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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 91-07
Title: Soil test and crop responses to tillage, lime, and K in a wheat-corn double crop system
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056107/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil test and crop responses to tillage, lime, and K in a wheat-corn double crop system
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lang, Timothy A., 1957-
Gallaher, Raymond N
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1991?
 Subjects
Subject: Crops and soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Wheat -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Double cropping -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 3).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 91-07
Statement of Responsibility: T.A. Lang and R.N. Gallaher.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056107
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62593560

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






S1-o7


AGRONOMY RESEARCH REPORT AY-91-07


Soil Test and Crop Responses to Tillage, Lime, and K in a Wheat-
Corn Double Crop System


T. A. Lang and R. N. Gallaher

.v Graduate Research Assistant and Professor of Agronomy,
respectively, Agronomy Department, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

ABSTRACT

SEfficient fertilization of tropical corn (Zea mays) will
increase its profitability and acceptance. A tropical corn-wheat
double crop field study was conducted for two years on an Arredondo
fine sand (loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Kandiudult)
to determine the effects of tillage (no-tillage (NT) vs.
conventional tillag (CT)), five dolomitic lime rates (0, 1.1, 2.2,
3.3, and 4.4 Mg ha- ) and six K rates (0, 67, 134, 201, 269 kg ha-
) on grain yield, ear leaf nutrient concentration, and Mehlich I
soil test values. Soil pH decreased with depth under both tillage
practices, but was more pronounced for the NT soil. Soil test Ca
produced higher values in the upper depths- it NT soil. Soil
test K values were higher for NT soil at alTOrekise for both
sampling dates. Soil test P values of N soil weh'igher in the
surface two depths than the CT soil. DEC 02 191

INTRODUCTION University of Florida

Double cropping of corn following wheat is an aa~lteriative
production system for the Southern USA. Tillage and cropping
practices are known to affect soil moisture reserves early in the
S growing season (Blevins et al., 1971). Coarse, weathered acidic
s6ils generally have low CEC, low base saturation and soluble Al in
subsoil horizons. Soluble Al reduces root growth and function
(Adams and Moore, 1983; Adams and Hathcock, 1984). These soils may
require relatively small amounts of lime to effect desired pH
changes in the Ap horizon. Overliming disrupts soil cation balance
and affects plant micronutrient solubilities (Kidder and Hanlon,
S 1989). Potassium within the corn plant is required to regulate
w&ter use. Excess K fertilization may also disrupt soil nutrient
balance.
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the
effects of tillage practice, lime rate, and K rate on soil test
results for pH, Ca, Mg, K and P in four incremental soil depths.
Additionally, effects on plant yield and leaf nutrient status were
y studied.
I-_








METHODS


This field study was conducted in 1989 and 1990 in
Gainesville, FL on an Arredondo fine sand (loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Grossarenic Kandiudult) to determine the effects of
tillage (no-tillage (NT) vs. conventional (CT)), lime rate (0, 1.1,
.2, 3.3, and 4.4 Mg ha-1) and K rate (0, 67, 134, 201, 269 kg ha-
) on soil test values (pH, Ca, Mg, K, and P), grain yield, and ear
leaf N concentration. Soil was sampled at the start of the
experiment and after each subsequent harvest. Soil samples were
collected from plots at four increments to 30 cm depth, dried, and
sieved.
Lime and K were applied once prior to planting corn in 1989.
Florida tropical synthetic corn was planted in mid-May of each year
with 200 kg N ha-1 applied in three splits. Soil pH and organic C
?' and were determined using 1:1 soil to water ratio and Walkley-Black
method, respectively. Mehlich I extractable K, Mg, P and Ca
concentrations were analyzed by ICAP and AAS. Ear leaves collected
at anthesis were analyzed for N concentration using a semiautomated
micro-Kjeldahl procedure.
Tillage, lime rate, and K rate were mainplot, subplot, and
sub-subplot variables, respectively in a split-split-plot
* experiment. Analysis of variance and means separation were
conducted using PC SAS.


RESULTS

SSoil pH was affected by Depth x Lime and Till x Depth
interactions in 1989 (Table 1.). Conventional tillage soil had
higher pH in the 7.5 cm depth than did NT soil (Figure 1.). In
1989 increasing lime rate increased soil pH in the surface depth
but had variable effects in the 10 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm depths
(Figure 2.). Soil pH in 1990 was affected by a Till x Lime x Depth
interaction (Figures 3 and 4.). The pH of NT soil with no lime
S remained fairly constant with depth, yet the pH of NT soil with 2.2
and 4.4 Mg ha-1 lime decreased with depth. The pH of CT soil
remained constant with depth with 2.2 and 4.4 Mg ha-1 lime.
Soil Ca test values were affected by a Till x Lime x Depth
interaction both years (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8.). In 1989 NT soil
test Ca decreased from the surface depth to the 5 to 10 cm depth.
In 1990 soil test Ca values were higher in the surface depth in the
-. NT soil and decreased with depth. In 1990 CT soil test Ca changed
little with depth. Soil test Mg values responded similar to Ca
except for significant interactions with K rate that will not be
presented here.

Soil K test values were affected both years by Till x Depth
interaction (Figure 9.). In 1989 NT soil K values were higher in
S, the surface depth than for CT soil. In 1990 NT soil K values were
higher in the upper three soil depths than the CT soil.









Soil P test values were affected in 1990 by a Till x Depth
interaction (Figure 10). There was a greater decrease in
extractable P in the NT soil than the CT soil.
Grain yields were reduced due to drought and fall armyworm
(Spodoptera frugiperda) damage in 1989 and due to heavy rainfall in
1990. None of the experimental variables were found to
significantly influence grain yield in either year. Corn ear leaf
N concentration was affected in 1990 by a Lime x K rate interaction
(Figure 11.). Increasing K rate at the 0 lime rate increased N
concentration in the ear leaf.


V REFERENCES

Adams, Fred and P. J. Hathcock. 1984. Aluminum toxicity and
calcium deficiency in acid subsoil horizons of two Coastal Plains
soil series. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:1305-1309.

Adams, Fred and B. L. Moore. 1983. Chemical factors affecting
Sroot growth in subsoil horizons of Coastal Plain soils. Soil Sci.
Soc. Am. J. 47:99-102.

Blevins, R. L., D. Cook, S.H. Phillips, and R. E. Phillips. 1971.
Influence of no-tillage on soil moisture. Agron. J. 63:593-596.

Kidder, G., and E. A. Hanlon. 1989. Lime requirement test and
IFAS lime recommendations. Notes in Soil Science No. 37. FL Coop.
Ext. Serv., IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.















Pk













Table 1. Significance of Experiment Variables and Interactions

pH Ca Mg K P

Source 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990


Till (T) ns ns
.Lmune (L) *
TxL ns ns
Krate (K) ns ns
TxK ns ns
LxK ns ns
TxLxK ns ns
Depth (D) ** **
TxD ** **
txD ** **


KxD
LxKxD
TxKxD
TxLxD
TxLxKxD


ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns **
ns ns


ns ns
** *
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
** **
** **
** **
ns *
** ns
ns ns
** **
ns ns


*,** =,Significant at the P = 0.05 and 0.01 levels.
ns = not significant.






, .1


ns ns
** **
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
* ns
ns ns
** **
** **
** **
ns *
* ns
ns ns
** **
ns ns


ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
** **
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
** **
** **
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns


ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
** *
ns *
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns
ns ns





FIGURE 1. SOIL PH BY TILL AND DEPTH 1989
6.60
6.50
-60 --NT 89 X=6.04
S ,6.40 --CT 89 X=6.14

6.30
S6.20
.- Io
0 6.10
6.00
5.90
5.80
5.70 I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SOIL DEPTH (cm)



FIGURE 2. SOIL PH BY DEPTH AND LIME 1989
6.70
'6.60
6 --89 NONE X=5.97
6.50 -89 1000 X=6.07
6.40 ---89 2000 X=5.99
--o-89 3000 X=6.11
S. 6.30 -- -89 4000 X=6.31
6.20
0 6.10
6.00
'5.90
5.80
5.70 I i I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SOIL DEPTH (cm)
5





NT SOIL PH BY DEPTH AND LIME 1990


6.90

6.70

6.50

6.30

6.10

"5.90

5.70


SOIL DEPTH (cm)


FIGURE


6.90

6.70

6.50

6.30


,.6.10

5.90

5.70


CT SOIL PH BY DEPTH AND LIME 1990


0 1 I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 3


SOIL DEPTH (cm)
6


5 10


-@-NT pH NONE 90
---NT pH 2000 90
-o-NT pH 4000 90


I


' I


SI
25


---CT pH NONE 90
-0-CT pH 2000 90
-o-CT pH 4000 90


0ar-2-


I


FIGURE


I I






FIGURE 5. NT SOIL CA BY DEPTH AND LIME 1989


0 5I 10 1 I I 5 I
0 5 10 15 20 25 3


DEPTH (cm)


FIGURE


CT SOIL CA BY DEPTH AND LIME 1989


-'--CT 89
---CT 89
---CT 89
--a-CT 89
-m-CT 89


CA NONE
CA 1000
CA 2000
CA 3000
CA 4000


I I


15


DEPTH (cm)
7


2000


0I



0


co0


1500



1000



500


-N-NT 89 CA NONE
-"--NT 89 CA 1000
--.--NT 89 CA 2000
---NT 89 CA 3000
-a-NT 89 CA 4000


2000


a,
U)


1500



1000



500


--I


I


I I





FIGURE 7. NT SOIL CA BY DEPTH AND LIME 1990


0 5 10 15 20 25


DEPTH (cm)


FIGURE


8. CT SOIL CA BY DEPTH AND LIME 1990


900

800
/'^-

700

600

500

400


' I I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 3
DEPTH (cm)


0,

0I

U
u1


1000

'-900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200


1000


0, ~
2

Un
E1
(0


- C-CT 90 CA NONE
- C-CT 90 CA 1000
-o-CT 90 CA 2000
"---CT 90 CA 3000
-N--CT 90 CA 4000


300

200






FIGURE 9.


SOIL K BY DEPTH AND TILL 1989-90


90

' 80


u-

60

50 -
so-

40

30


S I i I I I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 3
SOIL DEPTH (cm)


100




-e 90 -

E
a.
-j
S, 80 -




70


I I I I I
5 10 15 20 25

SOIL DEPTH (cm)
9


-"-NT 89 K X=55.9
-m-CT 89 K X=48.3
-o-NT 90 K X=49.2
-c-CT 90 K X=33.3


FIGURE 10. SOIL P BY DEPTH AND


TILL 1990


-(-NT 90 P X=87.2
-oi-CT 90 P X=79.6


I





FIGURE 11. EAR LEAF N BY LIME AND K RATE 1990
2.70


2.60


2.50


< '2.40
"I -"*--\ C90 NONE
-i-C90 1000
2.30 -D--C90 2000
-0-C90 3000
-6-C90 4000
2.20 I 1


300


0 50 100 150 200 250
K RATE (kg ha"1 )




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