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Title: No-tillage corn and sunflower yield response from furadan and counter pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in 1982
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056086/00001
 Material Information
Title: No-tillage corn and sunflower yield response from furadan and counter pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in 1982
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983?]
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Yields -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Sunflowers -- Yields -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Sunflowers -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Raymond N. Gallaher.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056086
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62395131

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









Aeronomy Research Report AY83-05



FHULVE LIRRY

JUL 5 io4
No-Tillaqe Corn and Sunflower Yield Lesoonse From Furadan and counter
Pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in I .?A.S.-Univ' of Florida


By
Raymond N. Gallaher
Associate Professor of Agronomy
Agronomy Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Science
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, 32611


Introduction

Increased grain yield is usually the primary goal of a corn breeder.
However, the breeder must consider many factors in his manipulation of genetic
variability that exists in a given population of plants. The breeder is
concerned with things such as hardiness of the plant, its resistance to
diseases and insects, the size and numbers of individual plants, maturity
stages, plant productivity, and quality among other things.
Manipulation of genes and development of new genotypes (Varieties,
cultivars, or hybrids) is often carried out under specific macro environmental
conditions. For example, since the gross macro environment of the southeastern
USA is hotter, has more rainfall, less soil organic matter and in many.cases
less native soil fertility, more tropical weed pests, and more insects and
diseases than in the midwestern USA, it would make sense to develop new
genotyoes in the environment of the Southeast, for the southeast, rather than
performing the development in the Midwest for use in the Southeast. This
probably should be done even if final products developed in the .vidwest were
screened for adaptability in the Southeast. Since high seed yield is likely
the overriding objective of the corn breeder, and since emphasis is directed to
higher and higher grain yields for grain farmers to maintain an existence in
farming, hybrid development is likely carried out under ideal fertility, pest
and etc. conditions by supplemental applications. This then would be
development under relatively specific altered environments.
With the above premise the argument is proposed that if a hybrid is
developed for high seed yield under high fertility and ideal irrigation it may
not perform well in other environments of low fertility and/or non irrigation.
The author further hypothesizes that if hybrids are developed using a specific
pesticide (Insecticide and/or nenatacide) it may not perform the same if Prown
using another pesticide.
The objective of this research was to evaluate corn and sunflower hybrids
for yield potential in the same environment except for use of either furadan or
counter as the insecticide/neratacide treatments.








Materials and Methods


Six corn hybrids (Table 1), one from six different companies, and three
sunflower hybrids in a separate test were evaluated for yield as affected by
pesticide treatment. In each experiment hybrids were whole plots replicated
four times in a randomized complete block design with chemical treatments (two
and one pound active ingredient furadan/acre, two pound active ingredient
counter/acre and a untreated control) as splits in a split plot experiment.
Individual split plots were 10 feet wide (four rows wide) and 30 feet in
length. The study was conducted in Alachua County, Florida in 1982.
In 1981 the site was double cropped with corn followed by soybeans.
Following application of paraquat and X77 herbicide broadcast treatment the
experiments were planted with a two-row subsoil no-tillage planter on the 26 th
of February 1982 directly into 'the previous years crop residue.Pesticide
treatments were applied by -hand in a narrow band directly over the row
following planting. A complete fertilizer including N, P, K, S, Cu, B, Zn, and
Mn was broadcast as needed based on soil test and expected yield prior to
planting. Extra nitrogen was applied in a liquid with paraquat as a post
-directed application for weed control, as well as supplemental feeding of
nitrogen. Because of heavy rainfall, probable leaching, and possibly because
of the cool, wet-surface soil conditions, a sulfur deficiency developed in corn
but not in the sunflowers. Sulfur deficiency of corn was treated by foliar
application about ten days prior to tasseling.
Plant height of corn was measured at the soft dough stage of grain on June
19. Corn grain yield, plant population, and ear population measurements were
made on July 19. Plots of corn were left in place and lodging data was taken
on August 9. Sunflower yield and measurements were made on June 26.


Results

Corn


Corn height response among hybrids, to the chemical treatments (Table 1)
gave early indication that the environmental conditions at the site were good
for testing. This preliminary growth response indicator showed that furadan at
the 2 pound/acre rate resulted in greater or equal height as compared to the 2
pound/acre rate of counter among the hybrids. Counter gave heights equal to
the 2 pound rate of furadan for CK 748 and Asgrow 777 but gave heights less
than the 2 pound rate of furadan for the other hybrids.
The same basic conclusion that the counter treatment was equal to the two
pound furadan treatment for some hybrids in yield but not for others, is shown
in Table 2. After contact with corn breeders and representatives for the six
companies it was learned that all companies except Asprow used furadan
predominately in their development of the hybrids selected for this experiment.
Counter was used in the development of Aszrow 777.
Four of the five hybrids developed using furadan had yields from 14.5 to
30.1 bushels/acre greater for the two pound active ingredient/acre than
counter. There were virtually no differences in grain yield among the
chemicals for Asgrow 777 where counter was used in development of this hybrid.
In every case furadan at the two pound/acre rate gave greater yield than the
control while the Pioneer and Funks yields for the control and counter were not
different at the 0.05 level of probability.
Yield values among hybrids within the control plots had a spread of 54.4









bushels/acre indicating a probable large degree of genetic resistance to pests
that were controlled by the chemicals. A close study of tables I and 2
indicate both genetic resistance and chemical response for the betterment of
height or yield.
Different planter plates and settings were utilized in an attempt to olant
about 22,000 seed per acre. Final crop stands (Table 3) indicate that some
hybrids may have been over and some like Pioneer 3320 may have been under this
desired seeding rate (Actual germination among hybrids array have differed).
Lodging data was taken long after the corn would normally be harvested
(Table 4). These data show however, that the higher the population there was a
trend toward higher percent lodging. Lodging was not affected by any chemical
treatment in this sutdy.
Hybrids did not differ in shelling percent at the two pound furadan rate
(Table 5). There were differences among hybrids for other chemical treatments
but no consistency was found.

Sunflower


As expected seed yield of no-tillage sunflowers was also affected by
variety (Table 6). It is hard to make sound conclusions based on one year and
one location data but it is obvious that the use of furadan was beneficial for
varieties DO 164 and IX 843 and possibly deterimental to'Yield of D0 705 in
this study. The differential response of sunflower to pesticide variables
further indicates the roll of genetics in response to environmental variables.
An attempt was made to plant 24,000 seed per acre (Table 7). Note that
final crop stand at harvest was variable among varieties and chemical
treatments.
Sunflower heads fill seed beginning first at the outer edge and progress
toward the center. If for any reason that an environmental factor limits yield
the head will not fill all the way to the center. Data in Table 8 is an
attempt to evaluate the head fill area as a function of treatment variables.
Head fill area/acre (Table 8) and seed yield (table 6) have a reasonably good
positive relationship and it appears that on the average, one square foot of
head fill area is equal to about one pound of sunflower seed.

Strrmary

Hybrids of corn or sunflower in these studies provide genetic variability
sufficient to differ in yield response as affected by or the lack of chemical
treatments. Differential genetic resistance to pests being controlled by
furadan and/or counter exists among the hybrids tested. In the corn test the
two pound per acre active ingredinet furadan treatment gave yields equal to or
greater than two pounds active ingredient counter for corn hybrids. The two
pound active ingredient furadan gave yields better than the control for all
corn hybrids which was not the case for counter. This study supports the
hypothesis that corn breeders may be selecting for furadan or counter if the
chemical is used as a routine treatment in the breeding program to develop the
hybrid. If through further testing, this hypothesis proves to be true then
recommendation of appropriate pesticides used in development should result in
more consistent production found by plant breeders.











Acknowledgements


The technical and clerical assistance of Mr. Sonny R. Tompkins, Mr.
Timothy 3. Sumrers, Mr. Bruce A. Fritz, and Mrs %anda E. Gallaher is very much
appreciated. Cooperation and support of corn companies whose hybrids are
represented, Mr. William D. Parrish, Chevron Chemical Co., Brown Manufacturing
Co., Cole Vanufacturing Co., Kelley Manufacturing Co., 3. C. Harden and Sons,
FL:C Corporation, the Agrnomy Department, and IFAS is very much appreciated.


Trade names, where used in this publication, are for the purpose of providing
specific information. Use of these names does not imply endorsement of
products by IFAS, nor does it imply disapproval of products not named.



Table 1. Height of corn hybrids treated with neratacides in
Alachua County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment

2 11 Fur. I # Fur. 2 # Cou. Control Average

------------- Feet------------------
Pioneer 3320 7.2a 7.0a 5.9 bc 5.9a 6.5


DeKalb XL71 6.5 b 5.8 bc 6.3ab 5.8a 6.1


Asgrow 777 7.2a 6.3ab 6.8a 5.5a 6.5


Coker 19 6.9ab 5.3 c 5.8 bc 3.8 b 5.5

Funks G4507A 6.7ab 6.7a 5.3 c 4.5 b 5.8

GK 748 7.3a 6.7a 6.7a 6.2a 6.7



Average 7.0 6.3 6.1 5.3
-----------------------------------------------------
Values in coluTns amongg hybrids not follwoed by the same
letter and values in rows among chemical treatments with an
uncommon underline are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans New Multiple
Range test. Chemical rates are in pounds active
ingrediant/acre. Fur = Furadan, and Cou = Counter.











Table 2. Yield of corn hybrids treated with nenatacides in
Alachua County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment

2 # Fur. I # Fur. 2 # Cou. Control Average
----------------------------------------------------
----------------- Bu/A -----------------------
Pioneer 3320 134.8a 131.4a 108.6a 110.6a 121.6


DeKalb XL7I 123.lab 109.7ab 108.5a 78.0 b 104.8


Asgrow 777 115.7ab 103.7ab 113.7a 61.2 b 98.6


Coker 19 104.0 b 116.6ab 112.7a 72.9 b 101.6


Funks G4507A 103.9 b 92.8 b 73.8a 56.2 b 81.7



GK 748 99.4 b 81.5 b 79.5a 61.6 b 80.5



Average 113.5 106.0 99.5 73.4

Values in columns among hybrids not followed by the same
letter and values in rows among chemical treatments with an
uncommon underling are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans New Multiple
Range test. Chemical rates are in pounds active
ingredient/acre. Furadan is Fur. and Counter is Cou.













Table 3. No-tillage corn population among hybrids as
affected by pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment

2 # Fur. I # Fur. 1 # Cou. Control Average
------------------------------------NnerAr---------------


Pioneer 3320

DeKalb XL71


Asgrow 777


Coker 19


Funks G4507A


----------------- Number/Acre ----------------
15390 d 15390 c 16409 d 14954 c 15536

26136a 25567a 27878a 24973a 26139
- - - - -


22795 b 23958a 20909 bc 23379a


18731 c 18731 b 20765 bc 17716 b


23814ab 25992a


22651 b 20330 b


22760


18986


23197


GK 758



Average


19894 c 19458 b 19310 c 19023 b
- - - - - -


21127


21513


21320


19421


20063


Values in columns among hybrids not followed by the sane
letter and values in rows among chemical treatments with an
uncommon underline are significantly different according to
Duncans New Multiple Range test. Chemical rates are in
pounds active ingredient/acre. Furadan is Fur. and Counter
is Cou.






Table 4. No-tillage corn percent lodginF among hybrids as
affected by pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment

2 # Fur. 1 # Fur. 1 # Cou. Control Average


Pioneer 3320
ODealb XL7I
Asvrow 777
Coker 19
Funks G4507A
CK 758


---------------------- %> ---------------------
8.15 9.48 14.53 11.20 10.93 b
28.43 32.43 23.8 26.36 27.78a
34.53 37.11 39.36 31.62 35.66a
25.47 13.26 21.99 23.76 21.12ab
22.77 26.61 27.98 27.42 26.20a
26.09 32.79 26.42 34.74 30.Ola


24.30 25.28


25.69 25.84 NS


Values in columns anong hybrids not followed by the same
letter are significantly different and values in rows among
chemicals followed by NS are not significantly different
according to Duncans New Multiple Range test. Chemical
rates are in pounds active ingredient/acre. Furadan is Fur.
and Counter is Cou.

Table 5. No-tillage corn shelling percent anong hybrids as
affected by pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment


Pioneer 3320

DeKalb XL71

Asgrow 777

Coker 19

Funks G4507A


GK 748



Average


2 # Fur. I # Fur. 2 # Cou. Control Average

---------------------- % ---------------------
82.65a 83.68a 81.87a 83.72a 32.98

78.87a 82.21ab 72.51 b 83.33a 79.23


82.91a 83.55a 83.11a 82.88ab

84.05a 85.59a 85.19A 76.57 b

84.92a 76.63 b 82.69a 82.45ab


81.49a 84.18a 83.54a 81.32ab


82.48 82.64


81.49


83.11

82.85

31.67


82.63


31.71


Values in columns anong hybrids not followed by the same
letter and values in rows among chemical treatments with an
uncorrmon underline are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans New Multiple
Range test. Chemical rates are in pound active
ingredients/acre. Furadan is Fur. and Counter is Cou.


Average









Table 6. No-tilage sunflower seed yield as influenced by
chemical treatments in Alachua County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment
-""-"" -- ------------------------- --
2 # Fur. I # Fur. 2 # Cou. Control Average
--------------------------------------------------
--------------- Pounds/A ------------------
DO 164 2043ab 1665 b 1571 b 1458 c 1684

DO 705 1878 b 1947ab 2073a 2244a 2036
---- - - - -
-------------------------
DO 843 2328a 2058a 1980a 1866b 2058



Average 2083 1890 1875 1856

Values in columns among hybrids not followed by the same
letter and values in rows with an uncornon underline are
significantly diiferent at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans New Multiple Range test. Chemical
rates are in pounds active ingredients/acre. Furadan is
Fur. and Counter is Cou.



Table 7. No-tillage sunflower plant population as
influenced by chemical treatments in Alachua County,
Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Chemical Treatment

2 # Fur. 1 # Fur. 2 # Cou. Control Average

---------------- Plants/A ----------------
DO 164 27588a 24200a 24684a 24684a 25289

D0705 20812 b 20328 c 19360 c 21780 b 20572


D0843 20812 b 21780 b 22264 b 22264 b 21780


Average 23071 22103 22103 22909
---------------------------------------------------
Values in columns among hybrids not follwoed by the same
letter and values in rows with an uncommon underline are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans New Multiple range test. Chemical
rates are in pounds active ingredients/acre. furadan is
Fur. and Counter is Cou.














Table 8. No-tillage sunflower head fill area as influenced
by chemical treatments in Alachua County, Florida in 19S2.
---------------------------------------------------
hybrid Chemical Treatment
--------------------------------------------
2 # Fur. I # Fur. 2 # Cou. Control Average
---------------------------------------------------
---------- Sq. Ft. Head Fill Area/A ----------
DO 164 1884a 1839 b 1382a 1586a 1672

D0705 2018a 2411a 1751a 1934a 2029

03843 2341a 1993ab 1730a 1610a 1919



Average 2081 2081 1621 1710

Values in columns among hybrids not followed by the same
letter and values in rows with an uncommon underline are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans New Multiple Range test. Chemical
rates are in pounds active ingredients/acre. Furadan is
Fur. and Counter is Cou.




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