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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY 84-1
Title: Establishment of florigraze rhizoma peanut
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056070/00001
 Material Information
Title: Establishment of florigraze rhizoma peanut
Series Title: Agronomy research report
Physical Description: 12 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Prine, G. M ( Gordon Madison ), 1928-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agronomy Department
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1983]
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Gordon M. Prine.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1983."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056070
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62522913

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







S/ UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

FAS INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES


GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA
Agronomy Research Report AY 84-1 August, 1983
AGRONOMY DEPART' ENT
Establishment of Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut

.,: \Gordon M. Prine

E/N. o This :p, bication has the purpose of providing information on the
/.establ}h ent of Florigraze rhizoma peanut during the first year of
S ^ ggot and listing those persons who have received Florigraze rhizomes
S c.fo Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. and IFAS Agronomy
Department. The potential and culture of Florigraze rhizoma peanut is
described in Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Circular S-275,


"Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume".


This circular


can be obtained from any Florida County Extension Office or by


contacting this author.


Continued next page...


S--- Steps for Establishment of Florigraze
1. Locate a commercial rhizome grower and get your name on list
to receive rhizomes in January or February.

2. Select well-drained soil area free of perennial grasses. Lime
soil with dolomite limestone if pH is below 5.7. Work soil
into seed bed before January 1, preferably with moldboard
plow. Sod or crop land plowed in August and fallowed by
harrowing in fall makes an excellent seed bed for perennial -
peanut in winter.

3. Have your dealer special order inoculant two months before you
need it, as dealers do not usually carry peanut inoculant in
winter.

4. Incorporate trifluralin (Treflan) or benefin (Balan) herbicide
into soil at least 2 weeks before planting peanut. Also apply
vernolate (Vernam), if nutsedge is present. Nutsedge is
present more times than not, so usually a tank mix of
trifluralin or benefin with vernolate is best. Fertilize with
300 pounds/acre (336 Kg/ha) of 0-10-20 or similar analysis
fertilizer without nitrogen and work into soil with herbicide.
Continued on page 3...

SProfessor, University of Florida, IFAS, Agronomy Department,
Gainesville, Florida 32611, Phone (904) 392-1811.


COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE


SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION


CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity -Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race. color, sex, or national origin.


32611











Persons interested in growing Florigraze can obtain rhizomes from
commercial growers who have already planted the peanut. Tables 1 and 2
list growers who have planted Florigraze and who may have rhizomes
available for sale. All successful growers who received Florigraze
peanut in 1981 and earlier, should have rhizomes developed enough to dig
in 1983-84 winter. There should be enough Florigraze rhizomes available
from these commerical growers to plant 2000 acres (800 ha) to 4000 acres
(1600 ha) in 1983-84 winter.
Growers who wish to produce their own seed stocks of Florigraze
peanut should plant at least one acre. They should plant additional
acreage at rate of one acre of peanuts to each 20 acres they may
ultimately want to plant in peanut. Every acre planted to perennial
grass on well-drained soil is a potential acre for planting Florigraze
peanut. Any extra rhizomes produced can be sold to others in the
community.
Research indicates the most economical and practical way to dig
rhizomes~is~with a-bermudagrass sprig harvester. These harvesters
separate rhizomes cleanly from the soil but break the rhizome mat into-
pieces 6 to 12 inches long. The sprig harvester should be operated to
dig as long a rhizome piece as is possible.
Each of these rhizome pieces has one to four nodes where buds can
develop into a new shoot. The resulting plants are weak and do not
spread as rapidly as when bigger sections of rhizomes are dug with a
modified potato digger. However, this can be overcome by a more uniform
distribution of rhizome pieces.
Forty bushels of rhizomes per acre (3.5 m2/ha) is about the minimum
quantity that will achieve a complete peanut coverage by the end of the
first season. This amount is the same regardless of digging method.'
Higher rates of rhizome planting give faster coverage and more insurance
that first season coverage will be obtained. Consequently, the grower
who has his own supply of rhizomes is best advised to plant 60, 80 or
more bushels of rhizomes per acre. The expense of purchased rhizomes
makes these rates prohibitive. Row width for rhizomes dug with
bermudagrass sprig harvester should not exceed 24 inches (60 cm) and





.3 .. .



narrower widths are better. The rhizomes can be planted in rows by hand
-or with a bermudagrass sprig planter. When planted with a sprig
planter, the rhizomes are scattered uniformly in the row. If planted by
hand, the rhizomes can be placed in hills 24 inches (60 cm) or less
apart in drill row (not further apart than row.width). The more
. uniformly the rhizome pieces are distributed .across the field, the
S better the coverage will be during the first season. -
The easiest way to plant.peanut is-to broadcast rhizome pieces
uniformly on the surface and harrow them in. If done carefully with the
soil is packed down afterwards, this is often a successful method of
planting.. It-usually results in some rhizomes being planted at
different depths and parts of rhizomes sticking above the ground. Those
rhizome pieces planted too shallow or too deep will often die, so the
broadcast and harrow method is not as dependable as planting in shallow
furrows and covering to a uniform depth or using a sprig planter.
Regardless of how you plant Florigraze rhizomes, they should be
completely covered with soil to approximately 3 inches depth in course
sand, and 2j-inches depth in fine sand, 2 inches depth in sandy loam and
li inches-ept h.isfclay.soil. .--
The best time for planting Florigraze peanut is January and
February when peanut top growth is dead from frost. However, peanuts
can be planted from mid-December to mid-March." Plant survival was
poorer when planted in mid-March compared to January and February during
the dry year of 1981.

.Steps for Estalishment of Florigraze (Continued) '
5. Plant 40 bushels/acre (3.5 m3/ha) or more of rhizomes as
uniformly as possible over land at proper depth (see text) in
January or February. Hills of peanuts dug with bermudagrass
sprig digger should not be planted more than 24 inches (60 cm)
apart. Pick out perennial grass parts by hand that might be
mixed with peanut rhizomes for pure stands.
6. Inoculant.with peanut inoculant at planting. The inoculant :
can be sprayed or dusted on moist rhizomes before planting or
applied in soil with rhizomes as they are planted with a
sprayer for liquid inoculant or a granular applicator for
granular inoculant.
Continued on page 5









Weed Control
Weeds are the worst pest in growing Florigraze and must be
controlled if first season coverage is to be obtained. Uncontrolled
weeds in rhizoma peanut during the first several months after planting
can result in the death of the developing peanut plants. No herbicides
are specifically registered for use on rhizoma peanuts, as it is a new
crop of limited acreage. Table 3 gives information on herbicides we
have found experimentally to be useful in controlling weeds during the
establishment of rhizoma peanuts. Some of these herbicides may be
registered for use on rhizoma peanut in the future.
The biggest weed problem is perennial grass in a rhizoma peanut
nursery or hay field. This problem can be minimized by planting on soil
which does not have a perennial grass growing and by separating out
grass pieces that may be mixed with Florigraze rhizomes at planting.
Poast and Fusilade, new herbicides released for use on soybeans,
promises to kill bermudagrass and other perennial grasses out of rhizoma
peanut with little or no damage to peanut. Very expensive herbicides,
Poast-and Fusilade will probably only be useful on nurseries from which
rhizomes are to be dug for propagation purposes. On rare occasions,
perennial grasses may emerge before the peanut in spring. If this
happens, the grass can be killed with the herbicide, Roundup, with
little or no damage to peanut. Do not use Roundup on emerged peanut
-plants as it may kill them.
The forage of rhizoma peanut and accompanying vegetation cannot be
used as feed for livestock if certain herbicides are applied, so be sure
to check label on herbicide containers. In the establishment year, the
forage yield of peanut is so low that only a little grazing or hay is
possible. It may be practical to use a herbicide at this time, even if
it may render the forage unusable as feed. By decreasing weed
competition, peanut survival and coverage can be increased. If the
forage is usable for feed, the top growth can be harvested at the end of
the first growing season without affecting peanut coverage. Top growth
contaminated by herbicides can be destroyed by burning after frost
occurs with little or no damage to the peanut. Do not plant peanut in
benefin (Balan) or trifluralin (Treflan) applied less than 10 days as
damage to rhizomes may occur, resulting in thin plant stands.





5


Winter Crops
Recent research has indicated that annual winter, crops can be
planted into short, dormant rhizoma peanut stubble in the fall of the
establishment year with little damage to the peanut. Winter crops
studied have included wheat for grain and forage, and rye, ryegrass, and
crimson and sub clovers for forage. These crops can be planted with a
minimum tillage pasture seeder, a grain drill or the seed can be
broadcast and lightly harrowed in. Care should be taken to not damage
the rhizome system of the peanut. Plant the winter crops in November
within 36 hours after heavy rainfall has wet the soil to a foot or more
in depth. If a winter crop is not grown for grain, graze it down close
or cut for hay in early April. Peanut should not be grazed until at
least 6 inches (15 cm) tall in the spring following a winter crop. The
fertilization and seeding rate of winter crops should be the same as if
grown alone.

Steps for Establishment of Florigraze (Continued)

7. Apply alachlor (Lasso) and dinoseb (Premerge 3) herbicides in
tank mix when about 25% of rhizome pieces have sent up new
shoots (March or early April).

8. Fertilize in July or August with an additional 300 pounds/acre
(336 Kg/ha) of 0-10-20 fertilizer.
9. Spray.broadleaf weeds with 2,4-DB and/or bentazon (Basagran)
herbicide as needed anytime during season.

10. Mow any tall weeds not controlled by herbicides just above
peanut top growth or to 6 inches (15 cm) if peanut growth is
above this height.

11. Irrigate during droughts, if irrigation is available.
Irrigation is not necessary for peanut survival, if weeds are
controlled, but it does insure more rapid growth of peanut in
drought.years.
12. Contact the author if you have questions or problems on
Florigraze establishment or cannot find a rhizome source.









Inoculation of rhizoma peanuts with proper bacteria inoculant is
recommended as it seems to help in early peanut growth and some Florida
soils are very low in natural bacteria that will nodulate the peanut.
However, most rhizoma peanut plantings will become inoculated naturally
by soil'bacteria or bacteria carried on rhizomes before end of first
growing season. So if you cannot obtain inoculant, it is better to
plant peanut without inoculation then wait a full year or plant too
late.

Author's note on inoculant sources:

Inoculant specific for the common peanut from any reputable company
should also be useful for inoculating rhizoma peanuts. The Nitragin
Company has given information that they will have supplies of SOIL
IMPLANT granular peanut inoculant and regular peanut inoculant available
during rhizoma peanut planting season. Your local independent
inoculant dealer should be able to get Nitragin SOIL IMPLANT granular
inoculant and regular inoculant for you through one of the following
distributors:

Florida Feed and Seed Haile Dean
Ocala, FL Orlando, FL
(904)732-4211 (305) 425-3426

Wise Seed Company Adams & Briscoe
Frostproof, FL Jackson, GA 31773
(813) 635-4473 (404) 775-7826

Dixie Seed Company USS Agri Chem
Ochlocknee, GA 31773 .Albany, GA 31702
(912) 574-5115 (912) 432-5305

Gold Kist (FMX), Kaiser and Triangle Outlets also carry these
products.
Other inoculant manufacturers and/or dealers will be added to this
list on notification to us of availability of fresh peanut
inoculant during rhizoma peanut planting season.







Table 1. Growers receiving enough Florigraze peanut rhizomes to plant a
demonstration planting, usually 1/2 acre or less in size.


Established
in winter
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1977
1978


Grower Name
Raymond Hodges
Jim Kilcrease
Ralph Stancil
Kanapaha Ranch
Clifton Shiver
M. A. Schack
Hugh Popenoe
Rance Andrews
Kent Doke
W. F. Van Ness


Florida or other
-location
Old Town
Ocala
Ocala
Archer
Mayo
Greenwood
Gainesville
Jasper
Alachua
Inverness


John S. W. Davis II
Morgan McJunkin
Carl Wainwright
Glenn Herneming
Jim Huber
B. F. Gordon
Keith Free
Donald Smith
Randall Buchanan
Bob Woodward


John Schmarje
------ Dan Bowman -
Tommy Cothron
Mitchell Keen
Joseph Grygorowicz
C. Hardy Keller
Forrest Cornnell
E. M. Ahmed
Glenn Ezell
Jack Barga

Larry Johnson
Jim Beagle
Charlie Adams
Tim Murhee
Morris Lester
Jim Brown
Rick Goff
Leon McCallum
San Souci Farms

Charles Kelly
Bill Womble
R. T. Clay
Mike Sweat
Hinton Goodwin
Paul Still
Jerry Pitts
Ray Smith
Carthell Smith
John Renaud


Clewiston
Lake Placid
Live Oak
Williston
Bronson
Brooksville
Laurel Hill
Wausaw
Madison County
Gadsden County


Liberty County.
Gadsden County
Valdosta, GA
Old Town
Carryville
Perry
Perry
Williston
Perry
Homosassa


Inverness
Inverness
Citrus County
Keystone Heights
Columiba County
Columbia County
Columbia County
Old Town
Ocala

.Gainesville
Bronson
Grandin
Macclenny
Tifton, GA
Newberry
Bonifay
Bonifay
Bonifay
Chiefland


1977
1976
1978
1979
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980


1980
-1980
1980
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981

1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981









Table 1. Continued...
Established
in winter
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981


Grower name
James Wershow
Bernard Lewis
Myron Pierce
Donald Smith
J. E.. Smith
U. S. Harrison
Charles Riley


Florida or other
location
Alachua
Quincy
Bonifay
Chipley
Chipley
Chipley
Chipley


Table 2. Commercial rhizoma growers purchasing enough Florigraze
rhizomes to plant 1 acre or more from Florida Foundation
Seed Producers, Inc.

Ftabhlisihpd Florida or other


in winter


Grower name


location


Frank Tomkow*
A. C. Peace**
Kent Doke**
Morgan McJunkin**
C. T. Terry*
Roger Pittman
-_ Joel Sapp.
-; Friedrich Schroeder
Alto Straughn
W. K. Shephard
Sammy Long & Cecil Perry*


Guy Mosteller
Larry Woods
Garron Patton*
Lester Terrel
Schoal River Ranch*
Steve Simmons*
Robert Pender
5-J Ranch
Dewitt Smith
Harry Smith
Marshall Bros. Farm

Harold McGill*
Jim Kelley*
Henry Douglass**

Southern States
Nurseries**
Robert L. Reddish*
Owen Easters*
Luis Hechavarria
Lemuel E. Cunningham
Luther E. Jones
E. H. Updike
Charles E. Peace**


Tribly
Valdosta,.GA
Alachua
Lake Placid
Lake City
Citra
Sparr
Ocala
Gainesville
Archer
Bellville


Ocala
Reddick
Melrose
Earlton
Crestview
Green Cove Springs
Greenwood
Ocala
Coolidge, GA
Dothan, AL
Adel, GA

Sumner, GA
Gainesville
Zephyrhills
(K. Bar Ranch)

SMacclenny
Gainesville
Lenox, GA
Jacksonville
Crystal River
Brooksville
Ocala
SValdosta, GA


1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980-81

1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980
1980


1980
1981
1981

1981

1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981









Table 2. Continued...


* r = L-- -,


tSdUaiisfne
in winter


Grower name


Flcrida or other
location


William R. Ploss*
Curtis Womble
Harold Sigman
John Gavin*
Tom Thompson*
Ben Fish
Benny Joe Bennett
Bill Kinner
Wayne Day**
Day Parrish*
Bill Schwickle*


Gainesville
Hawthorne
Bainbridge, Ga
Lake Park, GA
Bonifay
Sanderson
Sanderson
Madison
Greenville
Alachua
Trenton


Purchased enough rhizomes to plant 2 acres or more.
**
Purchased enough rhizomes to plant 5 acres or more.

This grower has indicated he plans to sell rhizomes in winter of 1982-83.

Note: All successful growers who received Florigraze planting material in
winter of 1981 or earlier should have rhizomes ready for digging in
winter of 1983-84. Florigraze rhizome systems normally are
developed enough to dig one growing season-after complete coverage
is obtained. In other words, growers wishing to dig rhizomes in
winter of 1983-84 should have had their Florigraze approaching 100%
ground cover in late fall of 1982. After rhizomes are dug,
Florigraze can normally be dug again forrhizomes in two years
without replanting.


1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981
1981









Table 3. Herbicides found in experiments to be useful in controlling weeds
in establishing rhizoma peanuts.


Trade Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
Commercial Product of


PREPLANT
Balan
3-4 qt./A
(7.0-9.4 liters/ha)


Common Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
Active Ingredient


benefit
1.13-1.5 Ib./A
(1.27-1.68 kg/ha)


Treflan trifluralin
S1.0-1.5 pt./A -.- 0.5-0.75 -b./A
(1.2-1.75 liters/ha) (.56-.84 kg/ha)


Weeds Controlled
and Remarks


Annual grasses and
also hard-to-control
grasses such as sand-
bur, signalgrass and
Texas panicum. Good
control of Florida
pusley and pigweed.
Incorporate into the
soil to a depth of 2-3
inches (5-7.6 cm)
within 8 hours after
application. May be
applied anytime with-
in 10 weeks prior to
planting up to ten
days of planting.

Good control of annual
grasses and certain
broadleaf weeds. Poor
control of cocklebur,
sicklepod (coffeeweed)
morningglory, and
S ragweed. Incorporate
"-.-thoroughly according.
to label directions 10
days to several weeks
before planting.


Vernam 7E
2.3-2.9 pt./A
(2.69-3.4 liters/ha)


vernoTate
2.0-2.5 lb./A
(2.24-2.8 kg/ha)


Suppresses nutsedge.
Controls most annual
grasses, Fla. pusley
and pigweed. Tank
mix with triflura Tin
or benefin for best
spectrum control.
Incorporate into the
soil to a depth of 3
inches (7.6 cm)
immediately after ap-
plication. If pos-
sible, combine
application and incor-
poration in the same
operation,.


(Above herbicides must be
rhizomes.)


applied 10 days and preferably longer before planting










Table 3. Continued.....


Trade Name and Broad- Common Name and Broad- -
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) Weeds Controlled
of Commercial Product of Active Ingredient and Remarks

At Shoot Emergence After Planting and in Spring


Lasso
2.3 qt./A
(4.7-7.0 liters/ha)




Premerge 3
4 qt/A
(9.3 liters/ha)


POSTMERGENCE


Butyrac
or
Butoxone
1 qt/A
(2.3 liters/ha)


alachlor
2.0-3.0 Ib./A
(Z.2-3.4 kg/ha)




dinoseb
3 Ib/A
(3.4 kg/ha)


2,4-DB
0.50 Ib./A

(.56 kg/ha)


Excellent control of
emerged seedling
weeds with preemerg-
ence control of
annual grasses and
broadleaf weeds. Use
high rate of alachlor
if Fla. beggarweed is
a problem. Apply
when one or more new
shoots appears on 25
to 30 percent of
planted hills.
Peanuts that emerge a
few days prior to
treatment may be in-
jured but should re-
cover with little or
no reduction in final
peanut growth.


Controls many broad-
leaf weeds including
morningglory and
cocklebur. No effect
on Florida beggarweed
Apply 2 to 12 weeks
after planting. A
second application
may be made 3 weeks
later. After peanut
establishment, can be
used as needed except
should not apply more
than 1.5 Ibs./A (1.68
kg/ha) 2,4-DB per
annum. Do not apply
to drought stressed
peanuts.









Table 3. (continued)


Trade Name and Broad- Common Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) Weeds Controlled
of Commercial Product of Active Ingredient and Remarks.


Basagra
.75-1.5
(1.75 .to 3.5











(A tank mix
spectrum of


Sqt/A .7
liters/ha) (0.84











of 2,4-DB (0.50 Ib/A) +
broadleaved weeds.)


entazon
5-1.5 Ib./A
to 1.68 kg/ha)


Good control of
cocklebur, bristly
starbur, and yellow
nutsedge. Rate
depends on weed
species and size;
therefore, refer to
the label. Good
spray coverage is
essential for control.
Do not apply to
peanuts which have
been subjected to
stress.


bentazon (1 lb/A) is very effective on a wide


Poast

-'Takes 2 applications


First application
21 pts./A
(2.9 liters/ha)

Second application
11 pts./A
(1.75 liters/ha)


+ 2 pts/A nonionic oil
concentrate (2.3
liters/ha)

+ 2 pts/A nonionic oil
concentrate (2.3
liters/ha)


For control of
bermudagrass, johnson
grass and other
perennial grasses
Annual grasses con-
trolled with lower
rates (See label).
Apply before perennial
.grass is well established


Fusilade


pt/A (0.6 liter/ha)


+ 2 pts/A nonionic
oil concentrate (2.3
liters/ha)


(Will usually take more than one application of Poast
established perennial grasses.)


For control of bermuda-
grass, johnsongrass and
other annual and perennial
grasses. Apply before
perennial grass is well
established.

or Fusilade to kill well


Note: Always read herbicide label carefully before applying.


In


b




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