The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Agronomy Research Report AY83-11
Evaluation of Late Suer wanted No-Tilage Corn
Rayrond N. Gallaher and Earl S. Homer
Associate Professor and Professor of Agronom ry,
respectively, Department of Agronomy, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
The long growing season in the southern United States allows
year round crop production (Gallaher 1975). In the most southern
part of the South, two surrrer agronom-ic or agronomic like crops can
be grown in succession during the warm season (Norden and Marshall,
1965; Guilarte et al., 1975; Gallaher et al., 1979; Boote, 1980).
Nurerous studies have been trade on the rranagen- nt practices needed
to grow corn succeeded by soybeans (Gallaher et al., 1979; Frasier
and Gallaher, 1981; Gallaher, 1'976-1982), grain sorghum, forage
sorghnu, sorghmn X sudangrass, or millet (Arias and Gallaher, 1977;
Gallaher, 1976-1982). Other studies have been conducted on soybeans
succeeding soybeans (Boote, 1980; Ga!laher, 1978-1980), and
soybeans, forage sorghum, sorghun X sudangrass, or millet following
watermelon (Arias and Gallaher 1977, Gallaher 1977-1981). Still
other warm season, double-cropping agronomic systems include corn
followed by sunflowers, and sunflowers follow-ed by sunflowers, grain
sorghum, or soybeans (Gallaher, 1978, 1982).
A few attempts have been made to grow corn planted in mid to
late su;rmer as a second warm season crop succeeding earlier crops of
Scorn (Tifton Ga; Gallaher 1974-75). Early June planted -corn
following wheat for grain was attempted fr-omn 1977-1979 -on the Green
Acres Agronomy Farm near Gainesville, Florida with poor results
(Gallaher, 1977-1979). Two crops of corn per warm season are
frequently grown in the corn .breeding research program in Florida
(Horner 1982). This has allowed quick deveicpment of corn cultivars
with desired genetic traits.
Mid to late summer plantings of the present day cultivars,
developed for different planting dates (and thus different
environ.mnts), experience numerous pest problems. Corn planted
after corn in Georgia required frequent and extensive insecticide.
applications on the second crop planted in late summer (Gallaher and
All, 1975-76). Heavy damage was incurred iron lesser cornstalk
borer and leaf feeding insects, particularly fall army worm and ear
No insect resistance was found from the screening of over 100
early muriry present-day cutiiv.ars (e:Ium:, 1972-1974). But
several cultivars ware found that .ou!d produce \;il vhen planted in
late sumner at Griffin, Georgia if insects were controlled with
frequent application of pesticides (Gallaher and Jelltn, 1976a and
1976b; Gallaher et al., 1981). Research on insect resistance in
corn has been conducted at Mississippi'State University since the
early 1970's. Seme resistance has been found in tropical corn
Recently interest in growing sunner-planted corn in Florida has
increased, primarily because of the development and reported success
with Pioneer Brand '304C; a hybrid with a tropical genetic
background. This hybrid has appreciable more resistance to leaf
and ear-feeding insects than hybrids developed in the US. Other
companies also are active 'in developing insect resistance dr
tolerant hybrids that nay be useful for sumner plantings in the deep
The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate sane of the
insect tolerant and/or possibly resistant corn cultivars for double
cropping, no-tillage management following no-tillage early planted
corn and"2) to compare these cultivars with hybrids suggested for
use under early planting, high yield, no-tillage nanagerrent
(Gallaher 1983a and 1983b).
MATERIALS AND ~TTrDS
The experiment was conducted on the Robinson farm, Williston,
-'Florida in 1982. The soil was a Zuber Variant loamy fine sand.
Following harvest-of several no-tillage planted corn hybrids on July
12, stalks were chopped with a rotary nower and spread evenly
immediately behind the combine..
Thirteen corn cultivars were planted directly into the
previous corn residue on 3uly 28th using an in-row subsoil
:' no-tillage plante' (Table 1). Cultivars were replicated four times
in a randomized complete block design. In the planting operation
112 kg/ha N (as anhydrous armonia) was injected 25 an under the row
through metal tubes attached to the back of the subsoil units. Also
at planting, 2.74 kg/ha active ingredient (a.i.) carbofuran was
applied in the row. Immediately after planting 0.56 kg/ha a.i.
paraquat plus 2.24 kg/ha a.i.-linuron plus 470 ml X77 surfactant/378
L water was broadcast for pre-emergence weed control. A
post-directed application of 0.13 kg/ha a.i. paraquat plus 470 ml
X77 surfactant/378 L of water was made on September 1. Insecticide
foliar applications were made three times on August 16th and 20th
using labelled rates of toxaphene and on September 1 using labelled
rates of lannate. Also on September 1 an application of 224 kg/ha
K2SOY4:MgSD4 (K-Mag fertilizer) was broadcast because of what
appeared to be S deficiency in some cultivars.
Yield was estimated from sampling an 18.6 m2 area of plots on
November 22. Data collected included population at harvest, plant
height, ear number, whole plant dry matter, grain dry matter, and
grain yield at 15.5% moisture. After ears were dried, ear quality
insect ratings and shuck cover ratings were made. Ratings ranged
fron I to 9 with one being perfect quality or shuck cover and 9
Statistical analysis of variance for a randomnized complete
block %.s performed according to Steel and Torrey (1960). A program
written in Beginners All Purpose Sy.bolic Instructional Code (BASIC)
computer language for a Radio Shack TRS 80 Model III 48K
microcomputer. Differences among rreans were tested the sane as for
analysis of variance using a program written in B\SIC for Duncans
Nhe Multiple Range Test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSS ION
The tropical cultivars (Table 1) were expected to produce
better when planted in late sunmer than the temperate cultivars.
Some of the tropical hybrids being tested for sumner planting were
still experimental. The temperate zone cultivars that are normally
planted from February 15 to March 15 in the Gainesville area have
produced over 12,555 kg/ha (200 bu/A) on rore than one occasion when
managed properly (Gallaher 1983). No knowledge of their performance
when planted -in the mid --sumrer- was available. -However, it was
suspected that they would not perform well when planted as late as
they were in this study.
An experimental hybrid, -"D.Kalb 816" was equal in plant dry
matter and grain yield to "Pioneer Brand 394C", a hybrid grown
widely in late plantings" in 1982 (Table 2). None of the hybrids that
are normally planted as a first crop did well in this 'study.
However, Pioneer 3320, a mid season hybrid (Table 1), had better
yield than the early raturi-ty hybrids. The extra early hybrid-"Funks
G-4323" had almost -no grain yield and very little plant dry matter.
No data were collected on "Coker 19" because of poor stands due to
poor seedling survival. This hybrid appeared to have- poor yield
potential, similar to the other early maturity temperate hybrids
when planted in mid to late su~mer.
A heavy infestation of fall army worm occurred soon after
seedlings emerged. These insects continued to be a problem until
after the final insecticide spraying in September. Foliar damage was
most heavily inflicted on the early maturity, shorter hybrids (Table
4). Ear quality was good on all but the mid and early season
Some of the overall observations found in this study are listed
below. 1) Recocmended hybrids that were developed for early planting
probably will not perform well when planted in mid surrner. 2)
Genetic potential exists for reasonable corn yields in mid to late
su;ner plantings. .3) Several genotypes appear to have sone
tolerance to insect infestation and can produce a quality ear if
insects are controlled in early stages of plant growth. 4) Cultivars
that showed promise in this test had a. stalk to grain ratio of
almost 1:1, were about 2.5 m tall and had good ear quality even
under intense army worm infestation during early stages of pretassel
These data, along with observations made on farmers' late
plantings and positive testimonials by others make it appear that
mid to late surrer planted corn may have a place in Florida
agriculture. For this to become a reality m-ch research needs to be
done on breeding and hybrid screening as .!ll as for required
Table i* Characteristics of corn cultivars planted
no-tillage in late sunmer succeeding spring planted
Company or Hybrid Recon~nended Grain
Brand Nxumber Maturity To Plant Hybrid Color
----_----------------- Tropical -----------------------
Asgrow A667 ? .? yes Whi te
DeKalb 560 ? ? yes Yell ow
DeKalb 815 ? ? : yes Yellow
DeKalb 816 -?. ? yes Yellow
Pioneer 304C -. .? ?- .. yes Yellow
Tropical -:CP- -* ? ... .?':. :--.no White
-- T----------- Temperate --------------
Asgrow ...777 Ear.ly Feb 15-March .1.5 Yes Yellow
Coker 19 Early Feb 15-March 15 Yes Yellow -.
DeKalb XL71 Early :Feb 15-March 15 Yes Yellow
Funks G-4323 Extra Early Feb 15-March 15 yes yel-low
Funks G-4507A Early -Feb 15-March 15 :.Yes Yellow
Gold Kist 748 Early Feb 15-March 15 Yes Yellow-
Pioneer .'3320 Mid Feb: 15-March 15 Yes Yel low.
------------ :-------------- --------------- 7-------------
SCP = Open Pollenated .
Table 2. Yield of corn cultivars planted no-tillage in late
summer succeeding spring planted no-tillage corn.
Company Hybrid Forage Grain
* or Brand Number Ton/A Bu/A %Grain S/G- Ratio
DeKalb. 816 : 5.75a 115.47a 47.79a. 1.10b
Pioneer 304C 5.50ab 107.48ab 46.54a 1.16b
DeKalb 560 5.12ab 94.45ab 43.09ab 1.38b
DeKalb 815 4.86abc 79.30bc 45.88ab 1.18b
Asgrow : A667 -4.38bc 79.46bc 42.41ab 1.39b
Pioneer 3320 :.3.89cd 67.41cd 40.86ab 1.46b
Tropical CP 3.11de 56.00de 43.15ab' 1.33b
DeKalb XL71 2.36ef 40.53ef 42.36ab 1.51b
Asgrow 777 2.03efg 32.92f 39.11ab 1.75b
Funks G-4507A 1.92fg 24.99g 24.79c 4.77a
Gold Kist -748 1.51g 19.55fg 31.08bc 2.61ab
Funks G-4323 0.97.g .9.06g. 23.52c 4.73a
CP = open pollenazed; S/G = Stalk to Grain Dry Matter Ratio; Forage Yield
is reported on above ground hold plant dry rratter (Multiply T/A times
2242 to get yield in kg/ha); Grain yield is reported on 15.5% moisture
(..:u.iply bu/A times 62.776 to getgrain yield in kg/ha). Percent Grain is
a :r:asure of the grain as a percentage of the v,::ole plant on a dry matter
basis. Values in coluTns among corn varieieies not foio...ed by the sa-r
Jt:ter are significantly different at :he 0i.5 cIvel of probability
a-corCSng to Duncans new multiple range zes:.
TabIe 3. NLrnber of plants and ears at harvest tire of corn
cultivars planted no-tillage in late summer succeeding
spring planted no-tillage corn.
---- ----------------------- -----------------------
Carpany Hybrid ..Plants Ears
or Nurrer ----------------- ----------
Brand ha A ha A
----------------- --------- -----------
beKal b XL71
Gold Kist 748
CP = Open pollenated. Values in colrms. within corn varieties not followed
by the same letter, are significantly different at the 0.05 level of
probability according to Duncans new multiple range test.
Table 4. Insect and shuck cover ratings of corn cultivars
planted no-tillage in late summer succeeding spring planted
Ear Ratings at Harvest Plant Height.
Canpany --------- ----- --------
or Hybrid Insects Shuck Cover
Brand Number 1-9 1-9 M Inches
DeKalb 816 2.00 c 3.75 cd 2.49 98ab
Pioneer 304C 2.25 :c 3.25 cd .2.57 101ab
DeKalb 560 -2.75 c 2.75 -d 2.54 100ab
DeKalb 815 2.25 c 2.25 d 2.39 94 b.
Asgrow A667 2.50 c 2.25 d 2.74 108a
Pioneer 3320 5.25 b 6.50ab .2.13 84 .c
Tropical CP 2.50 c 2.50 d 2.11 83 c
DeKalb XL71 6.25 b 7.00a 2.01 79. cd
Asgrow 777 5.25 b 5.00 bc 1.65 65 ef
Funks G-4507A 6.75 b 7.75a 1.85 73 de
Gold Kist 748 6.50 b 7.00a .1..73 68 e
Firunk C.-4323 8 75a -.00a : 1.47 58 f
CP = Open Pollenated. Ratings range frmn I to 9 with a rating
perfect. Values in co!luns a-nong.corn varieties not followed
letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level of
according to Duncans new multiple range test.
of I being
by the same
" 21154 c
All, 3.N. and R.N. Gallaher. 1976. Insect infestation in no-tillage
corn cropping systems. Georgia Agr. Res. 17(4):17-19.
All, 3.N. and R.N. Gallaher. 1977. Detrirrental impact of no-tillage
corn cropping "systems involving insecticides, hybrids, and
irrigation on Lesser Cornstalk Borer (Elsrnpalpus lignosellus)
infestations. 3. Econ. Entomol. 70(3):361-365.
All, 3.N., R.N. Gallaher, and M.D. 3Jellmn. 1979. Influence of
planting date, extended fallowage, irrigation, and conservation
tillage practices on efficacy of planting time insecticide
applications for control of Lesser Cornstalk Borer in field corn. 3.
Econ. Entorml. 72:265-286..
Arias, F.R. and R.N.. Gallaher. 1975. Nitrogen.absorption in twelve
cultural systems. Proceedings, 25th Annual Meeting of the Central
.rTerican Cooperative Program for the Advancement of Food Crops.
Boote, K.3. 1980. Double cropping soybeans succeeding soybeans in
Florida. In. Proc. of the 'Third Annual No-Tillage Systems
Conference. Theme: Energy Relationships in Minimurn Tillage Systems.
Ed. by R.N. Gallaher. Agronomy Dept. Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida. pp.68-75.
Frasier, D.M. and R.N. Gallaher. 1981. Relation of soil pH to
ammoniu-n nitrate applied to corn-soybean successions. (Abstr.) Amer.
Soc. Agron. 73:176.
Frasier, D.M. and R.N. Gallaher. 1982. Growth curves and dry natter
partitioning in a corn forage-soybean and corn grain-soybean double
cropping succession. Fl. Academy Sci. (Abstr.) 46:3.
Gallaher, R.N. 1974-76. Unpublished data on corn succeeding corn.
Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment, Georgia presently Agron.
Dept. Univ. of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N. 1975. All out feed production by multiple cropping
(in) R.N. Gallaher and D.M. Baird Ed. Proc. Research Day. "Efficient
Energy Use." University of Georgia, College of Agriculture
Experiment Station, Georgia Station, Experiment, Georgia. 1:29-36.
Gallaher, R.N. and M.D. 3ellun. 1976. Influence of soil planting
dates on mineral element efficiency of corn hybrids. Ccrm. Soil Sci.
Plant Anal. 7(7):665-676. .
Gallaher, R.N. and M.D. 3elluim. 1976. EleTental and/or cation ratio
efficiency of corn hybrids grown .on an infertile soil inadequate in
rr~gnesiu.. Comn. Soil Sci. Plant Anal; 7(7):692-696.
Gallaher, R.N. 1976-19S2. Unpublished date fri~v several studies on
carn foil',d by grain sorghum or sTr .n..a. fcrages. Agron.
Dept. Univ. of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N. 1976-1982. Unpublished data on several studies
corn succeeded by soybeans..Agron. Dept. Univ. of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N. 1977-1981. Unpublished data on waternll Ion
by strmer forages. Agron. Dept. Univ. of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N. 1977-1979. Unpublished data on corn following heat
grain in Florida. Agron. Dept. Univ.-of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N. 1978-1980. Unpublished data on soybeans followed by
soybeans. Agron. Dept. Univ. of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N. 1978-1982. Unpublished data on
sunflowers or sunflowers followed by sunflowers,
soybeans. Agron. Dept. Univ. of Fl., Gainesville.
Gallaher, R.N., M.D. Read, R.B. Forbes, F.M. Rhodes,
Scudder. 1979. Corn-soybean succession double cropping.
of Florida, IFAS, Agronomy Department Fact Sheet No.93.
Gallaher, R.N., M.D. Jellun; and 3.B. 3ones,3r. 1981. Leaf ragnesiumn
concentration efficiency versus yield efficiency of corn hybrids.
Conm. Soil Sci. and Plant Anal. 12:345-354.
Gallaher, .R. N. 1983.' No-tillage corn yield surrary
high yield hybrids in eight experiments conducted in
counties in 1982. Univ. of Fl., IFAS, Agron. Res. Rept.
Gallaher, R.N. 1983. No-tillage corn and sunflower yield response
from Furadan .and Counter pesticides in Alachua County, Florida in
1982. Univ. of Fl., IFAS, Agron. Res. Rept. AY83-05.
T.C., R.E. Perez-Levy and G.M. Prine. 1975. Sane double
possibilities under irrigation during the warm season in
West Florida. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. of Fl. 34:138-143.
Horner. E.S. Two crops of corn per year in Florida's corn breeding
program-personal communication? Agron. Dept. Univ. of Fl.,
Jellum, M.D. 1972-1974. Unpublished data on the screening of hybrids
for double cropping Georgia. Georgia Exp. Sta., Experiment, Georgia.
Norden, A.3. and S.P. Marchell. 1965. Effect of three crops vs two
crops annually on forage production and soil nutrient level. Soil
Crop Sci. Soc. of Fl. 25:276-283.
Steel, Robert G. D., and 3.H. Torrie. 1960.
Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill Bok Co.,
Toronto, and London. 481 p.
Inc. Ne.v York,