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Group Title: Winter forage legumes trials at Gainesville, Florida, during 1975 - 1976 growing season
Title: Winter forage legumes trials at Gainesville, Florida, during 1975-1976 growing season
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056088/00001
 Material Information
Title: Winter forage legumes trials at Gainesville, Florida, during 1975-1976 growing season
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 12 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Prine, G. M ( Gordon Madison ), 1928-
Ruelke, Otto Charles, 1923-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Experiment Station, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1976]
 Subjects
Subject: Legumes -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Clover -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.M. Prine and O.C. Ruelke.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 1976."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056088
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62394153

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
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        Page 4
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        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








S Agronomy Research Report AY 77-2 October 1976




Department of Agronomy
Agricultural Experiment Station, IFAS
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



WINTER FORAGE LEGUMES TRIALS AT GAINS k' S F..f
DURING 1975-1976 GROWING SEASON. 'F J /


G. M. Prine and 0. C. Ruelke

There islittle information on comgi A vql ij dyction

of cool-season forage legumes in the Central Floria'

The advent of high N prices coupled with corresponding low

beef prices has greatly increased the interest of livestock

producers and researchers in legume crops.

During winter of 1975-76, we attempted to look at most

of cool-season legumes known to have some adaptation in the

Central Florida area. Representative cultivars of red,

white, crimson, arrowleaf and subterranean clovers, sweet-

clover, alfalfa and vetch were evaluated on Arredondo loamy

fine sand at main Agronomy farm and on Leon fine sand at

Beef Research Unit near Gainesville.

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

The experimental areas at Beef Research Unit (BRU) and

Agronomy Farm were limed, plowed, then fertilized and 2 qt/A

DANSANIT insecticide nematicide applied broadcast and har-



Associate Professor and Professor of Agronomy, respectively.





-2-


rowed in before planting. Soils were limed to achieve a pH

above 6.2 and fertilized with 500 pounds per acre of 0-10-20

(N-P205-K20) fertilizer containing 7.5 pounds of FTE 503

minor elements. Each legume which was grown alone or in

mixtures, was inoculated with 5 times the recommended rate

of inoculant and was broadcast by hand, at the seeding rates

given in Table 1. The seeding rate of each crop in a 2 crop

mixture was 1/2 the seeding rate and in a 3 crop mixture was

1/3 the seeding rate of each crop planted alone. After

seeding each plot it was immediately disked lightly and then

cultipacked. Planting date was November 13 at both BRU and

Agronomy Farm. Each experiment was irrigated soon after

planting to facilitate rapid and uniform seed germination.

Plot size was 6 x 20 feet in size and each treatment

was replicated five times. Plot yields were taken by cut-

ting a 2 1/2 x 17 foot strip through middle of each plot at

1 1/2 inches height. On the May 4 cutting, subclover was

first cut to 1 1/2 inch stubble height and then cut to the

soil surface on the Agronomy Farm.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Each crop could not be cut at its optimum time but was cut

when a major portion of crops were in a good stage for

harvesting. Because of this bias in cutting, one should be

careful in comparing seasonal yield results between dif-

ferent crops, particularly when only one season results are

available, as here. The cultivars selected to represent each






-3-


legume are, in most cases, not the only cultvars available

and not necessarially the better cultivars to be used.

Upland Soils: The dry matter yields of legumes grown on the

well-drained upland soil on the Agronomy Farm at various

harvest dates are given in Table 2. A cold period from mid-

December through January limited growth during this period.

January, February, March and parts of April were extremely

dry so it was necessary to apply two irrigations of 1-inch

of irrigation water before March 22 harvest to maintain nor-

mal expected growth of the crops. Another inch of irri-

gation water was applied during a long rainless period in

April. The combined water from irrigation and rainfall

during January, February, March and April was still less

than normal expected rainfall.

The crimson clovers were the highest yielding crops in

the March 22 harvest with arrowleaf clovers and sweetclover

next. The mixtures which contained crimson clover produced

well during the first cutting, the crimson clover tending to

dominate the mixture. The sub clovers, particularly Mt.

Barker, grew well during the period before first harvest.

Most of the stubble weight below 1 1/2 inch height harvested

at May 5 cutting was made before the March 22 cutting so

actually the sub clovers compared very favorable in yield to

the crimson clovers at first harvest and not so favorably at

the May 4 cutting as data seem to indicate. Subclover cannot

be evaluated by cutting at 1 1/2 inch height because the

high density of this crop near the ground.





-4-


The vetches did not recover well after the first cut-

ting so the production essentially stopped. If not cut, and

allowed to grow for another month or 6 weeks, the vetches

would have made a large hay crop. The white clovers gave

the lowest yields for the first cutting.

At the second cutting, May 4, the crimson clovers had

finished flowering at harvest and would have been lower

quality than other crops which were at an earlier stage of

development. The arrowleaf clovers, particularly Yuchi, red

clovers and their mixtures, made good growth during the

second yield period. Alfalfa and sweetclover also made good

growth.

The sub, crimson, and arrowleaf clovers failed to

survive the May 4 cutting. However, alfalfa and to lesser

degree the red and white clovers continued to grow until the

June 9 harvest.

After the third harvest the only crop surviving was the

alfalfa which normally lives for two or more seasons on

upland soils like on the Agronomy Farm. Because of its long

harvest season, alfalfa gave highest seasonal yield. Florida

66 alfalfa; red, arrowleaf, crimson and sub clovers; sweet-

clover and common and hairy vetch grew satisfactorily on the

upland soil.

Flatwoods Soils: The dry matter yields for the flatwoods

soils site on BRU are presented in Table 3. This area was

not irrigated after the initial irrigation to insure good

stands at planting. Hairy vetch and Floranna sweetclover





-5-


were highest yielding crops at first harvest although the

best crimson and sub clovers cultivars were only slightly

less. The arrowleaf clovers did not grow well at this site,

probably because it was too wet for them.

The second and third harvests were dominated by the red

clovers and their mixtures, along with white clover. Red

clovers often yield more than white clovers on flatwoods

locations but do not have the good reseeding characteristics

of intermediate white clover or the persistence of the im-

proved ladino white clovers. While we did not take further

yields after June 10, the Regal and Florida experimental

white clover plots were still living and growing well in

early October of 1976. Florida 66 alfalfa was killed by

flooding during heavy rainfall after the last cutting. Red

clover, white clover and sweetclover seemed most suited for

the flatwoods soil.

Some of these winter legumes are not familiar to Florida

growers so we are going to briefly discuss each crop and

point out some merits and disadvantages of each:

White clover The white clovers are our best cool-

season pasture legume for flatwoods and other high-

moisture supplying soils. The Arredondo loamy fine

sands on main Agronomy Farm were too drought, though

the crop was able to survive there. Because of small

seed it is very difficult to establish this legume in

grass sod on drought soils. There are two types of

white clover, an intermediate type such as Nolin's and






-6-


a ladino type such as Regal. The intermediate types

flower and seed profusely while most ladino types may

not produce enough flowers and seed for reseeding.

However, the ladino types are more apt to live over

from one season to the next. Regal and Tillman are

recommended ladino types and Nolin's and Louisiana S-1

are recommended intermediate types. The Florida Ex-

perimental is a ladino type that should be released in

near future.

Red clover This normally biennial or weak perennial

crop acts as an annual in Florida. Red clover is

perhaps the best hay plant of the clovers we studied as

it recovers very satisfactorily even when cut at an

advanced bloom stage. Red clover does better than

white clover on upland and well-drained soils as it has

a larger seed and seedling and deeper root system. Red

clover should not be grazed as close as white clover.

Red clover grows later in season than the annual clovers:

crimson, sub and arrowleaf. Tensas, Nolin's, Pennscott,

Kenland and Chesapeake red clover cultivars have pro-

duced well in variety trials on flatwoods soils.

Arrowleaf clover The arrowleaf clovers are true

annuals and will reseed if satisfactory quantities of

seed are allowed to develop. Three cultivars are

available. Amclo is earliest, Yuchi is medium and

Meechee is latest maturing. The arrowleaf clovers are

not recommended for flatwoods soils which become water







logged. The seed of arrowleaf clover is relatively

small so establishment on drought sandy soils is

sometimes difficult but once established, plants grow

well.

When cut at the hay stage such as the May 4

cutting (Table 2) and May 5 cutting (Table 3), the

arrowleaf clovers may die or only a few plants recover.

However, under grazing the arrowleaf clovers maintain

vegetative growth and may persist into June or even

July. It is usually possible to graze the arrowleaf

clovers a month or 6 weeks longer than crimson or

subclovers. Some growers graze arrowleaf clover during

cold season and then allow it to make a hay crop by

removing cattle before mid-April.

Sub clover Sub clover has not been grown widely in

Florida but is grown on large acreages on the West

Coast and in Australia. Sub clover is a true annual

and has much larger seed than other clovers. Seed are

either imported from Australia or the West Coast. The

best sub clovers are usually as productive as crimson

clover if you harvest all the stubble to the ground.

Sub clover is the most compact and dense of all the

clovers studied and is useful only for grazing. We

have not had grazing trials in Florida but sub clovers

are reported to stand very close grazing. Because sub

clover produces seed in burs either on the surface or

below the surface of soil, cattle cannot graze off all








seed burs and prevent reseeding. However, many sub

clover seed are not hard and will germinate anytime

after mature. Under the rainy summers of Florida, too

much seed may germinate during summers and little is

left to reseed the following fall.

Crimson clover- Crimson clover is a true annual and

most cultivars reseed if seed heads are allowed to

mature. Crimson clover is not as valuable for forage

in Central Florida as further north because it matures

too early. This early maturity is a plant response to

long day lengths which occur earlier in the spring here

than further north. Crimson does not grow well on

poorly drained or flooded soils. Crimson has a fairly

large seed and strong seedling.

Annual sweetclover Annual sweetclover is not a true

clover. Sweetclover is very productive on both flat-

woods which do not flood and upland soils. It does not

recover well when cut or grazed closely. Best results

are obtained when flowering plants are broused by

cattle at a low stocking rate so that cattle mainly eat

only new growth.

Alfalfa Alfalfa is an annual or short-lived peren-

nial in Florida. It is more drought resistant than

other legumes studied. Alfalfa is used mainly as a hay

plant though it can be rotationally grazed. Well

managed Florida 66 alfalfa will persist for several

years on well-drained soils. Alfalfa is not recommended









for flatwoods or poorly-drained soil. Note the poor

performance of Fla 66 alfalfa on the flatwoods soils of

BRU (Table 3) compared to the well-drained Arredondo

soils on Agronomy Farm (Table 2). Alfalfa seed are

relatively large and produce seedlings with good vigor.

Alfalfa made the latest summer growth of all crops

studied on soils where it will grow.

Vetches The common and hairy vetches do not recover

well after being cut at hay stage or after overgrazing.

The vetches are useful as a green manure crop and make

an excellent though tangly hay.








-10-




TABLE 1 Seeding rates of winter legumes grown in pure stand during
1975-76 growing season.





Seeding rate
Crop (Ibs/A)



Alfalfa 25
Arrowleaf clover 8
Crimson clover 20
Red clover 15
Sub clover 20
White clover 5
Sweet clover 15
Hairy vetch 30
Common vetch 40



In two crop mixtures each crop was seeded at 1/2 above rate and in
three crop mixtures each crop was seeded at 1/3 above rate.


..




TABLE'2. Dry matter forage yields of selected cool-season legumes ot wellldrdined upland soil
(Arredondo loamy fine sand) at Gainesville, FL during 1975-76 growing season.


Pounds Per Acre
Harvest Dates Season
Cultivar and Crop March 22 May 4 June 9 July 13 August 7 Total


Amclo arrow leaf clover
Meechee arrowleaf clover
Yuchi arrowleaf clover
Chief crimson clover
Dixie crimson clover
Tibbee crimson clover
J&F** crimson clover
Mr. Barker sub clover
Woognellup sub clover
Tallarook sub clover
Nolin's red clover
Kenland red clover
Nolin's white clover
Regal white clover
Fla Experimental white clover
Floranna sweetclover
Fla 66 alfalfa
Hairy vetch
Common vetch
Clover Mixtures
J&F** crimson-Kenland red
J&F** crimson-Yuchi arrowleaf
J&F** crimson-Sub composite
J&F** crimson-Nolin's red-Kenland red
J&F** crimson-Nolin's red-Yuchi
Sub composite-Nolin's red
Sub composite-Kenland red
Sub composite-Yuchi
Sub composite-Nolin's red-Yuchi
Sub composite-Nolin's red-Kenland
Regal white-Kenland red
Regal white-Yuchi


2060
2040
2520
2760
2800
3160
3340
1810
1480
1180
1410
1520
1100
630
1220
2484
1500
2200
1990

2570
2930
2910
2530
2420
1090
1450
2380
2120
1200
1520
1980


2140
2110
2920
2490
2650
2050
2220
(3070)* 940
(2530)* 780
(4550)*1400
2700
2546
1520
1480
1410
2120
2430
70
840


2290
2010
1960
2230
2310
1550
2450
1850
2330
2380
2760
2348


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
830
1080
220
580
550
90
2490
0
0

400
10
0
290
40
290
740
0
40
830
1150
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
80
280
1730
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1580
0
0


4200
4150
5440
5250
5450
5210
5570
(4880)*2750
(4010)*2260
(5720)*2570
4940
5140
2830
2890
3260
4980
9730
2270
2820


5270
4940
4870
5050
4780
3030
4650
4220
4480
4400
5430
4330


SNumbers in parenthesis are yield of forage when cut
J&F crimson clover was a unnamed cultivar purchased


to soil surface on May 4 cutting.
from Johnson and Farris, a local seed merchant.






-12-


.TABLE 3. Dry matter forage yields of selected cool-season legumes on flatwoods
soil (Leon fine sand) at Gainesville, FL during 1975-76 season.


Pounds Per Acre
Harvest Dates Season
Cultivar and Crop March 26 May 5 June 10 Total

Amclo arrowleaf clover 1680 920 230 2830
Meechee arrowleaf clover 1460 710 280 2450
Yuchi arrowleaf clover 1630 550 250 2430
Chief crimson clover 2610 1520 80 4210
Dixie crimson clover 2120 1310 210 3630
Tibbee crimson clover 2600 1200 50 3850
J&F* crimson clover 1770 900 180. 2850
Mt. Barker sub clover 2300 1470 40 3810
Woognellup sub clover 1750 360 70 2180
Tallarook sub clover 1120 1200 210 2530
Nolin's red clover 1510 2810 1580 5900
Kenland red clover 1770 2350 2030 6150
Nolin's white clover 1320 1150 760 3240
Regal white clover 720 1390 1300 3400
Fla Experimental white clover 910 1230 1130 3270
Floranna sweetclover 2860 1920 700 5480
Fla 66 alfalfa 1210 1030 870 3100
Hairy vetch 3138 1056 0 4190
Common vetch 1360 970 0 2330

Clover Mixtures
J&F* crimson-Kenland red 2460 1460 1190 5110
J&F* crimson-Yuchi 2600 1520 140 4260
J&F* crimson-Sub composite 2710 880 1040 4630
J&F* crimson-Nolin's red-kenland red 2318 1990 1440 5450
J&F* crimson-Nolin's-Yuchi 2447 1620 420 4480
Sub composite-Nolin's red 1530 2210 1060 4800
Sub composite-Kenland red 2206 1700 1810 5720
Sub composite-Yuchi 2470 880 80 3430
Sub composite-Nolin's red-Yuchi 1550 1680 560 3800
Sub composite-Nolin's red-Kenland red 1500 2100 2040 5631
Regal white-Kenland red 1530 2570 1900 6000
Regal white-Yuchi 980 900 638 2510
*J&F crimson clover was an unnamed cultivar purchased from Johnson and Farris, a local
seed merchant.




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