Group Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Title: Results of tests and suggestions on control of tomato diseases with spray materials
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056013/00001
 Material Information
Title: Results of tests and suggestions on control of tomato diseases with spray materials
Series Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stall, Robert E
Indian River Field Laboratory
Publisher: Indian River Field Laboratory
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce Fla
Publication Date: [1959]
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by R.E. Stall.
General Note: "April 29, 1959."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056013
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69370180

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida


















RESULTS OF TESTS AND SUGGESTIONS ON CONTROL OF
TOMATO DISEASES WITH SPRAY MATERIALS

by

R. E. Stall


uuYYYYYwx)YYY Ex::rm~tjt~ C~


This report summarizes the important observa-
tions in experiments to control the four major
foliage diseases of tomato in the Fort Pierce
area. Suggestions on control of these diseases
are included.







INDIAN RIVER FIELD LABORATORY MIMEO REPORT 59-2

Fort Pierce, Florida


April 29, 1959







RESULTS OF TESTS AND SUGGESTIONS ON CONTROL OF TOMATO DISEASES
WITH SPRAY MATERIALS

R. E. Stall/


Information was accumulated on control of the four major foliage diseases
of tomato in the Fort Pierce area during the 1958-59 season. Bacterial spot
(Xanthomonas vesicatoria), botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), gray leaf-
spot (Stemphylium solani) and late blight (Phytophthora infestan) occurred in
varying degrees of severity on tomatoes in the experimental plots. Results of
tests to control these diseases by materials applied as sprays are illustrated
below in tables and summarized according to disease. Suggestions on control of
these diseases are also included.

BACTERIAL SPOT. Bacterial spot occurred moderate in severity on check
plants in three tests for control of this disease. Copper materials, strepto-
mycin and copper plus streptomycin gave good control of bacterial spot (Table
1). Beat control was provided by copper plus streptomycin but the differences
in the protection by the three treatments were not great.

Of the new materials tested those containing copper, Miller 658 and Omadine-
CuSO4, provided control equal to Tri-basic Copper Sulfate. Nabac and CM-19 were
not effective.

Suggestions on control--Copper plus streptomycin (4 lbs 4 100 ppm/100) is
the best control and is suggested for use on seedlings and small plants. Copper
alone will provide protection for plants too large to spray economically with
streptomycin.

BOTRYTIS GRAY MOLD. Botrytis gray mold developed moderately severe during
the winter of 1958-59. The most outstanding observation in tests to control
this disease was the control provided by Dyrene (Table 2). Maneb plus Dyrene
(1 4 1 lbs/100) was equal to maneb 4 dichlone (1 4 lbs/100) in controlling
the disease. Maneb plus Dyrene (1 4 11 lbs/100) was not better than maneb plus
Dyrene (1 4 1 lbs/100). Omadine-CuS04 and CM-19 added to maneb controlled this
disease, whereas Nabac 25 when added to maneb did not.

Timing of the applications of effective materials for control of botrytis
gray mold was found to be important (Table 3). Dichlone added to maneb through-
out the spray schedule gave better control than; either, (1) adding dichlone
from the beginning until the vines fall over, or (2) adding dichlone Just before
the vines fall over and continuing until the end of the crop.

In another test (Table 4) more botrytis gray mold was observed in plots
sprayed with nabam-ZnS04, Amobam-ZnS04 and ZnS04 than in plots receiving no
treatment. Plants sprayed with nabam alone had no more botrytis gray mold than
did the untreated check plots. All plants were sprayed with streptomycin for
late blight control.


I/ Assistant Plant Pathologist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce.






-2-


Suggestions on control--Dyrene (1 lb/100), dichlone (j lb/100), ferbam
(3 lbs/i00), or thiram (1 lb/100) are suggested for botrytis gray mold control.
Dyrene is preferred on gray leaf-spot susceptible varieties, but has little
advantage over the other materials on gray leaf-spot resistant varieties. To be
completely effective one of these materials should be applied throughout the
spray schedule.
GRAY LEAF-SPOT. Gray leaf-spot developed very severe in plots during the
spring of 1958 (Table 5). Dyrene (2 lbs/100) was the best material for control
of this disease. Dyrene (1 lbs/100) in combination with zineb (1 lbe/100) or
copper (2 lbs/100 metallic) were only slightly less effective. Ferbam (3 lbs/
100) or thiram (1 lb/100) added to maneb (1 lb/100) gave slightly better protee-
tion from gray leaf-spot than maneb (1j lbs/100). None of the new materials,
G.C. 2466, Amobam-Ca(C10)2, 0-2323, U-9547 or U-2069 were good enough to continue
testing against this disease.
Suggestions on control--Dyrene (2 lbs/100) is the best for control of this
disease. Maneb (1 lbs/100) and zineb (2 lbs/100) are also effective. Dyrene
plus maneb or zineb (1 4 1 or 1j lbs/100) improves control of the disease over
maneb or zineb alone. Dyrene alone may be used when other diseases are not
factors to consider. Dyrene added to maneb or zineb is best when late blight
is present, and maneb or zineb is adequate when gray leaf-spot or botrytis gray
mold are not expected to develop into serious problems.
LATE BLIGHT. No experiments were designed to test materials for control of
late blight. However, late blight became moderately severe in the botrytis con-
trol plots (Table 2). Maneb gave excellent protection. Maneb plus Dyrene
(1 + 1 lbs/100) and maneb plus dichlone (1 4 I lbs/100) were equal to maneb
(1l lbs/100). Dichlone (3/4 lb/100) provided slightly less protection than
maneb.
Sucgestions on control--Maneb (1l lbs/100), zineb (2 lbs/100) or dichlone
(3/4 lb/100) are preferred for control of late blight in the order named.
Dichlone should only be used on gray leaf-spot resistant varieties and during
temperatures below 850 F. Maneb or zineb plus Dyrene (1 or 1 4 1 lbs/100) may
be used in areas where gray leaf-spot and/or botrytis gray mold develop on gray
leaf-spot susceptible varieties.









Table 1. Control
sprays.


of bacterial spot of tomato with certain materials applied as
Fall, 1958.


Treatmente /


Concentration
fr nn 0 alloh"na


Average number of lesions
'P.at. ht. 1 Teat No. 2


per leaflet1'
Test No. 3


e.r : -- - --- -


1. No treatment


2. Tri-basic Copper 4
streptomycin

3. Streptomycin

4. Tri-basic Copper

5. Copper A
6. COCS

7. Miller 658

8. Cmadine-copper

9. Nabac

10. CM-19


4.0 lbs. 4
100 ppm

100 ppm

4.0 lbs.

4.0 lbs.

6.0 lbs.

2.0 lbs.

2.0 lbs.


6.1


2 qts.


L.S.D. .05 1.4 1.5 0.8
L.S.D. .01 1.8 2.0 1.1


/ Averages of 4 replicates in tests No.
test No. 3.


1 and 2. Average of 6 replicates in


2/ The concentration of Nabac (12%) was 1.0 Ib. in test No. 1
25% Nabac in test No. 3.


and 0.5 Ib. of


3/ Dyrene was added.

/ Active ingredients were: Tri-basic Copper Sulfate, 53% copper; Copper A,
45% copper; COCS, 33% copper; Miller 658, 95% copper zinc chromate complex
(29.6% copper); Omadine-CuSO4, 50% copper salt of 2-pyridenethione 1-oxide;
Nabac, 12% and 25% 2,2' methylenebia (3,4,6-trichlorophenol); CM-19, 17%
Phenylphenols and related aryl phenols, 2% octyl and related al1ylphenole;
(source of streptomycin was AgriWycin 100), 15% streptomycin sulfate, 1.5$
oxytetracyclige.


5.7

0.1


6.5

0.8

1.6

1.2


6.9

0.4


0.9

0.7

0.2

0.9

0.5

5.7

7.7


*








Table 2. Disease control of tomato with certain materials applied as sprays.
Winter, 1958-59.
Botrytis
Concentration gray mod Late Blight Defoliation
Treatments per 100 gallons index/ index rating/
1. Check .- -.. 11.5

2. Streptomycin 400 ppm 1.5 14.8 6.5

3. Maneb 1,5 lbs. 4.0 1.3 3.0
4. Dyrene 2.0 lbs. 0.0 46.5 6.0
5. Maneb 4 Dyrene 1.0 4 1.0 lbs. 0.3 6.3 4.3
6. Maneb 4 Dyrene Adj.!/ 0.5 2.0 3.0

7. Maneb 4 Dyrene 1.0 4 1.5 lbs. 0.5 9.5 3.3
8. Maneb 4 dichlone 1.0 4 0.5 Ibs. 0.3 5.8 3.0
9. Dichlone 0.75 lbs. 0.0 25.3 4.8
10. Maneb 4 Omadine-copper 1.5 4 2.0 lbs. 1.0 18.8 3.8
11. Maneb 4 CM-19 1.5 lbs. 4 2 qts. 0.8 1.8 3.0
12. Maneb 4 Nabac 1.5 4 1.0 Ibs. 3.5 1.8 3.0


I/ Concentration same as No. 5 until Dec. 16
were alternated.


and thereafter No. 5 and No. 3


2/ Index based on 0 5 rating where 0 equals no disease and 5 equals botrytis
observed at each of 5 loci in a plot. Average of 4 replicates. Ratings were
made on February 9, 1959.


a/ Average number of lesions per plot. Average of 4 replicates,
made on January 7, 1959.


Ratings were


SRating based on 1 12 scale where 1 equals no defoliation and 12 equals
complete defoliation. Cause of defoliation was mainly late blight, but a
light frost and bacterial spot also caused defoliation. Average of 4 repli-
cates. Ratings were made on January 30, 1959.
5/ Active ingredients were: Maneb (Source of maneb was Manzate), 70% maneb;
Dyrene, 50% 2,4-Dichloro-6-(0-chloroanaline) Triazine; Dichlone (Source of
dichlone was Phygon XL), 50% dichlone; Omadine-CuSO4, 50% copper salt of 2-
pyridenethione 1-oxide; CM-19, 17% Phenylphenols and related aryl phenols,
2% octyl and related alkylphenols; Nabac, 25% 2,2' methylenebis (3,4,6-tri-
chlorophenol); (Source of streptomycin was Agrimycin 100), 15% streptomycin
sulfate and 1.5% oxytetracycline.









Table 3. Control of botrytis gray mold with dichlone applied
in the spray schedule. Winter, 1958-59.


at different times


Botrytis
Concentration gray mold Defoliation
Treatments / per 100 gallons index__ ratingR

1. Maneb 1.5 lbs. 4.0 3.0

2. Maneb 4 dichlone; 1.0 4 0.5 lbs.
then maneb_/ then 1.5 lbs. 2.0 3.0

3. Maneb; then 1.5 Ibs; then
maneb 4 dichlone2/ 1.0 4 0.5 Ibs. 1.5 3.5

4. Maneb 4 dichlone 1.0 4 0.5 lbs. 0.3 3.0

5. Dichlone 0.75 lbs. 0.0 4.8


/Dichlone was added in
began to fall over.

2/ Dichlone was added in
to the end of crop.


spray from beginning of crop to Dec. 16, when the vines

spray after Dec. 16, when the vines began to fall over,


3/ Index is based on a 0 5 rating where 0 equals no disease and 5 equals 5
observations of botrytis gray mold at 5 loci in plot. Average of 4 repli-
cates. Rating was made on February 9, 1959.

4/ Rating based on a 1 12 scale, where 1 equals no disease and 12 equals total
defoliation. Cause of defoliation was mainly late blight, but a light frost
and bacterial spot also caused defoliation. Average of 4 replicates.
Rating was made on January 30, 1959.

/Active ingredients were: (Source of maneb was Manzate), 70% maneb; (Source
of dichlone was Phygon XL), 50% dichlone.









Table 4. The effect on incidence of botrytis gray mold of zinc
as a spray. Winter 1958-59.


sulfate applied


Botrytis
Concentration gray mol
TreatmentS_,/ per 100 gallons index-

1. No treatment 0.33

2. Nabam 4 ZnSO4 2 qts. 4 0.75 Ibs. 3.33

3. Amobam 4 ZnS04 1 qt. 4 0.75 lbs. 2.33
4. Nabam 2 qts. 0.33

5. ZnSO4 0.75 Ibs. 2.33


I/ Index based on 0 5 rating, where 0 equals no disease
observations of botrytis gray mold at 5 loci in plots.
cates. Data taken on January 27, 1959.


and 5 equals 5
Average of 3 repli-


2/ All plots were sprayed weekly with streptomycin (400 ppm).

}/ Active ingredients were: (Source of Nabam was Parzate, liquid), 19% nabam,
Amobam, 42% Diammonium ethylene bisdithiocarbamate.




-7-


Table 5. Control of gray leaf-spot of tomato
sprays. Spring, 1958.


with certain materials applied as


Concentration Average lesions Defoliaton
Treatments per 100 gallons per leaflet~ rating?/


1. Check

2. Zineb

3. Maneb
4. Copper

5. Dyrene


2.0 lbs.

1.5 Ibs.
4.0 lbs.

2.0 Ibs.


6. Copper 4 zineb

7. Dyrene 4 copper

8. Dyrene 4 zineb

9. Maneb 4 ferbam

10. Maneb 4 thiram


11. Thiram


12. Amobam 4 Ca(ClO)2


13. U-2069

14. U-9547

15. 0-2323
16. G.C. 2466


4.0 4 1.5 Ibs.

1.5 4 4.0 lbs.

1.5 4 1.5 lbs.

1.0 4 3.0 lbs.

1.0 4 1.0 Ibs.


1.5 Ibs.


1 qt. 4 1.5 Ibs.


1.0 lb.

2.0 lbs.

1.0 ibs.

2.0 Ibs.


L.S.D. .05 1.33 1.8
L.S.D. .01 1.77 2.4

i/ Average number of gray leaf-spot lesions per leaflet on 25 random leaflets
per plot. Average of 4 replicates. Data taken May 12, 1958.

2/ Defoliation rating based on a 0 10 scale where 0 equals no disease and 10
equals complete defoliation. Defoliation caused mainly by gray leaf-spot,
but late blight caused some defoliation.

3/ Active ingredients were: (Source of zineb was Z-78), 65% zineb; (Source of
maneb was M-22), 70% maneb; (Source of copper was Tri-basic copper sulfate),
53% copper; Dyrene, 50% 2,4-Dichloro-6-(0-chloroanaline) Triazine; (Source
of ferbam was Fermate), 76% ferbam; (Source of thiram was Thylate), 65%
thiram; Amobam, 42% Diammonium ethylene bisdithiocarbamate.

IRFL 59-2
300 copies


25.52

6.73

2.73


9.5
4.5

1.8

8.0

1.5

7.8

2.3

1.3

1.5
1.8


0.90

3.70
.11.56

1.48

1.91

2.54

7.25
4.76


7.55
7.16

6.89

3.95


5.3
6.3

8.3

8.3
8.5




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