 23.5
9.5 23.5
9.9 20.8
9.1 26.5
9.8 21.8
9.8 21.4
9.7 22.1
9.5 23.7
9.5 23.5
9.3 25.0
Sudan Grass Hy
11.3 23.5
10.6 29.3
10.6 29.3
10.7 27.9
11.3 23.5
10.4 31.0
11.2 24.2
10.4 31.2
10.3 32 3


63.4 70.8 96.3 3.7 6.6
65.6 69.4 96.3 3.7 6.6


10.54320 65.5 96.1 3.9 5.


67.3
64.9
70.5
66.3
69.8
64.2
64.9
65.5

62.7
63.7
63.0
60.9
62.9
63.8
60.4
66.6
56.7
63.0
68.1
brids
60.5
64.3
63.0
64.4
58.0
54.5
57.1
66.2
54.0


71.6
69.7
71.8
72.3
68.8
74.0
71.6
70.0

67.7
68.8
68.5
70..0
70.8
70.5
70.6
68.0
68.4
68.5
69.3

65.6
61.7
63.1
61.6
60.6
66.6
67.8
59.8
65.5


97.1
96.9
97.1
96.6
96.3
96.9
96.7
96.8

97.0
96.5
97.2
96.9
96.8
96.7
96.9
96.9
96.1
97.2
96.7

97.0
97.0
97.1
97.1
95.8
96.4
97.4
96.7
96.1


2.9
3.1
2.9
3.4
3.7
3.1
3.3
3.2

3.0
3.5
2.8
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.1
3.1
3.9
2.8
3.3

3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
4.2
3.6
2.6
3.3
3.9


.


v.v


288 310 (22)


...... | wu |


De~alb X-99


5.2
5.1
5.4
6.0
6.6
5.0
6.1
4.5

5.4
5.7
5.4
5.9
5.3
6.0
5.9
5.9
6.2
5.4
5.4

4.9
4.7
4.4
4.5
5.8
6.1
3.9
4.3
5.3*






Table 6. Plant macro nutrient content of corn forage and forage sorghum double cropped at
the IFAS Pine Acres Research Farm in 1990


Cniltivar


Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium
4/2 7/20 Sum 4/2 7/20 Sum 4/2 7/20 Snm 4/2 7/20 Sum 4/2 7/20 Sium


-- -- ----- ------------- Pounds/Acre ----------------------------
Pounds/Acre


Temperate Corn Hybrids
Northrup King 508 167 93 260 27 12 39 117 69 186 44 19
Pioneer Brand 3320 144 84 228 26 9 35 104 70 174 28 20
Tropical Corn Hybrids
Pioneer Brand 3230 157 122 279 32 16 48 116 105 221 39 27
Pioneer Brand 3098 130 142 272 23 17 40 103 117 220 45 30
Pioneer Brand 3072 148 122 270 27 15 42 126 112 238 36 27
Pioneer Brand 6875 137 121 258 27 16 43 112 91 203 33 24
Pioneer Brand 3214 114 131 245 28 17 45 94 101 195 37 38
Pioneer Brand X304C 113 117 230 27 14 41 95 92 187 42 27
Pioneer Brand 3078 117 104 221 25 12 37 97 88 185 40 22
Pioneer Brand 3210 112 97 209 26 15 41 95 78 173 28 19
Florida Corn Experimentals
F1-S1-1-GS89 146 146 292 25 17 42 105 123 228 41 32
F1-S1-1-T89 144 123 267 23 15 38 103 106 209 42 28
F1-S1-2-S89 162 108 260 28 15 43 123 78 201 48 25
F1-S1-2-S89W 123 137 260 24 20 44 99 106 205 40 31
F1-S1-3-T89 144 115 259 27 15 42 135 89 224 47 25
F1-S1-2-F89W 129 125 254 23 17 40 106 87 193 41 24
F1-S1-2-F89 133 116 249 27 11 38 97 96 193 43 28
F1-S1-2-T89 137 112 249 24 14 38 97 77 174 44 29
F1-S1-4-S89 132 107 239 23 13 36 93 79 172 41 30
F1-S1-3-S89 112 116 228 23 14 37 92 91 183 37 28
Fl-S1-1-S89 104 123 227 22 16 38 86 89 175 35 33
Forage Sorghum Hybrids
DeKalb SX-17 187 193 380 25 23 48 108 188 296 64 64
Asgrow Titan R 145 173 318 19 20 39 96 126 222 39 48
Asgrow Titan T 129 185 314 18 19 37 102 131 233 41 43
Conlee Cow Vitles 136 165 301 25 20 45 78 133 211 30 45
Conlee Do Mor 121 166 287 21 21 42 92 124 216 37 47
DeKalb FS25E 141 135 276 21 15 36 111 118 229 44 39
Asgrow Beef Builder 105 148 253 13 17 30 75 112 187 36 40
DeKalb X-986 92 112 204 20 13 33 95 104 199 29 30
DeKalb X-991 77 96 173 14 11 25 72 76 148 22 24


63 30 14 44
48 20 10 30

66 27 17 44
75 28 20 48
63 23 15 38
57 24 15 39
75 25 22 47
69 17 16 33
62 24 14 38
47 25 16 41

73 27 19 46
70 27 17 44
73 27 14 41
71 24 20 44
72 31 16 47
65 27 16 43
71 30 18 48
73 30 16 46
71 26 15 41
65 24 15 39
68 23 17 40

128 38 29 67
87 27 25 52
84 29 23 52
75 22 27 49
84 23 19 42
83 32 21 53
76 26 21 47
59 18 14 32
46 17 13 30





,le 7. Plant micro nutrient content of corn forage and forage sorghum double cropped at
.3 IFAS Pine Acres Research Farm in 1990


-ultivar


Northrup King 508
Pioneer Brand 3320


Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand

F1-S1-1-GS89
F1-S1-1-T89
F1-S1-2-S89
F1-S1-2-S89W
F1-S1-3-T89
F1-S1-2-F89W
Fl-S1-2-F89
F1-S1-2-T89
F1-S1-4-S89
F1-S1-3-S89
Fl-S1-1-S89

DeKalb SX-17


3230
3098
3072
6875
3214
X304C
3078
3210


Asgrow Titan R
Asgrow Titan T
Conlee Cow Vitles
Conlee Do Mor
DeKalb FS25E
Asgrow Beef Builder
DeKalb X-986
DeKalb X-991


Zinc Copper Manganese
4/2 7/20 Sum 4/2 7/20 Sum 4/2 7/20 Sum
------------------ Pounds/Acre ----------


0.35 0.16
0.41 0.20


0.37
0.27
0.31
0.48
0.40
0.36
0.35
0.42

0.29
0.30
0.35
0.34
0.40
0.32
0.39
0.35
0.32
0.33
0.26

0.57
0.43
0.39
0.32
0.31
0.47
0.27
0.35
0.18


0.27
0.27
0.27
0.25
0.24
0.19
0.21
0.22

0.26
0.23
0.22
0.30
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.23
0.22
0.26
0.24

0.50
0.49
0.47
0.55
0.47
0.51
0.50
0.30
0.30


Temperate Corn Hybrids
0.51 0.04 0.03 0.07
0.61 0.04 0.03 0.07
Tropical Corn Hybrids
0.64 0.06 0.03 0.09
0.54 0.02 0.03 0.05
0.58 0.04 0.04 0.08
0.73 0.22 0.04 0.26
0.64 0.11 0.03 0.14
0.55 0.03 0.03 0.06
0.56 0.03 0.02 0.05
0.64 0.07 0.03 0.10


0.28 0.10
0.29 0.17


0.26
0.21
0.24
0.25
0.19
0.23
0.27
0.19


Florida Corn Experimentals


0.55
0.53
0.57
0.64
0.63
0.55
0.61
0.58
0.52
0.59
0.50


0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.04


0.04
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.04


Forage Sorghum
1.07 0.09 0.05
0.92 0.06 0.06
0.86 0.03 0.06
0.87 0.05 0.11
0.78 0.06 0.10
0.98 0.07 0.03
0.77 0.03 0.14
0.65 0.05 0.04
0.48 0.04 0.09


0.07
0.06
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.22
0.08


Hybrids
0.14
0.12
0.09
0.16
0.16
0.10
0.17
0.09
0.13


0.33
0.28
0.31
0.28
0.35
0.23
0.29
0.26
0.23
0.26
0.27

0.51
0.48
0.39
0.26
0.27
0.35
0.40
0.19
0.13


0.17
0.28
0.22
0.22
0.19
0.12
0.16
0.11

0.27
0.17
0.14
0.28
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.18
0.27
0.22
0.27

0.51
0.80
0.64
0.57
0.51
0.45
0.65
0.27
0.20


0.38
0.46

0.43
0.49
0.46
0.47
0.38
0.35
0.43
0.30

0.60
0.45
0.45
0.56
0.51
0.38
0.45
0.44
0.50
0.48
0.54

1.02
1.28
1.03
0.83
0.78
0.80
1.05
0.36
0.33


Iron
4/2 7/20 Sum


1.16 0.36
1.18 0.40


1.35
1.09
1.34
1.35
0.94
1.22
1.26
0.77

1.18
0.99
1.14
1.63
1.48
1.16
1.14
1.31
1.21
1.11
0.90

1.62
1.06
1.32
0.80
0.72
1.43
1.01
0.65
0.59


0.63
0.89
0.92
0.80
1.09
0.73
0.71
0.84

0.66
0.54
0.45
0.98
0.60
1.17
0.77
0.57
0.51
0.78
0.71

1.34
1.03
0.50
0.71
0.61
2.10
1.09
0.44
0.82


1.52
1.58

1.98
1.99
2.26
2.15
2.03
1.95
1.97
1.61

1.84
1.53
1.59
2.61
2.08
2.33
1.91
1.88
1.72
1.89
1.61

2.96
2.09
1.82
1.51
1.33
3.53
2.10
1.09
1.41


0.18 0.13 1.41







Table 8. Plant nutrient content of corn forage and forage sorghum planted 20 May 1991 at


the IFAS Pine Acres

Cultivar


Northrup King 508
Pioneer Brand 3320


Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand
Pioneer Brand

F1-S1-2-T89
F1-S1-1-T89
F1-S1-3-T89
F1-S1-2-F89
F1-S1-2-F89W
F1-S1-1-GS89
F1-S1-4-S89
F1-S1-2-S89W
Fl-S1-2-S89
F1-S1-3-S89
F1-S1-1-S89

DeKalb SX-17
Conlee Do Mor
DeKalb X-986


3072
3098
3210
3078
3230
3214
6875
X304C


Asgrow Beef Builder
DeKalb X-991
Conlee Cow Vitles
Asgrow Titan R
DeKalb FS25E
Asgrow Titan 'T


50 10 53 21 15 0.22 0.03 0.21 0.57


... . ..-T


Beef Research Farm
Nitro- Phosp- Potas- Calci- Magne- Zinc Copper Manga- Iron
gen horus sium um sium nese
---------------------------- Pounds/Acre----------------------------
Temperate Corn Hybrids
125 21 84 31 21 0.25 0.05 0.17 0.59
122 21 97 26 18 0.54 0.24 0.37 1.08
Tropical Corn Hybrids
138 24 104 36 22 0.43 0.09 0.38 1.18
130 20 96 41 27 0.52 0.10 0.38 1.57
100 22 95 25 21 0.46 0.07 0.34 1.54
91 16 66 29 19 0.31 0.05 0.28 1.05
98 19 74 26 17 0.34 0.05 0.21 1.43
98 19 77 31 20 1.20 0.06 0.28 1.27
93 18 79 21 16 0.31 0.05 0.20 1.07
83 19 71 34 18 0.43 0.09 0.28 1.30
Florida Corn Experimentals
137 25 94 42 28 0.31 0.06 0.22 0.86
127 21 96 38 25 0.32 0.08 0.24 0.64
123 25 110 40 26 0.34 0.06 0.28 0.87
110 21 80 34 24 0.25 0.05 0.24 1.13
109 19 89 34 22 0.27 0.05 0.18 1.00
100 18 81 30 20 0.31 0.04 0.25 0.95
95 18 70 32 20 0.28 0.11 0.17 0.60
95 18 76 29 18 0.25 0.04 0.20 1.09
93 19 77 32 18 0.25 0.04 0.19 0.75
93 19 77 32 18 0.25 0.04 0.19 0.75
88 19 70 28 18 0.26 0.03 0.21 0.56
Forage Sorghum Hybrids
79 15 83 36 21 0.29 0.04 0.29 0.66
85 18 91 35 17 0.36 0.04 0.35 0.63
68 14 70 23 14 0.30 0.03 0.22 0.41
65 13 66 31 23 0.29 0.04 0.36 0.90
65 16 81 24 15 0.24 0.03 0.21 0.56
63 14 65 24 17 0.31 0.03 0.39 0.48
54 16 75 25 17 0.23 0.02 0.35 0.53
53 13 58 25 14 0.26 0.03 0.30 0.40
50 10 53 21 15 0.22 0.03 0.21 0.57




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