Group Title: Ft. Pierce ARC research report
Title: Longevity of bacterial wilt resistant tomato lines in a field naturally infested with Pseudomonas Solanacearum E.F. Smith, results of 1978
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056033/00001
 Material Information
Title: Longevity of bacterial wilt resistant tomato lines in a field naturally infested with Pseudomonas Solanacearum E.F. Smith, results of 1978
Series Title: Ft. Pierce ARC research report
Physical Description: 3, 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sonoda, Ronald M
Augustine, J. J ( Jimmy Jude )
Volin, R. B
University of Florida -- Agricultural Research Center
Publisher: University of Florida, Insititute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ft. Pierce Fla
Publication Date: [1978]
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Disease and pest resistance -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bacterial wilt diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 7).
Statement of Responsibility: R.M. Sonoda, J.J. Augustine, and R.B. Volin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 1978."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056033
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69419954

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Ft. Pierce ARC Research Report RL 1978-4


LONGEVITY OF BACTERIAL WILT RESISTANT TOMATO LINES IN/A FIELD 4tAURAT /
INFESTED WITH PSEUDCMONAS SOLANACEARUM E. F. SMITH.,/.t.SULTS OF 1978

R. M. Sonoda, J. J. Augustine, and R. B. Volin'- 'Or'da

Abstract

Longevity of selections from 1) hybridization between bacterial wilt resist-
ant tomato lines Saturn, Venus or PI 126408 and Florida tomato varieties or breed-
ing lines; 2) Hawaii hybrid BWN-21 (Kewalo x Venus); and 3) Florida CAB 54, in
a field naturally infested with Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith is reported.
Most of the selections did not survive as long as the resistant Hawaii 7997, CRA
66 E, or PI 126408-6-Bk. Many, however, survived as long as the commercial vari-
ety, Saturn and most survived longer than the Florida commercial varieties,
Walter and Florida MH-1. Of five previously untested plant introduction lines,
PI 92863 and PI 126932 survived the longest.


Bacterial wilt of tomatoes incited by Pseudomonas solanacearum E, F. Smith
is endemic on some south Florida tomato farms. Losses to the disease can be
heavy but generally losses occur in localized areas. No commercial varieties that
are resistant to the disease and are horticulturally suitable are available in
Florida. The present paper reports results of 1) tests involving the screening
of progeny of hybrids of commercial tomato varieties or breeding lines with
accessions previously found to be resistant to P. solanacearum and 2) preliminary
screening of five plant introduction accessions.

Materials and Methods

Seed of tomato lines were sown in seedling trays and the seedlings trans-
planted when four weeks old into a field of Oldsmar fine sand naturally infested
with P. solanacearum at the Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce (ARC-FP)
as described before (5). The transplants were set in staggered double rows, 1.5
feet apart, down row. The experimental design was a randomized complete block
with four replicates of eight transplants per accession. The plantings were made
during the summer when warm weather and high rainfall favor bacterial wilt
development.

The first planting, transplanted to the field on June 2, 1978, included 50
accessions. Results with ten of these accessions obtained from the Asian Vege-
table Research and Development Center have been previously reported (6). Among
the 40 other accessions were 1) F4 selections from BWN-21, an Fl cross between
two lines with bacterial wilt resistance, Kewalo (2) and Venus (3) obtained from
J. C. Gilbert, University of Hawaii; 2) F4 and later selections of crosses between
Saturn or Venus and Florida tomato varieties or breeding lines made by R. B. Volin,


J/ Associate Professor, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, Agricultural Research Center, Fort Pierce; Assistant Professor, UF,
IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Bradenton; and Associate
Professor, UF, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead.








-2 -


and selected for resistance and horticultural characteristics in North Carolina
by W. R. Henderson; 3) F5 selections from crosses made by Pat Crill among selec-
tions of PI 126408 and Florida tomato varieties or breeding lines; and 4) F8
selections of a cross (CAB 54) made by the late J. M. Walter, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Bradenton. Accessions Hawaii 7997, CRA 66 E,
Hawaii 7845, PI 126408-6-Bk and Saturn all found to be highly tolerant to P.
solanacearum (5) indigenous to the ARC-FP served as resistant checks. Two highly
susceptible commercial Florida tomato lines Walter and Florida MH-1 (5) served
as susceptible checks. Also included in the test were Nematex, and Hawaii 7981.

The second planting transplanted into the field on July 6, 1978, included
F3 and F4 progeny from crosses of resistant Saturn of Venus with Florida tomato
varieties or breeding lines made by R. B. Volin. The F3 lines were selections
from F2 that were planted in bacterial wilt infested soil in the fall of 1977.
The F4 were selections made for horticultural characteristics at the Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Homestead.

Planting 3, transplanted to the field on July 13, 1978 consisted of five
plant introduction lines from the Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa.
These lines were reported to be resistant to southern blight (1) incited by
Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc,, another important disease of tomato during warm weather.

Dead and dying plants were counted weekly beginning four weeks after trans-
planting in all three plantings. The mean number of days plants survived in
infested soil in each replicate was calculated by

nlt1 + n2t2 + niti + NT
S =
n
S = mean number of days plants survived in field,
n1 = number of plants killed up to tI.
tl = days after planting that weekly reading was made minus 3.5 days
n2 = number of plants killed between t1 and t2.
N = number of plants surviving at the time of final weekly reading.
T = days after planting that final weekly reading was made, plus
3.5 days.

See (6) for more information on this formula..

The means were subjected to an analysis of variance. Mean separations were
made by Duncan's multiple range test.

Results and Discussion

In planting I, CRA-66 E, Hawaii 7997 and PI 126408-6-Bk survived the longest
(Table 1). The formula used to determine the longevity of tomatoes in infested
fields underestimates the length of survival of those accessions that are highly
resistant and have plants alive at the time that tests are terminated. However,
use of the formula gives us relative resistance of these lines compared to








-3-


accessions which are less tolerant. Of the progeny of the several crosses,
762524-1-FP1, a selection from Kewalo x Venus (BWN-21) survived the longest. Sev-
eral other progeny of the BWN-21 cross, as well as progeny from Walter x Saturn
and PI 126408 x Florida MH-1, were relatively long-lived and ranked above Saturn,
a North Carolina commercial variety found to be tolerant to the P. solanacearum
indigenous to ARC-FP in previous tests (5). Saturn survived poorly in this test
as compared to tests made in the past. The CAB 54 lines were relatively poor
survivors under the conditions of the test. In a test conducted during fall,
1977, 135-1 significantly outlived Walter (4).

Progeny of BWN-21 had medium to large fruit but relatively poor set of
fruit on rank growing vines. The fruit were rougher in shape than Walter or
Florida MH-l. Progeny of crosses with PI 126408 had small fruit.

In planting 2, several of the progeny of crosses with Saturn as the resistant
parent significantly out-survived Walter, Fruit set for all accessions except
Hawaii 7997 was light. Several of the survivors among the progeny of crosses
were fruitless or had only one or two fruit.

In planting 3, PI 92863 (L esculentum) and PI 126932 (Q. pimpinellifolium)
significantly outsurvived the other three plant introduction lines, Further tests
with PI 92863 are warranted as fruit of the accession were slightly larger than
fruit of Hawaii 7997. Results from these tests indicate that some tolerance to
the P. solanacearum present in soil at the ARC-FP is present in the accessions
selected. Further selection and crossing will be necessary before a horticultur-
ally acceptable bacterial wilt resistant variety is developed.










Table 1. Longevity of tomato accessions transplanted June 8, 1978 into
soil at the ARC-FP naturally infested with Pseudononas
solanacearum E. F. Smith.


Pedigree


Longevity y
(davs L/


%2/
survival2/


CRA 66 E
Hawaii 7997
PI 126408-6-Bk
762524-1-FP1
Hawaii 7845
762524-1-FP2
77N6-1
760206 Bk-FPl
762524-1-FP1
762524-5-FP2
Saturn
Hawaii 7981
Nematex
77N5-1
760204-Bk-FP1
77N13-2
762524-7-FP3
762524-5-FP1
648-5-6-Bk
762524-6-FPI
117-5-FP3
762524-7-FP2
117-2-FP2
77N13-1
77N13-3
118-2-FP2
77N12-1
762524-1-FP4
760192-Bk-FP5
760193-Bk-FP2
117-3-FP1
762524-b-FPl
77N7-1
Florida MH-1
135-2-FP2
135-1-FP1
123-1-FP1
118-1-FP1
762524-7-FP1
Walter


Kewalo x Venus

Kewalo x Venus
Walter x Saturn
PI 126408-6 x MH-1
Kewalo x Venus
Kewalo x Venus



MH-1 x Saturn
PI 126408-6 x MH-1
2159 x Venus
Kewalo x Venus
Kewalo x Venus

Kewalo x Venus
CAB 54
Kewalo x Venus
CAB 54
2159 x Venus
2159 x Venus
CAB 54
2159 x Venus
Kewalo x Venus
PI 126408-4 x Tropic
PI 126408-4 x Tropic
CAB 54
Kewalo x Venus
2153 x Saturn
------







CAB 54
CAB 54
CAB 54
CAB 54
BWN-21
Keftl ---- us


1/ Longevity determined by formula developed by Sonoda, R.
Augustine, and R. B. Volin (6).


M., J. J.


2/ 75 days after transplanting.

3/ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at
the 57. level (Duncan's new multiple range test).


Accession


81.4
75.9
74.4
64.6
63.9
58,4
57.1
55.4
53.5
52.2
51.0
50.6
50.0
47.0
46,9
46.4
45.9
45.7
45.7
45.2
44.8
44,8
44.4
43.8
42.7
42.6
42,2
41.6
41.4
41.3
40,7
40.6
37.9
37.7
37.0
35.5
32.0
31.7
31.4
30.7


a3
a
ab
abc
a-d
b-e
b-f
c-g
c-g
c-g
c-h
c-h
c-i
c-i
c-i
c-i
c-i
c-i
c-i
d-i
d-i
d-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
e-i
f-i
f-i
ghi
ghi
hi
hi
hi
i


53.1
65.6
46.9
34.4
18.8
12.5
12.5
0
12.5
6.3
12.5
21.9
4.1
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
12.5
0
0
0
12.5
0
0
0
0
3.1
6.3
0
0
6.3
0
6.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


- -0.7-

















Table 2. Longevity of tomato accessions transplanted July 6, 1978 into
soil naturally infested with Pseudomonas solanacearum at the
ARC-FP.


Accession


Source


Gener- Longevity
nation (days).!


SurvivalS/


Hawaii 7997
D 77004
D 77005
Angela
D 77002
D 77001
D 74305-1
D 77008
D 77009
D 77006
D 77003
D 74302-1
Walter
D 74305-2
D 77007
Florida MH-1


908 x Saturn
908 x Saturn

MH 11 x Saturn
MH 11 x Saturn
Walter x Saturn
2367 x Saturn
2367 x Saturn
908 x Saturn
908 x Saturn
MH 11 x Venus

MH 11 x Venus
2153 x Saturn


j/ Longevity determined by formula
Augustine and R. B. Volin (6),

2/ 61 days after transplanting.


developed by Sonoda, R. M., J. J.


3/ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly
at the 5% level (Duncan's new multiple range test).


56.7
41.4
40.6
39.8
39.5
38.5
36.8
36.0
33.3
31.9
26.8
26.0
25.5
24.6
24.0
21.5


b
b
b
b
b
b
be
bcd

bcde
bcdef
cdef
def
ef
ef
ef
f


62.5
21.9
18.8
18.8
28.1
18,8
12.5
6.3
9.4
6.3
0
0
6.3
6.3
3.1
0


different


_ __




















Table 3. Longevity of tomato accession transplanted July 13, 1978 into
soil naturally infested with Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F.
Smith at the ARC-FP.


Longevity
(days)L/


Accession


urviv
Survival /


PI 92863 33.2 a2/ 25.0 a
PI 126932 30.7 a 12.5 b
PI 95588 25.1 b 3.1 bc
PI 185685 20.9 b 3.1 bc
PI 185686 20.6 b 0 c


1/ Longevity determined by formula developed
Augustine and R. B. Volin (6).

2/ 50 days after transplanting.

3/ Means followed by the same letter are not
the 5% level (Duncan's new multiple range


by Sonoda, R. M., J. J.


significantly different at
test).









Literature Cited


1. Annual Report Regional Project S-9, 1954, Experiment, Georgia.

2. Gilbert, J. C., J. S. Tanaka, and K. Y. Takeda. 1974. 'Kewalo' tomato.
Hort Science 9:481-482.

3. Henderson, W. R. and S. F. Jenkins, Jr. 1972. Venus and Saturn. N, C.
Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 444. 13 pp.

4. Sonoda, R. M. 1978. Effect of differences in tolerance of tomato to
Pseudomonas solanacearum and time of planting on incidence of
bacterial wilt. Plant Dis. Reptr. (Accepted for publication).

5. Sonoda, R. M. and J. Augustine. 1978. Reaction of bacterial wilt-resistant
tomato lines to Pseudomonas solanacearum in Florida. Plant Dis.
Reptr, 62:464-466.


6. Sonoda, R. M., J. J. Augustine, and R. B. Volin. 1978.
trial wilt in Florida on tomato lines obtained
Vegetable Research and Development Center. Ft,
Report RL 1978-3.


Incidence of bac-
from the Asian
Pierce ARC Research




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