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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-95-06
Title: Effect of calcium and potassium sulfate applications on nutritiion, growth and pod rot incidence in peanut
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Title: Effect of calcium and potassium sulfate applications on nutritiion, growth and pod rot incidence in peanut
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 15 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Santos, Bielinski M., 1968-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1995?]
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Subject: Peanuts -- Effect of minerals on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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Agronomy Research Report AY-95-06



Effect of Calcium and Potassium
Sulfate Applications on Nutrition,
Growth and Pod Rot Incidence in
Peanut



Bielinski M. Santos Thomas Gavin2, Raymond
N. Gallaher3, E. Benjamin Whitty3 and Robert
McSorley4.
Graduate Research Assistant', Horticultural Sciences Dept.;
Graduate Research Assistant2, Agronomy Dept.; Professors3,
Agronomy Dept.; Professor4, Entomology and Nematology
Dept., respectively. Inst. Food and Agr. Sci., Univ. of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Library
JAN 0 8 19?G


J i'."c:r o fi n '







Agronomy Research Report AY-95-06


Effect of Calcium and Potassium Sulfate Applications on Nutrition, Growth and Pod Rot Incidence in
Peanut
Bielinski M. Santos', Thomas Gavin2, Raymond N. Gallaher3, E. Benjamin Whitty3 and Robert McSorley4.

Graduate Research Assistant', Horticultural Sciences Dept.; Graduate Research Assistant2, Agronomy Dept.;
Professors3, Agronomy Dept.; Professor4, Entomology and Nematology Dept., respectively. Inst. Food and Agr.
Sci., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT

A peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the effect
of CaSO4 and K2SO4 applications on peanut nutrient concentration and content, dry matter production and pod rot
incidence. Calcium sulfate and KSO4 were applied at 75 days after planting. Calcium sulfate and KSO4 rates used
were 1123 and 561.5 Kg ha-',respectively. Also, a combination of both sources was applied. Mineral analysis
showed that concentration and content of Ca, Mg and K were affected within plant parts. Calcium sulfate and KSSO4
applications had no effect on peanut dry matter accumulation. Applications at 75 days after planting seemed to be
too late to produce a significant effect on dry matter production. A similar conclusion can be draw for pod rot
incidence, where a living organism could be necessary to cause infection.

KEY WORDS
Peanut nutrition, nutrient concentration, nutrient content, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, soil test, plant parts,
Altika.

INTRODUCTION

In the southern United States, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is only surpassed by cotton (Gossypium
hirsutum L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in crop value per year (Hartmann, et al. 1986). This species is
used mainly to produce peanut butter, for roasted and salt nuts, and for candy and bakery goods. Its importance
grows year after year, particularly in Florida.

Peanut pod rot is a serious problem throughout the world, limiting peanut production (Frank, 1968; Garcia
and Mitchell, 1975b; Garren, 1970; Moore and Wills, 1974; Walker and Csinos, 1980). Discoloration, blackening
of pods and posterior decay are some of the common symptoms observed. However, above ground symptomology
is scarcely visible, making it difficult to manage or control.

Usually, pod rot is recognized as a etiological complex. Fungal infections (Frank, 1968; Frank, 1972;
Garcia and Mitchell, 1975a; Garren, 1970; Porter, et al., 1982) caused mainly by Pythium myriotylum and
Rhizoctonia solani, plant nematodes (Boswell and Thames, 1976; Garcia and Mitchell, 1975b), such as Meloidogyne
arenaria, and mites (Shew and Beute, 1979) have been associated with this disease.

In the past, it has been demonstrated that soil applications with gypsum (CaSO4.2H20) decrease pod rot
incidence in peanut fields (Garren, 1964; Walker and Csinos, 1980). Hallock and Garren (1968) demonstrated that
pods containing more than 0.20% Ca had less disease than those having less than 0.15%. As a counter effect,
additions of KSO4 or MgSO4 increased pod rot incidence. This was probably due to the active competition of Mg
and K against Ca for exchangeable places in the soil. However, some workers have found no reduction of pod rot
incidence by applying gypsum to peanut soils (Filonow, et al., 1988). In addition, they pointed to the importance







of fungal pathogens, such as P. myriotylum and R. solani, in the etiology of peanut pod rot. In that study, the
authors suggested that these contradictions could be due to differences in soil types, which could vary in their
retention rate of Ca+2, or differences in the potential of fungal inoculum of soils.


Considering these facts, this research intended to clarify the effect of the application of Ca, K, and Ca plus
K applications on plant nutrition status and the incidence of pod rot in peanuts under Florida conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant material and soil used in this study were collected during 1995 at the Green Acres Research Farm
of the University of Florida located at Gainesville, Florida. The soil is a Arredondo fine sand, classified as a
Grossarenic Paleudult (Soil Service Staff, 1984). Plowing and disking were provided to ensure soil effective
aeration. Rows were placed 90 cm (36 inches) apart, with plants separated 7.5 cm (3 inches). Peanut was planted
on 17 June 1995, using the variety 'Altika'.

Herbicide pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine] was incorporated at
recommended rates before planting to reduce weed seed germination. At cracking, a combination of paraquat [1,1'-
dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridiliumion] andbentazon [3-(l-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one2,2-dioxide]
was sprayed in the row-middles to control weed seedlings that could escape the first application (Colvin, et al. 1993;
WSSA, 1994). Insecticide applications using OrtheneM were made about 3 weeks after planting and as needed
thereafter to control leafworms and other insects. Weekly applications during the first month were provided in
alternate fashion by using BravoTM and flowable S to control possible rust infestations and other pathogenic agents.
Irrigation was not necessary due to high rainfall during the growing season.

Treatments used are presented in Table 1, along with nutrient sources and rates. Nutritional sources were
applied to the soil at 75 days after planting.

Table 1. Treatments, nutrient sources and rates for peanut, Gainesville,
Florida, 1995.
Description Source Rate

Control -

Plus Ca CaS04.2H,0 1123 Kg ha-' (1000 lb A')

Plus K KSO4 561.5 Kg ha' (500 lb A-')

Plus Ca & K (CaSO4.2H20)+(K2SO4) All of the above



Representative plant samples within one square meter were collected within
each experimental unit, collecting complete plants including roots to a depth of
about 45 cm (18 inches) with a shovel. Then, plant material was separated into
roots, stems, leaves, shells and seeds. Also, upper youngest mature leaves were
collected for diagnosis of nutrient status in the plants. Darkened pods were
counted and recorded for further comparisons. Fresh weight of individual parts
was obtained after harvest.

Samples were washed as outlined by Futch and Gallaher (1994) and Gallaher
(1995), by immersing individual parts in water with a 0.1% Liqui-nox detergent
solution (phosphate free detergent) for about 30 seconds. Afterwards, samples







were rinsed with deionized water for about 10 seconds, and then washed for 45
seconds with a 3% by volume solution of HCl. Finally, samples were rinsed with
deionized water and placed in labeled bags. Plant material was dried at 70C in
a forced air oven, weighed, and ground in a Wiley mill using a stainless steel
screen with 2 mm diameter holes. Ground samples were stored in air-tight plastic
bags.

Plant material was analyzed for total N using micro-Kjeldahl procedures as
outlined by Bremner (1965) and techniques described by Gallaher et al. (1975).
Samples of 100 mg were weighed in 100 ml Pyrex test tubes, adding 3.2 g of a
salt-catalyst mixture (9:1 ratio of K2SO4:CuSO4). Then, 10 ml of concentrated
sulfuric acid were added under a hood, and mixed with a Vortex mixer. Two glass
boiling beads were added, and samples were placed in an aluminum digestion block
for 6 hours at 385C (Gallaher et al., 1975). Tubes were brought to 75 ml volume
with deionized water and stored in heavy-duty Nalgine plastic bottles for further
N analysis in a Technicon Autoanalyzer' II.

Samples for mineral nutrients were weighed, using 1.0 g of dry tissue
placed in 50 ml Pyrex beakers, and dry ashing in a Thermolyne muffle furnace
at 480C for 6 hours. After the samples were removed from the furnace, 20 ml of
deionized water was decanted slowly down the side of each beaker. Concentrated
HCl (2 ml) was then added to each beaker, and the samples were heated on a
hotplate until dryness. The same quantity of deionized water and HCI was again
added to each beaker, beakers covered with watch glasses and heated until
boiling. Samples were cooled to room temperature, brought to volume, mixed and
stored in 0.1 N HCl. Solutions were analyzed for P (colorimetry), K (emission
spectroscopy) and Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn (atomic absorption spectrophotometry)
concentrations.

Soil samples were collected at harvest time within each plot harvested and
analyzed for pH, texture, organic matter content (%OM) (Bouyoucos, 1936; Day,
1965; Horwitz, 1975; Jackson, 1958; Peech, 1965) and extractable elements
(Mehlich, 1953). Individual samples were sieved using a 2 mm mesh stainless steel
screen. A summary of soil physical and chemical properties is presented in Table
2. From soil samples, subsampled were drawn to estimate and identify nematode
populations within each plot, by using 100 cm3 of soil.

Part of the soil samples and plant roots were maintained in plastic bags,
stored in a temperature controlled room and analyzed for nematodes. Nematodes
were extracted from 100 cm3 soil from the soil set, with a modified sieving and
centrifugation procedure (Jenkins, 1964).

Fertility treatments were arranged within a completely randomized design
with four replications. A split-plot arrangement allowed the use of plant parts
as subplots. Analysis of variance was performed to test individual treatment
effects by using MSTAT 4.0 (1985). If significant differences at the 5%-
significance level were found, means were separated using Duncan' s multiple-range
test. Quattro-Pro (1987) software was used to process data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

I. Soil Test. Based on University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service
soil test recommendations from control plots, both extractable K and Mg were low
in this soil for growing peanut (Table 2). It was recommended that control plots
receive 92 Kg K ha" and even the soils that had already received K from the
treatments were recommended to need an additional application of 37 Kg K haK.
Magnesium fertilization was also recommended by using an application of 1120 Kg
of dolomitic limestone per ha or 40 Kg soluble Mg per ha.

II. Nutrient Concentration and Content in Diagnostic Leaves. Applications
of Ca and K had a significant effect at the 5% significance level on Ca, K, Fe







and Mn concentrations in diagnostic leaves (Table 3). Maximum Ca concentrations
were observed when Ca was added, and in the control. No statistical differences
for diagnostic leaf Ca were found between the control and treatments where K was
applied. By using Jones et al. (1991) criteria for adequate ranges of nutrients
in peanut diagnostic leaves, Ca war in high enough concentrations in all
treatments. This demonstrated that soils used during these experiments did not
need additional Ca applications for peanut production.

Potassium-based treatments showed maximum K concentrations compared to the
other treatments, but K application alone did not statistically differ from the
control and plus Ca treatments, but K concentration was significantly greater in
diagnostic leaves than the control when applied in combination with Ca (Table 3).
Concentrations of this element were observed to be low or deficient among all
treatments (Jones, et al., 1991). Due to the relative advanced maturity of the
crop, K absorption and uptake by the peanut crop would be expected to be limited.

The data suggested that additions of Ca enhanced absorption of Mn, which
was in low concentrations, whereas Fe and Zn absorption were, in all cases,
within the sufficiency range. Low levels of Cu were observed in all treatments,
except in the control, which showed sufficiency levels. These observations
demonstrated that CaSO4 and KSO4 applications had a significant impact on the Ca,
K, Fe and Mn uptake by peanuts.

III. Dry Matter Yield. There was no significant effect of K2SO4 and CaSO4
applications on the total dry matter accumulation and plant nutrient content as
shown in Table 4. This showed that applications at 75 days after planting of
either K or Ca applied alone or in combinations did not affect peanut growth.
Perhaps, this fact was due to the relative physiological maturity of peanut
plants at the moment of application, which were in the early stages of
reproduction. However, a further partitioning in plant parts could show
differential concentrations and contents occurring within individual organs.

As shown in Table 6, stems had the maximum dry matter yield, followed by
seeds, leaves, shells and roots. No effect was observed among treatments on dry
matter production.

IV. Nutrient Concentration and Content in Plant Parts. In general, Ca
concentration was significantly greater in those plots where CaSO4 was added, and
having minimum values when K.SO4 was applied (Table 5). Leaf tissue showed the
highest percentages of Ca accumulation, with seeds having the lowest.

Stems and leaves showed higher Mg concentrations, increasing in those plots
where Ca-based treatments were used (Table 5). Stems had maximum Mg content among
all other plant parts (Table 6).

Significant treatment by plant part interaction was observed for K
concentration, following an inconsistent trend within all possible combinations
(Table 5). However, highest content was found in the stems (Table 6). Maybe, this
is due to the association of this element with photosynthate transport in the
plant. Since soil test K was extremely low, as shown for control plots and CaSO4
treated plots (Table 2), and since most K absorption and uptake by peanut occurs
prior to pod filling (Gallaher, unpublished data) limited K was stored in
photosynthetic active tissue for photosynthate transport from the source to the
sink (seed). Under these conditions, late application of K would not be expected
to overcome the deficient soil test problem for the existing peanut crop nor
result in the expected antagonism with Ca to result in higher incidence of pod
rot.

No significant effect at the 5% significance level was observed for either
N or P content or concentration among treatments. However, as shown in Tables 5
and 6, leaves had maximum concentration and content within plant parts.







Main treatments had no significant effect on the concentration of either
Cu and Zn (Table 5). In both cases, leaves showed the highest concentrations of
these micronutrients.

V. Pod Rot Incidence. As shown in table 7, pod rot incidence was not
affected by either K2SO4 or CaSO4 applications or their combinations. Even when
infestation levels reached up to 3% of the total number of pods, it seemed that
as indicated before, pod rot is an etiological complex, needing not only low Ca
levels in the pods, but also a specific pathogenical organism.

VI. Nematodes. Addition of CaSO4 resulted in 55% reduction of ring nematode
(Criconemella spp.) than the control (Table 8). There was a trend for lower
populations of this nematode when K2SO4 or CaSO4 were added, but when the
combination was added, ring nematodes were equal to the control plots. More
stubby root (Paratrichodorus minor) nematodes were present in soil treated with
both K2SO4 and CaSO4 compared to other treatments, which were equally and
uniformly low (Table 8). Root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes were not affected
by fertility treatments and were relatively low in number.

SUMMARY
Calcium sulfate and K2S04 applications had no effect on peanut dry matter
accumulation. However, concentration and content of some nutrients, such as Ca,
Mg and K, were affected within plant parts. Applications at 75 days after
planting seemed to be too late to produce a significant effect on dry matter
production. A similar conclusion can be drawn for pod rot incidence, where a
living organism could be necessary to cause infection. Perhaps, this pathogen is
a beneficiary of infective predisposition of pod tissues due to nutrient
deficiencies. Deficient soil test K conditions was another major factor limiting
the expected pod rot incidence.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Technical support provided by Jim Chichester, Howard Palmer, and Walt Davis
is greatly appreciated. This research paper resulted from a practical problem
(to be solved by soil and plant analysis and with the support of the scientific
literature) assigned to students in the Agronomy Department course "AGR6422 Crop
Nutrition," Dr. Raymond N. Gallaher, Instructor. Problems are designed to not
only give students experience and knowledge of collecting, handling, treating,
and analyzing plant and soil samples in "Crop Nutrition-Plant Nutrition," but
also to provide real-world experience working with fellow students and
experienced professors in the art and science of playing the role of "Plant
Nutrition Doctors."

LITERATURE CITED
Bremner, J.M. 1965. Total nitrogen. Pages: 1149-1178, in: C.A. Black ed. Methods
of soil analysis. Part 2. American Soc. of Agronomy. Madison, WI.
Boswell, T.E., and W.H. Thames. 1976. Pythium and pod rot control in South Texas.
Proc. Am. Peanut Res. Educ. Assoc. 8:89.
Bouyoucus, G.J. 1936. Directions for making mechanical analysis of soils by the
hydrometer method. Soil Sci. 42(3).
Colvin, D., W. Stall, T. Crocker, L. McCarty, J. Norcini, F. Coale, D. Hall, R.
Cromwell, D. Tucker, K. Langeland, G. MacDonald, B. Brecke, J. Dusky, J.
Gilreath, D. Jones, A. Meerow, C. Miester, P. Mislevy, M. Singh and E.
Whitty. 1993. 1993 Florida Weed Control Guide. Inst. of Food and Agric.
Sci. Univ. of Florida. Gainesville, FL.
Day, P.R. 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. Pages: 545-
567, in: C.A. Black, ed. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I. Soil Sci. Soc.
Amer., Madison, WI.
Filonow, A.B., H.A. Melouk, M. Martin and, J. Sherwood. 1988. Effect of calcium
sulfate on pod rot of peanut. Plant Disease 72-7:589-593.







Frank, Z.R. 1968. Pythium pod rot of peanut. Phytopathology 58:542-543.
Frank, Z.R. 1972. Pythium myriotylum and Fusarium solani as cofactors in a pod-
rot complex of peanut. Phytopathology 62:1331-1334.
Futch, S.H., and R.N. Gallaher. 1994. Citrus leaf wash comparison of zinc
nutritional and nutrient uptake analysis. Agronomy Research Report AY-94-
06. Agronomy Department, Inst. Food and Agr. Sci., Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N., C.O. Weldon, and F.C. Futral. 1975. An aluminum block digester
for plant and soil analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39:803-806.
Gallaher, R.N. 1995. Comparison of Zn nutritional spray treatments for citrus
leaf Zn adsorption and absorption. Agronomy Research Report AY-95-02.
Agronomy Department, Inst. Food and Agr. Sci., Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville.
Garcia, R., and D.J. Mitchell. 1975. Interactions of Pythium myriotylum with
several fungi in peanut pod rot. Phytopathology 65:1375-1381.
Garcia, R., and D.J. Mitchell. 1975. Synergistic interactions of Pythium
myriotylum with Fusarium solani and Meloidogyne arenaria in peanut pod rot.
Phytopathology 65:832-833.
Garren, K.H. 1964. Land plaster and soil rot of peanut pods in Virginia. Plant
Dis. Rep. 48:349-352.
Garren, K.H. 1970. Rhizoctonia solani versus Pythium myriotylum pathogens of
peanut pod breakdown. Plant Dis. Rep. 54:840-843.
Hallock, D.L., and K.H. Garren. 1968. Pod breakdown yield and grade of Virginia
type peanuts as affected by Ca, Mg and K sulfates. Agron. J. 60:253-257.
Hartmann, H.T., W.J. Flocker, and A.M. Kofranek. 1986. Plant Science: Growth,
Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. Prentice-Hall, Inc. New
Jersey, USA.
Horwitz, W., ed. 1975. Page: 31, Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC, 12th
Ed. Washington, DC.
Jackson, M.L. 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Pages: 219-220. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Jenkings, W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating
nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter 48:692.
Jones, Jr., J.B., B. Wolf, and H.A. Mills. 1991. Plant analysis handbook. Micro-
Macro Publishing, Inc.
Mehlich, A. 1953. Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na and NH4. North Carolina Soil
Test Division (Mimeo, 1953). North Carolina State Univ. Raleigh, NC.
Moore, L.D., and W.H. Wills. 1974. The influence of calcium on the susceptibility
of peanut pods of Pythium myriotylum and Rhizoctonia solani. Peanut Sci.
1:18-20.
MSTAT 4.0. 1985. Software for statistical analysis. User's manual. Michigan State
University.
Peech, M. 1965. Hydrogen-ion activity. Pages: 914-925 in: C.A. Black, ed. Methods
of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties #9. Amer.
Soc. Agron. Madison, WI.
Porter, D.M., D.H. Smith, and R. Rodriguez-Kabana. 1982. Peanut plant diseases.
Pages 326-410 in: Peanut Science Technology. H.E. Pattee and C.T. Young,
eds. Am. Peanut Res. And Educ. Soc. Yoakum, TX.
Quattro Pro 4.0. 1987. Spreadsheet for data processing. Borland International.
Shew, H.D., and M.K. Beute. 1979. Evidence for the involvement of soilborne mites
in Pythium pod rot of peanuts. Phytopathology 69:204-207.
Soil Service Staff. 1984. Official series description of the Arredondo series.
United States Government Printing Office, Wash. D.C.
Walker, M.E., and A.S. Csinos. 1980. Effect of gypsum on yield, grade and
incidence of pod rot in five peanut cultivars. Peanut Sci. 7:109-113.
Weed Science Society of America. 1994. Herbicide Handbook of WSSA. Seventh Ed.,
1994.










Table 2. Kjeldahl N, Mehlich I extractable nutrients, CEC, pH and OM for peanut experiment, Gainesville, Florida,
1995.


Fertility N Ca K Mg P Zn Cu Mn Fe Na CEC pH OM

% -------------------------- ppm ------------------------------- meq/100 %
g
Control 0.020 158 7.3 5.0 34.1 0.62 0.18 1.69 9.2 4.0 2.85 5.8 0.71

Plus Ca 0.020 196 5.8 4.0 35.7 0.47 0.19 1.79 9.0 3.7 2.97 5.9 0.72
Plus K 0.022 150 38.3 6.0 33.8 0.50 0.17 1.75 9.2 3.5 2.86 6.1 0.70

Ca plus K 0.022 181 33.4 4.0 34.5 0.59 0.18 1.67 9.4 3.3 3.04 5.8 0.70

Mechanical analysis: 95% sand, 3% silt and 2% clay. Texture is sand.








Table 3. Nutrient concentration in diagnostic leaves of potassium and calcium
sulfate treated peanut, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Fertility Variable
Treatment Ca Mq K P N Cu Fe Mn Zn

---------------- % ----- ------- -------- ppm ----------

Control 2.45ab 0.32a 1.10b 0.25a 4.21a 11.0a 140ab 88.2b 88.3a

Plus K 2.19 b 0.30a 1.51ab0.25a 4.24a 8.5a 125 b 92.0b 48.3a

Plus Ca 2.96a 0.33a 1.04b 0.27a 4.26a 8.5a 138ab132.5a 42.0a

K Plus Ca 2.27 b 0.34a 1.68a 0.25a 4.24a 9.5a 148a 79.5b 46.8a


Average 2.47 0.32 1.33 0.25 4.24 9.4 138 79.5

NS NS NS NS NS
CV (%) 17 22 22 10 11 25 7 19 55

Values among fertility treatments within a nutrient not followed by the same
letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability according to
Duncan's new multiple range test.

Peanut planted on 17 June 1995. Fertilizers applied 75 days after planting as
follows: Control = No fertilizer added; Plus K = 560 kg K2S04 ha'2; Plus Ca = 1121
kg CaSO4 ha2; K Plus Ca = the sum total of Plus K and Plus Ca.



Table 4. Dry matter yield and plant nutrient content of potassium and calcium
sulfate treated peanut, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Fertility Variable
Treatment Dry matter Ca Mg K P N Cu Fe Mn Zn

S----------------- g- ------------ ----- mg m2 -----

Control 497 4.63 1.31 5.06 1.07 14.79 3.21 54.56 18.01 16.33

Plus K 459 4.25 1.18 4.99 0.98 13.81 2.90 44.59 18.37 14.57

Plus Ca 416 4.49 1.18 3.57 0.97 12.50 2.88 48.29 18.81 14.09

K Plus Ca 446 4.30 1.26 5.91 0.95 13.46 2.85 56.47 14.71 13.41


Average 454 4.42 1.23 4.88 0.99 13.64 2.96 50.98 17.48 14.60

NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
CV (%) 20 21 24 33 21 20 21 30 20 23

NS = no significant difference among fertility treatments for any variable.

Peanut planted on 17 June 1995. Fertilizers applied 75 days after planting as
follows: Control = No fertilizer added; Plus K = 560 kg K2SO4 ha'2; Plus Ca = 1121
kg CaSO4 ha2; K Plus Ca = the sum total of Plus K and Plus Ca.









Table 5. Plant nutrient concentration in plant parts of potassium and calcium
sulfate treated peanut, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Fertility Variable
Treatment Leaf Stem Root Shell Seed Average


--------------------------------Ca, %

Control 2.54 1.03 0.74

Plus K 2.46 0.99 0.65

Plus Ca 2.87 1.11 0.71

K Plus Ca 2.62 1.02 0.89

Average 2.63 v 1.04 w 0.75 x

CV parts = 14%; ; Significance main = **, Sub

----------------------------- Mg, %


Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts



Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts



Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus C.

Average

CV parts


--------------------------------

0.12 0.04 0.90 c

0.12 0.04 0.85 d

0.19 0.07 0.99 a

0.24 0.07 0.97 b

0.17 y 0.05 z

= **, interaction = +

--------------------------------


0.36 0.35 0.22 0.10 0.17 0.24 bc

0.32 0.34 0.20 0.12 0.17 0.23 c

0.41 0.29 0.11 0.18 0.41 0.27 a

0.40 0.37 0.25 0.12 0.17 0.26 ab

0.36 v 0.37 v 0.24 w 0.11 x 0.17 wx

= 15%; Significance main = *, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

---------------------------------K, % ------------------------------

1.13b v 1.04bc vw 0.85bc wx 1.06b vw 0.77a x 0.97

1.09b w 1.16b w 1.01b w 1.50a v 0.75a x 1.10

0.87b vw 0.81c vw 0.83c vw 1.08b v 0.75a w 0.87

1.46a v 1.62a v 1.52a v .1.46a v 0.73a w 1.36

1.14 1.16 1.05 1.28 0.75

= 16%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **

------------------------------P,% --------------------------------

0.25 0.13 0.16 0.15 0.36 0.20 a

0.22 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.34 0.20 a

0.25 0.15 0.19 0.16 0.37 0.22 a

a 0.23 0.11 0.18 0.14 0.35 0.20 a

0.24 w 0.13 z 0.17 x 0.16 y 0.35 v

= 10%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.











Table 3. Continued.

------------------------------ N, % --------------------------------


Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts



Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts



Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts



Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus C

Average

CV parts


3.80 1.49 2.47 2.40 4.62 2.96 a

3.51 1.60 2.36 2.48 4.72 2.93 a

3.62 1.60 2.39 2.30 4.86 2.95 a

3.50 1.54 2.26 2.13 4.83 2.85 a

3.61 w 1.56 y 2.37 x 2.33 x 4.76 v

= 7%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

----------------------------- Cu, ppm -----------------------------

8.50 6.75 6.25 5.00 5.75 6.45 a

7.00 6.00 8.25 5.75 6.00 6.60 a

7.75 6.50 8.25 6.00 6.75 7.05 a

8.00 5.25 8.50 5.75 6.50 6.80 a

7.81 v 6.13 w 7.81 v 5.63 w 6.25 w

= 23%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

--------------------------- Fe, ppm -----------------------------

157 123 255 85 30 130 b

138 105 258 82 30 123 b

140 158 262 75 30 133 b

a 183 158 343 78 50 162 a

154 w 136 w 279 v 80 x 35 y

= 31%; Significance main = *, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

----------------------------- Mn, ppm -----------------------------

105 b v 20a wx 14a x 29a w 13a x 36

104 b v 26a w 16a x 32a w 13a x 38


133a v 23a wx 15a xy 28a w 13a

91 c v 19a wx 18a x 28a w 12a

108 22 16 29 13

31%; Significance main = *, Sub = **, interaction = **.


a











Table 3. Continued.

----------------------------- Zn, ppm---------------------------

Control 32.5 33.3 33.5 33.8 37.0 34.0 a

Plus K 37.0 26.0 35.0 28.0 35.8 32.4 a

Plus Ca 51.3 23.5 22.3 23.3 40.0 32.1 a

K Plus Ca 39.0 21.8 33.0 22.5 36.0 30.5 a

Average 39.9 v 26.1 x 30.9 wx 26.9 x 37.2 vw

CV parts = 31%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = +.

Values among fertility treatments within a nutrient not followed by the same
letter (a,b,c,d) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's new multiple range test.

Values among plant parts within a fertility treatment not followed by the same
letter (v,w,x,y,z) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's new multiple range test.

CV = Coefficient of variation; NS = F test non significant at 0.05 level of
probability (p); + = F test significant at the 0.10 level of p; = F test
significant at the 0.05 level of p; ** = F test significant at the 0.01 level of
p.

Peanut planted on 17 June 1995. Fertilizers applied 75 days after planting as
follows: Control = No fertilizer added; Plus K = 560 kg K2SO4 ha2; Plus Ca = 1121
kg CaSO4 ha2; K Plus Ca = the sum total of Plus K and Plus Ca.









Table 6. Plant nutrient content in plant parts of potassium and calcium
sulfate treated peanut, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Fertility Variable
Treatment Leaf Stem Root Shell Seed Average

----------------- Dry Matter Yield, g m-2-------------

Control 104 163 24 73 133 99 a

Plus K 103 147 23 68 119 92 a

Plus Ca 92 132 26 65 100 83 a

K Plus Ca 93 142 19 64 128 89 a

Average 98 x 146 v 23 z 67 y 120 w

CV parts = 15%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

----------------------------- Ca, g m2-------------------------

Control 2.60 1.71 0.18 0.09 0.05 0.93 a

Plus K 2.51 1.46 0.15 0.08 0.05 0.85 a

Plus Ca 2.66 1.46 0.18 0.12 0.07 0.85 a

K Plus Ca 2.45 1.44 0.16 0.16 0.09 0.86 a

Average 2.55 v 1.52 w 0.17 x 0.11 x 0.07 x

CV parts = 29%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

------------------------------Mg, g m2 -----------------------------

Control 0.37 0.59 0.05 0.07 0.23 0.26 a

Plus K 0.33 0.51 0.05 0.08 0.20 0.24 a

Plus Ca 0.32 0.54 0.08 0.07 0.18 0.24 a

K Plus Ca 0.38 0.53 0.05 0.08 0.22 0.25 a

Average 0.35 w 0.54 v 0.06 y 0.08 y 0.21 x

CV parts = 28%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

--------------------------------K, g m-2--------------------------


Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts =


1.23 1.85

1.14 1.71

0.82 1.08

1.40 2.34

1.15 w 1.75 v

34%; Significance main =


0.21

0.23

0.22

0.28

0.23 y

NS, Sub


0.78 1.00

1.07 0.90

0.70 0.75

0.95 0.93

0.86 x 0.90 x

= **, interaction = NS.


1.01

1.00

0.71

1.18









Table 6. Continued.


------------------------------ P,

Control 0.26 0.21 0.04

Plus K 0.22 0.20 0.04

Plus Ca 0.23 0.21 0.05

K Plus Ca 0.22 0.16 0.03

Average 0.23 w 0.19 x 0.04 z

CV parts = 23%; Significance main = NS, Sub

--------------------------------N,


Control

Plus K

Plus Ca

K Plus Ca

Average

CV parts


3.95 2.36 0.60

3.63 2.36 0.53

3.38 2.15 0.61

3.31 2.16 0.42

3.57 w 2.26 x 0.54 z

24%; Significance main = NS, Sub

----------------------------- Cu,


Control 0.86 1.12 0.15

Plus K 0.73 0.88 0.18

Plus Ca 0.72 0.88 0.21

K Plus Ca 0.75 0.74 0.16

Average 0.77 w 0.91 v 0.18 y

CV parts = 29%; Significance main = NS, Sub

------------------------------- Fe,


g 2---------------------

0.11 0.47 0.22 a

0.12 0.41 0.20 a

0.11 0.37 0.19 a

0.09 0.44 0.19 a

0.11 y 0.42 v

S**, interaction = NS.

g m2

1.72 6.16 2.96 a

1.67 5.62 2.76 a

1.50 4.86 2.50 a

1.36 6.21 2.69 a

1.56 y 5.71 v

= **, interaction = NS.

mg m2 ----------------------

0.36 0.72 0.64 a

0.40 0.71 0.58 a

0.39 0.68 0.58 a

0.36 0.84 0.57 a

0.38 x 0.74 w

= **, interaction = NS.

mg m2


Control 16.7 21.6 6.2 5.9 4.1

Plus K 14.1 15.5 5.7 5.6 3.6

Plus Ca 13.0 20.6 6.9 4.9 2.9

K Plus Ca 16.6 22.5 6.4 5.1 5.9

Average 15.1 w 20.1 v 6.3 x 5.3 x 4.1 x

CV parts = 31%; Significance main = *, Sub = **, interaction = NS.


10.9 a

8.9 a

9.7 a

11.3 a









Table 6. Continued.


--------------------------------Mn,

Control 10.4 b v 3.4a w 0.3a

Plus K 10.6 b v 3.8a w 0.3a

Plus Ca 12.3a v 3.0a w 0.4a

K Plus Ca 8.4 c v 2.6a w 0.3a

Average 10.4 3.2 0.4

CV parts = 25%; Significance main = NS, Sub

-----------------------------Zn,


mg m -----------------------------

y 2.1a x 1.7a x 3.6

y 2.2a x 1.5a xy 3.7

y 1.8a wx 1.3a xy 3.8

x 1.8a w 1.5a wx 2.9

2.0 1.5

= **, interaction = **.

mg m2--------------------


Control 3.55 4.85 0.79 2.23 4.89 3.27 a

Plus K 3.84 3.82 0.77 1.88 4.26 2.91 a

Plus Ca 4.80 3.19 0.58 1.53 3.98 2.68 a

K Plus Ca 3.68 3.05 0.61 1.46 4.60 2.68 a

Average 3.97 vw 3.73 w 0.69 y 1.78 x 4.43 v

CV parts = 30%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

Values among fertility treatments within a nutrient not followed by the same
letter (a,b,c,d) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's new multiple range test.

Values among plant parts within a fertility treatment not followed by the same
letter (v,w,x,y,z) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's new multiple range test.

CV = Coefficient of variation; NS = F test non significant at the 0.05 level of
probability (p); + = F test significant at the 0.10 level of p; = F test
significant at the 0.05 level of p; ** = F test significant at the 0.01 level of
p.

Peanut planted on 17 June 1995. Fertilizers applied 75 days after planting as
follows: Control = No fertilizer added; Plus K = 560 kg KSO4 ha'2; Plus Ca = 1121
kg CaSO4 ha2; K Plus Ca = the sum total of Plus K and Plus Ca.









Table 7. Pod rot incidence in potassium and calcium sulfate treated peanut,
Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Fertility Pod rot Mature pods Immature pods Total

--------------------Avg. number--------------------
Control 11.5 a 115.0 a 149.8 a 301.8 a

Plus Ca 6.5 a 107.3 a 154.8 a 268.5 a

Plus K 14.8 a 170.8 a 159.3 a 344.8 a

K plus Ca 5.8 a 125.8 a 157.3 a 288.8 a
Values in columns, among fertility treatments, not followed by the same letter
are significantly different at the 0.05 significance level according to
Duncan's new multiple range test.


Table 8. Nematode densities in potassium and calcium sulfate treated peanut,
Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Fertility Criconeme- Meloidogyne spp. Pratylenchus Paratrichodorus
1la (root-knot) spp. (lesion) minor (stubby-
spp.(ring) root)

-----------Nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil-------------

Control 1101 a 18 a 8 a 1 b

Plus Ca 500 b 28 a 18 a 0 b

Plus K 826 ab 10 a 12 a 1 b

K plus Ca 1069 a 44 a 8 a 7 a
Values in columns, among fertility treatments, not followed by the same letter
are significantly different at the 0.05 significance level according to
Duncan's new multiple range test.




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