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Group Title: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-85-11
Title: Green manure cropping systems and benefits
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056053/00001
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Title: Green manure cropping systems and benefits
Physical Description: 22 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gallaher, Raymond N
Eylands, Val Jon, 1952-
University of Florida -- Agronomy Dept
Publisher: Agronomy Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1985?
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Subject: Green manure crops -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 21-22).
General Note: Agronomy research report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; AY-85-11
Statement of Responsibility: by Raymond N. Gallaher and Val J. Eylands.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00056053
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62557919

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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida












Agronomy Research Report AY-85-11





Green Manure Cropping Systems and Benefits

By

Raymond N. Gallaher and Val J. Eylands

Professor and Former Graduate Student, Agronomy Department

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida 23611



INTRODUCTION



Green manure crops are crops which are grown for their soil-improving

qualities or as a cover crop and which are plowed-in at the end of the growing

season or just prior to planting the succeeding crop. Green manure crops are not

usually harvested and may not, by themselves, produce a food or feed crop. An

exception is the frequent use of the green manure crop for grazing by farm

animals.



7 -4
LEGUME \



Legumes have been cultivated in cropping systems since pre-re d history.

Remains from ancient civilizations and Bibical eg esndtate that beans and

lentils have been grown in rotation with cereal grains for thousands of years.

The first reference to legumes as a green manure for soil-building comes from

the Romans in the second century BC (Davis et al, 1940). The practice was again

advocated in Europe during the Middle Ages. For two centuries after the








colonization of the United States, the production of legumes for green manure

was not a common practice, even though early American farmers mined the new

agricultural lands of their native fertility. By the middle of the 19th century,

however, crop yields declined and soil erosion was becoming a recognized

problem in the southeastern U.S. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) was first 'i-;-:

introduced to the U.S. in 1847 but met with limited success (Scott, 1929). It was

successfully reintroduced in 1870 along with Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum

subsp. avense L. Poir) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) as winter

legumes for wheat (Tritucum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) systems.

Frequent mention of winter-cropping legumes appeared in the literature in the

1890's. By 1920 almost every extension office in the southeastern U.S. was

recommending winter legumes for soil-building and erosion control.

Harlan (1912) reported 500 kg/ha improvement in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

yields even 2 years after plowing under clover green manure. The Alabama State

Experiment Station established permanent winter legume plots in 1896 and by

1923 had accumulated 27 years' of data on. double-cropping and intercropping

corn (Zea mays L) and cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.) with legumes (Funchess,

1923). They reported that-agood stand of hairy vetch or crimson clover added

50 to 60 kg N/ha althoughrthey needed lime and P for good establishment. When

cotton was intercropped with vetch following a cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

green manure crop, cotton yields were triple those of monocropped cotton.

Work in the early part of the century was conducted mainly with hairy vetch,

several types of clover, Austrian winter pea, soybean (Glycing max L.) and

peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Blair (1930) advocated winter cropping of crimson ::

clover in North Carolina while Scott (1929) suggested velvetbean (Stizolobium

deeringianum L.), Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum L.) and crotalaria

(Crotalaria spectabulis L.) for Florida farmers. During this period, establishing a










good stand of the legume was difficult as most soils did not contain native

Rhizobium of the correct strains. Inocultaion of seed was accomplished by mixing

several hundred kilograms of topsoil from an established stand with planting

seed. By the mid 1930's, however, Wasson (1937) indicated that many Louisiana

growers were using packaged inoculum. This technology and consistent claims of

improved corn and cotton yields resulted in a 60% increase of Louisiana acres

cropped to winter legumes in just 1 year.

Following World War II inorganic N fertilizer was introduced into agricultural

markets and immediately became very popular. Declining N prices during the

1950's and 1960's corresponded to a drastic reduction in legume research except

perhaps in pasture and forage systems. It is interesting to note that the price of

N was approximately 22 cents/kg at the turn of the century (Harlan, 1912), close

to the present day price of N in anhydrous ammonia. During the late 1950's, N

prices dipped to below 11 cents/kg.

When petroleum prices soared in 1973, so did N fertilizer prices. The changing

economics of inorganic N use coupled with a growing national concern over soil

erosion losses has sparked yet another comeback for winter-cropping legumes in

the Southeast. The fact:that N represents almost 68% of the fossil fuel energy

for NT (no-tillage) corn production has led to a search for winter legumes that

can fix large amounts of N in addition to raising soil OM (organic matter) levels

for improved water and nutrient-holding capacities.












GRASSES




Time has not permitted the authors to make an exhaustive search of the'

literature in regard to the use of grass crops as greem manure or cover crops.

Crop residue and green manure crops have been advocated for a long time to aid

in conserving soil that is succeptible to erosion (Ackerman, 1944). The benefits

of winter cover or green manure crops were exhaustively investigated in a study

by Beal et al. (1955) in South Carolina from 1943 to 1952. This 10 year study

investigated the effects of harrowing or plowing under green manure winter

crops of vetch and rye, crimson clover, or plowing with no green manure crop on

runoff, erosion, soil properties, and corn yield. Green manure mulched

treatments were prepared by planting corn by disk-harrowing, and by

disk-harrowing plus loosening the soil with a spring-toothed tiller. Turn plow

treatments included the use of disk and moldboard plow to either plow under the

cover crops or the noncover crop check treatment.


Table 1. Runoff, soil erosion, soil aggregation, soil organic matter, and percent
nitrogen in soil in a 10 year-study in South Carolina by Beale, et al. (1955).

Tillage Green Manure Water* Soil* Degree of** Organic Soil**
Methods Crops Runoff Erosion Aggregation Matter**Nitrogen

-cm- -t/ha- -Degree- -%- ---
Harrow twice Vetch and rye 1.42 0.96 45 2.06 0.069
Turn-plowed + Vetch and rye 3.86 2.73 40 1.61 0.055
Harrow twice Crimson clover 40 1.96 0.064
Turn-plowed + Crimson clover 32 1.79 0.056


~t

;


i.
r

~d.










Turn-Plowed + None 9.32 6.30 27 1.23 0.036

Average Growing Season Rainfall 56.18

* Average per year over 10 years. ** Values at end of 10 years.


Runoff and erosion were reduced considerably under green manure treatments

compared to the treatment consisting of turn-plowed without green manure. The

degree of aggregation of soil in the green manure treatment increased more

rapidly than that in turn-plowed treatments. The vetch and rye cover crop

caused greater improvement in degree of soil aggregation than crimson clover.

Soil aggregation of the turn plowed treatments decreased during the 10 year

test. Organic matter content of soil in the green manure treatment increased

significantly. Organic matter content of the clean-tilled plots without a cover

crop did not change materially. Total-N content of all plots with cover crop

treatments, except the clean tilled crimson clover, increased significantly during

the test. The harrow-tilled green manure treatment increased soil-N more than

the clean-tilled green manure treatments. There was no appreciable change in

soil-N in the clean-tilled soil without a cover crop.

The differences between corn yields of all treatments for all years, except

1950, were not significant. After reviewing the fertilization program used in this

study, it was apparent that. fertilizer-N was supplied in excess in the legume

green manure treatments which likely eliminated any N fertilizer benefits to the

corn. These data by Beale et al. (1955) illustrate the tremendous soil

conservation and soil building potential of green manure corps when they are

incorporated prior to growing corn.

Mulch planting was a7 conservation or minimum tillage practice to reduce

erosion, runoff, and evaporation losses of soil water during the late 1950's and

early 1960's (Eagles and Maurer, 1963). Mulch planting consisted of opening a

furrow with a disk lister or a middle buster and planting soybeans, corn, or grain










sorghum without prior seedbed preparation. This practice was employed on about

40,000 ha in the Southeast in 1963. Mulch planting was successful in standing

cover crops, crop residues, and perennial grass sods. With this practice a furrow -.'

was established where the seed was placed and the soil was thrown to the

middles of the corn, soybean, or grain sorghum row, covering or partially

covering the previous crop residue, cover crop, or sod. The authors stated that a

long-term benefit of mulch planting was improved soil tilth. Immediate benefits

included: reduced soil erosion, increased soil-water conservation, and less soil

compaction.

In present day farming practices, large quantities of fertilizers and pesticides

are in use. Reduction of soil erosion by use of green manure crops is not the

only factor that affects environmental quality of rivers and streams. Amounts of

nutrients and pesticides in the runoff water from corpland also are important

(Whisler and Sanford, 1980). There are very few reports of the effects of tillage

systems on nutrient losses and even fewer on the effects of tillage systems on

pesticide losses. Klausner et al. (1974) in New York reported on the effects of

good management (cover -crop of rye and plant residues incorporated in the

spring) and poor management _(no cover crop of rye and crop residues burned).

They found that heavy fall fertilization on poorly-managed soil resulted in

excessive losses of nitrate-N in runoff water. Otherwise, under good

management, N in runoff--was about the same as in the precipitation. Highest -'

amounts of inorganic-P were found in runoff from plots receiving the highest

levels of fertility under poor management. The poor management plots produced

the highest amounts of runoff, and peak fertility losses were found immediately

following fertilizer applications. Their data represented 15 years of field studies.

These authors found that mean annual surface runoff volumes were approximately

twice as high from poorly-managed soils than from well-managed ones. They










stated that IT WAS EVIDENT THAT ORGANIC MATTER ADDITIONS IN THE

FORM OF PLANT RESIDUES (previous years' cornstalks and rye cover crop)

RETURNED TO THE SOIL PROMOTES A MORE FAVORABLE SOIL STRUCTURE

WITH A CONSEQUENT REDUCTION IN SURFACE RUNOFF. Residual benefits of .

increased organic matter additions to the well-managed plots over the 15 years

were a 30 % higher aggreage stability for soil structure compared to the poorly-

managed plots. Increased aggregate stability would further enhance the

permeabilty of the surface soil with a consequent reduction in surface runoff.

This same phenomenon has also been demonstrated by Free (1971).

In Indiana, Romkens et al. (1973) used rainfall simulation to evaluate different

tillage methods for N and P losses. They found that total nutrient loss was

greatest from those systems that lost the most soil, but the water-soluble forms

of these elements were in highest concentrations from those areas that lost the

least soil. Thus, it is not always true that if you control sediment losses you will

control nutrient losses. Barisas et al. (1978) reported similar results in Iowa using

a rainfall sumulator. The highest total-N and P losses were from those plots that

lost the most soil. However, the avialable-P concentrations in the runoff water

were highest in those plotsithat had the most crop residue.

Losses of soil and chemicals by both water and wind erosion can be reduced

significantly by proper utilization of green manures and corp residues (Ackerman,

1944; Beale, et. al., 1955r Force, 1960; Lattanzi, et. al., 1974; Meyer, et. al.,

1970, and Shanholtz and Lillard, 1969). Should conservation of the environment

from agricultural pollution be a major concern of society, then the old practice K

of growing winter green manure or cover crops for soil incorporation has

certainly been scientifically proven.












RECENT FLORIDA RESEARCH




Although numerous studies have been conducted in Florida on the use of

winter cover crops for forage or mulch, limited work has been conducted on

their use as green manure crops (plowed down in the spring prior to planting of

the succeeding corn, soybean, or grain sorghum). From 1977 through 1979 Hairy

Vetch was grown as a green manure corp, plowed down in late March each year,

and corn or grain sorghum planted. Subsoiling and rates of N were investigated in

growing the summer crops (Tables 2 and 3).


Table 2. Yield of corn and grain sorghum following conventional tillage
incorporation of Hairy Vetch. 3-year average, 1977 through 1979.

Summer N Rate-kg/ha N Rate-kg/ha-
Crop Subsoil 0 85 170 Average 0 85 170 Average

-- kg/ha Grain -- Mg/ha Forage -
Corn Yes 3703 3703 4205 3892 5.78 6.05 5.83 5.90
No 3264- 3327 3515 3327 5.25 5.40 5.96 5.54

Grain Yes 2699 2950 3076 2888 6.88 6.79 7.78 7.15
Sorghum No 2385 2637 2574 2511 6.05 6.95 6.93 6.64

Table 3. Nitrogen and P concentration in corn ear leaf at late dough stage and
third leaf from the flag of:grain sorghum at late grain fill, two-year average,
from 1977 through 1978.

Summer N LRate-kg/ha N Rate-kg/ha -
Crop Subsoil 0 85 170 Average 0 85 170 Average

% N % P
Corn Yes 1.83 2.22 2.18 2.08 0.38 0.40 0.37 0.38
No 1.79 2.22 2.23 2.08 0.36 0.40 0.39 0.38

Grain Yes 1.97 2.34 2.41 2.24 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.42
Sorghm No 1.78 2.46 2.62 2.29 0.37 0.43 0.44 0.41



Neither corn nor grain sorghum increased in grain or forage yield from the

addition of inorganic-N from planting after turn-plowing a previous crop of Hairy


'i.
'"
"'
,



*
,... ..;
L.
r
.r











Vetch. These data seem to indicate that the vetch was supplying from 60 to 100

kg N/ha for use by the corn and grain sorghum crops. This N production would be

worth about $10 to $20 if replaced with commercial fertilizer (depending on the

source) and would be about equal to the cost of vetch seed used for the green

manure crop. Nitrogen concentration increased slightly in either the corn ear

leaf at mid grain fill or the thrid leaf from the flag of sorghum at mid-head fill.

This increase was not effective in increasing yields of the grass crops but would

increase forage quality.



In a 2-year study at Green Acres Agronomy Farm near Gainesville, Florida, in

1978-1979, several green manure cropping systems were tested against a winter

fallow treatment. Crops of lupine (L GM) and rye (R GM) were grown for green

manure (GM) and lupine (L FGE) and rye (R FGE) were grown for forage (FGE)

and compared to a fallow (bahiagrass turn plowed in the fall and again in the

spring prior to planing the summer crop) and a bahiagrass (B GM) green manure

(GM) crop. All green manure and forage stubble treatments were plowed down in

the spring prior to planting grain sorghum. Inorganic N rates. were applied in split

plots (sub plots) over the grain sorghum within each cropping system.

Plowing down lupine as-a green manure crop resulted in sufficient N supplied

to the grain sorghum to equal 56 kg N/ha in regard to grain and forage yield

(Figs. 1-2). All other treatments supplied much less N to grain sorghum and

required from 28 to 56 kg N/ha additional inorganic-N to maximize grain and

forage yields under this study conditions.

Nitrogen content of the- whole sorghum plant (total plant dry matter times

concentration of N in the dry matter) showed that N was taken up in an almost

linear manner as inorganic-N rate increased (Fig. 3). This would indicate that,

from a yield standpoint, over-fertilization is wasteful, uneconomical, and could


















FIGURE 1. GRAIN SORGHUM GRAIN YIELD AS AFFECTED BY GREEN MANURE
CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER. TWO-YEAR AVERAGE.


4.8--


M 4.2-

S3.6--
H KG/HA N
A
--
G

A 2.4-- r 56 KG/HA N
I


I 12 E100I KG /HA H
1.2 / -
E /

D 0.6


L GM R GM FALLOW L FGE R FGE B GM


GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM




















FIGURE 2. GRAIN SORGHUM FORAGE DRY MATTER YIELD AS AFFECTED BY
GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER.
TWO-YEAR AVERAGE.

8.S-
M n
G
". 7.7-
H
6.6- "

D 0 KG-HA N
R
5.5 .
Y

S4.4- 56 KG/HA N
T
T 3.3
E -
FR : 0 I KG/HA H
2.2--
Y
Y / / / -
I / /
E 11 / '
L -
0 H


L GM R GM FALLOk L FGE R'FGE B GM


GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM



















FIGURE 3. WHOLE PLANT N CONTENT OF GRAIN SORGHUM AS AFFECTED BY
GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER.
TWO-YEAR AVERAGE.

120--


105-


G -90--
/ 0 KG/HA N
H
A 25-GHA
N 6o4 56 KGH HA t4


100 KG/HA


L GM R GM FALLOW L FGE R FGE B GM


GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM


.~..



















FIGURE 4. CONCENTRATION OF N IN THE THIRD LEAF FROM THE FLAG OF
GRAIN SORGHUM AS AFFECTED BY GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM AND
RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER. TWO-YEAR AVERAGE. -

p 2.4--
*E
C 2.1-






C
E
N 1.8- .




0 0 KG/HA N
T 1.2-- 1 0 0 E 56 KG/HA N


0 / L



A
T / = i i

0
N
L/ / GM/ R G / -

L L -- i

L GM R GM FALLOcJ L FGE R FGE B GM


GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM









lead to pollution problems from erosion under poor soil management (Klausner et

al., 1974; Whisler and Sanford, 1980; Romknes et al., 1973). Extra N taken up

that was not utilized for additional yield would increase the quality of the whole ,.;:

plant dry matter if used for forage feed. The cost-benefits of this method of

increasing quality has not been evaluated both in terms of improved forage

quality as well as possible pollution hazards for these types of cropping systems.

Under the conditions of this study, critical N concentration would range from

about 1.4 to 1.8% (Fig. 4). All systems increased almost linearly in leaf-N

concentration as inorganic-N rate increased but the slope differed among

systems.

Grain sorghum and corn forage dry matter and grain yields were also tested at

the Green Acres Agronomy Farm following plow-down of crimson clover for

green manure or after harvest for forage (Figs. 5-8). Both forage and grain

yields of grain sorghum were reduced following clover removal compared to

clover for green manure (Figs. 5-6). Forage dry matter of grain sorghum did not

respond to inorganic-N application in either system (Fig. 5). Both systems

required supplemental inorganic-N for grain sorghum grain yield (Fig. 6). These

data indicate that grain -sorghum would need about 25 kg starter N/ha when

following plow-down crimson clover as green manure and about 56 to 75 kg N/ha

when the clover is harvested for hay before turn plowing for green manure. If

crimson clover were to be grazed by animals before being turn-plowed much of

the N would likely be recycled by the animals and require less inorganic-N for

growing succeeding grain sorghum than if the clover were harvested for hay.

The corn study showed that both yields of forage and grain increased with

small increments of inorganic-N, whether following crimson clover for green

manure or for hay (Figs. 7-8). Both systems had almost identical response curves

to the application of supplemental inorganic-N. The study site has been in a




















FIGURE 5. GRAIN SORGHUM FORAGE DRY MATTER YIELD AS AFFECTED BY
GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER.


1I


1.


2--





5--



i--










5-
- / ----- / ---
/- -- / -- B I


O KG/HA N




56 KG/HA N




100 KG/HA N


CLOVER GM


CLOVER FORAGE


GREEN MANURE CROPPING 'SYSTEM


I

;1.





..
.. i,

'''
:: ':


10.






`1

















FIGURE 6. GRAIN SORGHUM GRAIN YIELD AS AFFECTED BY GREEN MANURE
CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER.


4.8-


3-+


2.4-

1.8-

1.2-

0.6-


r1 -,


p
o KG/HA N



56 KG/HA N



100 KG/HA N


CLOVER GM


CLOVER FORAGE


GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM


4.2-

3.6-

















FIGURE 7. CORN FORAGE DRY MATTER YIELD AS AFFECTED BY
GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER.


M 12-
G
H 10.5-
A
0 KG/HA N
F
R 7.5-
A _- 37 KG/HA N
C
E 6- -

D
R 4.5- / 75 KG/HA N
Y


T 1.5 10 K

E
R / =
CLOVER GM CLOVER FORAGE


GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM

















FIGURE 8. CORN GRAIN YIELD AS AFFECTED BY GREEN MANURE
CROPPING SYSTEM AND RATE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER.


8-- .



G
/ 0 KG/HA N
H
A=

G C 37 KG/HA N
R
S4- \ / \

S3- / / 75 KG/HA N
Y


L 150 KG/HA N
D -


0-
CLOVER GM CLOVER FORAGE

GREEN MANURE CROPPING SYSTEM




-J "











winter crop of lupine for 2 years prior to initiation of this clover/corn cropping

systems study. Residual-N from the previous lupine could have been sufficient to, -:

mask any differences in yield response between clover for green manure versus

clover for hay.



APPLICATION TO FLORIDA



Survey of the literature has shown the historical and traditional benefits of

growing green manure crops for soil improvement, conservation of the soil,

supplemental forage for grazing farm animals, and in some systems supplemental

N from N-fixing legumes. Florida yield data have shown that winter legumes can

supply part or all of the N requirements of corn or grain sorghum in some

systems (Gallaher, 1978; Eylands and Gallaher, 1984; Eylands, 1984) while at the

same time aiding in the conservation of Florida soils. Obviously plowing down

cover crops whether they- be as green manure or after grazing or harvest for hay

is a good management practice for soil conservation and for reduction of

pollution from agriculturaL activities. One of the major problems of the use of

green manure crops for these purposes'is cost (Westberry and Gallaher, 1980). It -

is doubtful that cost-benefits to Florida farmers would result in their interest in *

planting legumes and grasses for conservation because of the expense. In 1985 .

many Florida farmers are already in financial trouble. Therefore the extra-

burden of growing cover crops does not make financial sense. Cost sharing,

where the burden of conservation is shared by society, is the only answer to this

problem. Farmer must be allowed additional incentives, such as utilization of the

cover crop for grazing, in order to encourage broad-based use of green manure

crops. Some may argue that no-tillage farming would conserve the environment

even more than green manure cropping. While this statement may be true for









those farmers who have the skills for no-tillage, it is impractical to expect most

farmers to implement this practice in the near future. The economic plight of

the Florida farmer as well as the formidable task of educating the farmer on the,-

high risk no-tllage farming practices preclude a swift change to no-tillage

management. ; :'



PRECAUTIONS



Establishment of legumes, such as Hairy Vetch, and Crimson Clover, have been

a problem on sandy soils in Florida due to improper seed innoculation. Winter

legume yields are often better in the second and third years after growing in the

same acreage than in the first year. Growers should seek advise from

knowledgeable sources, such as the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

(IFAS) Cooperative Extension Service (CES), for proper procedures in legume

seed inoculation

Growing legumes, such as Hairy Vetch, susceptible to nematode buildup may be

a problem especially when growing in a double-cropping system with corn.

Growing grain sorghum seems to help control nematodes following Hairy Vetch.

There are some indications that crimson clover can be toxic to seedlings of some

crops in succession double-cropping systems under some crop-soil management

schemes. Advise can be obtained from IFAS, CES personal on the proper-

selection of cropping systems.

The senior author has observed in many instances that winter green manure

crops can deplete the soil of water reserves and result in poor crop stands of

succeeding crops. Soil-water depletion would not likely be as great if the green

manure crop were heavily grazed by animals, thus leaving more water for the

succeeding crop. In some instances, the winter green manure crop may be










infested with Lesser Cornstalk borer. When this green manure crop is plowed

down, the insect looses it's food source and will attack the seedlings of the

succeeding crop. Proper inspection of the cover crop for insects will help to

determine proper management. In some cases, it is recommended to wait 6 weeks

before planting the succeeding crop after the green manure crop has been

plowed down (personal communication, Dr. J. All, Entomology Dept. Univ. of Ga.

Athens, Ga.). Additionally, disease carry-over is possible from a winter green

manure crop to the succeeding tobacco crop (Personal communication, Dr. B.

Whitty, Agronomy Department, IFAS, Univ. Fl. Gainesville, Fl.).

Multiple cropping crop-soil management is complicated in Florida. For best

economic returns and proper conservation of Florida's environment, farmers

should seek advice from the proper agencies on cost-sharing and management.



LITERATURE CITED

1. Ackerman, F.G. 1944. Stubble-mulching and subsurface tillage. Soils and
Fertilizers. 7(2):215-216.

2. Barisas, S.G., J.L. Baker, H.P. Johnson, and J.M. Laflen. 1978. Effect of
tillage systems on runoff-losses of nutrients, a rainfall simulator study. Trans.
ASAE. 21:893-897.

3. Beale, O.W., G.B. Nutt,-and T.C. Peele. 1955. The effects of mulch tillage on
runoff, erosion, soil properties, and crop yield. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc.
19:244-247.

4. Blair, E.C. 1930. Winter legumes for soil improvement. No. Car. Agric. Ext.,
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