The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
'87-/ UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
I -\ INSTITUTE OF FOOIeCsICULURAL SCIENCES
ANT 23 1987FLORIDA
AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT OCT 23 1987 INESVILE. 211
304 NEWELL HALL
Agronomy Research Report AY 87 1 Un:veisty of Florida Fe ruary, 1987
Establishment of Rhizoma (Perennial) Peanuts for Forage
Gordon M. Prine
This publication has the purpose of providing information on the
establishment of rhizoma (perennial) peanut (Arachis glabrata) during the
first year of growth and listing known sources of Florigraze and Arbrook
rhizomes for sale. The potential and culture of 'Florigraze' rhizoma
peanut is described in IFAS, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Circular S-275, "Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut, a Perennial Forage Legume".
Similar information is available for the new rhizoma peanut cultivar
'Arbrook', in Circular S-332 "Arbrook Rhizoma Peanut, A Perennial Forage
Continued next page......
Steps for Establishment of Florigraze
1. Locate a commercial rhizome grower and get your name on list to
receive rhizomes in January, February or early March.
2. Select well-drained soil area free of perennial grasses. .Lime soil
with dolomite limestone if pH is below 5.7. Work soil into seed bed
before January 1, preferably with moldboard plow. Sod or crop land
plowed in August and fallowed by harrowing in fall makes an excellent
seed bed for perennial peanut in winter.
3. Have your dealer special order inoculant two months before you need
it.; (Inoculation is needed on soils where common peanuts and legumes
requiring cowpea type inoculant require inoculation).
Continued on page 3 .....
Professor, University of Florida, IFAS, Agronomy Department,
Gainesville, Florida 32611, Phone (904) 392-1811.
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
SCHOOL OF FOREST RESOURCES AND CONSERVE ION CENTER FOR TROPICAL AGRICULTURE
S The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
Both circulars are available :'fiom this author and in most county extension -"
offices. Foundation Arbrook rhizomes will be available to commercial
perennial peanut rhizome producers and forage producers in the winter of
1987-88. Parties interested in obtaining Foundation Stock of Arbrook
rhizoma peanut rhizomes should contact this author or Florida Foundation
Seed Producers, Inc., P.O. Box 309, Greenwood, Florida, Phone (904)
594-4721 in December, 1987 and January, 1988.
Persons interested in growing Florigraze can obtain rhizomes from
.commercial growers who have already planted the peanut. Table 1 lists
commercial growers who had Florigraze and/or Arbrook rhizomes for sale in
January 1987. If you have rhizomes for sale, your name wilT be added to
list if you notify this writer. All successful growers who received
Florigraze peanut 3 or more years ago should have rhizomes developed enough
to dig. :
'Growers who wish to produce their own rhizome stocks of Florigraze and
Arbrook peanut should plant at least one acre. They should plant
additional acreage at the rate of one acre of peanuts to each 20 to 25 ,
acres they may ultimately want to plant in peanut. Every acre planted to a
perennial grass on well-drained soil is a potential acre for planting
Florigraze peanut. Any extra rhizomes produced can often be sold to'other
potential perennial peanut growers.
Research indicates the most economical and practical way to dig
rhizomes is with a bermudagrass sprig harvester. These harvesters separate
rhizomes cleanly from the soil but break the rhizome mat into pieces 6 to
12 inches long. The sprig harvester should be operated to dig as long a
rhizome piece as is possible. Each of these rhizome pieces has one to four
nodes where buds can develop into a new shoot. The resulting plants are
weak and'do not spread as rapidly as when bigger sections of rhizomes are
dug with a modified potato digger. However, this can be overcome by a more
uniform distribution of rhizome pieces.
Forty bushels of rhizomes per acre (3.5 m /ha) is about the minimum
quantity that will achieve a complete peanut coverage by the end of the
first season. This amount is the same regardless of digging method.
Higher rates of rhizome planting give faster coverage and more insurance
that first season coverage will be obtained. Consequently, the grower who
has his own supply of rhizomes is best advised to plant 60, 80 or more
bushels of rhizomes per acre. The expense of purchased rhizomes may make
these higher planting rates prohibitive. Row width for rhizomes dug with a
bermudagrass sprig harvester should not exceed 24 inches (60 cm) and even
narrower row widths are'better. The rhizomes can be planted in rows by
hand or with a bermudagrass sprig planter. When planted with a sprig
Splinter, the rhizomes are scattered uniformly in the row. If planted by
hand, the rhizomes.can be placed in hills 24 inches (60 cm) or less apart
in drill row (not further apart than row width). The more uniformly the
rhizome pieces are distributed across the field, the better the coverage
will be during the first season.
Rhizoma peanuts can also be dug with potato diggers and/or a heavy
duty peanut digger. 'The sod should be cut into ribbons with a gang of
coulters before digging. A sod lifter used for turf can also be used to
lift dig rhizome mats near the soil surface. Rhizome mats one square foot
(903'cm2) or larger in size can be planted in hills up to 6 feet apart in
Regardless of how you plant bare Florigraze rhizomes, they should be
completely covered-with soil to approximately 2 inches depth in course
sand, 1 to 11 inches depth in fine sand, and 3/4 to 1 inch depth in sandy
loam and clay soils. Arbrook can be planted up to 1/2 inch deeper than
Florigraze with equal success. Try not to plant in dry soil, but if you
must, plant 1/4 to 1/2 inch deeper than suggested above.
The best time for'planting rhizome peanuts is January and February
when peanut top growth is dead from frost. However, peanuts can be planted
from mid-December to mid-March. Plant survival was poorer when planted in
mid-March compared to January and February during the dry year of 1981.
i Steps for Establishment of Florigraze (Continued)
4. Fertilize with 300 pounds/acre (336 Kg/ha) of 0-10-20 or similar
analysis fertilizer without nitrogen or as directed by soil tests and
work into soil as seed bed is prepared.
5. Plant 40 bushels/acre (3.5 m3/ha) or more of rhizomes as uniformly as
possible over land at proper depth (see text) in January or February.
Hills of peanut dug with bermudagrass sprig digger should not be
planted more than 24 inches (60 cm) apart..
Continued on page 5
Weed Control ,
Weeds are the worst pest in growing Florigraze and must be controlled
if first season coverage is to be obtained. Uncontrolled weeds in rhizoma
peanut during the first several months after planting can result in the
death of the developing'peanut plants. No herbicides are specifically
labeled for use of rhizoma peanuts, as it is b new crop of limited acreage.
Table 2 gives information on herbicides we have found experimentally to be
useful in controlling weeds during the establishment of rhizoma peanuts.
Some of these herbicides may be labeled for use on rhizoma peanut in the
The biggest weed problem is perennial grass in a rhizoma peanut
nursery or hay field where 100% peanut is desired. The grass problem can
be minimized by planting on soil which does not have a perennial grass
growing and by separating out grass pieces that may be mixed with
Florigraze rhizomes at planting. Poast and Fusilade grass herbicides
can kill bermudagrass and other perennial grasses out of rhizoma peanut
with little or no damage to peanut. Poast and Fusilade are most useful on
nurseries from which rhizomes are to be dug for propagation purposes and
first year establishment areas that are not harvested for forage. Poast
and Fusilade can also be used to control perennial grass as in dug
perennial peanut rhizome, so grass weeds are not carried to next field in
The forage of rhizoma peanut and accompanying vegetation cannot be
used as feed for livestock if certain herbicides are applied, so be sure to
check label on herbicide containers. In the establishment year, the forage
yield of peanut is so low that only a little grazing or hay is possible.
It may be practical to use a herbicide at this time, even if it may render
the forage unusable as feed. By decreasing weed competition, peanut
survival and coverage can be increased. If the forage is usable for feed,
the top growth can be harvested at the end of the first growing season
without affecting peanut coverage. Top growth contaminated by herbicides
can be destroyed by burning after a killing freeze occurs with little or no
damage to the peanut. Do not plant rhizoma peanut in soil treated with
benefin (Balan) or trifluralin (Treflan) less than 14 days earlier as
damage to peanut rhizomes may occur, resulting in thin plant stands. 1
^ _.. 4
Recent research has indicated that annual winter crops can be planted
into short, dormant rhizoma peanut stubble in the fall of the establishment
year with little damage to the peanut. Winter crops studied have included
wheat for grain and forage, and oat, ryegrass, and crimson and sub clovers'
for forage. These crops can be planted with a minimum tillage pasture
seeder, a grain drill or the seed can be broadcast and lightly harrowed in.
Care should be taken not to damage excessively the rhizome system of the
peanut. Plant the winter crops in November within 36 hours after heavy
rainfall has wet the soil to a foot or more in depth. If a winter crop is
not grown for grain, graze it down close or cut for hay in early April.
Peanut should not be grazed until at least 6 inches (15 cm) tall in the
spring following a winter crop. The fertilization and seeding rate of
winter crops should be the same as if grown alone.
Steps for Establishment of Florigraze (Continued)' .
6. Inoculate with peanut inoculant at planting. The inoculant can be
sprayed or dusted on moist rhizomes before planting or applied in soil
S.with rhizomes as they are planted with a sprayer for liquid inoculant
or a granular applicator for granular inoculant.
7. Fertilize in July'or August with an additional 300 pounds/acre (336
kg/ha) of 0-10-20 fertilizer if soil is infertile or has not been
fertilized in recent years.,;
.8. Control broadleaf weeds by spraying with 2,4-DB,'bentazon (Basagran)
or Acifluorfen (Blazer) herbicide.
S9. Mow tall weeds just above peanut top growth or to 6 inches (15 cm)
with a dull rotary mower if peanut growth is above this height.
10. Irrigate during droughts, if available. Irrigation is usually not
necessary for peanut survival, if weeds are controlled, but it does
insure both survival and more rapid coverage of peanut.
11. Contact the author if you have questions or problems on perennial
peanut establishment or cannot find rhizomes to plant.
Inoculation of rhizoma peanuts with proper bacteria inoculant has been
recommended as it sometimes helps in early peanut growth particularly on
some soils which are very low in the natural bacteria that will nodulate
the peanut. However, most rhizoma peanut plantings will become inoculated
naturally by soil bacteria or bacteria carried on rhizomes, before end of
first growing season. So if you cannot obtain inoculant, it is better to
plant peanut without inoculation then wait a full year or plant too late.
Inoculant specific for the common peanut from any reputable company should
be useful for inoculating rhizoma peanuts.
Inoculant is sold several ways as liquid, powder (peat) or granular.
We use granular inoculant applied through a granular applicator mounted on
rhizome planter that delivers the inoculant on top of rhizomes just before
covering with soil. Four or more pounds of granular inoculant is applied
per acre. Peat or liquid inoculant can be mixed with clean water and
sprayed or sprinkled over rhizomes. Anyway you can get inoculant on or ,
. around the rhizomes in soil will work. Apply enough liquid or peat
inoculant to each acreto treat approximately 200 pounds of common peanut
seed. Inoculated rhizomes should be planted immediately as dessication and
sunlight are harmful to the bacteria. /
Table 1. Growers indicating they
digging rhizomes during
Grower name and -Phone
have rhizoma peanuts
winter of 1986-87.
Rt 1 Box 31
Alachua, FL 32615
Yes, on certain
A. C. Peace
Rt 3 Box 266
Valdosta, GA 31601
John E. Gavin
Rt 2 Box 329
Lake Park, GA 31636
Rt 1, Box 2291H
-Lady Lake, FL 32569
2007 Lighthouse Ct.
S:;Labelle, FL 33935
Rt 4 Box. 430
Lake City, FL 32055
* : .::) :::.:" 2 ^ *'r .'1'
", ,. \, ; '' *
: / 3 : ; ^ l : : / :
^ : 1. ^ / ..: / ': i .
* ~ ~ ~ '...'*;* 1*
Vero Musgrove 904-842-2571 No 2
Rt 1 Box 242 ....... ; .
Live Oak, FL 32060
If you have acreage of rhizoma peanut ready for digging, your name will be -
added to this list if you notify author giving above information.
--------- --------- -"
Table 2. Herbicides found in experiments to be useful
establishing rhizoma peanuts.
Trade Name and Broad- Common Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
Commercial Product of Active Ingredient
Balan -. benefin
3-4 qt./A 1.13-1.5 Ib./A
(7.0-9.4 liters/ha) 1/27-1.68 kg/ha)
in controlling weeds in
Weeds Controlled of and
Annual grasses and also
such as sandbur, signal-
grass and Texas panicum.
Good control of Florida
pusley and pigweed.
Incorporate into the soil
to a depth of 2-3 inches
(5-7.6 cm) within 8 hours
after application. Apply
10 days to several weeks
Good control of annual
grasses and certain
broadleaf weeds. Poor
control of cocklebur,
ragweed. Incorporate (
thoroughly according to
label directions 10 days
to several weeks before
Controls most annual
"- _grasses, Fla. pusley and
"pigweed. Tank mix with
trifluralin or benefit
for best spectrum
into the soil to a depth
of 3 inches (7.6 cm)
incorporation in the same
(Above herbicides must be applied 14 days preferably longer
Table 2. Continued. ..
Trade Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
(1.75 to 3.5
Common Name and Broad-
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha)
(0.84 to 1.68 kg/I
Weeds Controlled and
Preemergence control of
broadleaved weeds and
Controls many broadleaf
weeds including morning-
glory and cocklebur. No
effect on Florida beggar-
weed. Apply 2 to 12
weeks after planting. A
second application may be
made 3 weeks later.
After peanut --
establishment, can be
used as needed except
should not apply more
than 1.5 Ibs/A (1.68 .
kg/ha) 2,4-DB per annum.
Do not apply to drought
Good control of cockle-
bur, bristly starbur, and
ha) yellow nutsedge.; Rate
S depends on weed species
'and size; therefore, refer
to the label. Good spray
coverage is essential for
Control. Do not apply to
peanuts which have been-
subjected to stress. :;:;
(A tank mix
of 2,4-DB) (0.50 lb/A)
+ bentazon (1 lb/A) is very effective on a wide
;-;.I-- ----1;;-~ -I~-- --~-------~~---- -E:
Table 2. Continued . .
Trade Name and Broad- Common Name and Broad- Weed Controlled and
cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) cast Rate/Acre (Rate/ha) Remarks
of Commercial Product of Active Ingredient
(1.7 to 2.3 liters/ha)
(.42 to .56 kg/ha)
Takes 2 applications
I pt/A (0.6 liter/ha)
SFor control of bermuda-
+ 2 pts/A nonionic oil- grass, johnson grass and
concentrate (2.3 liters/ha) other perennial grasses.
Annual grasses controlled
with lower rates (See
+ 2 pts/A nonionic oil label). Apply before
concentrate (2.3 liters/ha) perennial grass is well
+ 2 pts/A nonionic
oil concentrate (2.3
For control of bermuda-
grass, johnsongrass and
other annual and
perennial grasses. Apply
before perennial grass is
(Will usually take more than one application of Poast or Fusilade to kill well
established perennial grasses).
azer L acif uorf n
Good control of many
broadleaf weed species
including hairy indigo,
crotalaria and citron.
Rate depends on size of
weeds and species,
therefore, refer to the
label. Good spray
coverage is essential for
control. Add a
surfactant at the rate
suggested on the label.
Do not apply when weeds
or peanuts are stressed.
Sprayed leaves and stems
may be crinkled or burned
but new leaves will
Killing perennial grass (especially bermudagrass rhizomes) in
perennial peanut rhizomes dug for propagation purposes.
Wet the grass parts and peanut rhizomes with one part Poast or
Fusilade 2000 herbicide to 200 parts water. This is 1 pint of herbicide to
25 gallons of water. Add surfactant or noniopic oil as suggested on label.
The herbicide will kill grass and not hurt the peanut rhizomes, but every
grass piece must be moistened with herbicide solution in order to kill
Note: Always read herbicide label
-' ./ *
carefully before applying.
V:.` ~ : :
'* ** '-
;r .-- :-:- i :~r:-;--