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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultral Sciences ; AY 83-04
Title: No-tillage corn yield summary comparing six high yield hybrids in eight experiments conducted in three Florida counties in 1982
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056076/00001
 Material Information
Title: No-tillage corn yield summary comparing six high yield hybrids in eight experiments conducted in three Florida counties in 1982
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983?]
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Yields -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Raymond N. Gallaher.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Chiefly tables.
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultral Sciences ; AY 83-04
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Bibliographic ID: UF00056076
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62475802

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








Agronomy Research Report AY83-04




\-jct





No-Tillage Corn Yield Surmary Canparing Six High Yield Hybrids in Eight
Experiments Conducted in Three Florida Counties in 1982.

By

Raymond N. Gallaher
Associate Professor of Agronomy
Agronomy Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Science
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



Introduction

Yield of corn or any other crop is controlled by genetics, the
environment, and interactions of the two. There has never been a simple answer
to what magical combination of the variable genetics and environmental factors
required to break yield records and/or produce yields for sufficient profits
needed to make a living atfarming. Of course if we already knew the magical
combination then there would be no need for research.
Corn producers of today must be knowledgeable of the huge variation in
yield due to genetics. Yield can often vary by over 100% among corn hybrids
either due to genetics or more likely from some genetic and environmental
interaction. For example, the highest yielding hybrid among a group of hybrids
in one environment (Irrigation, fertility, or other variable) may be the lowest
in yield in another environment. For this reason testing of genetics (hybrids)
should be and often is carried out over several locations 'before
recommendations can be made to cover a wide area. Not only must tests be
conducted over a wide geographic area but tests should be repeated over several
years to prove the stability of genetics. Therefore, it is unwise to proclaim
a hybrid unfit or superior for general farm use based on unreplicated single
location data.
Traditional conventional ti.llage farming and no-tillage farming are, in
effect, two different environments utilized to grow crops. Also from place to
place, the no-tillage environment can be drastically different, for better or
worse, to grow crops such as corn. Corn hybrids may not respond -the same way in
no-tillage management as they may have done in conventional. Seedling vigor
and/or final crop stand may be different and soil moisture, organic matter,
erosion problems, wind damage, fertility response, and soil rooting habits and
etc. ray all differ among hybrids (different gentics) due to different tillage
management.







No-tillage has been and continues to be proven a potentially easier and
possibly more profitable way to farm. Because of this, much evaluation of
hybrids is necessary to determine the best combination 'of genotyoes for the
no-tillage environment. The objective of this research was to continue working
with commercial corn companies and farmers in the evaluation of environmental
needs of high yielding hybrids for no-tillage and multicropping management.

Materials and Methods

Six corn hybrids (Table 1), one from six different companies, were
evaluated for yield in three Florida counties involving eight experiments in
1982. Three experiments were conducted in Levy County, three in Gilchrist
County, and two in Alachua County. Experimental designs are given under each
table of data (Tables 1-12).
All experiments were planted with a two-row subsoil no-tillage planter
from the 20th of February to the 15th of March. A complete fertilizer mixture
was broadcast as needed based on soil test and expected yield desired prior to
planting. Extra nitrogen was applied in a liquid with Paraquat as a post
directed application for weed control as well as supplemental feeding as needed
by the crop. Due to heavy rainfall on young corn, supplemental sulfur and at
some locations, additional magnesium and potassium were added over the top of
corn to correct losses and subsequent deficiency. Twenty pounds of no. 10 G
Furadan granular product was applied per acre on all corn except one location
in Alachua County.
One experiment in Gilchrist County compared a foliar spray of one-half
gallon per. acre of "Bayfolin Plus", a mixture of plant nutrients, with plots
unsprayed. This treatment was imposed at early tassel emergence.
Forage yield estimates for Gilchrist County were made in late June. Grain
yield estimates were measured between the 10th to 20th of July among the eight
studies. Shelling percent (Percent of ear that is grain) of ears was
determined on a dry matter basis. Ears were selected at random, shelled, and
both the grain and cob were dried at 100 degrees centigrade for 48 hours,
weighed and. percent grain determined. All grain yield measurements are
reported in bushels per acre at 15.5% moisture except for dry matter grain in
table 4.
No-tillage corn, in Levy County, was planted into the previous corn and
soybean' residue that had accumulated from the past five years of
no-tillage/multiple cropping seasons. Supplemental water was applied as needed
by use of a traveling gun. A split application of Paraquat and 2,4-D was the
only herbicide used at planting.
In Gilchrist County no-tillage corn was planted into wheat and rye stubble
that remained following harvest for haylage. Paraquat was sprayed for weed
control at planting. Water was supplied with a center pivot irrigation system.
In Alachua County corn was no-tilled into the previous years soybean
residue. Paraquat was used as recommended for weed control at planting. No
irrigation water was applied to corn in Alachua County.
Results

Yield and supplemental data are given for the six hybrids in Tables I
through 12. All six hybrids, in these tests, have produced yields of 200 Bu/A
or more on several occasions, not only in these 1982 tests in Levy County but
in past years as well. The reader is encouraged to study these tables and note
that all hybrids yielded best in the Levy County environments, followed by the







environments provided in Gilchrist County, and as'expected gave lowest yields
in the Alachua County environments. In some studies there
were no differences among hybrids in yield while-in others large differences
were found. Sane genotypes responded to foliar applied 'tBayfolin Plus" while
others did not (Table 6). The response to "Bayfolin Plus" indicate that
further testing might be beneficial under forage production conditions
prevalent in Gilchrist County. The "Bayfolin Plus" treatment in Levy County,
which had a much different environment than Gilchrist County, was tested on
Funks G4507A only, and did not affect grain yield. Treated corn yield was
192.9 Bu/A while the non treated corn yield was 193.9 Bu/A in Levy County.
This same hybrid did not respond to "Bayfolin Plus" in Gilchrist County (Table
6).
It can be noted that hybrids differed significantly in the grain
composition of the plant (Table 4). The residue/grain ratio may reflect on the
efficiency among hybrids to partition photosynthate into the grain instead of
into other plant parts.
Acknowledgemen ts

The technical and clerical assistance of Mr. Sonny R.Tompkins, Mr. Timothy 3.
Sumners, Mr. Bruce A. Fritz, and Mrs. Wanda E. Gallaher is very much
appreciated. The cooperation of Mr. William L. Brown, Mr. William D. Parrish,
Mr. Marvin Weaver, Mr. Danny Stevens, Mr. Don Bennink owner of North Florida
Holsteins Farm, Mr. John A. Baldwin, Mr. Raymond Robinson, and Mr. Andy
Robinson is also very much appreciated. Major support other than from IFAS and
those mentioned above include Chevron Chemical Co., Brown Manufacturing Co.,
Cole Manufacturing Co., KelleyManufacturing Co., 3. C. Harden and Sons, FC
Corporation, and the corn companies whose hybrids are shown in this report.










Table I. Corn grain yield from no-tillage testing of
hybrids in Levy County,Florids in 1982.
---------- ------------------------------------------
1 Acre Test Small Plot Test
-----------------------------------
Hybrid Combine Hand Hand Average
----------------------------------------------------
-----------------Bu/A----------------- -
Asgrow 777 191.1 b 195.4a 211.7a 199.4
CK 748 176.4 d 191.9a 173.7 b 180.7
Funks G4507A 187.5 be 209.2a 158.0 b 184.9
DeKalb XL71 199.5a 189.1a 204.6a 197.7
Pioneer 3320 164.6 e 214.5a 202.4a 193.8
Coker 19 181.1 cd 189.8a 211.8a 194.2

Average 183.4 198.3 193.7
------ ------------------------------------------- -
Randomized complete block design with three or four
replications. Values among hybrids in columns not followed
by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans new multiple
range test. Averages are given for information only.


Table 2. Shelling percent, population and number of ears,
for no-tillage corn hybrids in Levy County, Florida in
1982.

1 Acre Test Small Plot Test

Hybrid % Shelling Plants Ears Plants Ears
---------------------------------------------------
---------------Number/A---------------------
Asgrow 777 85.2 be 29621 bc 29621 bc 31799a 31654a
CK 748 81.1 d 27443 c 27007 c 25700 c 25265 c
Funks G4507A 84.2 bc 36155ab 35719ab 29911ab 28169ab
DeKalb XL71 82.6 cd 41818a 39204a 27878 bc 27007 bc
Pioneer 3320 88.6a 27443 c 27878 c 25410 c 25410 c
Coker 19 85.7ab 27443 c 27007 c 29476ab 29040ab

Average 84.6 31654 31073 28362 27758
---------------------------------------------------
Randomized complete block design with three or four
replications. Values-among hybrids in colums not followed
by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans new multiple
range test. Averages are given for information only.









Table 3. Corn grain yield in highest yielding plot from
three no-tillage studies in Levy County, Florida in 1982.
----------------------------------------------------
Hybrid Experiment
----------------------------------------------
One Thw Three Average
----------------------------------------------------
------------ Bu/A-------------------
Asgrow 777 238.3 230.0 197.8 222.Oa
GK 748 209.9 188.1 180.2 192.7a
Funks G4507A 217.7 166.5 191.4 191.9a
DeKalb XL71 215.4 222.0 202.4 213.3a
Pioneer 3320 233.0 204.7 179.2 205.6a
Coker 19 212.6 231.4 187.5 210.5a

Average 221.2 207.1 189.8
----------------------------------------------------
Comparison among hybrids were tested as though experiments
represented replications in a randomized complete block
design. No. significant differences were found among
hybrids.


Table 4. Corn forage yield and yield variables among six
hybrids grown no-tillage in Gilchrist County, Florida in
1982.

Dry Matter

Hybrid Shelling Plants Forage Grain Residue/Grain

-%- -No/A- ---------Ton/A------------
Asgrow 777 76.7ab 41818a 8.18a 3.75a 1.18a
CK 748 77.0ab 31799 c 7.34a 3.19ab 1.30ab
Funks G4507A 75.8ab. 33541 b 7.78a 3.12ab 1.49 bc
DeKalb XL7I 75.0 b 32234 bc 7.60a 3.07ab 1.48 bc
Pioneer 3320 80.2a 29185 d 6.77a 2.99 b 1.26ab
Coker 19 74.2 b 31799 c 7.01a 2.61 b 1.68 c

Average 76.5 33396 7.45 3.12 1.40

Randomized complete block design with three or four
replications. Values among hybrids in columns not followed
by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans new multiple
range test. Averages are given for information only.










Table 5. Corn grain yield of six hybrids grown no-tillage
in Gilchrist County, Florida in 1982.

Hybrid Test I Test 2 Average

----------------Bu/A-------------------
Asgrow 777 158.3a 153.9a 156.1
CK 748 134.8ab 127.5 c 131.2
Funks G4507A 131.9ab 128.4 c 130.2
DeKalb XL71 129.8ab 132.7 bc 131.3
Pioneer 3320 126.2 b 140.7 b 133.5
Coker 19 110.3 b 133.6 bc 122.0

Average 131.9 136.1 134.1

Randomized complete block design with three .or four
replications. Values among hybrids in columns not followed
by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans new multiple
range test. Averages are given for information only.

Table 6. Corn grain yield from foliar fertilizer treatment
in Gilchrist.County, Florida in 1982.

Foliar Spray

Hybrid Treated Untreated Average

-------------------Bu/A-----------------
Asgrow 777 154.4ab 143.8a NS 149.1
G< 748 142.9 bcd 123.8 b 133.4
Funks G4507A 130.2 d 128.5ab NS 129.4
DeKalb XL71 147.6abc 124.8 b 136.2
Pioneer 3320 162.7a 140.2ab 151.5
Coker 19 137.2 cd 129.8ab NS 133.5

Average 145.8 131.8

Split plot experimental design with hybrids as whole plots
in a randomized complete block design with three
replications. Values among 'hybrids within colurms not
followed by the same letter are significantly different at
the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans new
multiple range test. Values within hybrids between foliar
spray treatment followed by NS are non significant and
those with a are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability. Averages are given for further
information' only since there was an interaction among
treatments.








Table 7. Corn grain shelling percent from foliar fertilizer
treatment in Gilchrist County, Florida in 1982.
-- - --- --- W--- W- ----W W- --- -- -
Foliar Spray

Hybrid Treated Untreated Average


Asgrow 777
CK 748
Funks G4507A
DeKalb XL71
Pioneer 3320
Coker 19


-----------------%-----------------------
83.8a 81.3 b NS 82.6
85.1a 82.4ab NS 83.8
75.1 b 85.8a 80.5
84.3a 81.0 b NS 82.7
83.8a 83.4ab NS 83.6
85.1a 84.3ab NS 84.7


Average 82.9 83.0

Split plot experimental design with hybrids as whole plots
in a randomized complete block design .with three
replications. Values among hybrids within. columns not
followed by the same 'letter are significantly different at
the 0.05 level of probability according to Duncans new
multiple range test. Values within hybrids between foliar
spray treatment followed by NS are non significant and
those with a are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability. Averages are given for further
information only since there was an interaction among
treatments.

Table 8. Corn grain yield in highest yielding plot from
three no-tillage experiments in Gilchrist County, Florida
in 1982.
-----------------------------------------------------------
Hybrid Experiment
e T---------------o Three Average
One Two three Average
--------------------------------------------


Asgrow 777
CK 748
Funks G4507A
DeKalb XL71
Pioneer 3320
Coker 19


----------- u/A-----------
164.4 182.5 166.6 171.2a
148.9 154.6 142.9 148.8ab
156.5 147.0 130.2 144.6 b
162.2 143.7 147.6 151.2ab
171.8 125.9 162.7 153.5ab
150.6 142.2 138.2 143.7 b


Average 159.1 149.3 148.0
----------------------------------------------------
Comparison among hybrids were tested as though experiments
represented replications in a randomized complete block
design. Values among hybrids not followed by the same
letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of
probability according to Duncans new multiple range test.










Table 9. Large plot yield of corn grown in Alachua County,
Florida in 1982.
----------------------------------------------------
Hybrid Shelling Population Yield
------- --------------------------------------------
--%---- --Number/A-- --Bu/A--
Asgrow 777 83.58 b 23,522a 114.5 b
CK 748 82.90 b 20,473 be 131.9 b
Funks G4507A 83.69 b 21,563abc 108.5 b
DeKalb XL71 87.00a 23,813a 172.1a
Pioneer 3320 87.30a 22,506ab 119.9 b
Coker 19 82.91 b 19,602 c 112.2 b

Average 84.56 21,913 126.5
----------------------------------------------------
Randomized complete block design with three or four
replications. Values among hybrids in columns not followed
by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans new multiple
range test. Averages are given for information only.


Table 10. Small plot yield of corn grown in Alachua
County, Florida in 1982.
----------------------------------------------------
Hybrid Shelling Population Yield
----------------------------------------------------
----%---- --Plants/A-- ---Bu/A---
Asgrow 777 82.91a 24,103 b 115.7ab
CK 748 81.49a 20,425 c 99.4 b
Funks G4507A 84.92a 25,071ab .103.9 b
DeKalb XL71 78.87a 26,233a' 123.1ab
Pioneer 3320 82.65a 17,714 d 134.8a
Coker 19 84.05a 20,615 c 104.0 b

Average 82.48 22,360 113.5
---------------------------------------------------
Randomized complete block design with three or four
replications. Values among hybrids in columns not followed
by. the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05
level of probability according to Duncans new multiple
range test. Averages are given for information only.










Table 11. Corn grain yield in highest yielding plFt from
two no-tillage experiments in Alachua County, Florida in
1982.
------------------------- ----------------------------
Hybrid Experiment
-------------------------------------------
One Two Average
-----------------------------------------------------
---------- Bu/A --------
Asgrow 777 115.8 137.6 126.7a
CK 748 143.3 123.3 133.3a
Funks G4507A 116.2 119.6 117.9a
DeKalb XL71 180.7 138.9 159.8a
Pioneer 3320 148.8 138.8 143.8a
Coker 19 150.2 159.0 154.6a

Average 142.5 136.2
-----------------------------------------------------
Canparison among hybrids were tested as though experiments
represented replications in a randomized complete block
design. No significant differences were found among hybrids





Table 12. Corn grain yield from three Florida Counties
averaging the highest measured single plot yields from all
experiments in that County in 1982.
------------------------------------------------------
Hybrid County
Levy Gilchrist Alachua Average
---------------------------------------------------


Asgrow 777
GK 748
Funks G4507A
DeKalb XL71
Pioneer 3320
Coker 19


--------- :------------
222.0a 171.2a
192.7a 148.8ab
191.9a 144.6 b
213.3a 151.2ab
205.6a 153.5ab
210.5a 143.7 b


Bu/A----------------
126.7a 173.3ab
133.3a 158.3ab
117.9a 151.5 b
159.8a 174.8ab
143.8a 167.6ab
154.6a 169.6ab


Average 206.0 152.2 139.4
----------------------------------------------------
Comparison among hybrids were treated as though experiments
represented replications within a county, and as though
county averages were replications for the overall average
analysis in assumed randomized complete block analysis.
Values among hybrids in columns not followed by the same
letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of
probability according to Duncans new multiple range test.




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