Group Title: Ft. Pierce ARC research report
Title: Effect of fumigation and partial resistance on survival of tomato lines in Pseudomonas solanacearum infested soil in late spring
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056023/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of fumigation and partial resistance on survival of tomato lines in Pseudomonas solanacearum infested soil in late spring
Series Title: Ft. Pierce ARC research report
Physical Description: 3, 1 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sonoda, Ronald M
University of Florida -- Agricultural Research Center
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ft. Pierce
Publication Date: [1979]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil fumigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Ralstonia solanacearum -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomatoes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 3).
Statement of Responsibility: R.M. Sonoda.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1979."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056023
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69401079

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




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L Ft.


Pierce ARC Research Report RL-1979-8 H Ot IAR


Effect of fumigation and partial resistance on surval tqCioma 979
lines in Pseudomonas solanacearum infested soil in late spring.
1-,, / I.F.A.S. Un!v. of Florida


Abstract

Fumigation with methyl isothiocyanate at 944 ml/100 ft slightly
increased survival of tomato lines in Pseudomonas solanacearum-infested
soil in plantings made in March and April, 1979. No difference in
losses to bacterial wilt was noted in these plantings between suscep-
tible commercial varieties and accessions found to be partially resis-
tant to bacterial wilt in cooler weather.


Some reduction in severity of tomato bacterial wilt was obtained
by Cox (1, 2) and Jones et al (3) by fumigation. Tomato accessions with
partial resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith, incitant of
tomato bacterial wilt were less affected in late fall (during cool
weather) than commercial Florida varieties (8, 10). The period in which
plantings with these partially resistant tomato accessions can be made
safely is cooler than the period when most commercial tomato plantings
are made. Objects of the present experiment were to determine if an
increase in survival of tomato accessions during warm weather can be
obtained with fumigation and if there is an additive effect of partial
resistance to the disease and fumigation in increasing plant survival
during warm weather.

Materials and Methods

Accessions used in the test were: 'Walter', a susceptible commer-
cial Florida tomato variety; and accessions 102-1, 123-1-4, and 135-1-2,
partially resistant lines (10); derived from a cross (CAB 54) made by
the late J. M. Walter (Univ. Fla. Res. and Ed. Ctr., Bradenton). Seeds
were sown and seedlings grown as previously described (8).

On February 19, 1979, raised beds, 42" wide, were prepared in a
field of Oldsmar fine sand heavily infested with P. solanacearum.
Fertilizer, 4-16-4 (11 lb/100 ft) was applied to the soil prior to
bedding. Methyl isothiocyanate was chiseled into beds at three rates



I/ Associate Plant Pathologist, University of Florida, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research Center,
Fort Pierce, Fl.


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(236, 472, and 944 ml/100 ft) and 1.25 mil black polyethylene mulch applied
with a Kenco fumigator-plastic mulch applicator with five chisels. Two
bands of 8-12-20 analysis fertilizer (19 lb/100 ft) were placed on the bed
surface under the plastic mulch. There were four replicates of each
fumigation rate and an untreated check in a randomized complete block
design.

Four plants of each tomato line were transplanted per plot on
March 15, 1979. The plants were transplanted in each plot in four
randomized blocks of one plant each. A second transplanting of eight
plants of each tomato line per plot was made on April 11, 1979. One
hundred ml of a 250 ppm suspension captafol was applied to the base of
each transplant to protect against damping-off (9). Plants affected by
damping-off or by insect pests were replaced if observed within 10 days
after transplanting. Missing plants found thereafter were recorded as
missing but were not replaced.

Results and Discussion

Several plants in the first planting were damaged by mole crickets
(Scapteriscus spp.). A few plants were damped-off by Pythium aphani-
dermatum (Edson) Fitzp.

The length of survival of plants was erratic. There were signif-
icant differences in length of survival within treatments and accessions.
At each level of methyl isothiocyanate there were no differences bet-
ween 'Walter' and any of the lines previously found to be partially
tolerant to P. solanacearum during the late fall (Table 1 and 2). )if-
ferences in survival exhibited in the late fall plantings, were not
apparent during the warm temperatures occurring during this experiment.
Similar losses in resistance due to temperature have been reported by
Mew and Ho (6, 7) and Krausz and Thurston (4).

There were significant differences in survival between plants in
plots treated with the highest level of methyl isothiocyanate and un-
treated plots for the planting made on March 15 for Walter and acces-
sion #123-1-4 (Table I). The 944 ml/100 ft treatment is about 35 gal/
acre, the recommended level for control of several pests and pathogens
on vegetable crops in Florida (5). There were significant differences
in survival of plants between plots with the highest level of fumigation
and plots receiving lower levels in the planting made on April 11 (Table
2). Although the highest level of fumigant used in this experiment
increased survival significantly, the increase was small and far from
sufficient to provide a practical level of control.

Further tests to determine if there is a combined effect of fumiga-
tion and partial resistance in increasing survival of tomato accessions
should be made in the late fall and late winter when weather conditions










are more favorable for separating differences in survival of tomato
accessions with partial resistance to the disease and susceptible
accessions.


Literature Cited

1. Cox, R. S. 1961. Progress on the control of southern bacterial wilt
on trellis-grown tomatoes in south Florida. Fl. St. Hort. Soc.
Proc. 74: 148-151.

2. Cox, R. S. 1960. Studies on the control of southern bacterial wilt
on trellis-grown tomatoes in south Florida. Fl. St. Hort. Soc.
Proc. 73: 120-123.

3. Jones, J. P., A. J. Overman, and C. M. Geraldson. 1966. Effect of
fumigants and plastic film on the control of several soil-
borne pathogens of tomato. Phytopathology 56: 929-932.

4. Krausz, J. P. and H. D. Thurston.- 1975. Breakdown of resistance
to Pseudomonas solanacearum in tomato. Phytopathology 65:
1272-1273.

5. Kucharek, T., G. Simone, R. S. Mullin (eds.). 1973. Florida
Plant Disease Control Guide. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser.
Loose leaf.

6. Mew, T. W. and W. C. Ho. 1977. Effect of soil temperature on
resistance of tomato cultivars to bacterial wilt. Phytopatho-
logy 67: 909-911.

7. Mew, T. W., and W. C. Ho. 1976. Varietal resistance to bacterial
wilt in tomato. Plant Dis. Reptr. 60: 264-268.

8. Sonoda, R. M. 1978. Effect of differences in tolerance of tomato
to Pseudomonas solanacearum and time of planting on incidence
of bacterial wilt. Plant Disease Reporter 62: 1059-1062.

9. Sonoda, R. M. 1972. Control of tomato transplant damp-off.
Plant Dis. Reptr. 56: 840-842.

10. Sonoda, R. M., J. J. Augustine, and R. B. Volin. 1979. Survival and
yield in late fall tomato lines with partial resistance to
bacterial wilt. Ft. Pierce ARC Research Report RL-1979-5.

11. Sonoda, R. M., J. J. Augustine, and R. B. Volin. 1978. Incidence of
bacterial wilt in Florida on tomato lines obtained from the Asian
Vegetable Research and Development Center. Ft. Pierce ARC Res.
Rept. RL-1978-3.








Table 1. Survival of tomato lines transplanted into soil naturally infested
with Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith at the ARC-FP on March
15, 1979.


Methyl iso-
thiocyanate
(ml/100 ft)

944
472
236
o


Mean days of survival 1/


Walter

66.4 a 2/
58.9 abc
51.2 be
49.4 c


102-1

60.8 abc
51.9 be
56.0 abc
58.8 abc


123-1-4

63.8 ab
50.3 c
52.0 be
49.4 c


1/ Longevity determined by formula developed by Sonoda, R. M., J.
and R. B. Volin (11). Plant loss recorded until 91 days after


J. Augustine,
plantings.


2/ Means within the table followed by any letter in common are not significantly
different at the 5% levels by Duncans Multiple Range Test.


Table 2. Survival of tomato lines transplanted into soil naturally infested
with Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith at the ARC-FP on April
11, 1979.


Methyl iso- Mean days of survival 2/
thiocyanate
(ml/100 ft) Walter 102-1 123-1-4 135-1-2

944 55.0 ab 2/ 57.9 a 55.0 ab 58.1 a
472 49.8 bcd 51.5 abed 45.2 ed 51.0 abed
236 43.8 d 50.5 abcd 47.3 bed 48.6 bcd
0 50.4 abed 53.0 abc 51.3 abcd 53.9 ab


1/ Longevity determined by formula developed by SonoSa, R. M., J.
and R. B. Volin (11). Plant loss recorded until 70 days after


J. Augustine,
transplanting.


2/ Means within the table followed by any letter in common are not significantly
different at the 5% levels by Duncans Multiple Range Test.


135-1-2


62.0
57.6
59.8
52.5


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