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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 86-06
Title: Early planted no-tillage temperate and tropical corn yield results from 1985 planting at Green Acres Agronomy Farm, Gainesville, FL
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056079/00001
 Material Information
Title: Early planted no-tillage temperate and tropical corn yield results from 1985 planting at Green Acres Agronomy Farm, Gainesville, FL
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N.
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: University of Florida, Agronomy Dept.
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1986?
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
No-tillage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Raymond N. Gallaher.
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 86-06
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056079
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62458817

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







J^ -O (

Agronomy Research Report AY-86-06


Early Planted No-Tillage Temperate and Tropical Corn Yield Results From 1985

Planting at Green Acres, Agronomy Farm, Gainesville, FL.


BY


Raymond N. Gallaher, Professor of Agronomy, Institute of _Food_and_Agricultural

Sciences, University of Florida, Agronomy Research Lab. 6~1^iallace Building,
library
Gainesville, FL 32611.
FEB 28 199(

INTRODUCTION


Few experiments are conducted that evaluates agronomic crop cultivars under

no-tillage management. Since it is historically known through scientific

discovery that growth of any living organism is influenced by the parental

genetics, the environment in which it is grown in and the interaction between
genetics and environment we cannot assume that corn cultivars will respond the

same way in no-tillage management as in conventional tillage management.
Microorganism populations and distribution, soil nutrients, organic matter, water,
soil temperature, weed competition, etc. are have been found to differ in content

and/or distribution in no-tillage compared to conventional tillage. These factors

in no-tillage soils then create different environmental conditions compared to

conventional tillage and thus tillage method may result in significant differences
in yield response of corn cultivars.

No-tillage farming is increasing throughout the USA due to conservation

benefits and as farmers become better skilled in this management practice. The










new Federal Farm Bill provides monetary incentives for farmers to participate in

no-tillage management for soil conservation benefits. Economic efficiency

benefits the skilled no-tillage farmers over the conventional tillage farmers.

This search for economic survival 's another factor in farmers trying no-tillage

in their farming operation. Because of these and other reasons we need to test

corn in no-tillage environments in order for farmers who practice no-tillage to

make proper selections of cultivars for their farming operations.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


A no-tillage corn cultivar experiment was planted on 4 March, 1985 at the

Green Acres Agronomy Farm near Gainesville, Florida. Rows were laid off using a
"Brown Harden Row Till" planter, often refereed to as in-row subsoil no-tillage

planting, directly into a winter crop of Blue lupine. In this operation 2.24 kg

ai/ha of 15 G Carbofuran (Furadan) was applied over the row in front of the press

wheel, 100 kg N/ha as anhydrous ammonia was injected 30 cm under the row, and a

tank mix of 0.28 kg ai paraquat/ha and 2.24 kg ai Alachlor (lasso) was broadcast

over the plots. A broadcast application of 336 kg 6-11-34-6-3-5/ha

(N-P205-K20-Mg-S-Frit trace elements) (Frit trace elements, "FTE 503", contained

Cu, Fe, B, Zn, and Mn) was applied at planting. Additional N (65 kg N/ha as

ammonium Nitrate) was sidedressed. Paraquat at the labelled rate was used to post
direct corn for additional weed control. A nonionic surfactant was included each
time paraquat was used.

Thirteen temperate and six tropical corn cultivars were in a randomized
complete block experimental design with four replications. Plots were four rows

75 cm wide and 0.6 meters long. Corn seed were hand counted and hand planted 15

cm apart within the row.










The two center rows were hand harvested on July 20, 1985. Data collected at

harvest included ear height, plant height, ear population, plant population, grain

yield at 15.5 % moisture, dry matter residue yield, and whole plant dry matter

yield. Routine analysis of variance was performed for a randomized complete block

design followed by the use of Duncans New Multiple Range test among cultivar means

using programs written for a TRS-80 Model III Tandy Corporation microcomputer.


RESULTS


Data for ear height, plant height, ear number and plant number at harvest are

given in Tables 1 and 2. As was expected the tropical cultivars tended to be

taller than temperate cultivars. Few differences existed among the cultivars in

ear and plant numbers at harvest. In all cases there were more plants at harvest

than there were ears. This indicates that the population may have been slightly

too high for the management inputs. Two factors may have contributed to this, one

was the lack of efficient timing of irrigation is a few instances and the second

was extreme temperatures occurring during silking and tasseling which may have

affected pollenation.

Grain yields were disappointingly low with the top yield being 8910 kg

grain/ha (142 bu/a) (Tables 3 and 4). No differences in grain yield were found

among the Pioneer and Asgrow temperate hybrids except for the lower yield of

Pioneer 3358. Florida open pollenated early cultivar was equal in grain and whole

plant yield to many of the temperate hybrids and was ranked slightly higher than

the Pioneer X304C tropical hybrid that has dominated yields in the past in the

tropical hybrid comparisons. No differences were found in residue yields among

any of the 19 cultivars indicating that grain was the determining factor in yield

differences.












ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


The author gratefully acknowledges the technical assistance of Mr. Scott

Taylor, Agricultural Technician III.






Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing

specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of products named and

does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.











TABLE 1. Height and population variables of 1985 no-tillage
temperate and tropical corn.

Height at Harvest Number at Harvest

Cultivar Brand Ear Plant Ears Plants

Sin. Number/a -
Temperate
DeKalb DK 789 47 cd 78 bcd 25265 a 30492 ab
DeKalb DK 747 48 bcd 86 abc 28750 a 33106 a
Pioneer 3389 40 def 73 de 25265 a 33106 a
Pioneer 3320 41 def 72 e 20909 a 27878 abcd
O's Gold 2570 45 cde 79 bcde 24394 a 27878 abcd
DeKalb XL 71 31 f 73 de 20038 a 22651 cd
O's Gold 5503 40 def 78 bcde 22651 a 29621 abcd
Asgrow RX 114 43 de 79 bcde 21780 a 27878 abcd
Asgrow RX 909 34 de 73 de 27007 a 30492 ab
Asgrow RX 892 46 cd 80 bcde 22651 a 25265 bcd
Asgrow RX 777 37 ef 76 cde 21780 a 27878 abcd
O's Gold 2545 43 de 76 cde 24394 a 27007 abcd
Pioneer 3358 45 cde 74 de 22651 a 27878 abcd
Tropical
Florida OP Early 60 a 93 a 21780 a 27878 abcd
Pioneer PX304C 48 bcd 81 bcde 17424 a 23522 bcd
Pioneer PFF2XOM06 53 abc 85 abc 25265 a 27878 abcd
Florida OP Late 56 ab 88 ab 16553 a 20909 d
Pioneer PTX 881 53 abc 83 cde 19116 a 27878 abcd
Pioneer PFF2XOM03 45 cde 82 bcde 20909 a 26136 abcd


Values in columns not followed by the same
significantly different at the 0.05 level of
according to Duncans new multiple range test.


letter are
probability











Table 2. Height and population variables of 1985 no-tillage
temperate and tropical corn.

Height at Harvest Number at Harvest

Cultivar Brand Ear Plant Ears Plants

cm -- Number/ha ---
Temperate
DeKalb DK 789 119 cd 198 bcd 62404 a 75315 ab
DeKalb DK 747 122 bcd 218 abc 71012 a 81772 a
Pioneer 3389 102 def 185 de 62404 a 81772 a
Pioneer 3320 104 def 183 e 51645 a 68859 abcd
O's Gold 2570 114 cde 201 bcde 60253 a 68859 abcd
DeKalb XL 71 79 f 185 de 49493 a 55948 cd
O's Gold 5503 102 def 198 bcde 55947 a 73164 abcd
Asgrow RX 114 109 de 201 bcde 53797 a 68859 abcd
Asgrow RX 909 86 de 185 de 66707 a 75315 ab
Asgrow RX 892 117 cd 203 bcde 55948 a 62405 bcd
Asgrow RX 777 94 ef 193 cde 53797 a 68859 abcd
O's Gold 2545 109 de 193 cde 60253 a 66707 abcd
Pioneer 3358 114 cde 188 de 55948 a 68859 abcd
Tropical
Florida OP Early 152 a 236 a 53797 a 68859 abcd
Pioneer PX304C 122 bcd 206 bcde 43037 a 58099 bcd
Pioneer PFF2XOM06 135 abc 216 abc :r62404 a 68859 abcd
Florida OP Late 142 ab 224 ab 40886 a 51645 d
Pioneer PTX 881 135 abc 211 cde 47217 a 68859 abcd
Pioneer PFF2XOM03 114 cde 208 bcde 51645 a 64556 abcd


letter are
probability


Values in columns not followed by the same
significantly different at the 0.05 level of
according to Duncans new multiple range test.











Table 3. Grain, residue, and whole plant yield and grain to
residue ratio of no-tillage temperate and tropical corn
cultivars in 1985 at the Green Acres Agronomy Farm,
Gainesville, FL.

SYield Grain/Residue

Cultivar Brand Grain Residue Total Ratio

Bu/a -Ton/a -
Temperate
DeKalb DK 789 142 a 3.33 a 6.52 ab 0.96 a
DeKalb DK 747 140 a 3.59 a 6.92 a 0.94 ab
Pioneer 3389 122 ab 3.18 a 6.07 abc 0.92 ab
Pioneer 3320 115 abc 2.93 a 5.66 abode 0.96 a
O's Gold 2570 112 abc 3.07 a 5.73 abcd 0.88 abc
DeKalb XL 71 107 abcd 2.69 a 5.23 abode 0.94 ab
O's Gold 5503 104 abode 2.88 a 5.35 abcde 0.83 abcd
Asgrow RX 114 97 bcdef 2.89 a 8.21 abcde 0.79 abcde
Asgrow RX 909 95 bcdef 3.65 a 5.94 abc 0.64 defg
Asgrow RX 892 92 bcdef 2.84 a 5.02 bcde 0.77 abcde
Asgrow RX 777 87 bcdef 2.60 a 4.67 cde 0.80 abcde
O's Gold 2545 83 cdef 2.74 a 4.71 cde 0.73 bcdef
Pioneer 3358 70 def 2.3.7 a 4.02 de 0.70 cdefg
Tropical
Florida OP Early 90 bcdef 3.18 a 5.33 abcde 0.67 cdefg
Pioneer PX304C 80 cdef 3.15 a 5.04 bcde 0.59 efg
Pioneer PFF2XOM06 73 def 2.83 a 4.57 cde 0.62 defg
Florida OP Late 66 ef 2.37 a 3.96 de 0.66 defg
Pioneer PTX 881 66 ef 3.19 a 4.75 cde 0.50 g
Pioneer PFF2XOM03 64 f 2.85 a 4.37 cde 0.54 fg

Values in columns not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans new multiple range test. Grain yield
based on 15.5% water, residue and whole plant yield based
on dry matter.












Table 4. Grain, residue, and whole plant yield and grain to
residue ratio of no-tillage temperate and tropical corn
cultivars in 1985 at the Green Acres Agronomy Farm,
Gainesville, FL.

Yield
Percent
Cultivar Brand Grain Residue Total Shelling

kg/ha -- % --
Temperate
DeKalb DK 789 8910 a 7490 a 14650 ab 82 ab
Dekalb DK 747 8820 a 8060 a 15540 a 83 a
Pioneer 3389 7660 ab 7140 a 13630 abc 81 abc
Pioneer 3320 7230 abc 6590 a 12720 abcde 82 ab
O's Gold 2570 7070 abc 6890 a 12880 abcd 83 a
DeKalb XL 71 6750 abcd 6040 a 11760 abcde 82 ab
O's Gold 5503 6545 abcde 6470 a 12020 abcde 83 a
Asgrow RX 114 6130 bcdef 6500 a 11700 abode 82 ab
Asgrow RX 909 6000 bcdef 8200 a 13340 abc 80 abc
Asgrow RX 892 5780 bcdef 6380 a 11270 bcde 83 a
Asgrow RX 777 5480 bcdef 5850 a 10490 cde 79 abcd
O's Gold 2545 5220 cdef 6160 a 10590 cde 83 a
Pioneer 3358 4403 def 5320 a 9030 de 78 bcd
Tropical
Florida OP Early 5680 bcdef 7150 a 11970 abcde 81 abc
Pioneer PX304C 5010 cdef 7070 a 11320 bcde 79 abcd
Pioneer PFF2XOM06 4610 def 6350 a 10260 cde 77 cd
Florida OP Late 4180 ef 5320 a 8890 de 81 abc
Pioneer PTX 881 4130 ef 7170 a 10680 cde 81 abc
Pioneer PFF2XOM03 4020 f 6400 a 9810 cde 75 d

Values in columns not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability
according to Duncans new multiple range test. Grain yield
based on 15.5% water, residue and whole plant yield based
on dry matter.


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