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Group Title: Agronomy Research Report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-89-12
Title: Nutrient relationships in seed of twenty-two crop species andor cultivars within species
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Title: Nutrient relationships in seed of twenty-two crop species andor cultivars within species
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 13 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pedelini, R. R
Gallaher, Raymond N
West, S. H., 1927-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1989?]
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Subject: Seeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 6).
Statement of Responsibility: by R.R. Pedelini, R. N. Gallaher, and S.H. West.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 62615572

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









Agro~omy Research Report AY-89-12


NUTRIENT RELATIONSHIPS IN SEED OF TWENTY-TWO CROP SPECIES

AND/OR CULTIVARS WITHIN SPECIES

By
IR. R. Pedelini, R. N. Gallaher, and 2S. H. West

1Crop nutrition class student and iProfessor of Agronomy, and

2Plant Physiologist, USDA, ARS, respectively, Agronomy

Department, Inst. of Food and Agr. Sci., University.of

Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Li

FEP 2E 99
INTRODUCTION

Agriculture as we know it started with-the--di-scovery
that a seed planted in the soil and given water, nutrients,
light, and some protection from pests would not only
reproduce plants and seeds identical to that planted, but
could greatly increase the number of seeds produced, which
could be used for food or feed. It is apparent that seeds
are the cornerstone of agriculture, and a knowledge of their
development and composition is essential to increasing
agricultural productivity. Man is interested in seed as a
large source of nutrients and accessory nutrients for
himself and other animals. Seeds store proteins, amino
acids, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and other substances
often very different chemically from those in the vegetative
tissues. These differences significantly influence their
utility to man. The formulations of livestock feed or the
diets of humans, are based to a great extent on the relative
proportion of protein, carbohydrate, fats and minerals of
the various available grains.

Species vary as to the primary structure for food and
mineral storage. Seeds may be classified according to
storage structure into three types (Duffus & Slaughter,
1980).

Endosperm (grasses)
Embryo (legumes)
Perisperm (from nucellus)








Any one of the above structures can be the primary, but
usually not exclusive, storage structure of a seed. For
example, carbohydrates and protein are stored primarily in
the endosperm and fats in the embryo in maize seeds. The
aleurone, an outer layer of the endosperm, is dense, living,
and high in protein. The chemical and physiological
significance of the aleurone and embryo exceeds that. of
storage.

Changing the chemical composition of seeds is
frequently a primary objective in crop breeding. Attempts
have been made through crop breeding to alter the chemical
composition of seeds and thereby enhance their nutritional
and economic value. Gorsline et al. (1961) reported that
concentration of Ca, Mg, and K were highly heritable.
Chemical composition of seeds is not only genetically
controlled but is also influenced by environment.

Irrigation, fertilization and other cultural practices
influenced the chemical composition, including oil, protein,
and mineral concentration of seeds of different species.
Legume seeds contain higher percentages of N, therefore
protein concentration is usually higher in legumes than in
grasses. It has been reported that average protein in grain
is about 10 % in corn (Zea mays L.), 12.5 % in sorghum
[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, 40 % in soybean [Glycine max
(L.) Merril] (Eggum and Beames, 1983) and 22 to 30 % in
peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) (Ahmed and Young, 1982). It is
clear from this information that soybean is an efficient
species for the synthesis and storage of protein. However,
many other species, although they store a somewhat lower
level of protein, are more efficient metabolically than
soybean in terms of grams of seed provided per gram of
photosynthate produced, e.i. pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.)
Huth]. Other dicotyledonous plants such as peanut store
lower quantities of protein, and the efficiency of protein
synthesis and storage in the seed is much lower than in the
above crops. The majority of cereal grains are relatively
efficient in terms of grams of seed produced per gram of
photosynthate produced but are relatively inefficient in
terms of the amount of protein produced and stored (Sinclair
and de Wit, 1975).

Seed crops have two major sources of mineral
nutrients: (1) those absorbed from the soil during the
period from pollination to grain maturity, and (2)
translocation of previously accumulated nutrients from
different parts of the plant to the seeds (Arnon, 1975).
The amount and kinds of elements translocated to the grain
are considerably less than those absorbed by the roots and
translocated to the vegetative organs of the plant. The
precise physiological basis for this difference is largely








unknown, but the grain exhibits considerable selectivity in
its absorption and accumulation of elements from the xylem
fluid or, on occasion, from the phloem. This is best
indicated by studies of the genetic control of mineral
accumulation in grain of several crops. Studies with barley
(Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean,
corn, rice (Oriza sativa L.), and other crops reveal, that
three- to five-fold differences in accumulation of several
mineral elements occur among varieties and genotypes of each
of these crops (Kozlowski, 1972). Studies attempting to
determine the physiological process resulting in
differential accumulation of minerals among genotypes of a
crop species indicate that a variety of mechanisms are
involved. Among these are differential rates of root
absorption, differential translocation within the plant, and
differential accumulation of minerals by the grain (Dure,
1975). Mineral deficiencies predominately affect the number
of seeds produced but, unless the deficiency is severe, it
appears to have relatively minor effects on the mineral
composition of the seed. Application of fertilizers,
manures, or other sources of inorganic elements increases
mineral accumulation of the seed (Roberts, 1972).

Due to this wide range of variation of mineral
concentration among species and within species the objective
of this research was to investigate the mineral
concentrations in seed of several crops and to compare and
evaluate among crops and/or cultivars.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seeds of twenty-two crop species and/or cultivars
within species were collected for mineral composition
analysis (Table 1). Seeds were oven dried at 709 C, ground
in a Willey mill to pass a 0.001 m stainless steel screen,
and stored in air tight bags for analysis. Percent N was
determined by a micro-Kjeldahl procedure as modified by
Gallaher et al. (1976). A 100 mg sample was placed in 100
ml digestion tubes to which two boiling chips, 3.2 g of
catalyst (90% anhydrous K SO4 and 10% anhydrous CuS04), 10 ml
concentrated H2SO4 and 2 ml 30% H20, were added. Samples
were then digested in an aluminum block digester (Gallaher
et al. 1975a) for 3 hours at 3759 C. Upon cooling,
solutions were diluted to 75 ml with deionized water.
Nitrogen concentrations of these solutions were determined
on a Technicon II auto-analyzer.

Phosphorus, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn
concentrations were determined by mineral analysis procedure
in which 1.00 g samples were placed in 50-ml pyrex beakers
and ashed in a muffle furnace at 4809 C for a minimum of 4
hours. After cooling each sample was treated with 2 ml








concentrated HC1 and heated to dryness on a hot plate. An
additional 2 ml of concentrated HC1 + water was added to the
dry beakers followed by reheating to boiling and then
diluting to 100 ml volume with deionized water (this gave a
solution containing about 0.10 N HC1). Solutions were
analyzed for P using colorimetry on an Auto Analyzer.
Potassium was determined by atomic emission
spectrophotometry. Calcium, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Macro and micronutrient concentration of 22 crop seeds
included in this study are shown in Tables 2 and 3,
respectively. The mineral composition of grass and legume
seeds was analyzed for different elements.

Nitrogen content

The average N concentration of grass seeds was 17.2 g
kg a value which was significantly lower than the 48.7 g
kg' obtained for legume seeds. Within grasses the highest
concentration was 21.9 g kg-', it belongs to 'Wrens Abruzzi'
rye (Secale cereale L.), a winter cereal mostly used as
forage. In legumes, the highest value was 71.7 g kg1
yielded by 'Kobe' lespedeza (Lespedeza striata H&A). This
important difference in N concentration of seeds of grasses
and legumes explain the difference in protein content in
important food crops. In this experiment the percentage of
protein obtained were 36.9% in soybean, 31.6% in peanut,
10.6% in 'FLOPUP' corn and 10.9% in forage sorghum. These
percentages are in agreement with those cited by other
authors (Eggum & Beams, 1983; Ahmed & Young, 1982). On the
other hand, grasses were grouped according to the
temperature at which they are adapted (C = cool-weather; W =
warm-weather) and the concentration of N for each group of
seeds showed an important difference. Seed of grasses which
grow in Cool-weather were higher than seeds of grasses which
grow in the Warm-weather (Table 4). There were differences
among cultivars within species, as in the case of corn where
FLOPUP and 'Pioneer X304C' had a similar concentration of
about 17 g kg"1 while 'Pioneer 3320' has 10.6 g kg- Those
data show that nutrient concentration could be increased in
a particular species through genetic selection.

The ideal plant should be grown with a 'balanced' soil
nutrient solution and the best index of this is given by the
ratios of the elements to each other in the seed (Milthorpe
& Moorby, 1979). This ratio appears to be independent of
the degree of unbalance in the soil solution in which the
plant was grown. Nutrients in excess remain in the leaves,
not being translocated to the seed. The balanced ratio








varies with species and within species as it is shown for
selected species and cultivars in Table 5.

Cation concentrations

Maximum yield depends on adequate and balanced supplies
of essential nutrients (Gallaher et al., 1975b). Selected
species of grasses and legumes were studied in order to know
important ratios and sum of the cations, (K+Ca+Mg, K/Ca,
N/K, and K/Ca+Mg) (Table 5). The sum of cations (K+Ca+Mg)
showed a significant difference between legumes and grass.
The average of grasses were 5.4 g kg-1 with a small
variation among species and within species. In legumes the
average was 14.9 g kg-1 but the variation was greater than
in grasses. The smaller value was in peanut. There was an
important difference between grasses and legumes in the K/Ca
ratio, and an important variation among species. The highest
ratio was obtained in corn with an average of about 35:1 and
the lowest in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and fescue
(Festuca arundinacea Schrab.) with an average of about 3-
4:1. Another important ratio in seed is N/K. In general
there was no difference between legume and grass seeds,
except peanut, which had a ratio four-fold that of pigeon
pea. The K/Ca+Mg ratio was twice as high in legumes as in
grasses. The sum of macronutrient (K+Ca+Mg) was higher in
legumes than in grasses. The exception again was peanut,
whose concentration was surprisingly low. The ratio of
mineral concentration in each specie and/or cultivar could
be useful for indicating the optimum rates of application of
fertilizer to give the best economic return or the highest
productivity for that particular crop (Thomas & Hanway,
1968).

C3 Vs C4 plants

Another way of grouping plants is by the type of
photorespiration (Table 6). The most important analysis was
made between grass seeds of C3 and C4 plant types. In
general the trend was to have the same mineral
concentration, except N, where the difference was favorable
to C3 grass seeds. When grass seeds of both types where
compared with legume seeds the highest concentration of N,
P, K, Ca and Fe was in legume seeds.

CONCLUSION

The data obtained in this experiment confirmed and
extended those found in the bibliography about the inter-
species and within species differences of mineral
concentration in crop seeds. The most important difference
was obtained in N concentration between legume and grass
seeds. The higher N concentration of legumes explains the








higher percentage of protein in legumes. Legume seeds also
were higher in P, K, Ca, and Fe concentration than grass
seeds. Within grass seeds it was possible to find an
important difference of about 30% in N concentration in
favor of C3 types of plants. Difference in N concentration
among cultivars within species such as corn was also
important.
REFERENCES

Ahmed E. M. and C. T. Young. 1982. Composition, quality,
and flavor of peanut. p. 655-688. IN H. E. Pattee
(Ed.) Peanut Science and Technology. APRES. Yoakum,
TX.
Arnon, I. 1975. Mineral nutrition of maize. International
Potash Institute. Bern, Switzerland.
Duffus, C. and C. Slaughter. 1980. Seeds and their uses.
J. Wiley & Sons, Inc. NY.
Dure, L. S. 1975. Seed formation. Annu. Rev. Plant
Physiol., 26:259-278.
Eggum, B. 0. and R. N. Beames. 1983. The nutritive value
of seed proteins. IN W. Gottschalk and H. P. Muller
(Ed.) Seed proteins. Martinus Nijhoff Publ., Boston.
Gallaher, R. N., C. O. Weldon, and J. G. Futral. 1985a. An
aluminum block digester for plant and soil analysis.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39:803-806.
Gallaher, R. N., W. L. Parks,and L. M. Josephson. 1975b.
Some factors influencing yield and cation sum and
ratios in corn. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 6(1):51-
61.
Gallaher, R. N., C. O. Weldon, and F. C. Boswell. 1976. A
semiautomated procedure for total nitrogen in plant and
soil samples. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 40:887-889.
Roberts, E. H. 1972. Seed viability. Syracuse University
Press, New York, NY.
Gorsline, G. W., J. L. Ragland and W. I. Thomas. 1961.
Evidence for inheritance of differential accumulation
of calcium, magnesium and potassium by maize. Crop
Sci. 1:155-156.
Kozlowski, T. T. 1972. Seed biology. Academic Press, Inc.,
New York, NY.
Milthorpe, F. L. and J. Moorby. 1979. An introduction to
crop physiology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge, MA.
Sinclair, T. R. and C. T. de Wit. 1975. Photosynthate and
nitrogen requirements for seed production by various
crops. Science. 189:565-561.
Thomas, G. W. and J. Hanway. 1968. Determining fertilizer
needs. IN changing patterns in fertilizer use. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Amer., Madison, WI.








Table 1. List of crop species and/or cultivars within
species and their characteristics used for plant analysis.
Common Scientific
name Cultivar name Characteristics and Use


Wheat


Oat


Fescue


Bahiagrass


Bahiagrass


Ryegrass


Rye


Corn

Corn


Corn


Sorghum F.



Sudangrass



Pigeonpea


Peanut


Fl. 301


Fl. 501


Kentucky
31


Argentine


Pensacola


Marshall


Wrens
Abruzzi

FLOPUP

Pioneer
X304C

Pioneer
3320


TS534


Florunner


Triticum
aestivum L.

Avena
sativa L.

Festuca
arundinacea
Schreb

Paspalum
notatum L.

Paspalum
notatum L.

Lolium
multiflorum
Lam.

Secale
cereale L.

Zea mays L.

Zea mays L.


Zea mays L.


Sorghum
bicolor L.
Moench

Sorghum
bicolor
drumondii

Cajanus
cajan (L.)
Huth

Arachis
hypogaea L.


A C3


A C3


P C3



P C4


P C4


A C3



A C3


A C4

A C4


A C4


A C4



A C4



A C3



A C3


C food, feed


C food, feed


C seed


W seed


W seed


C seed


C food, feed


W food, feed

W food, feed


W food, feed


W seed



W seed


W food


W food








Table 1. Continued.

Alfalfa Fl. 77 Medicago P C3 W seed
sativa L.

Vetch Canaba Vicia A C3 C seed
White sativa L.

Hairy Vetch Vicia A C3 C seed
villosa L.

Hairy Indigo Indigofera A C3 C seed
hirsuta L.

Ladino Osceola Trifolium A C3 C seed
Clover ladino L.

Soybean Bedford Glycine A C3 W food, feed
max L.
Merr.

Lupine Lupinus sp. A C3 W seed

Lespedeza Kobe Lespedeza A C3 W seed
Striata
H. & Arn

Life cycle characteristic: A = Annual; P = Perennial.

Photorespiration type characteristic: C3 = Low net
assimilation rate; C4 = High net assimilation rate.

Temperature type characteristic: C = Cool-weather growth; W
= Warm-weather growth.








Table 2. Macronutrient mineral composition of crop seeds.
Minerals


Fl 301 Wheat

Fl 501 Oat

Kentucky 31 Fescue

Argentine Bahiagrass

Pensacola Bahiagrass

Marshall ryegrass

Wrens Abruzzi Rye

FLOPUP Corn

Pioneer X304C Corn

Pioneer 3320 Corn

Pioneer TS 534 F.S.

Sorghum Sudangrass

Pigeon Pea

Florunner Peanut

FL 77 Alfalfa

Canaba White Vetch

Hairy Vetch

Common Hairy Indigo

Osceola Ladino clover

Bedford Soybean

Lupine

Kobe Lespedeza


---------------

17.54 3.80

20.24 4.37

21.19 4.35

11.70 2.38

12.51 2.65

17.93 3.01

21.87 3.13

17.06 3.99

17.09 3.72

10.61 3.46

17.38 3.55

20.61 3.76

28.42 3.53

50.56 3.69

61.15 8.04

43.56 8.72

43.12 6.54

43.51 7.81

53.31 6.47

59.02 5.89

52.46 5.94

71.70 8.02


g kg-1

4.30

4.95

4.70

2.15

2.15

3.40

3.95

4.20

3.60

3.70

3.60

3.35

12.20

5.85

9.70

22.25

10.80

9.70

11.25

14.55

9.35

12.40


Ca MnT


--------------

0.42. 1.30

0.47 1.25

1.30 1.80

0.25 0.95

0.22 1.20

1.01 1.14

0.36 1.10

0.11 1.40

0.14 0.99

0.12 1.10

0.18 1.55

0.22 1.65

1.15 1.20

0.50 1.50

0.12 1.95

0.54 1.50

0.91 1.40

2.50 2.85

0.80 2.60

2.05 2.10

2.15 1.95

1.13 1.80


All valuse are an average of two replications.


Cron


Ca Mq








Table 3. Micronutrient mineral composition of crop seeds
Minerals
Crop Fe Cu Mn Zn

-------------- mg kg -------------

Fl 301 Wheat 32.50 9.00 44.00 30.00

Fl 501 Oat 78.00 6.50 38.00 34.50

Kentucky 31 Fescue 52.50 8.00 35.00 27.50

Argentine Bahiagrass 71.50 6.50 4.00 25.50

Pensacola Bahiagrass 37.50 7.00 9.00 25.50

Marshall Ryegrass 46.00 8.50 38.00 33.50

Wrens Abruzzi Rye 44.50 6.00 24.00 28.00

FLOPUP Corn 32.50 3.50 2.50 22.00

Pioneer X304C Corn 37.00 4.50 2.00 35.50

Pioneer 3320 Corn 32.50 4.50 4.50 32.00

Pioneer TS 534 F.S. 43.00 5.50 7.00 17.50

Sorghum Sudangrass 38.50 7.00 8.50 18.50

Pigeon Pea 365.00 7.00 5.00 16.50

Florunner Peanut 22.00 12.00 9.00 23.00

FL 77 Alfalfa 23.50 13.50 9.50 33.00

Canaba White Vetch 500.00 11.00 18.50 43.00

Hairy Vetch 125.00 12.00 18.00 43.00

Common Hairy Indigo 520.00 7.50 6.00 36.50

Osceola Ladino Clover 235.00 40.50 9.00 67.50

Bedford Soybean 71.50 14.50 24.50 39.50

Lupine 96.00 7.00 10.50 43.00

Kobe Lespedeza 95.50 14.00 19.00 39.00

All values are an average of two replications.








Table 4. Nitrogen concentration of grass seeds grouped by
Temperature of growth.
Temperature Crop Nitrogen


Cool-Weather


Wheat

Oat

Fescue

Rye Grass

Rye



Average


- g kg- --

17.54

20.24

21.19

17.93

21.87


19.75


Warm-Weather


Bahiagrass

Corn

Forage Sorghum

Sorghum Sudangrass


Average


All crop values are an average of two replications


12.10

14.92

17.38

20.61


16.25








Table 5. Nutrient concentration ratios and totals in seeds
N/K K/Ca K/Ca+Mg K+Ca+Mg Fe+Cu+Mn+Zn


Cool-Weather Grasses

Fl 301 Wheat
Fl 501 Oat
Kentucky 31 Fescue
Marshall Ryegrass
Wrens Abruzzi Rye


Average


-Ratio


4.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5


g kg1 mg kg-1 -


2.5
3.0
2.5
1.5
2.5


4.6 8 2.4


6.0
6.7
7.8
5.6
5.4

6.3


Warm-Weather Grasses

Argentine Bahiagrass
FLOPUP Corn
Pioneer X304C Corn
Pioneer 3320 Corn
Pioneer TS 534 F.S.
Sorghum Sudangrass


Average


Cool-Weather Legumes

Hairy Vetch
Common Hairy Indigo
Osceola Ladino Clover


Average


Warm-Weather Legumes

Pigeon Pea
Florunner Peanut
Bedford Soybean

Average

Average Grasses
Average Legumes


4.0
4.5
5.0


5.0
2.0
3.0


4.5 10 3.3


2.0
8.5
4.0


5.0
3.0
4.0


4.8 10 4.0


4.7 16
4.7 10


2.4
3.7


Each crop value is an average of


. 115.5
157.0
123.0
126.0
102.5

124.8


5.5
4.0
5.0
3.0
5.0
6.0


4.8 23


2.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
2.0
2.0

2.3


3.4
5.7
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.3

4.9


107.5
79.0
79.0
73.5
73.0
72.5

80.8


13.1
15.1
14.7

14.3


14.6
7.9
18.8

13.8

5.6
14.1


195.5
570.5
352.0

372.7


393.5
66.0
150.0

203.2

102.8
288.0


two replications.








Table 6. Mineral concentration of crop seeds grouped by
photorespiration type

Type N P K Ca Ma Fe Cu Mn Zn

--------- g kg1 ------- ------ mg kg1 ------

Grasses-C4 15.3 3.3 4.3 0.7 1.3 50.7 7.6 35.8 30.7

Grasses-C3 19.8 3.7 3.3 0.2 1.3 41.8 5.5 5.4 25.2

Legumes-C3 52.7 6.5 11.8 1.2 1.9 205.4 13.9 12.9 38.2




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