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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-95-08
Title: Cotton disorders associated with plant nutrition status, soil fertility, and nematode occurrence
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Title: Cotton disorders associated with plant nutrition status, soil fertility, and nematode occurrence
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 28 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ritzinger, Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, Institute of Food and Agricultrual Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1995?]
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Subject: Cotton -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cotton -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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Statement of Responsibility: Ritzinger, C.H.S.P. ... et al..
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Volume ID: VID00001
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(f3 6L

-5dAgronomy Research Report AY-95-08
Marston Science
Library
FEB 0 2 199o
University of Florida
COTTON DISORDERS
ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT
NUTRITION STATUS, SOIL
FERTILITY, AND NEMATODE
OCCURRENCE



Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.', J. Velasquez-Pereira2, R.
N. Gallaher3, K. L. Buhr4, and R. McSorley5
Graduate student, Entomology and Nematology Department';
Graduate student, Animal Science Department2; Professor,
Department of Agronomy3; Assistant Professor, Department
of Agronomy4; and Professor, Entomology and Nematology
Department5, respectively, Inst. of Food and Agriculture
Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.








Agronomy Research Report AY-95-08


COTTON DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT NUTRITION STATUS, SOIL
FERTILITY, AND NEMATODE OCCURRENCE

Ritzinger, C. H. S. P.1, J. Velasquez-Pereira2, R. N. Gallaher3, K. L. Buhr4, and R.
McSorley5


Graduate student, Entomology and Nematology Department'; Graduate student, Animal Science Department2;
Professor, Department of Agronomy3; Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy4; and Professor, Entomology
and Nematology Department', respectively, Inst. of Food and Agriculture Science, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, root-knot, stubby-root, lesion, sting, ring, lance, spiral,
Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus spp., Trichodorus spp., Criconemoides spp., Belonolaimus spp.,
Hoplolaimus spp., soil moisture, micronutrients, macronutrients

ABSTRACT

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an annual crop, contributing about 90% of the current
world fiber production. Plant and soil nutrient status affect fiber quality as well as severity of
disorders caused by nematodes. In addition, these factors may interact and cause a lack of
uniformity among plants. Cotton plants showing growth disorders were sampled in three
locations in a field at the Agronomy Farm, University of Florida campus. Tall (1.82 m),
intermediate (0.91 m) and short (0.46 m) plants were randomly selected for analysis. Diagnostic
and whole plant tissues, and soil samples were taken for the nutritional and mineral analysis and
for the final nematode densities. There were significant interactions between plant parts and
plant parts status for concentrations of most nutrients. Short plants tended to be lower in Ca,
N, and Mg concentrations, and higher for P and Mn. Plant height was positively correlated with
Ca, Mg and N, in plant diagnostic tissue as well as in soil mineral concentration. Conversely,
plant height was negatively correlated with stubby-root nematodes, Mn, and Zn concentrations.

INTRODUCTION

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), known as upland cotton, is a tropical perennial shrub
which is grown as an annual crop. Upland cotton fibers are used in the manufacture of a variety
of textile products, cordage, and other non-woven products. While this crop contributes about
90% of the current world production of textile products, cotton seed is very important as a
source of oil for humans and a source of protein and fiber for livestock (Lee, 1984; Cassman,
1993). The United States production is worth approximately six billion dollars and is grown on
more than 13 million acres in 16 states (Goodell, 1993). There is a continuing trend toward
increasing modernization and intensification of production.
Cotton does not respond to crop rotation as well as other annual crops when the soil is
free of nematodes and Fusarium wilt. If these pathogens are present, crop rotation may be








beneficial. In many parts of the world cotton is grown year after year on the same land with
no apparent ill effects (Munro, 1987). In the USA yield losses have increased from 161,000 to
528,000 bales from 1982 to 1992 (Goodell, 1993). Marcus-Wyner and Rains (1982) reported
that nutrient depletion can be caused by increasing production per unit area and by repeated use
of the same land year after year. Cotton grows well on sandy soil and tolerates a wide range
in soil acidity and alkalinity, growing best on a clay soil rich in organic matter and Ca and Mg
carbonates (Munro, 1987). Some of the symptoms of plant nutritional deficiencies may be the
result of disease caused by soil-borne fungi, insects, viruses, nematodes, or other conditions.
Goodell (1993) pointed out that nematodes are the second largest cause of yield loss in cotton
fields. General symptoms include stunted plants, yellowed leaves, wilting, and stress, all of
which may erroneously be attributed to problems with soil fertility, pH, or other factors.
According to Blasingame (1993), the major nematode species found in most cotton-growing areas
are the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). The reniform (Rotylenchulus spp.) is prevalent
from North Carolina to Texas, and the sting (Belonolaimus spp.) and lance nematodes
(Hoplolaimus spp.) are concentrated in the Southeast. Other nematodes are associated with
stunted cotton are lesion (Pratylenchus spp.), stubby-root (Trichodorus spp.), and ring
(Criconemoides spp.) (Goodell, 1993).
According to McSorley and Gallaher (1992), the feeding or presence of nematodes in
roots may interfere with the uptake of nutrients by plants. These authors stress that the nutrient
uptake depends on the nutrient element, plant part, and plant species involved among other
factors. Little information about these issues is available for Florida growing conditions.
According to Marcus-Wyner and Rains (1982), soils with low organic matter concentrations may
result in low P concentration which will decrease cotton yield.
Due to low root density in the surface soil layer, cotton plants are more dependent on
nutrient acquisition from the subsoil than most other crop plants (Cassman, 1993).
Consequently, other techniques are needed for diagnosing nutritional disorders (including
chemical soil tests, chemical plant tissue tests, and biological tests), particularly where subsoils
are low in K or Ca, or toxic in Al. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate
relationships between differential growth of cotton and possible causal factors such as inadequate
plant nutrition, low soil fertility, inadequate soil moisture, and parasitic nematode relationships.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Cotton, 'Deltapine 90,' was planted on 23 May 1995 at the Museum Road experimental
field of the University of Florida, at a rate of 143,260 seeds (92 % germination) per hectare.
The previous cover crop, rye (Secale cereale L.)' Wrens Abruzzi', was mowed with a
rotarymower and incorporated with a moldboard plow on 18 May.
The pre-plant herbicide pendimethalin (Prowl") (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-
dinitrobenzenamine), was incorporated at 1.121 kg ai per ha. A pre-emergent herbicide,
flurometuron (CotoranR) (1,1-dimethyl-3-(a, a, a-trifluoro-m -tolyl) urea) was applied on 24
May at 1.68 kg ai per ha. The area was uniformly irrigated twice by gun irrigation, 3-days after
planting and about a week later.
On 12 September (109 day after planting) cotton plants showing growth disorders were
designated as tall (1.82 m), medium (0.91 m) and short (0.46 m) for treatments to sample. Tall








plants had unopened and open flowers at the top of the main stem and on the upper branches.
A few bolls were almost completely filled on the lower branches. Medium plants had only a
few blossoms, as opposed to many in the tall plants. Boll maturity ranged from beginning to
fill to completely filled. Occasionally a boll was observed about to crack open. Short plants
had only a few blooms and most bolls were, although still green, almost completely filled. A
few bolls were beginning to open to expose the cotton fibers inside.
Soil moisture concentrations were taken when cotton plants were fully ready for cotton
harvest at depths of 0 to 0.20 m, 0.20 to 0.40 m, and 0.40 to 0.60 m. Subsamples were
preserved in airtight plastic bags for moisture determination, weighed, dried at 100 C and
reweighed. The gallon of water per acre or liters of water per square meter were determined
based on weight loss and assuming that one acre furrow slice weighs 2,000,000 pounds (909,090
kg) per 6 inch (0.15 m) soil depth.
Four replicates of one square meter of each plant height location were chosen and
samples were taken for the diagnostic leaves, stems, and petioles. Diagnostic tissue was taken
from the top of the plants which represented the most recently formed fully-developed tissues.
The rest of the plant was separated into leaf, stem, petiole, root, and boll fractions. The plant
samples were kept in paper bags and taken to the laboratory where fresh and dry weights were
determined. On 15 September, soil samples were taken twice for each of four replications for
each plant height. One set of soil samples was taken for the soil pH, organic matter, N, Cu,
Fe, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Na, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) determinations.
Nematodes were extracted from 100 cm3 soil from the remaining soil set, using a modified
sieving and centrifugation procedure (Jenkins, 1964).
Determination of soil water pH was taken by measuring 20 ml of soil into a paper cup,
adding 40 ml of deionized water and stirring. After standing for about 30 minutes, the pH meter
was calibrated by using buffers of pH 7.0 and 4.0. The unknown pH sample was automatically
stirred and then the electrode was immersed into the soil-water. The pH was recorded to the
nearest tenth (Peech, 1965).
The organic matter determination was taken by weighing 1.0 g of soil into a 500 ml
Erlenmeyer flask, and adding 10 ml of 1N K2SO4 and mixing by gentle rotation for about 1
minute. After 30 minutes, the suspension was diluted to 200 ml water and 5 drops of indicator
was added. Titration was with 0.5 N Ferrous Sulfate Solution and was added drop by drop until
the solution color changed from dull green to a reddish brown color. A check soil, with a
known organic matter content, was also utilized as a check sample (This procedure was a
modification of Jackson, 1958, and Horwitz, 1975). The procedure for the mechanical analysis
to determine soil texture followed the Bouyoucus (1936) and Day (1965) methodology. Soil
extractable nutrients (Mehlich, 1953) analysis of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Na were
performed by the University of Florida Soil Testing Laboratory By ICAP (Inductively Couple
Argon Plasma).
The plants were washed by hand soon after sampling, while still living and respiring.
Samples were shaken for about 30 seconds with 0.1% Liquid-nox detergent, rinsed with
deionized water for about 10 seconds, dipped and shaken for about 45 seconds in 3% by volume
concentrated HCI and rinsed for about 30 seconds with deionized water. The tissue was drained
on paper towels, placed back in labeled bags and dried at 70 OC in a forced air oven for 48 hours
until dry (Gallaher, personal communication).








The dried plant tissue was ground in a Wiley Mill using a stainless steel screen with 2
mm diameter. The ground samples were stored in plastic whirl-pak bags and redried again
before being weighed for tissue analysis, to avoid any differential moisture among samples.
Concentration of N in plant tissue of each sample was determined on a Technicon
Autoanalyzer II by placing 0.100 g of plant tissue into a 100 ml Pyrex test-tube, adding 3.2 g
of a prepared catalyst (9:1 KSO,:CuSO,) and 10 ml of H2SO,, and two glass beads to prevent
bumping, and vortexing the solution. During the period of pre-digestion, 2 one ml increments
of 30% H2O, was added to each tube to prevent excessive foaming due to the reaction. The
tubes were capped with small Pyrex funnels, allowing evolved gases to escape while preserving
the refluxing action. The solution was loaded onto an aluminum digest block (Gallaher et al.,
1975b) and digested at 385 OC for 3.5 hours. After cooling, the digested solutions were vortexed
with approximately 50 ml of deionized water, allowed to re-cool for two hours, transferred by
using a volumetric test tube, recovering boiling beads in the process, and then brought to 75 ml
volume. Samples showing any particles in suspension were decanted into test tubes in sample
trays, to avoid any disturbance prior to the following N analysis.
The Technicon Autoanalyzer II System (manifold, colorimeter) was linked to an
automatic Technicon Sampler IV, an Alpkem Corporation Proportioning Pump III, and a strip
chart recorder. The N was trapped and recorded as NHSO,. A plant standard of known N
concentration was used as a control for each 40 samples. Chart reading of chemical standards
and unknown samples was used to determine the N concentrations by using a microcomputer and
a simple linear regression model (Gallaher, personal communication).
Plant mineral concentrations were determined by a dry ashing procedure. A 1.0 g sample
of plant material was placed in a 50 ml Pyrex beaker and ashed in a muffle furnace at 480 C
for six hours. After removal from the furnace, the ashed samples were diluted with two ml of
concentrated HCI and 20 ml of deionized H,O in the hood and boiled to dryness on a hot plate.
The water:acid procedure was repeated, and dried residue was suspended in deionized HO.
Each beaker was then covered with a watch glass and heated on a hot plate until boiling
occurred, a period of about 30 minutes. Samples were cooled to room temperature and the
volume was increased to 100 ml for a solution strength of about 0.1 N HCI by washing the
beaker several times using a bottle of deionized water.
Copper, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, and Mg concentrations were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry, and K by atomic emission spectrophotometer using a Perkin-Elmer Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer. Phosphorus was determined by colorimetry.
Data was computed in Quattro Pro (1987) spreadsheets for the calculations and
transformations. Analysis of variance for a split plot (plant height were whole plot, and plant
parts were split plot) with whole plants in a completely randomized design and four replicates
was conducted by use of MSTAT (Freed et al. 1987). Duncan's multiple range test was used
for means separation at the 5 % level of probability. Sufficiency levels of nutrients in diagnostic
leaf tissue was determined according to Jones et al. (1991).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Calcium
Calcium is an element present in all plant tissues. Calcium deficiency primarily affects








root growth. There was a significant interaction (P50.01) between Ca concentration in
diagnostic plant parts and plant height. Leaf tissue had the highest Ca concentration, followed
by petiole and stem. According to Jones et al. (1991), all the Ca concentration values within
the stem, were below the sufficiency level. However, for short plants, stem Ca concentration
did not differ from that in the petiole. When Ca concentration was analyzed within leaf tissue,
the highest Ca concentration was observed in tall and medium plants, and the lowest
concentration was observed in short plants (Table 1). If the values of Jones et al. (1991), for
sufficiency values were applied to the leaves of the vegetative stem, the Ca concentration values
were sufficient to high.
Calcium content for the whole plant was higher in tall plants, but medium and short
plants did not differ in this respect (P 0.05). When only vegetative plant parts were compared,
the tall plant Ca content was about twice that of the medium plant Ca content and about seven
times that of short plant Ca content (Table 2). For both, highest Ca content was found in plants
with the highest dry matter yields.
A significant interaction between plant parts and plant height on Ca concentration was
observed (P 0.01). It seems that leaf tissue tends to accumulate more Ca than the other plant
parts (Table 3). Stem, boll, and root tissue had the lowest Ca concentrations independent of
plant height. When Ca concentration was observed within plant tissue, it differed among plant
heights only in leaf tissue.
Calcium content in plant parts also showed significant interaction (P 0.01) between plant
parts and plant heights. The highest leaf and stem Ca content within plant parts was for tall
plants followed by medium and short ones. No significant difference was observed within
petiole, boll, or root. The smallest Ca content was observed in root tissue. For the short plants,
there was no significant difference among the Ca contents of stem, petiole, boll, or roots. For
medium plants, there was no significant difference among Ca content of petiole, boll, or roots.
And for the tall plants, there was no significant difference between Ca content of petiole and
roots (Table 4). Calcium soil concentration for the tall and medium plant locations was about
three times more than that of the short plant location (Table 5).
Jones et al. (1991) stated that Ca concentration ranges from 0.20% to 3.00% of the dry
weight, based on stem tissue analyses. Leaf tissue of diagnostic or the whole plant showed a
larger variation of Ca concentration, or content among plant heights. This means that in this
study, leaf tissue could be a better indicator for Ca sufficiency than stem tissue.
Since Ca is not a mobile element in the plant, deficiencies occur where new plant tissue
is developing. Reproduction may be delayed or be terminated entirely. Leaf tissue would be
a good plant part for diagnosing Ca deficiency. In general, short plants had lower Ca content
than tall or intermediate plants. It may be possible that Ca availability in the soil also
contributed to the lower absorption, since CEC in the short plant location was also lower.

Magnesium
Magnesium is a major element that is a component of the chlorophyll molecule. Plant
concentration ranges between 0.15% to 1.00% of the dry weight of leaf tissue for most crops.
The cotton vegetative stem, can range from 0.30% to 0.80% Mg (Jones et al., 1991). There
were significant interactions of Mg concentration in plant diagnostic tissue in relation to plant
height, Mg concentration in plant parts and plant height as well as for Mg content in plant parts








and plant heights (P<0.01) (Tables 1, 3, and 4).
For the diagnostic tissue parts, tall plants had the highest Mg concentration followed by
medium and short plants. Therefore, in the diagnostic stem tissue, medium and short plants
were below the sufficiency level (Jones et al., 1991). Magnesium concentration was higher in
leaf tissue followed by petiole and stem, but in short plants there was no significant difference
among diagnostic tissues (Table 1).
Magnesium contents for the whole plant and total vegetative parts were highest in tall
plants followed by medium and short plants (Table 2). Leaf and stem tissues were good
indicators to differentiate Mg content because in these tissues the variation in Mg content among
different plant heights was significant. Tall plants showed highest Mg content in leaf tissue
followed by stem, boll, petiole, and root. Magnesium content was positively correlated with the
dry matter content. Magnesium content of medium plants showed highest values in the leaf and
boll, followed by stem and petiole, or roots. For the Mg content of short plants, bolls showed
the highest Mg content followed by leaf. The smallest Mg content of short plants was registered
for stem, petiole, and root (Table 4). The data further confirm that diagnostic leaf or stem
analysis are good indicators to detect Mg deficiency.
Soil Mg concentration was highest for the tall plant location, followed by medium and
short plant locations (Table 5). The CEC was also highest in the tall plant location, implying
highest availability of nutrients.

Potassium
In many soils, soil K supply is sufficient until peak bloom, when rapid dry matter
accumulation in bolls begins. As late-season K deficiency becomes severe, boll retention at later
fruiting positions decreases markedly, and premature defoliation may occur. Symptoms of late-
season K-deficiency are sometimes mistakenly attributed to a plant disease. Since a plant can
be both K-deficient and infected by a pathogen, petiole K analysis at early bloom before foliar
expression of late-season K deficiency or disease symptoms provides a useful diagnostic tool
(Cassman, 1993).
Potassium is an essential major element involved in maintaining the water status of the
plant, the turgor pressure of its cells, and the opening and closing of its stomata. Potassium
ranges from 1.00% to 5.00% of the dry weight of leaf tissue with sufficiency values ranging
from 1.50% to 3.00% in recently mature leaf tissue for many crops. For cotton, sufficient K
ranges from 0.90% to 2.00% in the stem tissue (Jones et al., 1991). Magnesium deficiency can
be induced, under conditions of high soil test K or from the application of large amounts of
fertilizer K (Gallaher, et al., 1975a) and highest concentrations of K are found in young leaves,
petioles and stems (Jones, et al., 1991). Although the stem had a low K concentration, it was
found to be in the sufficient K range suggested by Jones et al. (1991). In diagnostic plant parts
there was a significant interaction between K concentration and plant height (P: 0.05). High
K concentration was found in the petiole, followed by stem and leaf. Leaf tissue showed no
significant difference between tall and short plant K concentration. Stem K concentration also
showed no significant difference between medium and short plant K concentrations. Finally
petiole K concentrations among all plant heights were significantly different. Since diagnostic
petiole showed the highest K concentration, it would be a better indicator for the diagnosis of
K deficiency (Table 1). Rosolem and Mikkelsen (1991) mentioned that when K deficiency








symptoms are visible in leaves, all the other plant parts are already affected. These authors
pointed out thathbolls are a very important component in K partitioning within the cotton plant,
but K is required most by the boll cover itself and is not found in high concentrations in the
seeds or fibers.
When K content was analyzed for the whole plant, tall plants had twice as much K
content as medium plants and over three times the K content of short plants. When only
vegetative parts were analyzed, tall plants had almost three times the K content of medium plants
and almost eight times the K content of the short ones (Table 2).
There was no interaction between the K concentration in plant parts and plant height
(P >0.05). There was no variation related to K concentration among plant heights, but there
was a significant variation of K concentration among plant parts (Table 3). Potassium
concentration was highest in petiole and boll, but boll K concentration did not differ from leaf
K concentration. The lowest K concentration was found in the root. However, it did not
significantly differ from leaf and stem concentrations.
There was a significant interaction between K content in plant parts and plant height
(P<0.01) (Table 4). In general the highest K content was found in the boll. In tall plants,
however, K content of stems and bolls did not differ. When K content was analyzed within
petiole and root plant tissues, there were no significant differences among plant heights.
Cassman et al. (1989), testing two cotton cultivars to fertilizer and soil K, pointed out that dry
matter accumulation, tissue K concentration, and total K content was greatest in leaves. Within
leaf tissue, medium plants did not differ from short plants, and within bolls, medium plants did
not differ from tall plants. Therefore, although the highest K content was found in bolls, it
seems that stems are better indicators for correlating K content status among plant heights (Table
4). In most cases, highest nutrient content was associated with plants of highest dry matter
(Table 2, 4). In addition, soil K concentration was higher in the tall plant location compared
to medium or short plant locations (Table 5).

Phosphorus
In cotton P deficiency symptoms are not distinct. Plants are stunted. Later in the
season, leaves of P-deficient plants undergo premature senescence. Because cottonseeds contain
large reserves of P, deficiency rarely occurs during early growth. Phosphorus is a component
of certain enzymes and proteins, ATP, DNA, and phytin. Phosphorus accounts for 0.15% to
1.00% of the dry weight with sufficiency values from 0.20% to 0.40% in recently mature leaf
tissue of most crops. Cotton P sufficiency ranges from 0.25% to 0.45% in vegetative stem
(Jones et al., 1991). Highest concentration of P is found in new leaves and their petioles. Since
P is fairly mobile in the plant, deficiency symptoms initially occur in the older tissue.
There was a significant interaction between the P concentration in plant diagnostic parts
and plant heights (P<0.01) (Table 1). The highest P concentration was found in short plants
followed by tall and medium ones. When P concentration was analyzed within plant heights,
the largest P concentration was found in leaves. Phosphorus concentration varied in stems and
petioles but no pattern was determined according to plant height. According to suggested
standards published by Jones et al.( 1991), tall and medium plants were below the sufficient P
level. For short plant locations no deficiency of P occurred (Table 1). The highest P content
either for the whole plant parts or only for the total vegetative plant parts were found in the tall








plants followed by medium and short ones. Short plants did not differ from medium ones in P
content (Table 2).
There was a significant interaction between the P concentration of plant parts and plant
height (P 0.01). When P concentration was analyzed within leaf and petiole tissue, the highest
values were found in short plants followed by tall and medium ones. Stem, boll, and root did
not show P concentration variation among plant heights. For short plants the highest P
concentration was found in boll, petiole and leaf, and the smallest P concentration in stem and
root (Table 3).
There was a significant interaction between the P content of plant parts and plant height
(P50.01) (Table 4). The highest P content was in boll for all plant heights. When P content
was compared within plant tissues, leaf, stem, and boll showed the highest P content in tall
plants. These data are consistent with the dry matter content. Petioles and roots showed no
significant differences among plant heights (Table 4). In general, the highest P content is found
associated with the highest dry matter. Phosphorus concentration in the soil was highest for the
tall plant location followed by medium and short plant locations (Table 5).

Nitrogen
Nitrogen is found in both inorganic and organic forms in the plant. Nitrogen ranges from
1.50% to 6.00% of the dry weight of many crops with sufficiency values from 2.50% to 3.50%
in leaf tissue. Critical values vary considerably depending on crop species, stage of growth and
plant part. Highest concentrations are found in leaves, with the total plant N concentration
normally decreasing with the age of the plant or any one of its parts. In deficient cotton plants,
height is reduced, few vegetative branches develop, fruiting branches are short, and many bolls
are shed in the first 10-12 days after flowering. When deficiency occurs later in the season, few
bolls are retained at late fruiting positions, so that a N-deficient cotton crop can be harvested
earlier than one with adequate N. Nitrogen deficiency actually delays flowering by an increase
in the time of appearance of the first flower and by a greater time interval between flowering
on horizontal fruiting positions on the same fruiting branches.
There was a significant interaction between N concentration in diagnostic plant parts and
plant height (P <0.01) (Table 1). The highest N concentration was in the leaf followed by stem
and petiole. For the short plants the N concentration in stem and petiole did not differ. When
N concentration was analyzed comparing plant heights within diagnostic plant parts, no
consistent pattern was found. For instance, high leaf N concentration was found in tall plants
followed by medium and short ones, which did not differ. Within stem, the highest N
concentration was found in medium plants followed by tall and short ones, which did not differ.
Finally, within petiole, the highest N concentration was found in tall and medium plants. Since
the highest N concentration was found in leaf diagnostic tissue, it seems that the leaf was a
better indicator for the differentiation of N concentration among plant heights (Table 1).
However, according to Jones et al. (1991), the values obtained in this study showed sufficient
N concentration in the stem tissue.
Nitrogen content in the whole plant or in total vegetative parts were greater in tall plants,
followed by medium and short ones (Table 2). These values were positively related to the dry
matter content. When the whole plant was considered, tall plants had about twice the N content
of medium plants, and about four times the N content of short plants. When total vegetative








plant parts were considered, tall plants had about twice the N content of medium plants, and
about seven times the N content of short plants (Table 2).
There was a significant interaction between N concentration in plant parts and plant
height (P <0.01) (Table 3). The highest N concentration was in leaf tissue followed by boll and
petiole. For the medium plants the N concentration in petiole and boll did not differ. Stem and
root showed the lowest N concentration. Depending on plant height the N concentration in the
stems was higher than in the roots. When N concentration was compared among leaf, petiole,
and boll plant parts, highest N concentration was found in tall plants. In general, high N content
was found in bolls followed by leaf and petiole. There were no significant differences between
N concentration of medium and tall plants when the comparison was within petiole. Also, there
was no significant differences for N concentration in roots (Table 3). In general, N
concentration had a tendency to be highest in leaves and lowest in stems and roots.
There was a significant interaction between N content in plant parts and plant height
(P<0.01) (Table 4). Bolls showed the highest N content. Only leaves of tall plants did not
differ from bolls in N content. Zhu and Oosterhuis (1992) addressed this observation by stating
that the rapid increase in N content of the developing bolls was in marked contrast to the
relatively small amounts of N in the leaves and particularly in the sympodial branch and petioles.
Observations from this study indicated the second highest N content was found in leaf and stem.
Petiole and root showed the smallest N content in medium and tall plants (Table 4).

Copper
Copper is an essential micronutrient which is a constituent of the chloroplast protein
plastocyanin as well as serving as part of the electron transport system linking photosystem I and
II. For most crops, the Cu sufficiency range in leaves is between 3 to 7 ppm of the dry matter.
Copper in the plant can interfere with Fe metabolism which may result in the development of
Fe deficiency. Symptoms of Cu deficiency are a reduced or stunted growth (Jones et al., 1991).
There was no interaction between Cu concentration in diagnostic plant parts and plant
height (P 0.05) (Table 1). High Cu concentration was found in leaf and lower levels in stem
and petiole, which did not differ. Nonetheless, the values obtained, in regard to leaf or stem
tissues, are in the sufficiency range, and Jones et al. (1991) reported that Cu deficiencies are not
known to occur in cotton grown under field conditions. Copper contents in the whole plant or
in total vegetative parts were highest in tall plants followed by medium and short ones (Table
2). In general, the high Cu content values were positively related to the dry matter content.
No significant interaction was found between plant parts and plant height regarding Cu
concentration (P>0.05). The highest Cu concentration was found in leaf tissue, followed by
stem, petiole, boll, and root. Among plant heights, the smallest Cu concentration was found in
tall plants and the highest in medium or short plants (Table 3).
There was a significant interaction between the Cu content in plant parts and plant height
(P<0.01) (Table 4). Leaf and stem values for Cu content were highest for the tall plants
followed by medium and short ones. Between petiole and root the Cu content did not differ
(P>0.05). Tall plants did not differ from short plant in Cu content within bolls. Boll, stem,
and leaves seem to be the greatest sites for Cu accumulation, and petiole and root the smallest
(Table 4). Soil Cu concentration was highest for the tall plant location. For the medium and
short plant locations the soil Cu was about equal (Table 5).








Iron, Manganese, and Zinc
A deficiency of Mn delays the appearance of the first flower. Iron deficiencies are
similar to Zn deficiency symptoms. Zinc deficiency appears on young leaves. Because
symptoms are similar among Fe, Mn, and Zn, soil and plant tissue tests are required to identify
the most likely limiting nutrient. For most crops, leaf Fe concentration ranges from 10 to 1000
ppm in dry matter with sufficiency ranging from 50 to 75 ppm. High plant P decreases the
solubility of Fe in the plant (Jones et al., 1991).
Iron, Mn, and Zn are essential micronutrients, and important components in many plant
enzyme systems. Manganese is involved in the oxidation-reduction process in the photosynthetic
electron transport system, and usually accumulates in leaves. Iron and Zn are involved in the
same enzymatic functions as Mn and Mg. The leaf sufficiency concentration of Mn ranges from
10 to 50 ppm in the dry matter of mature leaves for most crops. Tissue levels of cotton reach
700 ppm before severe toxicity symptoms develop. The leaf sufficiency concentration of Zn
ranges from 15 to 50 ppm in the dry matter of mature leaves, for most crops. High Zn can
induce Fe deficiency in many plant species (Jones et al., 1991).
There was no significant interaction between Cu concentration in diagnostic plant parts
and plant height (P 0.05) (Table 1). Copper concentration was highest in the leaf followed by
stem and petiole, which did not differ. There was a significant interaction between Fe
concentration in diagnostic plant parts and plant height (P 0.01). Short plants had the highest
Fe concentration although there were no significant differences among diagnostic tissues. When
only stem tissue is considered, the highest Fe concentration was determined to be in short plants
followed by medium and tall ones. Therefore, stem tissue would be a good indicator to show
the variation in Fe concentration (Table 1). The values obtained (Table 1) were found to be in
the Fe sufficiency range (Jones et al., 1991).
There was a significant interaction between Mn concentration in diagnostic plant tissues
and plant height (P<0.01) (Table 1). Highest Mn concentration was detected in leaves. Stem
and petiole had the smallest Mn concentration, but did not differ. In terms of plant height, the
highest Mn concentration was detected in short plants, and the smallest in tall plants.
Considering Mn concentration only in petioles, medium plants did not differ from short ones.
In the same way, by considering stem tissue only tall plants did not differ from medium ones.
It seems that the diagnostic leaf may be a good tissue to detect Mn deficiency (Table 1).
According to Jones et al. (1991), tall plants were below the Mn sufficiency level and medium
and short plants were in the Mn sufficient range.
There was a significant interaction between Zn concentration in diagnostic plant tissue
and plant height (P <0.05) (Table 1). When Zn concentration was analyzed within petiole, the
highest value was found in short plants followed by medium and tall ones. Within leaf or stem,
there were no significant variations of Zn concentration (P >0.05). When Zn concentration was
analyzed within plant height, only short plants showed significant variation among plant tissues
(Table 1). These values were within the sufficiency range levels cited by Jones et al. (1991).
Church and McPhillips (1975) mentioned Zn deficiency based on youngest fully-expanded leaf,
and they suggested that the critical values were about 12 to 20 ppm. The values found in this
study were within the Zn sufficiency levels. Since one of the factors associated with Zn
deficiency in crops is intensive and continuous crop production and the resulting erosion, Zn
availability can be reduced. In addition, those factors may exacerbate the effect of high pH








values increasing the chance of an interaction between Zn availability and plant absorption
(Church and McPhillips, 1975).
Iron and Zn contents were highest in tall plants, when the whole plants were analyzed
(Table 2). When the total vegetative parts were considered, the Fe or Zn contents were
significantly different among plant heights. Singh et al. (1970) mentioned that although the
content of available Zn may be high, it may still be insufficient to meet the demands of the crop.
It seems that the total vegetative parts are better indicators for the Fe or Zn deficiency.
Manganese content did not differ in whole plants or in total vegetative parts (P >0.05) (Table
2).
There were no significant differences between Zn or Fe concentration in plant parts and
plant height (P 0.05). There was a significant difference between Mn concentration in plant
parts and plant height (P <0.01) (Table 3). Iron concentration was highest in root tissue and
smallest in boll. Therefore, boll did not differ from stem in Fe concentration. Tall and medium
plants showed high Fe concentration and small plants showed the smallest Fe concentration.
There was a significant interaction between Mn concentration in plant parts and plant
height (P<0.01). The highest Mn concentration was found in short plants when the analysis
was done within leaf or petiole, and the smallest Mn concentration in tall plants. Within stem,
boll, or root, plant height did not show differences in Mn concentration. It seems that leaf tissue
showed the highest Mn concentration, therefore the leaf may be a better indicator for Mn
concentration sufficiency. There was no significant interaction in Zn concentration between
plant parts and plant height (P >0.05). Leaf and petiole showed the highest Zn concentration
followed by stem, boll, and root. Short plants tended to show higher Zn concentration but, did
not differ from medium plants (Table 3).
There was a significant interaction between Fe content in plant parts and plant height
(P 0.05) (Table 4). Regarding plant height, the highest Fe content was found in boll and
petiole tissue, and the smallest in root. In regard to plant parts the lowest Fe content was found
in short plants, which was related to the dry matter content (Table 4). There was no significant
interaction between Mn content in plant parts and plant height (P>0.05). The highest Mn
content was found in leaf and the smallest in root. There was no significant differences for Mn
content among plant heights (Table 4).
There was a significant difference between Zn content in plant parts and plant height
(P <0.01) (Table 4). Tall plants showed a tendency of having the highest Zn content and short
plants having a smaller Zn content. Within boll tissue, medium plants showed the highest Zn
content and tall ones did not differ from short plants. Bolls had the highest Zn content, followed
by stem and leaf. However, within tall plants the highest Zn content was found in stem, not in
boll. The lowest Zn content was found in the petiole (Table 4).
The highest Zn concentration in the soil was found in the tall plant location, and the
smallest in the short plant location (Table 5). For soil Mn or Fe, the highest concentrations
were in tall and medium plant locations, and the smallest in the short plant location. Cation
exchange capacity and organic matter tended to be higher in the tall plant location and smallest
in the short plant location. It appeared that the median plant location did not differ from either
the tall or short plant locations. These soil test results provide the major explanation as to why
plants showed different growth behavior even though they had received the same amount of
fertilizer, water and other management inputs.








Nematode-nutrient correlation
Highest populations of stubby root (Trichodorus spp.) and lance (Hoplolaimus spp.)
nematodes were present in the locations with short plants. Sting, lance and lesion had highest
densities in the medium plant location (Table 6). Yassin (1973) reported high densities of lesion
on cotton fields associated with stunted plants and necrotic roots. In Florida, McSorley and
Gallaher (1993) found a negative correlation between velvetbean yield and final densities of
lesion nematodes, and Ca levels in leaves of velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana [Bort.] Merr.)
were positively correlated with lesion nematode densities. In this same study levels of K
decreased in leaves of soybean (Glycine max (L) Mer.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L] Walp.),
and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as lesion nematode densities increased.
Lance, sting, root-knot, ring, and spiral nematodes as well as lesion nematode were not
correlated with plant height (Table 7). Stubby-root had a highly negative correlation with plant
height, as well as for the Mg, N, or Mn plant tissue concentrations.

Soil moisture
There was a significant interaction between plant height treatments and soil moisture.
The highest soil moisture concentration was found in the soil associated with the tall plant
treatment at soil depth up to 0.40 m. Medium plant height location did not differ from short
plant location in soil water. At soil depth of 0.40 to 0.60 m the moisture was still greater for
the tall plant location, intermediate for the medium plant location and least for the short plant
location (Table 9). These results were equally significant when data was converted to gallons
of water per acre or liters of water per square meter.

CONCLUSIONS

Plant height was significantly affected by plant tissue nutrient concentration as well as
soil CEC. In addition, there was a significant interaction between different plant tissue and
nutrient concentrations. There was a significant interaction between plant parts and plant status
for the all plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P, N, Fe, Mn, and Zn) except for Cu. In general leaf
and stem diagnostic tissues were good indicators for nutrient concentration sufficiencies among
different plant height treatments. Among all the nematodes found associated with plants at these
locations, only stubby-root was negatively correlated with plant height. The tall plants had the
greater amounts of plant dry matter and contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, N, Cu, and Fe. Medium
height plants were intermediate and short plants had the least. This can be anticipated from soil
testing which indicated significant differences in texture and chemical properties and soil nutrient
concentrations. Water was likely the greatest limiting factor for the intermediate and short plant
locations which also would help explain many of the low plant dry matter and low plant nutrient
relationships.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Technical support provided by Jim Chichester, Howard Palmer, and Walt Davis is greatly
appreciated. This research paper resulted from a practical problem (to be solved by soil and
plant analysis and with the support of the scientific literature) assigned to students in the








Agronomy Department course "AGR 6422-Crop Nutrition," Dr. Raymond N. Gallaher,
Instructor. Problems are designed to not only give students experience and knowledge of
collecting, handling, treating, and analyzing plant and soil samples in "Crop Nutrition-Plant
Nutrition," but also to provide real-world experience working with fellow students and
experienced professors in the art and science of playing the role of "Plant Nutrition Doctors."

LITERATURE CITED

Blasingame, D. 1993. Nematode Distribution and Density. p. 4-6. In: Beltwide Cotton
Nematode Survey and Education Committee (ed.) Cotton nematodes, your hidden
enemies. The Cotton Foundation and Rh6ne-Poulenc Ag. Company, NC.
Bouyoucus, G.J. 1936. Directions for Making Mechanical Analysis of Soils by the
Hydrometer Method. Soil Sci. 42(3).
Cassman, K.G., T.A. Kerby, B.A. Roberts, D.C. Bryant, and S.M. Brouder. 1989.
Differential response of two cotton cultivars to fertilizer and soil potassium.
Agron. J. 81:870-876.
Cassman, K.G. 1993. Cotton. Pp. 111-119 in: W.F. Bennett, ed. Nutrient Deficiencies and
Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. pp 202.
Church, J.M.F., and J.K. McPhillips. 1975. Zinc deficiency of cotton in Zambia.
CottonGrow. Rev. 52:293-294.
Day, P.R. 1965. Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis. p. 545-567. In: C. A.
Black (ed) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Madison. WI.
Freed, R., S.P. Eisensmith, S. Goetz, D. Reicosky, V.W. Smail, and P. Wolberg. 1987.
User's guide to MSTAT (version 4.0). Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
Gallaher, R.N., W.L. Parks, and L.M. Josephson. 1975a. Some factors influencing yield and
cation sum and ratios in corn. Commun. Soil Sci. & Plant Anal. 6(1):51-61.
Gallaher, R.N., C.O. Weldon, and J.G. Futral. 1975b. An aluminum block digester for
plant and soil analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 39:803-806.
Goodell, P.B. 1993. Nematode Distribution and Density. p. 4-6. In: Beltwide Cotton
Nematode Survey and Education Committee (ed.) Cotton nematodes, your hidden
enemies. The Cotton Foundation and Rh6ne-Poulenc Ag. Company, NC.
Horwitz, W. (ed.), 1975, Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC, 12t Edition,
Washington, DC, p 31.
Jackson, M.L. 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ pp
219-220.
Jenkins, W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating nematodes
from soil. Plant Disease Reptr. 48:692.
Jones, J.B.,Jr, B. Wolf, and H.A. Millis. 1991. Plant analysis handbook. A practical
sampling, preparation, analysis, and interpretation guide. Micro-Macro
Publishing, Inc. Athens, GA 213p.
Lee. J. A. 1984. Cotton as a world crop. p. 1-25. In. R. J. Kohel, and C. F. Lewis (eds.).
Cotton. Agron. Monogr. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.
Mehlich, A. 1953. Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na and NH4. North Carolina Soil
Test Division (Mimeo, 1953). North Carolina State Univ. Raleigh, NC.








Marcus-Wyner, L., and D.W. Rains. 1982. Nutritional disorders of cotton plants.
Commun. in Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 13(9):685-736.
McSorley, R., and R.N. Gallaher. 1993. Correlation of nematode density and nutrient
uptake on five crops. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc. 52:44-49.
Munro, J.M. 1987. Rotation, soil fertility and fertilizers. p. 106-121. In. Munro, J.M.
Cotton. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York, NY.
Peech. M. 1965. Hydrogen-ion Activity. p 914-925. In. C. A. Black (ed), Methods of Soil
Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological Properties #9, Amer. Soc. Agron.,
Madison, WI.
Quattro-Pro. 1993. Borland International, Inc. Scotts Valley, CA.
Rosolem, C.A., and D.S. Mikkelsen. 1991. Potassium absorption and partitioning in
cotton as affected by periods of potassium deficiency. J. Plant Nutrition 14(9):1001-
1016.
Singh, S., M. Singh, R. Singh, and K.S. Barar. 1970. Response to micronutrients of
cotton in Northern India. Cotton Grow. Rev. 47:191-197.
Yassin, A.M. 1973. A root lesion nematode parasitic to cotton in the Gezira. Cotton Grow.
Rev. 50:161-168.
Zhu, B., and D.M. Oosterhuis. 1992. Nitrogen distribution within a sympodial branch of
cotton. J. Plant Nutrition 15(1):1-14.










Table 1. Plant nutrient concentration in diagnostic plant parts of variable
height cotton at, Gainesville. Florida, 1995.
Plant Variable
Height Leaf Stem Petiole Average
- m -


----------------------------- Ca, %

3.68 a x 0.95 a z

3.75 a x 1.03 a z

2.49 b x 1.13 a y

3.31 1.04

= 13%; Significance main = NS, Sub =

----------------------------- Mg, %


1.37 a y -2.00

1.42 a y 2.07

1.46 a y 1.70

1.42

**, interaction = **


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts


).67

'.46

'.28


-----------

.25

.90

.13


0.89 a x 0.44 a z 0.69 a y 0

0.63 b x 0.28 b z 0.46 b y 0

0.34 c x 0.22 b x 0.29 c x 0

0.62 0.31 0.48

= 17%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **

------------------------------ K, %---------------------

0.83 ab z 1.18 a y 1.73 a x 1

0.69 b y 0.88 b y 1.12 c x 0

0.96 a y 0.95 b y 1.49 b x 1

0.83 1.01 1.45

= 14%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = *.

------------------------------P, % ---------------------

0.36 b x 0.22 b z 0.25 b y 0

0.29 c x 0.20 c y 0.17 c z 0

0.40 a x 0.39 a x 0.39 a x 0

0.35 0.27 0.27

= 7%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **


'.28

'.22

'.39











Table 1. Continued.


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts


82 c x 12 b y

320 b x 63 ab y

385 a x 100 a y

262 58

= 28%; Significance main = **,


19 b y 38

91 a y 158

90 a y 192

66

Sub = **, interaction = **.


----------------- N, % --------------------------------

3.83 a x 1.48 b y 1.61 a y 2.31

3.29 b x 2.03 a y 1.63 a y 2.31

2.99 b x 1.26 b y 0.83 b z 1.69

3.37 1.59 1.36

= 13%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **

----------------------------- Cu, ppm ----------------------------

9.0 5.0 2.5 5.5 a

10.8 6.3 4.3 7.1 a

10.8 4.8 5.5 7.0 a

10.2 a 5.3 b 4.1 b

= 31%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

----------------------------- Fe, ppm ----------------------------

125 a x 45 b y 43 a y 71

118 a x 70 b xy 48 a y 78

110 a x 138 a x 83 a x 110

118 84 58

= 42%; Significance main =NS, Sub = **, interaction = **.

----------------------------- Mn, ppm -----------------------------












Table 1. Continued.

----------------------------- Zn, ppm ------------------------------

1.83 26 a x 20 a x 17 c x 21

0.91 37 a x 33 a x 31 b x 34

0.46 33 a y 31 a y 51 a x 38

Average 32 28 33

CV parts = 28%; Significance main = *, Sub = NS, interaction =

Values among plant height treatments within a nutrient not followed by the same
letter (a,b,c,d) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

Values among plant parts within a plant height treatment not followed by the same
letter (v,w,x,y,z) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

CV = Coefficient of variation; NS = F test non significant at 0.05 level of
probability (p); + = F test significant at the 0.10 level of p; = F test
significant at the 0.05 level of p; ** = F test significant at the 0.01 level of
p.










Table 2. Plant dry matter and nutrient content in whole plant of variable height
cotton at Gainesville, Florida, 1995
Plant Variable
Height Dry Matter Ca Mq K P N Cu Fe Mn Zn

- m -----------g m2 ---- ------- --------- mg m2 -----------

------------------------Total Plant-------------------------------

1.83 1341 a 14.7a 4.40a 15.8a 3.35a 25.4a 5.67a 142a 37a 11.5a

0.91 725 b 5.7b 1.61b 8.8b 1.87b 14.8b 3.73b 66b 50a 11.6a

0.46 377 c 2.6b 0.77c 4.6c 1.20b 6.0c 1.70c 30b 43a 7.1b


Average 814 7.7 2.26 9.7 2.14 15.4 3.70 80 43 10.0

** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** NS *
CV (%) 20 27 20 25 21 25 18 41 44 27

-----------------------Total Vegetative Parts---------------------

1.83 988 a 13.3a 3.47a 9.22a 1.97a 15.9a 4.21a 99a 30a 9.63a

0.91 356 b 4.7b 0.89b 3.18b 0.59b 6.5b 1.91b 37b 38a 5.33b

0.46 221 b 1.9c 0.29c 1.14c 0.33b 1.9c 0.66c 12c 30a 2.16c


Average 521 6.6 1.55 4.52 0.96 9.1 2.26 50 33 5.71

** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** NS **
CV (%) 25 25 23 20 19 25 18 58 41 18

Values among plant height treatments within dry matter or a nutrient not followed
by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.










Table 3. Plant nutrient concentration in plant parts of variable height cotton
at, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
Plant Variable
Height Leaf Stem Petiole Boll Root Average
m -----------------------------Ca, --------------------------------
----------------------------- Ca, % -----------------


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts


1.32

1.13

1.03


3.88 a x 0.47 a z 1.50 a y 0.27 a z 0.49

3.18 b x 0.59 a z 1.27 a y 0.23 a z 0.38

2.71 c x 0.45 a z 1.38 a y 0.28 a z 0.35

3.26 0.50 1.38 0.26 0.40

= 23%; Significance main = +, Sub = **, interaction = **

----------------------------- Mg, % -------------------

0.85 a x 0.15 a y 0.71 a x 0.21 a y 0.26

0.56 b x 0.12 a y 0.44 b x 0.18 a y 0.18

0.42 b x 0.09 a y 0.26 c y 0.19 a y 0.16

0.61 0.12 0.47 0.19 0.20

= 34%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = *

------------------------------- K, %-------------------

0.99 0.95 2.07 1.67 0.96

1.09 0.99 1.83 1.44 0.87

1.15 0.73 1.33 1.36 0.79

1.08 yz 0.89 z 1.74 x 1.49 xy 0.87

= 24%; Significance main = NS, Sub = **, interaction = N


------------------------------- P, %


0.37 a v 0.15 a x

0.29 b w 0.13 a y

0.39 a v 0.17 a w

0.35 0.14

= 11%; Significance main


0.23 b

0.18 c

0.35 a

0.25

= **, Sub


0.36 a v 0.17 a x 0.26

0.34 a v 0.14 a xy 0.22

0.36 a v 0.14 a w 0.28

0.35 0.15

**, interaction = **.


-------------

a y 0.43

a y 0.29

a y 0.22



*.



1.33 a

1.24 a

1.07 a

z

S.











Table 3. Continued.

------------------------------ N, % --------------------------------


4.25 a v 0.73 b y 1.89 a x 2.57 a w 0.82 a y 2.05


3.80 b v 1.27 a x 1.90 a

2.40 c v 0.65 b y 1.04 b

3.48 0.88 1.61

= 13%; Significance main = **, Sub

----------------------------- Cu,

6.00 3.75 4.00

7.75 4.75 5.00

7.25 3.50 3.75

7.00 v 4.00 w 4.25 w


w 2.17 b w 1.04 a x 2.04

x 1.64 c w 0.91 a xy 1.33

2.13 0.92

= **, interaction = **.

ppm ------------------------------

3.25 4.00 4.20 b

4.50 4.25 5.25 a

4.00 5.50 4.80 a

3.92 w 4.58 w


CV parts = 20%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = NS.


----------------------------- Fe, ppm ------------------------------

138 93 225 53 305 163 a

190 98 141 48 265 148 a

123 95 48 50 185 100 b

150 w 95 wx 138 w 50 x 251 v

= 65%; Significance main =**, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

----------------------------- Mn, ppm ------------------------------

94 c v 11 a w 37 b vw 15 a w 16 a w 35

275 b v 50 a wx 108 a w 30 a x 30 a x 99

450 a v 57 a x 151 a w 53 a x 33 a x 149

273 39 99 32 26

= 46%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **.


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts












Table 3. Continued.

----------------------------- Zn, ppm -----------------------------

1.93 32.0 14.0 39.2 18.0 17.5 24.1 b

0.91 38.5 21.0 36.1 25.8 27.3 29.7 ab

0.46 42.0 21.8 43.3 23.3 32.5 32.6 a

Average 37.5 v 18.9 w 39.6 v 22.3 w 25.8 w

CV parts = 35%; Significance main = *, Sub = **, interaction = NS.

Values among plant height treatments within a plant part not followed by the same
letter (a,b,c,d) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

Values among plant parts within a plant height treatment not followed by the same
letter (v,w,x,y,z) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

CV = Coefficient of variation; NS = F test non significant at 0.05 level of
probability (p); + = F test significant at the 0.10 level of p; = F test
significant at the 0.05 level of p; ** = F test significant at the 0.01 level of
p.










Table 4. Plant dry matter and nutrient content in plant parts of variable height
cotton at. Gainesville. Florida, 1995.
Plant Variable
Height Leaf Stem Petiole Boll Root Average
-m -
------------------------- Dry weight, g --------2-----------------

1.83 248 a x 608 a v 57 a y 341 a w 88 a y 268

0.91 95 b x 212 b w 13 a y 360 a v 45 a xy 145

0.46 58 b w 53 c w 6 a w 230 b v 32 a w 76


Average


134


CV parts = 26%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **

-----------------------------Ca, g m2 ---------------------------

1.83 9.47 a v 2.99 a w 0.84 a x 0.97 a x 0.40 a x 2.93

0.91 3.24 b v 1.32 b w 0.17 a x 0.82 a wx 0.17 a x 1.14

0.46 1.52 c v 0.25 c w 0.08 a w 0.61 a w 0.11 a w 0.52

Average 4.75 1.52 0.36 0.80 0.23

CV parts = 35%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **

----------------------------- Mg, g m2 ------ ----------------

1.83 2.11 a v 0.97 a w 0.39 a y 0.72 a x 0.21 a z 0.88

0.91 0.56 b v 0.27 b w 0.06 b x 0.65 a v 0.08 a x 0.32

0.46 0.23 c w 0.05 c x 0.02 b x 0.42 b v 0.05 a x 0.15

Average 0.97 0.42 0.15 0.60 0.11

CV parts = 25%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **.

------------------------------ K, g m2 ------------------------------

1.83 2.34 a w 5.79 a v 1.10 a x 5.78 a v 0.82 a x 3.16

0.91 0.92 b x 2.07 b w 0.20 a x 5.19 a v 0.39 a x 1.75

0.46 0.65 b w 0.40 c w 0.09 a w 3.18 b v 0.25 a w 0.91

Average 1.30 2.75 0.46 4.71 0.49

CV parts = 36%; Significance main = **, Sub = **, interaction = **.











Table 4. Continued.


------------------------------P, g ------------------------------

0.91 a w 0.93 a w 0.13 a x 1.24 a v 0.15 a x 0.67


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts




1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts



1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts


x 1.21 a v 0.06 a

w 0.82 b v 0.04 a

1.09 0.09

= **, interaction = **.


0.38

0.24


0.28 b w 0.29 b w 0.02 a

0.22 b w 0.09 b w 0.02 a

0.47 0.44 0.06

= 38%; Significance main = **, Sub


------------------------------N,

10.22 a v 4.60 a w 1.03 a

3.49 b w 2.81 b w 0.22 a

1.50 c w 0.33 c w 0.06 a

5.07 2.58 0.44

= 34%; Significance main = **, Sub

----------------------------- Cu,

1.78 a w 2.31 a v 0.20 a

0.83 b w 1.03 b w 0.06 a

0.44 c w 0.20 c w 0.02 a

0.99 1.18 0.09

= 27%; Significance main = **, Sub


-----------------------------Fe, mg m------------------------------

32.8 a w 57.8 a v 9.0 a x 18.3 a wx 24.8 a wx 28.5

15.0 b v 20.4 b v 1.5 a v 17.2 a v 12.0 ab v 13.2

7.1 b v 5.1 b v 0.3 a v 11.5 a v 5.9 b v 6.0

15.6 14.2 18.3 27.7 3.6

= 76%; Significance main =**, Sub = **, interaction = *.


g m2---------------------

x 8.88 a v 0.70 a x 5.09

x 7.78 a v 0.47 a x 2.95

w 3.81 b v 0.29 a w 1.20

6.82 0.49

= **, interaction = **.

mg m2 -----------------------------

y 1.11 b x 0.34 a y 1.13

x 1.63 a v 0.19 a x 0.75

x 0.87 b v 0.16 a wx 0.34

1.20 0.23

= **, interaction = **.












Table 4. Continued.

----------------------------- Mn, mg m2 -----------------------------


1.83

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts





1.93

0.91

0.46

Average

CV parts


21.9 6.9 1.7

26.8 10.0 1.1

25.1 3.6 0.9

24.6 v 6.8 wx 1.2 x

= 51%; Significance main = NS, Sub



----------------------------- Zn,

7.41 a vw 8.57 a v 1.73 a

3.62 b w 4.51 b w 0.41 a

2.42 b w 1.15 c wx 0.26 a

4.48 4.74 0.80

= 31%; Significance main = **, Sub


4.9

11.3

12.1


7.4 a

7.3 a

8.6 a


9.4 w 1.3 x

= **, interaction = NS.



mg m2 -----------------------------

x 6.09 b w 1.48 a x 5.06

x 9.19 a v 1.22 a x 3.79

x 5.11 b v 1.06 a wx 2.00

6.80 1.25

= **, interaction = **.


Values among plant height treatments within a plant part not followed by the same
letter (a,b,c,d) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

Values among plant parts within a plant height treatment not followed by the same
letter (v,w,x,y,z) are significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

CV = Coefficient of variation; NS = F test non significant at 0.05 level of
probability (p); + = F test significant at the 0.10 level of p; = F test
significant at the 0.05 level of p; ** = F test significant at the 0.01 level of
p.








Table 5. pH, soil mehlich I extractable elements, organic matter and cation exchange capacity from cotton plots
at three plant heights, Gainesville, FL, 1995
Plant
Height pH' N Ca Mg K P Zn Cu Mn Fe Na OMW CEC


- m -- --------------------- ppmb ------------------------------ % meq/100 g

1.83 5.05 457 1685 64 48 336 5.96 0.54 8.12 55 14.3 0.91 13.2

0.91 4.90 332 1249 30 30 580 1.26 0.38 6.58 50 9.8 0.75 10.6

0.46 5.10 242 396 16 26 253 0.79 0.39 4.20 37 6.1 0.47 4.2

SData are mean for eight replications
b Data are mean for four replications




Table 6. Final nematode densities in a cotton field related to three cotton plant heights, Gainesville, FL,
1995.
Plant Nematode
Height Lesion lance Sting Root-Knot Ring Stubby-Root Spiral


-- m -- ---------------------------------- Nematode densities per 1003 soil------------------------

1.83 0.0 b 3.00 b 18.75 b 32.7 a 38.00 a 3.25 b 0.25 a

0.91 20.0 a 16.00 a 56.50 a 60.5 a 0.50 a 2.75 b 10.50 a

0.46 0.5 b 16.75 a 28.50 b 41.0 a 1.25 a 16.25 a 0.00 a

CV 188% 66% 48% 323% 167% 57% 276%
Significance + NS NS NS

Data are means of four replications. Means in columns among plant heights not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.10 (+) or 0.05 (*) level of probability according to Duncan's New Multiple
Range Test.











Table 7. Simple correlation coefficients (r) between plant nutrient concentration of total plant leaves tissue and final nematode densities, Gainesville,
FL, 1995.
Plant Dry Ca Mg K P N Cu Fe Mn Zn Lesion Lance Sting RK Ring Stubby Spiral
height weight % % % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm
Plant ht 1
Dry wt 0.92** 1
Ca% 0.77** 0.69* 1
Mg% 0.87** 0.76** 0.74** 1
K% -0.51 -0.31 -0.37 -0.62* 1
P% -0.02 0.05 0.19 0.02 0.05 1
N% 0.82** 0.73** 0.77** 0.77** -0.3 -0.29 1
Cu ppm -0.56 -0.73"* -0.43 -0.47 0.15 -0.28 -0.48 1
Fe ppm 0.01 -0.10 -0.39 -0.11 -0.07 -0.58* -0.01 0.47 1
Mn ppm -0.83** -0.75** -0.58* -0.67** 0.28 -0.01 -0.70* 0.42 -0.08 1
Zn ppm -0.45 -0.32 -0.24 -0.14 0.31 -0.08 -0.17 0.22 0.04 0.60* 1
Lesion -0.13 -0.21 0.21 0.02 -0.22 -0.38 0.18 0.24 -0.19 0.06 0.03 1
Lance -0.19 -0.17 0.15 -0.33 0.02 -0.31 0.06 0.08 -0.20 0.36 -0.03 0.60* 1
Sting -0.317 -0.47 -0.29 -0.33 -0.23 -0.61* -0.06 0.42 0.38 0.28 -0.04 0.59* 0.60* 1
RK 0.40 0.50 0.25 0.21 0.18 -0.06 0.25 -0.29 -0.18 -0.35 -0.38 -0.15 0.06 -0.38 1
Ring -0.37 -0.17 -0.16 -0.46 0.60* 0.30 -0.45 0.34 -0.03 0.35 0.34 -0.20 0.08 -0.26 0.09 1
Stubby -0.70* -0.71** -0.68* -0.77** 0.35 -0.33 -0.65* 0.79** 0.49 0.65* 0.23 0.05 0.30 0.53 -0.24 0.51 1
Spiral -0.08 -0.15 0.31 -0.03 -0.16 -0.35 0.29 0.03 -0.26 0.32 0.18 0.69* 0.88** 0.6* -0.12 -0.16 0.09 1
*,** indicate correlation coefficients significant at P<0.05, and P 50.01, respectively.










Table 8. Simple correlation coefficients (r) between nutrient concentration of total plant leaves tissue, and nutrient concentration of soil, Gainesville,
FL, 1995.
Plant Soil
Plant Dry Ca Mg K P N Cu Fe Mn Zn Ca Mg K P Zn Cu Mn Fe N CEC
height weight % % % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm % meq/
loog
Plant ht 1
Drywt 0.92** 1
Ca% z 0.77*" 0.69* 1
Mg%z 0.87** 0.76** 0.74** 1
K% z -0.51 -0.31 -0.37 -0.62* 1
P% z -0.02 0.05 0.19 0.02 0.05 1
N% 0.82*" 0.73** 0.77** 0.77** -0.3 -0.29 1
Cu ppm -0.56 -0.73** -0.43 -0.47 0.15 -0.28 -0.49 1
Fe ppm z 0.01 -0.1 -0.39 -0.11 -0.07 -0.58* -0.01 0.47 1
Mn ppm z -0.83** -0.75** -0.59* -0.67* 0.28 -0.01 -0.7 0.42 -0.08 1
Znppmz -0.45 -0.32 -0.24 -0.14 0.31 -0.08 -0.17 0.22 0.04 0.60* 1
Ca% 0.85** 0.72** 0.69* 0.83** -0.52 -0.21 0.80** -0.31 0.07 -0.88** -0.41 1
Mg% 0.87** 0.72** 0.73** 0.92** -0.6* 0.15 0.68* -0.33 -0.02 -0.76** -0.3 0.83** 1
K% Y 0.75** 0.54 0.65* 0.75* -0.53 0.33 0.47 -0.12 0.05 -0.69* -0.38 0.66* 0.90** 1
P% 0.87** 0.73** 0.70* 0.85** -0.54 -0.23 0.85** -0.35 0.09 -0.87** -0.4 0.99** 0.84** 0.66* 1
Zn ppmY 0.79** 0.57 0.69* 0.8** -0.51 -0.19 0.76** -0.1 0.14 -0.67* -0.25 0.80** 0.89** 0.77* 0.83** 1
Cu ppm 0.52 0.35 0.54 0.58* -0.36 0.31 0.31 -0.1 .-0.25 -0.34 -0.23 0.37 0.74** 0.72** 0.38 0.74** 1
Mn ppm 0.86** 0.78** 0.65* 0.70* -0.56 -0.42 0.79** -0.38 0.15 -0.62* -0.41 0.77** 0.63* 0.45 0.8** 0.70* 0.29 1
Feppm' 0.81** 0.60* 0.48 0.77** -0.65* -0.39 0.77** -0.25 0.38 -0.75** -0.41 0.85** 0.77** 0.63* 0.90** 0.81** 0.35 0.80*" 1
N%' 0.77** 0.69* 0.51 0.87** -0.66* -0.19 0.64* -0.37 0.16 -0.41 0.04 0.61* 0.77** 0.58* 0.66* 0.72** 0.50 0.73** 0.74** 1
CEC 0.83** 0.67* 0.62* 0.81** -0.52 -0.22 0.78** -0.23 0.2 -0.86** -0.38 0.95** 0.88** 0.72** 0.96** 0.87** 0.47 0.73** 0.90** 0.65" 1
meq/100g
*,** indicate correlation coefficients significant at P<0.05, and P 0.01, respectively.
z, Y indicate plant and soil analyses, respectively.









Table 9. Soil water from tall, medium and short cotton plots,
Gainesville, Fl, 1995.
Soil Plant Height, m
Depth 1.83 0.91 0.46 Average


-------------------- % -------------------------


- m -

0-0.2
0.2-0.4
0.4-0.6

Average


7.2 b
21.0 a
23.2 a


4.6 b
5.5 ab
7.2 a


3.0 a
4.0 a
4.8 a


CV = 17.46% LSD = 2.3
Height = **; Depth = **; Interaction = **


-------------- Gallon Water/Acre ---------------


4.9
10.1
11.7


3.9


17.1


5.7


69153 b y
201014 a y
222905 a x

164357


44221 b z
52542 ab z
68184 a y


54983


CV = 17.46% LSD = 22218
Height = **; Depth = **; Interaction = **


----------Litters Water/Square Meter-----------


64.7 b
187.9 a
208.4 a


153.7


41.3 b
49.1 ab
63.8 a


51.4


CV = 17.46% LSD = 20.7
Height = **; Depth = **; Interaction = **


Pounds water per acre and liters water per square meter are based
on soil weight of 2,000,000 pounds per 6 inch soil depth.

Values in columns among plant heights not followed by the same
letter (a,b,c) and values among soil depths not followed by the
same letter (x,y,z) are significantly different according to LSD.

Soil samples were taken 11 December when cotton plants were fully
ready for cotton harvest.


0-0.2
0.2-0.4
0.4-0.6

Average


28628 a
38629 a
45621 a


47334
97395
112237


37626


0-0.2
0.2-0.4
0.4-0.6

Average


26.7 a
36.1 a
42.7 a


44.3
91.1
104.9


35.2




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