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Title: No-tillage corn response to pesticides, hybrids, and cropping systems at the Green Acres Agronomy Farm in 1985
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056084/00001
 Material Information
Title: No-tillage corn response to pesticides, hybrids, and cropping systems at the Green Acres Agronomy Farm in 1985
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 16 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1986?]
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Raymond N. Gallaher.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Chiefly tables.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00056084
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62395421

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










Agronomy Research Report AY-86-05


No-tillage Corn Response to Pesticides, Hybrids, and Cropping Systems at the

Green Acres Agronomy Farm in 1985. -

Library

FEB 2 199(
BY




Raymond N. Gallaher, Professor of Agronomy, Institute of Food and

Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Agronomy Research Lab, 631

Wallace Building, Gainesville, FL 32611.


INTRODUCTION


Corn is an important crop but the environmental conditions in the

southeastern USA is conducive to numerous pest problems. During the past few

years pesticide research has been conducted on no-tillage corn in several

environments with the following objectives: 1). Determine the influence of

cultivar on the response of corn to application of pesticides. 2). Determine

the effect of cropping system on response of cultivars to pesticides. 3).

Evaluated hybrid response to pesticides and evaluate in relation to the type

pesticide used by breeders in developing the hybrids.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


During 1985 three experiments were carried out. All experiments tested






cultivars as whole plots in randomized complete block cbsigns with pesticides

as split plots randomized within each hybrid. Each experiment was replicated

4, 6, or 10 times. Experiments sub plots were planted in plots four rows

wide, 75 cm between rows, and 9 meters long. Portions of the two center

rows were used for collection of data;

Experiment one was planted on February 28, 1985 directly into standing

cover crop of rye using a "Brown-Hardin" in-row subsoil no-tillage planter.

Rye was killed at planting with split applications of labeled rates of

paraquat and residual labeled rates of alachlor (lasso) herbicides.

Additional weed control was by post direct application of paraquat. A

nonionic surfactant was always used with paraquat. Two temperate hybrids

(Pioneer Brand 3320 and Asgrow RX777) and two tropical hybrids (Pioneer Brand

X304C and Asgrow A670) were whole plots in this study.

Experiment two was planted May 8, 1985 following a cover crop of crimson-_

clover. Weeds and remaining live clover was controlled with a labeled rate

tank mix of paraquat, alachlor, and atrazine plus nonionic surfactant at

planting. This corn was also post directed with paraquat. Two temperate

hybrids (Pioneer Brand 3320 and Asgrow RX777) and two tropical hybrids

(Pioneer Brand X304C and Asgrow A670) were whole plots in experiment two.

Experiment three was planted August 8, 1985 following a winter rye crop

for grain. Rye was combined at the end of May and weeds were controlled

until August with two applications of labeled rates of paraquat. One

application in July and the second in a tank mix similar to that used in

experiment two. Only two hybrids were included in the third experiment and

these whole plot treatments were Pioneer Brand X304C and Pioneer Brand TX881.

Split plot treatments were the same in all studies. Carbofuran (15G)

was tested at two rates, 1.12 and 2.24 kg active ingredient (ai)/ha. Counter






was tested at 2.24 kg ai/ha and these treatments were compared to a control


without any pesticide.

Data collected included number of ears and plants at

height and plant height. Grain yield was calculated at

Residue and whole plant yields were, based on dry matter.

yields were based on 35% dry matter.


harvest time, ear

15.5% moisture.

Estimated silage


RESULTS


Data is presented in both English and metric units.

is presented in tables 1 through 8, experiment two data

16, and experiment three data in tables 17 through 24.

allow for statistical evaluation at this time, however


Experiment one data

in tables 9 through

Resources did not

several trends are


apparent:

1. Experiment one Yield of all hybrids in experiment one appears to be

higher from use of pesticides as compared to the control. Freeze damage of

this experiment caused yields to be abnormally low. Temperate hybrids had

higher yields than tropical hybrids for this early planting date. This has

been observed in previous experiments. Note that Pioneer Brand 3320 appeared

to respond better to Carbofuran and Asgrow RX777 appeared to respond better

to Counter showing a differential genetic response to pesticides (Tables 5

and 6).


2. Experiment two Yield of all hybrids appear to be about equal for the

May planting date (Tables 13 through 16). Data shows that in this later

planting date study the tropical hybrids retain height (Tables 9 and 10) and

can better compete with temperate hybrids. Yields are generally low for










temperate hybrids from planting this late, therefore these yields are

relatively normal. It again appears that all hybrids responded to one or

both pesticides.


3. Experiment three Past research-indicate that temperate hybrids are just

not suitable at all when planted in late July or early August. However, the

tropical hybrids have been show to retain plant height and in a 1984 study

grain yield was as much as 6500 kg/ha under good management. In this 1985

study yields were low primarily due to no irrigation and poor weed control.

Yields were low in this .study. Even with this low yield there was a trend

for pesticides to provide more yield than the control (Tables 21 and 22.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



The Author gratefully acknowledges the technical assistance of Mr. Scott

Taylor, Agricultural Technician III.






Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of

providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of

products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of

suitable composition.






Table 1. Corn ear height as affected
insecticide.


by hybrid, and


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Inches
Carbofuran 2 26 '25 20 38 27
Carbofuran 1 25 25 24 31 26
Counter 2 25 19 22 36 26
Check 25 20 21 35 26

Average 25 22 22 35

kg/ha cm
Carbofuran 2.24 65 62 52 96 69
Carbofuran 1.12 64 63 60 78 66
Counter 2.24 64 47 56 92 65
Check 62 51 54 88 64

Average 64 56 56 88


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.


brand


3320, Three


Table 2. Corn plant height as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Inches
Carbofuran 2 59 60 56 70 61
Carbofuran 1 57 54 58 59 58
Counter 2 60 53 57 65 56
Check 58 51 57 60 56

Average 58 54 57 64

kg /ha cm
Carbofuran 2.24 150 151 142 179 155
Carbofuran 1.12 145 136 147 150 148
Counter 2.24 152 134 146 165 149
Check 147 128 145 152 143

Average 148 137 145 162


brand 3320, Three


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.






Table 3. Corn ear number at harvest as affected by hybrid,
and insecticide.
Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a ... Ears/a
Carbofuran 2 15098 '20177 20909 10158 16586
Carbofuran 1 21344 21196 20909 9583 18258
Counter 2 14810 21196 16988 13643 16660
Check 15159 18583 20908 6970 15405

Average 16603 20288 19929 10089

kg/ha Ears/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 37292 49837 51645 25091 40966
Carbofuran 1.12 52721 52355 51645 23671 45098
Counter 2.24 36582 52355 41961 33698 41149
Check 37442 45899 51645 17215 38050

Average 41009 50112 49224 24919

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.


Table 4. Corn Plant number at harvest as affected by
hybrid, and insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Plants/a
Carbofuran 2 17276 20325 20325 12484 17603
Carbofuran 1 22791 18295 17999 11029 17529
Counter 2 19890 19741 17424 16840 18474
Check 14636 17128 20473 9435 15418

Average 18648 18872 19055 12447

kg/ha Plants/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 42671 50203 50203 30836 43478
Carbofuran 1.12 56293 45189 44458 27243 43296
Counter 2.24 49127 48761 43037 41596 41058
Check 36151 42306 50569 23305 38083

Average 46061 46615 47067 23305


brand 3320, Three


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.






Table 5. Corn grain yield as affected
insecticide.


by hybrid, and


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Bu/a
Carbofuran 2 59 85 74 38 64
Carbofuran 1 81 83 67 33 71
Counter 2 55 74 55 60 61
Check 51 76 65 25 54

Average 61 80 70 39

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 3676 5335 4635 2361 4002
Carbofuran 1.12 5078 5239 5443 2052 4453
Counter 2.24 3476 4652 3447 3780 3839
Check 3197 4775 4084 1594 3412

Average 3857 5000 4402 2447

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, Grain at 15.5% water.



Table 6. Corn residue yield as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Ton DM/a
Carbofuran 2 1.44 1.33 1.49 0.93 1.30
Carbofuran 1 1.78 1.48 1.59 1.02 1.47
Counter 2 1.44 1.06 1.64 1.35 1.37
Check 0.67 1.20 1.26 0.66 0.95

Average 1.33 1.27 1.50 0.99

kg/ha Kg DM/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 3234 2975 3346 2091 2911
Carbofuran 1.12 3983 3323 3570 2278 3288
Counter 2.24 3221 2374 3683 3021 3075
Check 1504 2685 2819 1483 2123

Average 2985 2839 3354 2218

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, DM = dry matter.






Table 7. Corn whole plant yield as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Ton DM/a
Carbofuran 2 2.60 '3.10 2.96 1.66 2.57
Carbofuran 1 3.42 3.16 3.34 1.67 2.90
Counter 2 2.52 2.59 2.74 2.58 2.61
Check 1.70 2.75 2.57 1.15 2.04

Average 2.56 2.89 2.90 1.77

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 5825 6881 6642 3725 5768
Carbofuran 1.12 7668 7090 7481 3751 6497
Counter 2.24 5650 5804 6138 5788 5845
Check 3818 6156 5772 2585 4583

Average 5748 6483 6508 3962


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320,
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, DM = dry matter.


Three


Table 8. Corn silage estimated yield as affected by hybrid,
and insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Ton/a
Carbofuran 2 7.42 8.77 8.46 4.75 7.35
Carbofuran 1 9.77 9.03 9.53 4.78 8.28
Counter 2 7.02 7.40 7.82 7.38 7.45
Check 4.87 7.85 7.36 3.29 5.84

Average 7.31 8.26 8.29 5.05

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 16642 19659 18977 10642 16480
Carbofuran 1.12 21906 20256 21373 10716 18563
Counter 2.24 16143 16583 17536 16535 16700
Check 10908 17589 16490 7385 13093

Average 16400 18522 18594 11320

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer Brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, DM = dry matter.


-e





Table 9. Corn ear height as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Inches
Carbofuran 2 27 '24 38 29 29
Carbofuran 1 26 24 39 28 29
Counter 2 26 25 40 27 29
Check 23 22 35 25 26

Average 26 24 38 27

kg/ha cm
Carbofuran 2.24 68 61 97 72 74
Carbofuran 1.12 67 60 100 72 74
Counter 2.24 66 63 101 69 75
Check 59 56 90 63 67

Average 65 60 97 69


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.


3320, Three


Table 10. Corn plant height as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Inches
Carbofuran 2 49 50 64 56 55
Carbofuran 1 50 49 66 56 55
Counter 2 48 50 66 55 55
Check 46 31 63 52 48

Average 48 45 65 54

kg/ha cm
Carbofuran 2.24 125 127 162 141 139
Carbofuran 1.12 126 124 168 141 140
Counter 2.24 123 128 166 139 139
Check 117 79 159 132 122

Average 123 114 164 138


brand


3320, Three


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.






Table 11 Corn ear number at harvest as affected by hybrid,
and insecticide.
Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a I Ears/a
Carbofuran 2 24655 .23522 22503 22791 23368
Carbofuran 1 19863 23226 22939 22791 22205
Counter 2 22939 22791 24533 22791 23263
Check 22068 21780 20613 21919 21595

Average 24881 22830 22647 22573

kg/ha Ears/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 60898 58100 55583 56293 57718
Carbofuran 1.12 49063 57369 56659 56293 54846
Counter 2.24 56659 56293 60597 56293 57460
Check 54507 53797 50913 54141 53339

Average 55281 56387 55938 55755

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.


Table 12 Corn Plant number at harvest
hybrid, and insecticide.


as affected by


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Plants/a
Carbofuran 2 25117 23522 22651 23374 23666
Carbofuran 1 20735 25265 24097 23662 23440
Counter 2 23958 22939 24097 23522 23629
Check 23374 22651 21196 22790 22503

Average 23296 23594 23011 23337

kg/ha Plants/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 62038 58100 55949 57735 58455
Carbofuran 1.12 51214 62404 59521 58445 57896
Counter 2.24 59176 56659 59521 58100 58364
Check 57735 59949 52355 56293 56583

Average 57541 59278 56836 57643


brand 3320, Three


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777.





Table 13 Corn grain yield as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.
Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a .----- Bu/a
Carbofuran 2 61 74 64 68 67
Carbofuran 1 45 63 62 63 58
Counter 2 57 73 70 64 66
Check 45 58 51 54 52

Average 52 67 62 62

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 3828 4662 4010 4277 4194
Carbofuran 1.12 2841 3925 3897 3939 3651
Counter 2.24 3577 4552 4401 4038 4142
Check 2840 3663 3232 3409 3286

Average 3272 4200 3885 3916


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, Grain


brand 3320, Three
at 15.5% water.


Table 14 Corn residue yield as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Ton DM/a
Carbofuran 2 1.53 1.54 1.34 1.17 1.39
Carbofuran 1 1.34 1.39 1.35 1.21 1.32
Counter 2 1.40 1.45 1.45 1.19 1.37
Check 1.09 1.26 1.07 0.99 1.10

Average 1.34 1.41 1.30 1.14

kg/ha Kg DM/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 3420 3456 2994 2634 3126
Carbofuran 1.12 3007 3108 3019 2708 2960
Counter 2.24 3134 3253 3243 2674 3076
Check 2449 2817 2392 2217 2469

Average 3002 3158 2912 2558

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, DM = dry matter.






Table 15 Corn whole plant yield as affected by hybrid, and
insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Ton DM/a
Carbofuran 2 2.49 '2.86 2.43 2.49 2.57
Carbofuran 1 2.08 2.49 2.47 2.40 2.36
Counter 2 2.34 2.75 2.64 2.42 2.54
Check 1.80 2.29 1.97 1.99 2.01

Average 2.18 2.60 2.38 2.33

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 5585 6422 5452 5572 5758
Carbofuran 1.12 4657 5578 5540 5388 5291
Counter 2.24 5242 6168 5917 5433 5690
Check 4034 5134 4417 4471 4514

Average 4879 5826 5332 5216

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, DM = dry matter.


Table 16.
hybrid, and


Corn silage estimated yield
insecticide.


as affected by


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Three Four Average

lb/a Ton/a
Carbofuran 2 7.12 8.18 6.95 7.10 7.34
Carbofuran 1 5.93 7.11 7.06 6.87 6.74
Counter 2 6.68 7.86 7.54 6.92 7.25
Check 5.14 6.54 5.63 5.70 5.75

Average 6.22 7.42 6.79 6.65

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 15955 18349 15576 15918 16450
Carbofuran 1.12 13305 15937 15829 15395 15116
Counter 2.24 14977 17622 16905 15523 16257
Check 11526 14670 12621 12773 12897

Average 13941 16645 15233 14902

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer Brand 3320, Three
= Asgrow A670, Four = Asgrow RX777, DM = dry matter.






Table 17. Corn ear height as affected by hybrid and
insecticide.
Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Inches
Carbofuran 2 28 47 37
Carbofuran 1 36 44 40
Counter 2 23 42 33
Check 21 39

Average 27 43

kg/ha cm
Carbofuran 2.24 70 118 94
Carbofuran 1.12 92 113 102
Counter 2.24 59 107 83
Check 52 98 75

Average 68 109


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand


TX881.


Table 18. Corn plant height as affected
insecticide.


by hybrid and -


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Inches
Cqrbofuran 2 67 78 73
Carbofuran 1 70 70 70
Counter 2 55 67 61
Check 51 59 55

Average 61 68

kg/ha cm
Carbofuran 2.24 171 197 184
Carbofuran 1.12 178 180 179
Counter 2.24 140 169 155
Check 130 150 140

Average 155 174

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand TX881.







Table 19. Corn ear number at harvest as affected
and insecticide.


by hybrid


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a .Ears/a
Carbofuran 2 12284 10803 11573
Carbofuran 1 13329" 12632 12981
Counter 2 12110 11239 11674
Check 12545 10280 11413

Average 12567 11239

kg/ha Ears/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 30341 26683 28512
Carbofuran 1.12 32924 31202 32063
Counter 2.24 29911 27759 28835
Check 30987 25392 28189

Average 31041 27759

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand TX881.


Table 20. Corn Plant number at harvest as affected by
hybrid and insecticide.
Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Plants/a
Carbofuran 2 14898 14288 14593
Carbofuran 1 16727 13852 15290
Counter 2 15420 13417 14418
Check 17598 13504 15551

Average 16161 13765

kg/ha Plants/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 36797 35291 36044
Carbofuran 1.12 41316 34215 37765
Counter 2.24 38088 33139 35613
Check 43468 33354 38411

Average 39917 33999

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand TX881.







Table 21. Corn grain yield as affected by
insecticide.


hybrid, and


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Bu/a
Carbofuran 2 14 19 17
Carbofuran 1 13 26 19
Counter 2 15 17 16
Check 12 16 14

Average 13 20

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 852 1222 1037
Carbofuran 1.12 792 1638 1215
Counter 2.24 930 1092 1011
Check 741 1012 817

Average 829 1241


One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand
at 15.5% water.



Table 22. Corn residue yield as affected by
insecticide.


TX881, Grain




hybrid, and


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Ton DM/a
Carbofuran 2 0.58 0.83 0.71
Carbofuran 1 0.59 0.85 0.72
Counter 2 0.59 0.68 0.64
Check 0.64 0.78 0.71

Average 0.60 0.79

kg/ha Kg DM/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 1304 1857 1580
Carbofuran 1.12 1327 1913 1620
Counter 2.24 1333 1521 1427
Check 1442 1752 1597

Average 1352 1761

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand TX881, DM =
dry matter.






Table 23. Corn whole plant yield as affected by
insecticide.


hybrid, and


Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Ton DM/a
Carbofuran 2 0.80 1.20 1.00
Carbofuran 1 0.81 1.34 1.07
Counter 2 0.86 0.95 0.91
Check 0.81 1.06 0.93

Average 0.82 1.13

kg/ha Kg/ha -
Carbofuran 2.24 1805 2657 2231
Carbofuran 1.12 1813 3000 2406
Counter 2.24 1923 2139 2031
Check 1821 2366 2093

Average 1840 2540

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer brand TX881, DM =
dry matter.


Table 24. Corn silage estimated yield as affected by
hybrid, and insecticide.

Hybrid

Insecticide Rate One Two Average

lb/a Ton/a -
Carbofuran 2 2.30 3.39 2.84
Carbofuran 1 2.31 3.82 3.07
Counter 2 2.45 2.73 2.59
Check 2.32 3.01 2.66

Average 2.35 3.24

kg/ha Kg/ha
Carbofuran 2.24 5156 7590 6373
Carbofuran 1.12 5180 8571 6875
Counter 2.24 5493 6113 5803
Check 5203 6759 5981

Average 5258 7258

One = Pioneer brand X304C, Two = Pioneer Brand TX881, DM =
35 %.




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