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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 84- 6
Title: Nematode populations in a ryesoybean succession after four years of no tillage management
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056071/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nematode populations in a ryesoybean succession after four years of no tillage management
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Post, Thomas John, 1951-
Gallaher, Raymond N
Dickson, Donald W ( Donald Ward )
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: IFAS, University of Florida, Dept. of Agronomy
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1984?]
 Subjects
Subject: Soybean -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rye -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nematode diseases of plants -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
No-tillage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 5).
Statement of Responsibility: Thomas J. Post, R.N. Gallaher, and D.W. Dickson.
Funding: Agronomy research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056071
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62522862

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






CLt-Cp
I,.9 4


RESEARCH REPORT AY-84-6


NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN A RYE/SOYBEAN SUCCESSION
AFTER FOUR YEARS OF NO TILLAGE MANAGEMENT


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NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN A RYE/SOYBEAN SUCCESSION
AFTER FOUR YEARS OF NO TILLAGE MANAGEMENT

Thomas J. Post, R.N.Gallaher, and D.W.Dickson. Graduate
Student and Professor of Agronomy and
Professor of Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida. 32611.


ABSTRACT


Nematodes are a major threat to soybean (Glycine max L.)

production in Florida.- Plant parasitic nematode levels were

evaluated in a rye (Secale cereale L.)/soybean system that had

previously been under 4 years of no-tillage management using a

cropping succession system of rye for grain ('Wrens Abruzzi'),

followed by soybean ('Bragg'). Nematode populations in plots left

under no-tillage for the fifth year were compared to plots which were

tilled 15cm .deep. :The ,.soil was an Arredondo --loamy sand (member of

the loamy siliceous hyperthermic family of the grossarenic

Paleudults). Populations of root-knot (Meloidogyne), dagger

(Xiphinema), stubby-root (Trichodorus), and ring (Criconemoides)

nematodes were from 0 to 25 per 250 cm3 of soil. Numbers were

uniformly low and were unaffected by tillage.



INTRODUCTION



Many types of nematodes are known to be beneficial constituents

of the soil ecosystem. They break down organic materials into simpler

compounds and serve as important links in food chains (Perry, 1978).

On the other hand, many types of nematodes infect plants and cause

crop losses estimated at 6 to 12% (Feldmesser, 1971). For most











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annual crops, fairly large numbers of nematodes (approximately 50 to

100 per 100 cm3 of soil) must be present while the plants are young

for significant yield reductions to occur (Perry,1978).

A variety of methods have been recommended for nematode

management in soybeans (Glycine max L.) in Florida. These include the

use of resistant cultivars, crop rotation, destruction of crop and

weed residues, and nematicides (Dunn, 1980). One of the most

successful nematode management methods has been the development of

resistant cultivars, e.g. 'Bragg' soybeans resistant to the southern

root-knot nematode (M. incognita).

.Crop rotation is another promising method for reducing nematode

numbers in soybean production. Oostenbrink et al. (1956) found that

crop rotations which included rye (Secale cereal L.) reduced levels

of lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus s) more effectively than did other

small grains. Brodie et al. (1970) reported different summer cover

crops offered varying degrees of nematode control in tomato

transplant production.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long

term double cropping minimum tillage management of soybean followed

by rye on the dynamics of plant parasitic nematodes.



MATERIALS AND METHODS



The plots :had previously been under 4 years of rye for grain

('Wrens Abruzzi'.), followed by soybean for grain ('Bragg')

management. The --program also included no-tillage planting with

subsoiler, irrigation, low levels of fertilizer and Furadan 10G at










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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


2.24 kg ai/ha on soybean prior to 1979. No Furadan was applied to

soybeans in 1980, one year prior to this study, nor in 1981 during

this study. Rye was planted in late October and harvested in late

May.- Soybean was planted immediately after the rye harvest and

harvested in late October. All rye and soybean residues were left on

the soil surface; after 4 years a considerable amount of organic

material, in various stages of decomposition, had accumulated on the

soil surface. The soil was an Arredondo loamy sand (member of the

loamy siliceous hyperthermic family of the grossarenic Paleudults);

The experiment was a randomized complete block design with split

plots and four replications of each tillage treatment. The experiment

was carried out at the University of Florida Green Acres Agronomy

farm in an area surrounded by several other multicropping

experiments.

Some plots were left under no-tillage management for a fifth

consecutive year while others were tilled to a depth of 15 cm in

order to simulate the effects of conventional plowing on the soil

environment. The population levels of nematode genera were

monitored at various times throughout this fifth year of the

experiment. Soil samples for nematode analysis were taken in a 2.54

cm cone shaped sampler in the root zone to a depth of 15 cm

approximately 6 to 8 cm from the plant row. Six to eight cores were

taken from each plot and 250 cm 3 soil processed by

centrifugal-flotation (Jenkins, 1964). Nematodes were counted and

identified to genus.









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Nematode levels recorded in plots under no-tillage management

for 5 years or conventionally tilled during the fifth year are shown

in Tables 1 and 2. Nematode levels remained very low throughout both

the rye and the soybean growth periods. In no case did the level

exceed 25 per 250 cm3 of soil. Levels of root-knot nematodes were

negligible. This occurred despite the fact that much higher levels

of nematodes were observed in numerous other multicropping systems in

surrounding experimental plots (R.N. Gallaher and D.W. Dickson,

unpublished). Nematode levels in this rye/soybean double cropping

system did not appear to be affected appreciably by tillage of former

no-tillage plots. The low nematode levels recorded in this study

indicate suppression of nematode population" in the rye/soybean

multiple cropping no-tillage system.



LITERATURE CITED


1. Brodie,B.B., J.M. Good, and C.A. Jaworski. 1970. Population
dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil:effect of summer cover
crops in newly cleared land. J. Nematology 2:217-222

2. Dunn, R.A. 1980.. Soybean nematode management with resistant
varieties and nematicides. Extension Nematology Report No.13. Fla.
Coop. Ext. Service, Gainesville,Fla. 32611.

3. Feldmesser, J. 1971. Extimated crop losses from plant-parasitic
nematodes in the United States. Soc. of Nematologists. Special Publ.
No.1 Beltsville,MD.

4. Jenkins, W. R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for
separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reptr. 48:692.

5. Oostenbrink,M., J.J. s'Jacobs, and K. Kuiper. 1956. An
interpretation of crop rotation experiences based on nematode surveys
and population studies. Nematologica J. 1:202-215.

6. Perry, V.G. 1978. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their control. p
122-138. In Fundamentals of Plant Pest Control D.A. Roberts (ed.)
W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.














Table 1. Nematode numbers after five years of no-tillage
succession.


rye/soybean


Sample Date (Month-Year)

Nematode 11/80 4/81 5/81 7/81 11/81 4/82

-------Number/250 cm3 Soil-----
Criconemoides(Ring) 4 5 7 8 6 0
Xiphinema(Dagger) 2 23 1 0 0 4
Trichodorus(Stubby root)0 .4 2 1 2 2
Meloidogyne(Root-knot) 0 0 0 1 1 4

Total 6 32 10 10 9 10


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year after


Table 2. Nematodes in conventional tillage plots the fifth
four years of no-tillage of a rye/soybean succession
----------------^ ---~-----`- -- --- -~- ---- ---
-- Sample Date (Month-Year):

Nematode 11/80 4/81 5/81 7/81 11/81 4/82

-----------Numuer/250 cm3 Soil-----
Criconemoides(Ring) 4 9 4 4 1 2
Xiphinema(Dagger) 3 4 8 0 0 1
Trichodurus(Stubby root)0 2 2 0 4 3
Meloidogyne(Root-knot) 0 0 0 0 1 0

Total 7 15 14 4 6 6
--------------------------------------------




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