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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-84-15
Title: Sod seeded grain sorghum and corn yield response to anhydrous ammonia
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056064/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sod seeded grain sorghum and corn yield response to anhydrous ammonia
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baldwin, John Allen, 1947-
Gallaher, Raymond N.
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Department of Agronomy, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1984?
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John A. Baldwin and Raymond N. Gallaher.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3-4).
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-84-15
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056064
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62555472

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










AGRONOMY RESEARCH REPORT AY-84-15

SOD SEEDED GRAIN SORGHUM AND CORN YIELD
RESPONSE TO ANHYDROUS AMMONIA

BY

John A. Baldwin and Raymond N. Gallaher
Graduate Student and Professor of Agronomy,
respectively, Department of Agronomy, IFAS,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
32621


ABSTRACT

Vast areas of the southeast are occupied by perennial sods which could be
more fully utilized if interplant multicropping minimum tillage systems were
feasible. Research was undertaken to determine the effect of anhydrous ammonia
as the sole source of N in no-tillage plus subsoil planted grain sorghum
(Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and tropical corn (Zea Mays L.) into bahia grass
(Paspalum Notatum L. Flugge) sod. Two locations were utilized in 1983. Five
rates of N (0, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg/ha) were treatments in randomized
complete block experiments with six replications. All N was injected 25 cm
under the row during the planting operation. For corn there was a grain and
stover yield response to the 112 kg N/ha rate averaged over the two locations.
One location only responded to 56 kg N/ha for grain or whole plant dry matter
yield due to lack of adequate rainfall. Grain sorghum yields differed at each
location and responded similarly to increasing rates of anhydrous ammonia.

INTRODU ACTION

Nitrogen is the largest and most expensive fertilizer component used in
growing corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the
United States. Anhydrous ammonia is one of the least expensive sources of
available N for agronomic crops.
Vast areas of the southeast are occupied by perennial sods which could be
more fully utilized if interplant multicropping minimum tillage systems were
feasible. Multi-cropping systems utilizing bahiagrass (paspalum notatum L.
Flugge)sod followed by temperate corn or grain sorghum (7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14,
16) have been studied.
Because of new no-tillage and no-tillage plus subsoiling equipment and
chemical weed control methods, producers may be able to utilize sods as mulch
for succeeding crops instead of destroying them to plant crops _s a corn or
sorghum. Limited studies have included the f- ie panting
into grass sods (14,16). Many research reo~ jp ie' ptBlished on the
use of various N sources for use in no-ti age cropping systems (1, ,4,9).
However, there is limited research when ut izing rj hy rju00i mmonia as the
primary source of N for producing corn or ain sorghum in bahia rass sod
(5,6). Nitrogen management in no-tillage syst ms has been. swlj.1be more
4 e otmenrally
critical due to slower mineralization, higher i t'a ~o ard.-potentially
greater losses by leaching and denitrification of ~N -3--,(1727,9,17).
A considerable land acreage in the Southeast is characterized by rolling
topography or sandy soils which are subject to erosion by water or wind.
Because of these row cropping erosion hazards, much of this land is maintained









in grass sod. No-tillage planting a summer crop such as tropical corn or grain
sorghum into a grass sod could help reduce erosion problems due to water and/or
wind. Therefore, methods for chemically suppressing spring and summer grass
growth, but allowing fall regrowth would be desirable (10). The renovation of
the pasture sod with in-row subsoiling plus having grass regrowth and crop
residues for livestock to graze in the Fall could dramatically increase the
value and profitability of multi-cropping corn or sorghum with bahiagrass sods.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of anhydrous
ammonia as the sole source of N in no-tillage plus subsoil planted grain
sorghum and tropical corn into bahiagrass sod.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

Two separate experiments at two locations were planted during 1983. The
experiments were in randomized complete block designs with 6 replications, one
testing Pioneer brand X304C tropical corn and the other testing DeKalb DK59
grain sorghum planted into 15 year old bahiagrass (cv."Pensacola") sods. One
location was planted on June 9, 1983 on a Kershaw fine sand (thermic, uncoated
Typic Quartzipsamment) an excessively drained sand and the other on June 23,
1983 on a Chiefland fine sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic, Arenic Hapludalf).
The plots were 8 rows, 76 cm wide, and 12.2 m in length. The plots were
planted with an in-row subsoil planter with anhydrous tube attached to the
subsoil shank, the corn was planted at a population of 62,000 plants /ha and
the sorghum at 124,000 plants/ha. No irrigation was provided at either
location, an application of .67 kg a.i. Carbofuran
(2,3-Dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7- benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) 15G (Furadan) was
applied in front of the press wheel at planting. Ten days prior to planting,
an application of .84 kg a.i glyphosate (isopropylamine salt of
N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) (Roundup) plus 1.9 L of X-77 surfactant/95 L of
water was applied in a spray volume of 26 L/ha at 2.8 kg/cm2 this was done to
suppress the bahiagrass sod prior to planting.
All plots were fertilized with a broadcast application of 80 kg K/ha 25 kg
S/ha, and 12 kg M g/ha just prior to planting. Sources of K, S, and Mg were K2
SO4:MgSO4 (K-Mag) and KC1 (Muriate of Potash). Nitrogen was applied at
planting under the row and injected on the subsoil shank at a 25 cm depth.
Nitrogen rates were randomized and replicated six times at 0, 56, 112, 168, and
224 kg N/ha. On July 26 and 27th at the two locations, .05kg a.i. paraquat
(1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) plus 0.5 L X-77/95 L was direct sprayed
to further suppress the sod. Plots at location one were hand harvested on
September 12, 1983 and those at location two on September 26, 1983.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The corn showed a grain and stover yield response to the 112 kg N/ha rate
averaged over the two locations (Table 1). One location responded to 56 kg
N/ha for grain,residue,and whole plant dry matter yields due to insufficient
rainfall during the silking to ear fill period. Grain yield decreased with
increasing rate of N at one location where rainfall was limiting. This
physiological response of corn to drought stress has been reported previously
(15).
Dry matter yield for corn stalks, whole plant, and corn residue increased
up to the 168 kg N/ha rate averaged over the two locations. The corn grain to
residue ratio averaged over the two locations increased by 180 % at the 56 kg
N/ha rate over the control. Other corn data are presented in Table 2.
Grain sorghum yields differed at each location and responded similarly to










increasing rate of N from 0 to 224 kg N/ha (Table 3). Percentage of grain was
significant only in the plots receiving no supplemental N. An interaction
occurred due to location for number of plants in the final stand and the grain
to residue ratio.
In summary, the rate of anhydrous ammonia as applied in this experiment,
had a positive effect on most components measured. Insufficient rainfall at one
location and distribution of rainfall effected corn yields more than sorghum
yields.

REFERENCES

1. Bandel, V.A., S. Dzienia, G. Sanford and J.O. Legg. 1975. N behavior under
no-till vs. conventional corn culture. First year results using unlabeled N
fertilizer. Agron. J. 72:337-341.


2. Bandel, V.a., S. Dzienia and George Sanford. 1980.
fertilizer for no-till corn. Agron. J. 72:337-341.


Comparison of N


3. Blevins, R.L., G.W.
no-tillage and nitrogen
years of continuous corn.


Thomas, and P.L. Cornelius. 1977.
fertilization of certain soil properties
Agron. J. 69:383-386.


Influence
after five


4. Blevins, R.L. W.W. Frye, and M.J. Bitzer. 1980.
in no-tillage systems by management of nitrogen.
Third Annual No-Tillage Conference, ed by R.
Department, Univ. of FL Gainesville. pp 14-20.


Conservation of energy
in Proceedings of the
N. Gallaher, Agronomy


5. Blue,W.G., and C.F. Eno. 1956.
sandy soil. Agricultural Ammonia


Anhydrous Ammonia may
News. pp. 16-17.


be applied in dry


6. Blue,W.G., and C.F. Eno. 1956. New facts about 82-0-0.
and Soils. pp. 10-15.


What's New in Crops


7. Gallaher,R.N. 1978. Multiple cropping-value of mulch. in Proceedings of the
First Annual Southeastern No-till Systems Conference. ed by Joe Touchton
and D. G. Cummins, Agronomy Department, Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment,
Georgia. pp. 9-13.


8. Lundy,H.W., G.M.
sorghum in bahiagrass
33:30-33.


Prine, and W.K. Robertson. 1974. No-tillage planting
or ryegrass sods. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla.


9. Mengel, D.B., D.W. Nelson, and D.M. Huber. 1982. Placement of Nitrogen
fertilizers for no-till and conventional till corn. Agron. J. 74:515-518.

10. Moore, J.E., O.C. Rios, and D.E. Franke. 1971. Nutritive value of
Pensacola bahiagrass hays. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 30:211-221.


11. Prine, G.M. 1967. Maize culture in perennial grass
herbicides. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 27:122-132.

12. Prine, G.M. and W.K. Robertson. 1968. Three methods
sorghum in Pensacola bahiagrass sod. Soil and Crop
28:193-203.


sods- controlled by


of growing corn and
Sci. Soc. of Fla.











13. Robertson, W.K., H.W. Lundy, G.M. Prine, and W.L. Currey. 1976.
Planting corn in sod and small grain residues with minimum tillage. Agron.
J. 68:271-274.

14. Robertson, W.K., R.N. Gallaher, and G.M. Prine. 1980. Minimum tillage
corn in perennial sod: a three year study with energy implications. in
Proceedings of the Third annual No-Tillage Systems Conference. ed by R. N.
Gallaher, Agronomy Department, Univ. of Fla. Gainesville. pp. 140-144.

15. Shimshi, D. Interactions between irrigation and plant nutrition. In:
Transition from extensive to intensive agriculture with fertilizers; pp.
111-120. Proc. 7th Colloq. Int. Potash Inst, Bern, 1969.

16 Stanley,R.L., Jr., and R.N. Gallaher. 1980. No-tillage versus conventional
corn in bahiagrass sod with soybeans following, in Proceedings of the Third
Annual No-Tillage Systems Conference. ed by R. N. Gallaher, Agronomy
Department, Univ. of Fla. Gainesville. pp. 152-155

17 Thomas, G.W., R.L. Blevins, R.E. Phillips, and M.A. McMahon. 1973. Effect
of a killed sod mulch on nitrate movement and corn yield. Agron. J.
65:736-739.

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the following individuals for their resources and
technical support of this research project. Peggy and Spencer Miller, Bronson,
Florida; Danny Stevens and Don Bennink of North Florida Holsteins, Bell,
Florida; Sonny Tompkins, Bill Carter, Betty Hurst, and Evelyn Bluckhorn,
Technical Assistants, IFAS, Gainesville, and Bronson, Florida.


Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee of warranty of products
named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of other of suitable
composition. Users of pesticides should follow all labeled directions and use
pesticides safely.










Table 1. Corn response to no-tillage in-row subsoil planting
into bahiagrass sod as influenced by rates of anhydrous
ammonia and location.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Location

N Treatment Miller Farm Stevens Farm Average
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Kg N/ha ----------Grain Yield Kg/ha------------------------
0 263 c 420 c 216 c
56 1374 a 1756 b 1562 b
112 1267 ab 3186 a 2227 a
168 1311 ab 3807 a 2565 a
224 797 b 4196 a 2496 a
-----------Stalks Mg DM/ha------------------------------
0 1.55 b 1.34 c 1.144 c
56 2.62 a 3.56 b 3.09 b
112 2.71 a .3.94 b 3.32 b
168 3.11 a 5.52 a 1.31 a
224 2.62 a 5.17 a 3.89 a
-----------corn residue Mg DM/ha-----------------------
0 1.57 b 1.30 c 1.43 c
56 2.93 a 3.63 b 3.28 b
112 2.98 a 4.26 b 3.62 b
168 3.40 a 5.35 a 4.37 a
224 2.87 a 5.51 a 4.19 a
-------Whole plant Mg-DM/ha--------------------------
0 1.81 b 1.52 d 1.66 d
56 4.12 a 5.13 c 4.62 c
112 4.08 a 6.99 b 5.53 b
168 4.52 a 8.60 ab 6.56 a
224 3.56 a 9.12 a 6.314 a
------------Grain/Residue------ ----- ---------
0 0.14 c 0.16 c 0.15 b
56 0.41 a 0.42 b 0.42 a
112 0.35 ab 0.63 a 0.49 a
168 0.33 ab 0.62 a 0.148 a
,2 0.25 be 0.65 a 0.145 a
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Values in columns within a variable not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability accordijnr to
I)uncan's new multiple range test.




















Table 2. Agronomic variables of nine corn cultivars no-til-
lage early planted during 1983


Variety
Temperate


Shelling
Percentage
Z


RX114

DK747


Open Pollinated

Tropical

YOM06

YOMO3

X304C

XL560

EXA815

EXA816


77 bc


Grain/Stalk
Ratio
I

.49 cd

.63 bc


.44 d


ab

ab

c

a-c

a-c

bc


Values in columns within a variable not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probabiltiy according to
Duncan's new multiple range test.


Brand


Asgrow

Dekalb

Exper.



Pioneer

Pioneer

Pioneer

Dekalb

Dekalb

Dekalb


. 6/,//,.' b.jh


~---~


-~--~---









Table 3. Grain sorghum response to no-tillage in-row subsoil
planting into bahiagrass sod as influenced by rates
of anhydrous ammonia and location.


Location


N Treatment Miller farm Stevens farm Average
-------------------------------------------------------------------------


Kg N/ha
0
56
112
168
224

0
56
112
168
224

0
56
112
168
224

0
56
112
168
224

0
56
112
168
224


0 24 b 9.4 b 16.7 b
56 39 a 14 ab 26.5 a
112 34 a 13 ab 23.5 a
168 36 a 20 a 28 a
224 37 a 17 a 27 a
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Values in columns within a variable not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability according to
Duncan's new multiple range test.


6/6/84 emb


---------Grain Yield Kg/ha-----------------------
590 c 232 c 414 c
2201 b 891 b 1543 b
2132 b 1010 b 1574 b
2534 ab 1693 a 2114 a
2853 a 1581 a 2158 a
---------Whole Plant Mg DM/ha---------------------------
2.08 c 2.28 c 2.19 d
4.86 b 5.42 b 5.13 c
5.49 ab 6.99 a 6.25 b
6.03 ab 7.23 a 6.63 b
6.76 a 7.79 a 7.28 a
---------Residue Mg DM/ha-----------------------------
1.57 d 2.08 c 1.82 d
2.93 c 4.64 b 3.78 c
3.63 b 6.09 a 4.86 b
3.83 ab 5.76 ab 4.79 b
4.28 a 6.41 a 5.34 a
---------Grain/Residue------------------------------
0.31 b 0.11 b 0.20 c
0.64 a 0.17 ab 0.44 a
0.51 a 0.16 ab 0.32 b
0.58 a 0.25 a 0.40 a
0.60 a 0.21 a 0.40 a
---------Plant/ha -----------------------
129071 b 68494 b 107560 c
157037 a 94652 a 124769 b
101106 c 96804 a 98955 d
180700 a 96804 a 137676 a
185002 a 105408 a 144130 a
---------% Grain-------------------------------




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