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Agronomy Research Report: AY-89-13
EFFECTS OF TWO CROP ROTATIONS ON PEANUT LEAF NUTRIENT
CONCENTRATIONS AND SOIL POPULATIONS OF MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA
T. A. Lang (1), R. N. Gallaher (1), and D. W. Dickson (2)
(1) Graduate Research Assistant and Professor of Agronomy,
respectively, and (2) Professor of Nematology, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Departments of Agronomy
and Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
ABSTRACT ,:... ..
Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria-Neal) Chitwood)
often causes reductions in the quality and yield of continuously
cropped peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Sandy soils, inherently
low in plant-available nutrients and water, intensify the harmful
effects of M. arenaria. 'Southern Runner' peanut planted on an
Arredondo fine sand (Grossarenic Paleudult) in Levy County,
Florida under two crop rotations (Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum L.
Flugg)-peanut (BG-P) and peanut-vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)-peanut
(P-V-P) was studied to determine the effect of crop rotation on
peanut leaf nutrient concentrations, extractable soil nutrient
concentrations, and soil population densities of second-stage
juvenile (J2) of M. arenaria. Peanut plants from the P-V-P
rotation exhibited general chlorosis and stunting, which
coincided with deficient levels of K in the leaves. Extractable
soil nutrients and percentage organic matter were slightly higher
in the BG-P soil. Population densities of J2 of M. arenaria at
106 days after planting in the P-V-P soil were double those in
the BG-P soil.
In Florida root-knot (RK) nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria
(Neal) Chitwood) is a serious soil pest of Arachis hypogaea
L.(Dickson, 1985). Nematodes reduce yields by retarding root
growth, altering nutrient translocation in the plant, and
removing plant nutrients. Roots and pods infected by RK
nematodes may be infected and damaged by other soil-borne
pathogens (Hussey, 1985). The virulence and damage by RK
nematode is known to be greater in sandy soils due to the
increased migrating ability of juveniles (Eisenback, 1985).
Also, sandy soils have lower water and nutrient holding
capacities, which may increase plant stress (Van Gundy, 1985).
In Texas initial population densities of M. arenaria of 44 to
83 second-stage juveniles (J2) per 500 cm3 of soil were reported
to cause 10% peanut yield reductions (Wheeler and Starr, 1988).
Field studies in Florida determined that initial population
densities of 2 J2 of M. arenaria per 100 cm of soil reduced
peanut yields (Candanedo-Lay, 1986). Population densities of J2
of M. arenaria peaked from 80 to 100 days after planting peanut
in Alabama (Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1986). Rotation of
bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum L. Flugg) with peanut has been
reported to improve the yield and quality of peanut (Norden et
al., 1977; Dickson and Hewlett, 1989). Vetch (Vicia villosa
Roth), although widely planted as a N fixing cover crop for
silage or green manure is a good host for numerous plant-
parasitic nematodes including M. arenaria (Malek and Jenkins,
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This investigation was conducted in 1988 utilizing border
areas of a field experiment designed to study the effects of crop
rotation and nematicides on Meloidogyne arenaria and peanut
yield. Two crop rotations, peanut-vetch-peanut (P-V-P) and
Bahiagrass-peanut (BG-P) had been planted as main plot treatments
in a split-plot experiment with five replications. Soil at the
site was an Arredondo fine sand (grossarenic Paleudult (Soil
Survey Staff, 1984)). Before planting peanut, the fields were
moldboard plowed to a 0.35 m depth. Fertilizer 0-10-20 (N-P-K)
at 336 kg ha' was applied on 21 May 1988 and cross-disked.
The herbicides benefin (N-Butyl-N ethyl-a,a,a-triflouro-2,6-
dinitro-P-toluidine), and vernolate (Propyldipropylthiocarbamate)
were pre-plant broadcast at 1.68 and 2.24 kg a.i. ha"1,
respectively. 'Southern Runner' peanut (Gorbet et al., 1987) was
planted 26 May 1988 in 0.76 m rows at a rate of 90 kg ha with a
'Covington' planter. Paraquat (1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridium
ion) and bentazon (3-isopropyl-1 H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin(4)-3H-
one-2,2-dioxide) were applied at 0.14 and 0.56 kg a.i. ha",
respectively, on 3 June 1988. Chlorothaconil
(Tetrachloroisopthlonitrile) at 0.49 kg a.i. ha- was applied at
21 day intervals, starting 40 DAP.
Leaf and soil samples were collected on 8 Sept 1988 (106
DAP). Peanut plants in the P-V-P rotation were observed to be
chlorotic and stunted at this time, whereas plants in the BG-P
plots were normal in color and size. Leaf samples from apical,
mid-stem, and basal regions of the main plant stem were collected
and stored separately. Soil samples for nutrient analysis were
collected from two depths (0 to 0.15 m and 0.15 to 0.30 m). Leaf
samples were rinsed in de-ionized water and dried in a forced air
oven at 550 C for 48 hours before grinding in a Wiley mill to
pass a 1 mm stainless steel screen. Leaf N analysis was
conducted using a micro-Kjeldahl technique (Gallaher et al.,
1975) and concentrations determined with a 'Technicon Auto-
analyzer'. Phosphorus, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe leaf
concentrations were determined by ashing 1.00 g leaf samples,
extracting with conc. HC1 and diluting extracted solutions with
100 ml 0.1 N HC1. Solution P concentrations were determined by
colorimetry, K concentrations by atomic emission
spectrophotometry, and Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations by
atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Population densities of J2 of M. arenaria were determined
from soil samples taken in the row to a 0.20 m depth with a cone-
shaped 2.5-cm-diameter soil probe. Population densities were
estimated using a centrifugal-flotation technique as described by
Soil mineral analysis was conducted on 5.0 g soil samples
using the Mehlich I extractant methods (Mehlich, 1953). Filtrate
was analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP)
spectroscopy. Soil organic matter (OM) was determined by the
Walkley-black method (Walkley, 1935). Soil N concentrations were
determined by a micro-Kjeldahl technique using 2.0 g soil samples
as described by Gallaher et al.(1976). Yield data for leaf,
root, stem, and pod dry weights were taken from 1 m sample areas
at harvest. All data were subjected to analysis of variance.
Duncan's new multiple range test was employed to compare means
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Soil Nutrient Analyses
Mehlich I extractable K levels were very low in soils of
both crop rotations (<20 mg kg-1). Soil Mg and P levels for both
crop rotation soils were in the medium range of availability.
Crop rotation had a significant effect on Mehlich I extractable
soil K and Zn concentrations (Table 1.). Soil depth did not
affect nutrient concentrations. Deep moldboard plowing (0.35 m
depth) before planting may explain the observed uniformity across
soil depth. Soil OM and pH were not affected by rotation or soil
depth, although mean soil OM percentages of the BG-P soil were
consistently higher than the P-V-P soil. Mean soil nutrient
concentrations were not different for the two rotations, however
BG-P soils had consistently higher concentrations than the P-V-P
soils (Table 2.).
Plant Leaf Tissue Analyses
Nutrient concentration levels generally increased as leaf
position progressed from basal to apical leaves. However, Ca,
Mn, and Fe had highest concentrations in basal (oldest) leaves
and lowest concentrations in the apical (youngest) leaves.
Nutrient concentrations for apical leaf tissues were in the
sufficiency range (Jones, 1974) for peanut leaves sampled at mid-
pegging stage for all nutrients except K.
Extremely low K concentrations in all three leaf positions
from the P-V-P rotation were observed with no differences in K
concentration by leaf position noted. The BG-P rotation leaf K
concentrations were highest in apical leaves, and lowest in mid-
stem leaves. Leaf Mg concentration was also higher in the BG-P
rotation apical leaves than the P-V-P apical leaves (3.76 vs.
3.16 mg kg-1). Optimum cation concentration ratios of 4:1:1
(K:Ca:Mg) for youngest mature leaves (Reid and Cox, 1973)
differed greatly when compared to this study's ratios of 1:4.7:1
and 3:2.8:1 for P-V-P and BG-P rotations, respectively.
RK Population Densities and Final Yields
Mean J2 RK nematode densities at 106 DAP were higher in the
P-V-P soil than the BG-P soil (Table 5.). Leaf, stem, and pod
weights of peanut plants at harvest were higher (>400% increase)
for the BG-P rotation than the P-V-P rotation. Differences for
root mass at harvest between the two rotations were less (220%
increase) due to the high incidence of root galls on the P-V-P
Soil nutrient status was higher following 2 yr BG-P rotation
than following P-V-P rotation. Higher RK nematode densities were
observed in the P-V-P rotation along with extensive peanut root
damage and deformation. Dry conditions in August, coupled with
increased plant demand for K for reproductive growth, produced
visible K deficiency symptoms in the P-V-P rotation peanut
plants. The reduced ability of RK nematode-infected plants to
uptake K was reflected in leaf tissue K levels far below reported
sufficiency range (Jones, 1974).
Increasing soil levels of plant nutrients in the soil of
this experiment to those recommended by the University of
Florida's Cooperative Extension Service could lessen yield
reductions caused by RK in peanut. Soil samples should be taken
before planting peanut to determine RK density present and
control practices, i.e. nematicide application or crop rotation
should be employed when densities are high.
The authors appreciate the assistance of Mr. J. R.
Chichester, Chemist II in conducting soil and plant analyses.
Candanedo-Lay, E. M. 1986. Penetration, damage and reproduction
of Meloidogyne arenaria on peanut. Ph. D. dissertation,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Dickson, D. W. 1985. Nematode diseases of peanut. Nematology
Circular No. 121, Fla. Dept. Agric. and Cons. Services,
Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida.
Dickson, D. W., and T. E. Hewlett. 1989. Effects of bahiagrass
and nematicides on Meloidogyne arenaria on peanut.
Supplement to the Journal of Nematology (Annals of Applied
Eisenback, J. D. 1985. Detailed morphology and anatomy of
second-stage juveniles, males, and females of the genus
Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes). Chapter 6 in "An
Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne: Biology and Control, vol.
I" North Carolina State University Graphics, Raleigh, NC.
Gallaher, R. N., C. O. Weldon, and J. G. Futral. 1975. An
aluminum block digester for plant and soil analysis. Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 39(4):803-806.
Gallaher, R. N., C. O. Weldon, and F. C. Boswell. 1976. A
semiautomated procedure for total nitrogen in plant and soil
samples., Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 40:887-889.
Gorbet, D. W., A. J. Norden, F. M. Shokes, and D. A. Knauft.
1987. Registration of 'Southern Runner' peanut. Crop Sci.
Hussey, R. S. 1985. Host-parasite relationships and associated
physiological changes. Chapter 12 in "An Advanced Treatise
on Meloidogyne: Biology and Control, vol. I". North
Carolina State University Graphics, Raleigh, NC.
Jenkins, W. R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique
for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter
Jones, J. B., Jr. 1974 Plant analysis handbook for Georgia.
Univ. of Georgia, Coop. Ext. Work in Ag. Home Econ. Bull.
735, Athens, GA.
Malek, R. B., and W. R. Jenkins. 1964. Aspects of the
host-parasite relations of nematodes and hairy vetch. New
Jersey Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 813, New Jersey.
Mehlich, A. 1953. Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, and NH4.
North Carolina Test Division (mimeo 1973). North Carolina
State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Norden, A. J., V. G. Perry, F. G. Martin, and J. NeSmith. 1977.
Effect of age of Bahiagrass sod on succeeding peanut crops.
Peanut Sci. 4:71-74.
Reid, P. H., and F. R. Cox. 1973. Soil properties, mineral
nutrition and fertilization practices. In "Peanuts-Culture
and Uses". American Peanut Research and Education
Association Inc.. Stone Printing Co., Roanoke, Virginia.
Rodriguez-Kabana, R., C. F. Weaver, D. G. Robertson, and E. L.
Snoddy. 1986. Population dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria
juveniles in a field with Florunner peanut. Nematropica
SAS Institute. 1985. SAS user's guide. SAS Institute.
Soil Survey Staff. 1984. Official series description of the
Arredondo series. United States Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C.
Van Gundy, S. D. 1985. Ecology of Meloidogyne spp.-emphasis on
environmental factors affecting survival and pathogenicity.
Chapter 15 in "An Advanced Treatise on Meloidoavne: Biology
and Control, vol. I". North Carolina State University
Graphics, Raleigh, NC.
Walkley, A. 1935. An examination of methods for determining
organic carbon and nitrogen in soils. Jour. Agric. Sci.
Wheeler, T. A., and J. L. Starr. 1988. Incidence and economic
importance of plant-parasitic nematodes on peanut in Texas.
Peanut Sci. 14:94-96.
Table 1. Split-plot analysis of variance for N and Mehlich I extractable soil nutrients.
Effect df N P K Ca Mg Fe Mn Zn
------------------------------ Mean squares-------------------------
4301 2162.8** 30.22* 138659 240.7 5.640 7.876** 0.3933*
1513 7.7 70.68** 40770 220.0+ 1.058 0.605 0.5379*
1321 42.1 1.58 49799 40.1 0.944 0.400 0.0385
720 47.4 14.11* 4351 28.0 1.331 1.728 0.1692
0 55.1 1.56 84 165.8 0.058 0.000 0.1411
2815 61.9 2.82 5302 52.3 0.579 0.059 0.1296
CV% 14.9 19.0 13.4 11.2 23.6 8.8 4.9 31.1
+, *, ** significant at the P=0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 levels of probability, respectively.
Comparison of Mehlich I extractable soil nutrient
peanut-vetch-peanut (P-V-P) and bahiagrass-peanut
concentration means from
(BG-P) cropped soils at two
Nutrient Units 0 to 0.15 m 0.15 to 0.30 m Means
P-V-P BG-P P-V-P BG-P P-V-P BG-P
N mg kg-
P=0.05 and 0.01 levels of
357 346 363
38.8 40.7 42.0
13.3 10.6 14.4**
708 606 695
32.3 27.3 34.0
4.79 4.73 5.08
8.53 8.38 8.84
1.14 0.99 1.32*
200 183 201
1.26 1.10 1.30
6.54 6.49 6.51
Table 3. Split-plot analysis of variance of peanut leaf nutrient concentrations as
affected by crop rotation (main-plot effect) and leaf position (sub-plot effect).
Source df N P K Ca Mg Zn Mn Cu Fe
+, *I **
4 15.5 0.14 5.8 2.1 0.305
(R) 1 10.5 0.02 261.6** 17.8+ 0.800
4 3.5 0.07 4.4 2.2 0.304
2 166.5** 3.51** 27.6** 206.4** 0.816**
2 20.5* 0.27* 12.4** 12.7 0.790**
16 3.89 0.05 1.69 8.79 0.118
5.69 10.49 24.17 16.73 10.58
significant at the P=0.10, P=0.05, and 0.01 levels
137.3 1361 2.78 3471
246.5 23 7.50 5333
110.1 918 1.08 2158
1.7 6899** 1.90 9563**
90.5** 3460** 8.10** 3563
5.3 277 0.95 1805
9.22 16.03 17.7 16.73
of probability, respectively.
Table 4. Peanut leaf nutrient concentration means as affected by crop rotation (P-V-P=
peanut-vetch-peanut, BG-P=Bahiagass-peanut) and leaf position in canopy.
System Position N P K Ca Mg Zn Mn Cu Fe
------------------g kg1---------------------------mg kg1
apical 36.4ab 2.74a **3.14a 14.6 **3.16b 24.6a **94b 5.8a 96
P-V-P mid-stem **34.7b **2.38b **2.02a 19.5 3.54ab **22.6a 114a 5.0a 176
basal 30.9c 1.76c **2.16a 21.2 **2.58c **19.4b **105a **4.8a 136
mean 34.0 2.29 **2.44 *18.4 3.09 22.2 104 5.2 136
apical 38.5a 3.04a **11.06a 10.7 **3.76a 24.6c **52b 5.0b 78
BG-P mid-stem **38.2a **2.02b **5.54c 18.1 3.22b **27.8b 120a 6.0b 108
basal 28.9b 1.66c **8.44b 21.9 **3.28ab **31.4a **136a **7.6a 142
mean 35.2 2.24 **8.34 *16.9 3.42 27.9 103 6.2 109
apical 37.4 2.89 7.10 12.7B 3.46 24.6 73 5.4 87B
Means mid-stem 36.4 2.20 3.78 18.8A 3.38 25.2 117 5.5 142A
basal 29.9 1.17 5.30 21.5A 2.93 25.4 120 6.2 139A
Leaf Dosition means in columns within a system followed by the same letter and leaf
position means averaged over systems in columns followed by the same capital letter are not
different according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test (P=0.05). Leaf position means across
systems and system means preceded by or ** are different at the P=0.05 and 0.01 levels,
Means of second-stage juvenile M. arenaria population densities and mean yield
weights of leaves, stems, roots, and pods at harvest as affected by crop rotation
-V-P= eanut-vetch- eanut B -P=Bahia rass- eanut
Rotation Nematode Leaf Stem Root Pod
Density Weight Weight Weight Weight
j2 100 cm-3 -------------------------g m-----------------
P-V-P 604* 65** 103** 22* 91**
BG-P 215 288 425 48 509
SE 68 15 9.6 4.3 31
*, ** Significantly different a t the P=0.05 ard 0.01 levels of probability, respectively.