The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
4 .. ... .. ; .. .
"lt fI UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA "
F F INSTITUTE O" FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
^:^ BB.gB / w ;. .^^;;:..: '''. : .. ". '',
~G* .. .. AINESVIL-. E. FL.ORIDA 32611
AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT -r. .
..' 304 NEWELL HALL .' -, -.. ,. f
., : Agronomy Research Report AY 85-6 December, 1984
..;.., E.stabl t shshment ofRhoma Peanuts for Forage
S.. ... .Gordon- t. Prine .
This publication has the purpose of providing information on the -. '.
. ', .. ; .,."' -' .*
establishment of Florigraze rhizoma peanut during the first year of .',.
"growth and listing those persons who have received Florigraze rhizomes I
From Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc.; and IFAS Agronomy -'
.. Department. 'The potential and culture of FTorigraze rhizoma peanut is
described in Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Circular S-275,
"''Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume". This circular
c. an be obtained from any Florida County Extension Office or by
Contacting this author. A second rhizoma peanut named "Arbrook" will be
S. distributed to commercial rhizoma- producers starting winter of 1984-85.
S" "- --Conti-nued next page...
S ; "' Steps for Establishment ot Florigraze .-- ....
,. Locate a commercial rhizome grower and get your name on list
HUME LIBRARY to receive rhizomes in January or February.
.J 2. Select well-drained soil area tree of perennial grasses. Lime
J 1 2,1-355. soil with dolomite limestone if pH is below 5.7. Work soil
into seed bed before January 1, preferably with moldboard'
o1 Ford plow. Sod or crop land plowed in August and fallowed by, r;
._ Univ. lo harrowing in fall makes an excellent seed bed for perennial' '
peanut in winter.
3. Have your dealer special order inoculant two months before you .. -.:
need it, as dealers do not usually carry peanut inoculant in
4. Incorporate trifluralin (T ..ilan) 'r benefit (Balan) herbicide
into soil at least 2 weeks before planting peanut. Also apply ; -..,.
vernolate (Vernam), if nutsedge is present. Nutsedge is :. -
present more times than not, so usually a tank mix ot .. ; ,.'
trifluralin or benetin with vernolate is best. Fertilize with '"
300 pounds/acre (336 Kg/hal of 0-10-20 or similar analysis
fertilizer without nitrogen and work into soil with herbicide. .
Continued on page 3...
... Professor, University of Florida, IFAS, Agronomy Department, ''.,,:
,g? 'Gainesville, Florida 32611, Phone (904) 392-1811. -
COLt.LEGE OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENrT STATION C '3CEq AT.VE EXTENSIOC4 SER'Vi.E cE,. ;
SCHOOL_ OF FOREST RESOURCES ANo CONSERVATOr.. CCrTCR FOR TROICA &- AGRICULTURE .,
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Emoloyment OpoorTunry Aftirnarrane Action Employer autnorirzed e, research
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, coIol .aX, aL
L .. ..
Persons interested in growing Florigraze can obtain rhizomes from .
commercial growers who have already planted the peanut. Tables 1.and 2
*; l.* ist growers who have planted Florigraze and.who may have rhizomes
Available for sale. Al t successful growers, who received; Florigraz
-peanut in 1981 and earlier, should have rhizoes developed enough to.dig.
Sin 1984-85 winter. Commercial rhizome growers interested in growing
Arbrook rhizoma peanut rhizomes for sale to general public, should ..
S.contact this author or Florida.Foundation Seed Producers, Inc., P. 0... ,.- '
Box 309, Greenwood,. Florida,. Phone (9044 594-4721. .; ,-
",- .. -. .' -- r
Growers-who wish to produce their-own seed stocks of Florigraze
Peanut should plant at least one acre. They should plant additional
acreage at rate of one acre of peanuts to each 20 acres they may .
ultimately want to plant in peanut. Every acre planted to perennial. .
.,. grass on well-drained soil is a potential acre for planting Florigraze
peanut. Any extra rhizomes produced can be sold to others in the .
Research indicates the most economical and-:-practical way to dig
rhizomes is'with a bermudagrass sprig harvester. These harvesters ,,. .. "
separate rhizomes cleanly from the soil but break the rhizome mat into- ..
pieces 6 to 12 inches long.:-The sprig harvester should be operated to~" '
dig as long a rhizome piece as is possible
Each of these rhizome pieces has one to four nodes where buds can
develop into a new shoot. The resulting plants are weak and do not,- .
spread as rapidly as when bigger sections of rhizomes are dug with a,
modified potato digger. However, this can be overcome by a more uniform
distribution of rhizome pieces. .,
Forty bushels of rhizomes per acre (3.5 m2/ha) is about the minimum ..
quantity that will achieve a complete peanut coverage by the end of the .
first season. This amount is the same regardless of digging method. .
Higher rates of rhizome planting give faster coverage and more insurance '.
L "-.4; '* "-* .
that first season coverage will be obtained. Consequently, the grower "
who has his own supply of rhizomes is best advised to plant 60, 80 or
^. -, ..`A j-!-
more bushels of rhizomes per acre. The expense of purchased rhizomes
makes these rates prohibitive. -Row width for rhizomes dug with
bermudagrass sprig harvester should not exceed 24 inches (60 cm) and
.- .- .-. :.
narrower widths are better. The rhizomes can be planted in rows by hand
or with a bermudagrass sprig planter. When planted with a sprig
planter, the rhizomes are scattered uniformly in the row. If planted by
hand, the rhizomes can be placed in hills 24 inches (60 cm) or less .. u.^
apart in drill row (not further apart than row width). The more'-- ':
uniformly the rhizome pieces are distributed across the field, the,,- .
better the coverage will be during the first season. .
The easiest way to plant peanut is to broadcast rhizome pieces
uniformly on the surface and harrow them in. If done carefully and the'-
soil is packed down afterwards, this is a successful method of planting., :'
Tobacco and vegetable plants are also useful in planting peanut '
Regardless of how you plant Florigraze rhizomes, they should be
completely covered with soil to approximately 2 inches depth in course-:
sand, 1 to 11 inches depth in fine sand, and 3/4 to 1 inch depth in '.
sandy loam and clay soils. Arbrook can be planted i to 1 inch deeper '"
than Florigraze with equal success. Try not to plant in dry soil, but .;
if you must, plant 1/2 to 1 inch deeper than suggested above.
The best time tor planting Florigraze peanut is January and
February when peanut top growth is dead from frost. However, peanuts .: .
can be planted from mid-December to mid-March. Plant survival was : .
poorer when planted in mid-March compared to January and February during
the dry year of 1981.
Steps for Estalishment ot Florigraze (Continued)
5. Plant 40 bushels/acre (3.5 m3/ha) or more of rhizomes as
uniformly as possible over land at proper depth (see text-) in.
January or February. Hills of peanuts dug with bermudagrass
sprig digger should not be planted more than 24 inches (bU cm)
apart. Pick out perennial grass parts by hand that might be
mixed with peanut rhizomes for pure stands.
6. Inoculant with peanut inoculant at planting. The inoculant.
can be sprayed or dusted on moist rhizomnes before planting or
applied in soil with rhizomes as they are planted with a
sprayer for liquid inoculant or a granular applicator for
Continued on page 5,
*4 7- -.-.
.. :, ? ;-: .
S Weed Control .. .
Weeds are the worst pest in growing Florigraze and must be -
controlled if first season coverage is to be obtained.' Uncontrolled..
weeds in rhizoma peanut during the first several months after planting',
can result in the death ot the developing peanut plants. ,i.No herbicides
are specifically registered for use on rhizoma peanutstas it- is a i-new::
crop of limited acreage. Table 3 gives information on herbicides we
have found experimentally to be useful in controlling weeds during the .:.,
establishment of rhizoma peanuts. Some of these herbicides may be '-.
registered for use on rhizoma peanut in the future. I '
The biggest weed problem is perennial grass in a rhizoma peanut '
nursery or hay field. This problem can be minimized by-planting on soil
which does not have a perennial grass growing and-by separating out
grass pieces that may be mixed with Florigraze rhizomes at planting. ..
Poast and Fusilade, new herbicides released for use on soybeans, ".. .
promises to kill bermudagrass and other perennial grasses out of rhizoma
peanut with little or no damage to peanut. Very expensive herbicides,
Poast and Fusilade will probably only be useful on nurseries from which
rhizomes are to be dug-for propagation purposes.-:-On rare occasions, "
perennial grasses may emerge before the peanut in spring. If this '-.'.
happens, the grass can be killed with the herbicide, Roundup, with '' '-":.':
little or no damage to peanut. Do not use Roundup on emerged peanut
plants as it may kill them.
The forage of rhizoma peanut and accompanying vegetation cannot be "
used as feed for livestock if certain herbicides-are applied, so be sure
to check label on herbicide containers. In the establishment year, the
forage yield of peanut is so low that only a little grazing or hay is
possible. It may be practical to use a herbicide at this time, even if
it may render the forage unusable as feed. By decreasing weed :
competition, peanut survival and coverage can be increased. If the -.;. ..
forage is usable for teed, the top growth can be harvested at the end of .
the first growing season without affecting peanut coverage. Top growth
contaminated by herbicides can be destroyed by burning after frost
occurs with little or no damage to the peanut. Do not plant rhizoma
peanut in soil treated with benefin (Balan) or trifluralin (Treflan)- .
less than 14 days earlier as damage to peanut rhizomes may occur,
resulting in thin plant stands. .
"Aa ';" r
Steps for Establishment of Florigraze (Continued)
7. Apply alachlor (Lasso) and dinoseb (Premerge 3) herbicides in
tank mix when about 25% of rhizome pieces have sent up new
shoots (March or early April). -
8. Fertilize in July or August with an additional 300 pounds/acre
(336 Kg/ha) of 0-10-20 fertilizer.
9. Spray broadleaf weeds with 2,4-DB and/or bentazon (Basagran)..
herbicide as needed anytime during season.
.10. Mow any tall weeds not controlled by herbicides just above -
peanut top growth or to 6 inches (15 cm) if peanut growth is.-,
above this height.
11. Irrigate during droughts, if irrigation is available.
Irrigation is not necessary for peanut survival, if weeds are
controlled, but it does insure more rapid growth of peanut in
12. Contact the author if you have questions or problems on
Florigraze establishment or cannot find a rhizome source.
0 'i l
-~~~' --^'. ^-- :*'-* ^-*.*.ssiaa^^
.. -- .. i-
Recent research has indicated that annual winter crops can be ,'' *
planted into short, dormant rhizoma peanut stubble in the fall of the .
-iestablishment year with little damage to the peanut. Winter crops "' .;: -",' .,-'
, ...- -. .. _- ,.. ; ....^ ^ ... "- .. -* -., r- .. ".> ... ." k 'A, .
Studied have included wheat for grain and forage, and rye, ryegrass, and
crimson and sub clovers for forage. These crops can be planted with
minimum tillage pasture seeder, a grain drill or the seed can be ..-
broadcast and ,ightly harrowed in. Care should be taken to not damage -
the rhizome system of the peanut. Plant the winter crops in November
within 36 hours after heavy rainfall has wet the soil to a foot or more
in depth. If a winter crop is not grown tor grain, graze it down close
or cut for hay in early April. Peanut should not be grazed until at
least 6 inches. (15 cm) tall in the spring following a winter crop. The
fertilization and seeding rate of winter crops should be the same-as if
.. ,., ..; ,
Inoculation of rhizoma peanuts with proper bacteria inoculant is
recommended as it seems to help in early peanut growth and some Florida
soils are very low in natural bacteria that will nodulate the peanut. ,..
However, most .rhizoma peanut plantings will become inoculated naturally
;xby:;soil bacteria or bacteria carried on rhizomes; before end of first
growing season. .So if.you cannot obtain inoculant,~it is better to .' -
i :-plant peanut without inoculation then wait a tulT yearor plant too' '-
late. Inoculant specific for the common peanut from any reputable '
company should be useful for inoculating rhizoma peanuts.
^ ^;- _. .\;,;.
...;;-^ ;* ': -^ ": -* -* .^ *A" '-' ..A
* -. j-*;j -
*-*'* -~ :. 1 I-2'~
* .* .
;. i.-.-r--- .^ .---.;.
r ~ ...------~.,
able 1. Growers receiving enough Florigraze peanut rhizomes to pl
demonstration planting, usually 1/2 acre or less in size.
C. Hardy Keller
E. M. Ahmed
San Souci Farms
R. T. Clay
M. A. Schack
W. F. Van Ness
John S. W. Davis I
B. F. Gordon
. s. ,- .,/ '"'
., -: :
Florida or other
S. Mayo ..,
Table 1. Continued...
.... --, 1981 ,
; .: 1 8981 ,:. -
:. ',,:.-' Bernard Lewis
Myron Pierce '
-. Donald Smith
~ J---.". E. Smith
U. S. Harrison
Ve; Bonifay: '
.-.. ..' .
r : ,
. ,: ,,. ; .- ,* ~ ,- -* .. .. ., -* -:.. -
Table 2.. .Commercial 'rhizoma growers purchasing enough Florigraze
'- rhizomes to plant 1 acre or more from Florida Foundation
SSeed Producers, Inc. from 1979 through 1981.
,Florida or oth
:. 1979 9
S 1979 .-
A. C. Peace**
C. T. Terry* *
S .-. W: .K. Shephard
- '--T'-Sammy: ong-& Cecil Per
Lester Terrel -
Schoal River Ranch*
Robert L. Reddish*
Lemuel E. Cunningham
-.. .* .' . .,
* "l* '
* .7; .
.-. 1 :
in : "
rood ,- ..
, AL .
ir Ranch) .,.". :'. .'.
GA ,le ..* .. .. ... ; .- "?*=*.;
nville -..- .
1 River -
ville ,'.. i
Table. 2. Continued...
E. H. Updike
S -"-:;.-,:: Charles E. Peace**
William R. Ploss*
i : .':-' Curtis Womble ,
Benny Joe Bennett
Florida or othi
Purchased enough rhizomes to plant 2 acres or more.
Purchased enough rhizomes to plant 5 acres or more.
This grower has indicated he plans to sell rhizomes
in winter of 1984-85.
in winter of 1984-85.
Note: All successful growers who received Florigraze planting material in
winter of 1982 or earlier should have rhizomes ready for digging in
winter of 1984-85. Florigraze rhizome systems normally are
S developed enough to dig one growing season after complete coverage
is obtained. In other words, growers wishing to dig rhizomes in
winter of 1984-85 should have had their Florigraze approaching 100%
ground cover in late fall of 1983. After rhizomes are dug,
Florigraze can normally be dug again for rhizomes in two years
without replanting. -..
r ~IT: 1-i
.i., r .1-
.I' l***fe -;
G i -- ,
*' *. '*; '*i '^ ~ '
~ i ~ I
Table 3. Herbicides found in experiments to be useful
in establishing rhizoma peanuts.
Irade Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
, -Commercial Product .,of
-3r '- '- ;* -
S Balan benefin-
3-4 qt./A ..- 1.13-1.5 1
(7.0-9.4 liters/ha) '(I1.27-1.68
. .* I *
7,3.- .. .
in controlling weeds
.. ,.-O j., --'. "
"* : "': -:." L .. ,
and Broad- 4. 0 ::. ';
re (Rate/ha) Weeds Controlled of..
dient and Remarks .' .
:.. *:.-.. ;
-------~~- --:-- I: .--- **'..ft
Annual grasses and
b ./A .also hard-to-control
kg/ha}: grasses such as!'sand-
: bur br signal grassland
S --Texas-panicum. .Good
.,control of florida
-"- p- pusley.and pigweed. .
soil to a depth of 2-3
inches (5-7.6 cm)
,- within 8 hours, after
;,application. :May- be
: ;:; '- ': ~'appTied-anytime with-
S in-.10,weeks prior-to '
; anl; ntin "tin n n ut'n tn.
days of planting."
.- ,. ;, ~', .... ,',-
S Treflan :
1.0-1.5 pt./A- -
. (56-.84 ka/ha)
Good control of annual
grasses and certain
broadleaf weeds. Poor
S.. ....- ~,-- ,- -: control of cocklebur,
S: sicklepod (coffeeweed)
," **~*'" "'- *mormningglory, and' ..-I"'
S.* ragweed. Incorporate
S; ., to label directions 10
,: .' days to several weeks .
S' ;. '. before planting... '
SVernam 7 vernoTate Suppresses nutsedge. ,. .
S 2.3-2.9 pt./A 2.0-2.5 Tb./A Controls most annual .
(2.69-3.4 liters/ha) (2.24-2.8 kg/ha) grasses, Fla. pusley .-
S;and pigweed. JTank
mix with trifluralin .'-
I. or benefin for best ,
spectrum control.. *'
: Incorporate into the :..- ;. '-
Ssoil;to a depth'of 3 '., .
Inches (7.6 cm)'
,.immediately after ap ,. ...
plication. If pos- -"
a application and incor- .,
S;poration in the same .--
(Above herbicides must be applied 14 days and preferably longer before planting
rhizomes.) .... '
.. ..... ..
,.-- .. : ".
i :. ~ii" ='!
e ? ~.-
Table 3. Continued.....
Trade Name and Broad- Common Name and Broa
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) cast Rate/Acre (Rate
of Commercial Product of Active Ingredient
At Shoot Emergence Atter Planting and in Spring
', L,-" ^
-. ** 44
' ~- t
and Remarks ,
S.. _._-. -.-. ....:..
Excellent control of '"
weeds with preemerg-
* ence control of ;
annual grasses and
broadleaf weeds. Use
S high rate of alachlor
if Fla. beggarweed is"
a problem.- Apply ,
when one or more new
shoots appears on 25
to 30 percent of .-
planted hills. -
Peanuts that emerge a "
few days prior to ..
treatment maybe in-
jured but should re-
cover with little or
no reduction in final
.- "~. -t '. .. 7. "
Controls many broad-
leaf weeds including
Scocklebur. ,No effect
on Florida,beggarweed .'
Apply 2 to.12: weeks :'"
after planting.'; A '' '
may be made 3 ;weeks.-:
later. After peanut
establishment, can be .
used as needed except
than 1.5 Ibs./A (1.68 .'
kg/ha) 2,4-DB per?.:
annum. -..Do not 'apply'.
to drought .stressed"'
,; .,..,, TL- ~ .*
Table 3. (continued)
-"Trade Name and Broad-
"* cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
'.'nf Cnmmnrrial Product
* Common Name and Broad-
:,:cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
o" f Active InnrPdient
;*v ...'*... .. .. .....i' ... .
... ,,Basagran b. bentazon
S-.75-1.5 qt/A -.75-1.5 lb.
(1I:75 to 3.5 liters/ha) (0.84 to L68
.. ; .t- _:~
(A.-tank Mnx of 2,4-DB) (0.50 Ib/A) + bentazon
spectrum of broadleaved weeds.)
Poast. .. -- :
S'Takes 2 aDDlications
S. pts./A- -
S (1.75--i iters/ha)
* :_ ;.. .. .
I pt/A (0.6. liter/ha)
S ,,*'-2 pts/A non
+ 2 pts/A noni
+ 2 pts/A noni
, oil concentrate
(Will usually take more than one application
established perennial grasses.)
S. and Remarks
" *, *-
', "' : 1 ." *' "'- ': 'l
'. '/~ i i :" .'.* *
., .r '
Good control of
/A cocklebur, bristly
kg/haj starbur, and yellow
_. nutsedge. Rate
"- depends on weed -.. .
--' species.and size; .
-therefore, refer to ".
-the label. Good
spray coverage,:;-s IS
Do not apply to ,
peanuts which have
., .been.-subjected to
(1 lb/A) is very effective on a wide
For- control of '
:. ^- -bermudagrass, johnson
-- rass and other -
Annual grasses con- .
onic oil trolled with lower
.3 -rates (See label).
Apply before perennial '.
grass is well established
.3 .:., ..... *.'. .. .. .'.".. .. '
onic For control oft bermuda- ,.,
e (2.3. grass, johnsongrass and
other annual and perennial .. '
,:' grasses. Apply.before ..
of Poast or Fusilade to kill well... ".
S - .. ..
Note: Always read herbicide label carefully