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Agronomy Research Report AY-95-07 o Science
MANGANESE ACCUMULATION IN HIGH YIELD PEANUT J~! 0 8 "26
L.E. Trenholm and R.N. Gallaher .;. .....i of ,::
Graduate Research Assistant, Dept. of Environmental Horticulture and Professor of Agronomy, Dept. of
Agronomy, Inst. of Food and Agric. Sci., Univ.of Florida, Gainesville, 32611
Crop development is reflected by changes in dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in
vegetative vs. reproductive organs. This study was conducted to determine the extent of dry matter and
Mn accumulation in various organs of peanut (A. hypogaea L.) cv. 'Florunner' over time. Eleven harvests
were taken over a growing season from 1 m2 plots. Dry weights and Mn concentration were determined
at each sampling date. Growth was primarily vegetative until 77 days after planting (DAP), at which time
growth shifted to reproductive organs. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in leaves than
other organs. Decreases in concentration for vegetative parts were observed at onset of pegging, onset
of seed and shell formation, and at 120 DAP. These reductions in vegetative tissue at these times
correspond to the stronger sink effect of developing reproductive tissue. Concentration did not increase
over time. Content of Mn did increase relative to increases in growth over time.
A. hypogaea L., dry matter production, Florunner, micronutrient, reproductive stage, vegetative stage.
The life cycle of annual plants is composed of distinct phases: juvenility,
maturity, reproductive, and senescent. As crops progress from juvenility to senescence,
nutrient concentrations often change in response to growth, development, and
physiological needs of the plant. In the juvenile stage, priority is given to growth of
vegetative tissues and organs (roots, stems, and leaves). Photosynthesis and carbon
fixation are primary goals of the plant through this vegetative period. As a mature state
is reached, plants begin a reproductive phase, with emphasis on production of seed and
perpetuation of species. At this stage, flowers and fruits form a strong sink for nutrients
and photoassimilates, often with a concurrent reduction in vegetative growth. Peanut
(Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. 'Florunner', is a perennial crop grown in an annual cycle. At
harvest, the economic value of peanut is determined by size and weight of pods and
seeds. This yield is determined directly by age and maturity of the plant (Williams et al.
In order for plants to successfully complete all phases of their life cycle, a
sufficient nutrients status must be maintained (Sahrawat et al. 1988). There are now
17 elements considered essential for plant growth (Salisbury and Ross, 1992). Deficient
or toxic levels of any of these may affect the plant's ability to complete a crucial stage
in it's life cycle. The sufficiency range of micronutrients in plants is very narrow, and
deficiencies or toxicities may be readily induced, due either to soil characteristics or to
agricultural management practices. It is therefore important that micronutrient status
be studied in agronomic crops.
In Florunner, full growth of pods was observed when pods went from white to
light yellow in color (Williams et al. 1987). After this, hulls increased slightly in
thickness until harvest. Largest pods set earliest in the cycle. Seeds became more
variable in size over time; their size increased up to 120 days after planting (DAP), then
decreased. Seed growth began after pods had reached full size. 'Florigraze', a
rhizomatous perennial grown for grazing, increased shoot growth from June to
September, then decreased. Sixty to 80% of top growth was leaf tissue. Rhizomes
continued to increase through the last sampling date in November (Saldivar et al. 1992).
Manganese functions primarily in splitting of water and electron transfer in the
Hill reaction of photosystem II. Additionally, it forms a link between ATP and
phosphokinases and phosphotransferases, and also activates numerous enzymes in the
TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) cycle. Normal sufficiency range for Mn levels in peanut leaves
varies from 60 to 350 mg kg-', with slightly higher needs at early pegging than prior to
bloom (Jones et al. 1991).
Manganese uptake varies according to species, crop age, season, soil conditions,
and competition between ions. Uptake has been shown to be very species specific
(Coffelt and Hallock, 1986; Mengel and Kirkby, 1987). Manganese has decreased in
corn (Zea mays L.) with development (Gorsline et al. 1968), and remained fairly
constant in soybean (Glycine max L.) (Jones and Mederski, 1964). In peanut, Mn
concentration in petioles at mid-pegging ranged from 45 to 78 mg kg-1 and from 48 to
68 mg kg-' at harvest. In leaf tissue at mid-pegging, Mn ranged from 130 to 158 mg
kg-~, and from 138 to 179 mg kg-' at harvest. Seed concentrations at harvest ranged
from 21.9 to 22.6 mg kg-'. Highest Mn concentrations were in a high fertility plus Ca
treatment with a pH averaging 5.6 (Coffelt and Hallock, 1986).
Cultivars 'Starr', 'Early Runner', and 'Virginia 61 R' accumulated greatest amounts
of Mn in lower lateral leaves and main stems at time of floral initiation (Martens et al.
1969). Six weeks later, at fruit set, Mn concentration in seeds had exceeded Mn levels
in leaves and stems in Starr. In Early Runner and Virginia 61R levels in seeds were
slightly lower than levels in leaves and stems. After another 6 weeks, all cultivars
except Early Runner had significantly greater Mn levels in seed, followed by main stems
Soil characteristics often determine Mn availability to crops. Elevated pH limits
Mn availability, causing yield and quality reductions in crops grown on calcareous soils;
these include bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) (Snyder et al.1979) and peanut
(Bekker et al. 1994; Rice et al. 1989). Low pH often results in Mn toxicity to crops;
these include peanut (Stocks, et al. 1989); muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) (Elamin and
Wilcox, 1986); tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
(LeBot et al. 1990a, 1990b). Many agricultural soils require liming to support crop
growth. In peanut, liming has been shown to increase pod yield through two
mechanisms; it both alleviates Mn toxicity by decreasing root absorption and
subsequent translocation to shoots, and also increases Ca to levels required for optimal
production (Bekker et al. 1994).
Competition from other divalent cations is known to affect Mn uptake in many
crops. This is thought to be due to induced conformational changes in ion carrier
structures in cells (Maas et al. 1969). Manganese is additionally believed to compete
more effectively than Mg for transfer sites, and to block Mg-specific binding sites
(LeBot et al. 1990a). Potassium uptake was not found to be affected by Mn in tomato
(LeBot et.al. 1990b). In peanut, Ca:Mn ratio of greater than 80 was calculated to
produce optimal pod yield (Bekker et al. 1994). In excised barley, (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Mn uptake was shown to be increased by Ca, and decreased by Mg and a combination
of Ca and Mg (Maas et al. 1969); other research with the same experimental material,
however, showed that Ca, Mg, NH4, and Fe all reduced Mn uptake (Vlamis and
Williams, 1962). Increasing levels of Mg were shown to reduce Mn toxicity by
decreasing root absorption in muskmelon (Elamin and Wilcox, 1986). A Mg:Mn ratio
was established in tomatoes and wheat to indicate Mn toxicity levels. (LeBot et al.
1990a). Toxicities were observed when these ratios were 1.13 to 3.53 for tomato
shoot tissue, and there were significant growth reductions in wheat when the ratio was
less than 20:1.
Manganese deficiencies are manifested as interveinal chlorosis in younger leaves,
including terminal buds and newly emerging leaves. There is a reduction in net
photosynthesis and chlorophyll fixation, while respiration and transpiration are not
affected (Mengel and Kirkby,1987). Chloroplasts show the most sensitivity among
organelles to Mn deficiency.
Peanut showed poor seed development, reduced growth, and a possible
reduction in nodule formation when Mn levels were elevated. There was also a
reduction in Ca concentration (Bekker et al. 1994), which has been documented in
other crops (LeBot et al. 1990b). Peanuts grown in high pH soil were stunted and had
reduced yield compared to healthy plants (Stocks et al. 1989). Highest Mn
concentrations were in oldest leaf tissue. Bekker et al. (1994) calculated that Mn
concentrations in the range of 190 to 255 mg kg-1 would reduce pod yield 10 to 20%,
while levels above 474 mg kg-1 would cause a 50% reduction in pod yield. Manganese
has been found to readily translocate to shoots and meristematic tissue (Bekker et al.
1994; Mengel and Kirkby, 1987; LeBot et al. 1990b); the largest concentrations,
however, are found in roots. It is speculated that Mn tolerance is increased in some
species because Mn remains in the roots in large quantities (LeBot et al. 1990b). In
shoot tissue, Mn accumulates in greatest concentration in older leaves.
The objective of this research was to determine Mn accumulation in vegetative
and reproductive tissue of peanut cv. 'Florunner' over time.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research was conducted on Florunner peanut in Levy County, Florida, in
1978. Plants were harvested from 1 m2 plots throughout the trial at 42, 50, 57, 62,
70, 77, 91, 197, 120, 135, and 140 DAP. Tissue was separated into roots, stems,
leaves, seeds, shells, and pegs after each successive harvest. Tissue was washed and
dried at 70C until a uniform weight was reached. Dry weights were recorded, and
tissue was prepared for analysis. Initial preparation consisted of grinding individual
parts in a Wiley mill fitted with a 2 mm stainless steel screen.
For mineral analysis, 1.0 g of each sample was placed in a beaker and dry
ashed in a muffle furnace for 4 hours at 480C. After ashing, 2 ml HCI and 20 ml
deionized water was added to each beaker. Beakers were heated on a hot plate until
evaporation of all liquid. Two ml of HCI and 20 ml deionized water were added a
second time to each beaker. Beakers were then covered with a watch glass and
heated to boiling, at which time samples were cooled and transferred to 100 ml
volumetric flasks. Flasks were brought to volume with deionized water and mixed well.
Approximately 20 ml of solution were transferred into 20 ml vials and analyzed for Mn
by AA Spectrophotometer.
Experiment was a factorial design with 8 replications. Analysis of variance was
run for main effects (DAP and plant part) utilizing the SAS system (SAS Institute,
1982). Regression analysis and graphing were performed using CA-Cricket Graph
(1990). WordPerfect 5.1 (1990) was used for processing of tables and documents.
Micro computers used were a Packard Bell Pentium Model 406CD and an Acer
486SX25. A Hewlett Packard LaserJet 4 Plus and an Epson Action 5000 were used
for printing documents.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Production of total dry matter in high yield peanut increased steadily over the
sampling dates. At 42 DAP, all growth was vegetative, with greatest accumulation of
tissue in leaves. Pegs were observed at 50 DAP; other reproductive organs (seed and
shell) did not appear until 77 DAP. At final harvest, greatest growth was in seeds
Total vegetative growth increased steadily up to 77 DAP, at which time there
was a large increase in reproductive growth at the expense of roots, leaves, and
stems. At 120 DAP reproductive growth surpassed vegetative growth. At final
harvest, vegetative organs accounted for 43.5% of total weight. At 77 DAP
(appearance of seed and shell), 84.6% of weight was attributable to vegetative organs
Manganese concentration (Table 1) reflects changes in organ growth of peanut
over time. All organs had statistically equal Mn concentrations, with the exception of
leaf tissue, which was significantly higher. Manganese accumulation was less
significant (.0898) due to DAP, with greatest increase in nutrient concentration
occurring at 135 DAP. There was no consistent gain in Mn accumulation over time;
fluctuations were both increases and decreases.
Manganese content (concentration x dry matter) had statistical differences
between all plant parts (Table 2). These differences reflect the influence of increase
in size over time on nutrient accumulation. Greatest differences in content were
observed at 135 and 140 DAP; again, this reflects the influence of increasing dry
matter at these times. Content, on average, increased over time. Manganese content
in all vegetative organs increased until 70 DAP, immediately preceding formation of
seed and shell (Figure 3). Further increases continued after this, except for a large
reduction in Mn content at 120 DAP, followed by a large increase at 135 DAP. These
changes in content are related to changes in dry matter partitioning in the plant, and
to nutrient allocation to seed and shell at this time.
Roots had the most consistent weight of any organ over the course of the
experiment. At final harvest, roots accounted for only 1.8% of total dry matter
accumulation. Roots increased slightly in weight at each sampling with the exceptions
of 107 and 140 DAP. Decreases in root weight at these dates may be attributable to
senescence of older secondary roots at these times, or to variability between harvest
plots. The reduction in growth at 107 DAP was observed in all vegetative tissue
Manganese concentration in roots (Figure 1) fluctuated over time from 14.13
to 23.63 mg kg-1. There was no large change in root Mn levels over the course of the
experiment. Decreases in concentration occurred at onset of pegging, at onset of seed
and shell formation, and again at 120 DAP. This is attributable to formation and
growth increases of reproductive organs at these times. Roots contained the lowest
Mn concentrations throughout sampling dates, although there were no statistical
differences in concentration among plant parts. There appeared to be no significant
differences in root Mn levels during vegetative vs. reproductive growth. This is in
contrast to research on a number of other crops (LeBot et al. 1990b; Elamin and
Manganese content of roots (dry matter accumulation x Mn concentration; g Mn
m'2) shows slightly more variation than does concentration due to changes in growth
of plants. Again, there were fluctuations in content, with a general increase over time
(Figure 3). Values of Mn root content range from 0.155 to 0.486 g m2.
Plant growth, beginning with formation of the radicle, places initial emphasis on
roots, which provide anchorage and a source of nutrient and water uptake. It is here
that initial nutrient accumulation would be found; however, at time of first sampling
in this research (42 DAP), growth emphasis had already been shifted to
photosynthetic apparatus of the plant. While root Mn levels were low over time, it
does not appear that Mn was limiting in the soil, as there was no visible evidence of
Leaf tissue increase in dry matter was fairly linear through 77 DAP, at which
time leaves reached their highest weights (Gallaher, 1996). Greater leaf areas increase
greater photosynthate production per unit area. This in turn increases amounts of
sugars and starches which are available for growth and development of reproductive
tissues. Photoassimilates come primarily from leaves in close vicinity to fruit and
flower formation (Salisbury and Ross, 1992). Reduction in leaf tissue corresponds with
onset of seed and shell formation, as leaves represent the source of photoassimilates.
Leaves would then undergo a gradual senescence as photoassimilates and nutrients
are diverted to stronger sinks. A large reduction in leaf tissue was observed at 107
DAP; this could be due to leaf senescence as reproductive organs accelerate their
growth, as well as loss of stored photosynthate products to the seed. Leaves
comprised 18% of dry weight at final sampling in this research harvest (Gallaher,
Manganese concentration was significantly greater in leaves than in other
organs (Table 1). As a primary function of Mn is photosynthesis, it is not surprising
that levels would be greatest in leaves. Levels were within the sufficiency range for
each sampling date, ranging from 62.75 to 242.5 mg kg -1 (Jones, et al. 1991).
Concentration fluctuated between sampling dates. The need for greatest Mn
accumulation at early pegging has been noted (Jones et al. 1991). In this research,
early pegging (50 to 57 DAP) shows a large drop in leaf Mn concentration, while leaf
growth is steadily increasing. Additional decreases occur at onset of seed and shell
formation, and again at 120 DAP. As Mn is readily translocated to meristematic
growth (LeBot et al. 1990b; Mengel and Kirkby, 1987), this would indicate that newly
developing pegs are a stronger sink for nutrients than are leaves. Greatest Mn
concentrations are found in older leaves (LeBot et al. 1990); some reductions in Mn
concentration of leaf tissue could also be explained by senescence of older leaves.
Manganese levels reached their highest point in leaves at 135 DAP.
Coffelt and Hallock (1986) reported 130 to 158 mg kg'1 Mn leaf concentrations
at mid-pegging, and 138 to 179 mg kg1 at harvest; the highest leaf concentrations
reported by Martens et al. (1969) were 24 mg kg-1 in early development. According
to Bekker et al. (1994), Mn concentration greater than 190 to 255 mg kg-~ could result
in yield reductions of 10 to 20% in peanuts grown in Samoan soils.
Manganese content in leaf tissue (Table 2) closely followed concentration, with
a noticeable decrease in Mn at early pegging, prior to seed and shell formation, and
at 120 DAP. This is due to the sink effect of reproductive organs as they form at
Stem growth increased steadily, except for a reduction at 107 and 120 DAP.
Reduction in weight of stem tissue would most probably be explained by the likely
translocation of stored photosynthate products to the seed. Stems comprised the
largest portion of vegetative tissue by weight, and accounted for 23.7% of total tissue
at final harvest (Gallaher, 1996).
Concentration of Mn in stems fluctuated over the course of the experiment, in
similar fashion to other vegetative organs. Declines were observed at early pegging,
prior to formation of seed and shell, and at 120 DAP. Concentrations ranged from
15.8 to 29.4 mg kg-1, all below levels obtained by Coffelt and Hallock (1986). They
reported petiole Mn concentrations of 45 to 78 mg kg-' at mid-pegging and 48 to 68
mg kg-' at harvest. Martens et al. (1969) reported maximum Mn concentrations of 28
mg kg-' in stem tissue.
Content of stem Mn followed a different pattern than other vegetative part
contents. There was a slight decline at 107 DAP, a substantial decline at 120 DAP,
and a subsequent increase of greater than 100%. This correlates with stem weights
at these times (Gallaher, 1996).
As reproductive organs accumulate photoassimilates, they undergo anatomical
and chemical changes resulting in development and differentiation (Salisbury and Ross,
1992). While N is the nutrient most critical for this growth, the other essential
elements must also be balanced within the plant.
There was no evidence of reproductive tissue until 50 DAP, at which time pegs
were formed. Seed and shell formation was visible at 77 DAP. At final harvest, total
vegetative growth accounted for 56.5% of total plant weight (Gallaher, 1996).
Manganese concentration in seeds, shells, and pegs ranged from 10.8 to 39 mg
kg-'. There were, however, no statistical differences in concentration of reproductive
parts (of visible tissue) and roots and stems (Table 1). Content (Table 2) reflects
steadily increasing Mn content in reproductive organs, with the exception of pegs.
Pegs are presented graphically with shells (Figure 4).
Seeds were visible by 77 DAP, at which time their increase in weight was rapid.
At final harvest, seeds accounted for 46% of growth, the single largest factor
comprising total weight (Gallaher, 1996).
Concentration of Mn in seeds (Table 1) had reductions at 135 and 140 DAP.
Lowest Mn levels of any tissue were recorded in seeds at 140 DAP (10.9 mg kg-1).
This is most probably related to depletion of nutrients and photoassimilates utilized for
growth. Levels reported here are below those observed by Coffelt and Hallock (1986),
which averaged 19.7 to 24.8 mg kg-1. Levels in Starr were approximately 25 mg kg',
Early Runner ranged from 19 to 21 mg kg-1, and Virginia 61R less than 20 mg kg-'
(Martens et al. 1969). When considering the function of Mn within the plant, low seed
concentrations of this element are not surprising. Photosynthetic functions would not
be occurring in seeds, which utilize stored photoassimilates for their growth.
Manganese content steadily increases in seeds; this is related to the rapid growth of
seeds during development. Greatest increase is seen at 107 DAP, which is also a time
of large increase in growth.
Shells appear concurrently with seeds at 77 DAP; their growth also increases
over time, with small plateaus reached at 91 and 135 DAP. Shells account for 10.5%
of total plant weight at final harvest (Gallaher, 1996).
Manganese concentrations of shells range from 24.1 to 39 mg kg1'. Levels
increase up to 107 DAP, then decline slightly until 140 DAP. As with seeds, this is not
photosynthetic tissue; therefore Mn would not be of primary importance in this tissue.
Shells increased in Mn content until 140 DAP, at which time there was a slight
Pegs were evident from 50 DAP until 70 DAP. They do not comprise a large
percentage of total tissue; they do, however, have greater mass at 70 DAP than was
accumulated by roots at any harvest. Their largest increase is between 62 and 70
DAP, when they increase in weight more than 500% (Gallaher, 1996).
Manganese concentration in pegs was dissimilar to other parts, remaining
virtually unchanged during the experiment. This was in spite of the large growth
increases previously mentioned. Content increased in large increments over the 4
sampling dates where pegs were evident.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Growth of Florunner peanut is vegetative until approximately 50 DAP, when
pegging begins, followed by seed and shell formation at approximately 77 DAP. As
seed and shell development continues, reproductive growth surpasses roots, leaves,
and stems. At 140 DAP, seeds comprise the largest single component of the plant.
Manganese concentration fluctuated over time, with no cumulative effect in any
tissues. Content did increase over time as a function of plant growth. Shifts were also
visible in Mn content prior to onset of reproductive growth and at 120 DAP.
Due to the effect of soil characteristics on Mn availability, a soil pH test should
be run in conjunction with this type research to determine if this is limiting Mn
availability. Acid-forming fertilizer or sulfur in elemental form may be required to lower
soil pH to sufficiently increase Mn uptake; however, this procedure is often only
effective over time and would not likely be required for this soil involving this
investigation. Manganese sulfate may rapidly oxidize when applied to high pH soils
(Mengel and Kirkby,1987); if applied in this form, banded rather than broadcast
application is usually more effective. Foliar applications of MnEDTA are also
recommended; splitting these into 2 to 3 applications of 0.17 kg ha'1 has been found
effective (Randall and Schulte, 1971). Applications would be beneficial prior to
reductions in Mn concentration; according to this research, this would be just prior to
50, 70, and 120 DAP. It appears from this research that Florunner peanut produces
well above the Florida state average yield with Mn tissue levels reported here
The authors greatly appreciate the cooperation of Mr. Raymond Robinson, Williston, Florida for
assisting Dr. Raymond N. Gallaher in conducting this on-farm research. This research paper resulted from
data provided to L.E. Trenholm by Dr. Raymond N. Gallaher to enhance her plant nutrition expertise in the
Agronomy Department course "AGR6422 Crop Nutrition," Dr. Raymond N. Gallaher, Instructor. Only the
most superior papers were selected for final editing and publication as Agronomy Research Reports.
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on muskmelon growth and manganese toxicity. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
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by field corn (Zea mays L.). Penn State Univ. Exp. Sta. Bull. 725. 30 p.
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Publishing, Athens, Ga.
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on manganese absorption. Plant Physiol. 44:796-800.
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by nodulating and non-nodulating peanut lines. Plant and Soil 109:291-293.
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WordPerfect Version 5.1. 1990. WordPerfectR for IBMR Personal Computers and PC
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Manganese concentration in high yield peanut, 1995, Gainesville, Florida,
DAP Root Leaf Stem Seed Shell Peg
-------------------------Mn, ppm ------------------------------------- ----------
42 23.25 160 27.13 0 0 0
50 14.13 72 19.13 0 0 16.88
57 16.13 62.75 16.88 0 0 17.38
62 23.63 119.5 24.75 0 0 17.38
70 16.75 81.5 15.75 0 0 17.63
77 17 107.75 19.25 12 24.13 0
91 22.38 126.25 21.38 12.63 32.38 0
107 22.63 173.75 23.38 17.38 39 0
120 17.63 140.13 16.5 20.5 37.75 0
135 22.25 242.5 29.38 18.38 38.13 0
140 21.75 200 28.5 10.88 36.63 0
DAP = Days after planting
Data values are the average of eight replications.
Table 1. Manganese content in high yield peanut, 1995, Gainesville, Florida. 1995.
Veg. Repr. Plant
DAP Root Leaf Stem Total Seed Shell Peg Total Total
-----------------------------------Mn, g/m2 ----------------------
42 0.19 12.31 0.91 13.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.41
50 0.16 8.95 1.33 10.44 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 10.44
57 0.19 10.25 2.02 12.37 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.04 12.41
62 0.32 23.38 3.51 27.21 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.16 27.37
70 0.28 19.66 3.80 23.74 0.00 0.00 0.95 0.95 24.68
77 0.31 28.60 3.28 34.16 0.49 1.45 0.00 1.95 36.11
91 0.41 31.44 6.00 37.85 0.82 2.89 0.00 3.71 41.56
107 0.35 34.23 5.76 40.35 5.56 3.46 0.00 9.02 49.37
120 0.38 27.81 3.99 32.18 8.04 3.68 0.00 11.73 43.91
135 0.61 52.65 8.28 61.56 9.67 5.03 0.00 14.70 76.23
140 0.48 44.67 8.42 53.57 11.96 4.77 0.00 16.73 70.30
DAP = Days after planting; Veg. = The sum total of root, leaf and stem vegetative
parts; Repo. = The sum total of seed, shell and peg reproductive parts; Plant Total =
sum total of the entire plant. Data values are the average of eight replications.
y 810 18.9x 0.21x'2 0.0006x'3 r-2 0.75
y 201 8.9x + 0.15x'2 0.001x-3 + 0.000003x-4 r-2 0.00
y 104 7.4x 0.13x-2 0.001x-3 + 0.000003x-4 r*2 0.33
y -815 B1.4x 1.2x-2 0.014x^3 0.00008x'4 0.0000002x^5 r"2 0.90
y O0 2.4x 0.034x-2 0.00013x'3 r-2 0.92
40 50 60 70
100 110 120 130 140
Figure 1. Manganese concentration
in 'Florunner' peanut affected by age,
Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
y -53 2.12X 0.019X-2 0.00007X-3 r-2 0.93
y 800 5ix 1.2x-2 0.014X-3 + 0.00008x'4 0.0000002x-5 r-2 0.00
y 28 1.7x -. 0.04x"2 0.0003x'3 + 0.0000000x-4 r"2 0.91
y 4.3 0.17x 0.0016X-2 r-2 0.98
y -2.9 0 O.058x 0.000Ox2 r-2 0.97
y 0.02 O.004x 0.0000012x^2 r-2 0.81
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130140
Days After Planting
Figure 2. Manganese content of
'Florunner' peanut affected by age,
Gainesville, 1Florida, 1995.
y 854 BSx 1.3x-2 0.02X-3 0.0000ax4 0.0000002x*5 r'2 0.01
y 801 S1x e 1.3X'2 0.014X3 0.0000oX*4 0.0000001o x' r*2 0.00
y 28 1.7x m O.03Sx-2 0.0003x^3 0.0000000x-4 r"2 0.01
y 9.7 0.64X 0.02x-2 0.0002X-3 0.000001X'4 0.000000001x 5 r^2 0.39
40 50 60 70
80 90 100 110 120130140
Days After Planting
Figure 3. Manganese content of
vegetative parts of 'Florunner' peanut
affected by age, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
y .36- O.11x 0.0016Ox2 r'2 0.99
y 4.3 0.17x 0.0.01x-2 r*2 0.98
y -2.9. O.058x 0.0001x 2 r'2 0.97
40 50 60 70
80 90 100 110 120
Figure 4. Manganese content of
reproductive parts of 'Florunner' peanut
affected by age, Gainesville, Florida, 1995.
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