Group Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Title: Results of potato fertilizer experiments in the Indiantown and Palm City area
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00056012/00001
 Material Information
Title: Results of potato fertilizer experiments in the Indiantown and Palm City area
Series Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Physical Description: 3, 1 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hayslip, Norman C ( Norman Calvin ), 1916-
Burdine, Howard W., 1909-
Indian River Field Laboratory
Publisher: Indian River Field Laboratory
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce Fla
Publication Date: [1959]
 Subjects
Subject: Potatoes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Potatoes -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: N.C. Hayslip and Howard W. Burdine.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 28, 1959."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056012
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69244629

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Indian River Field Laboratory Mimeo Report 59-3


Result of Potato Fertilizer Experiments in the Indiantown and Palm City Area

N. C. Hayslip and Howard W. Burdinel/


Four potato fertilizer experiments2/ have been conducted, one for each of
four consecutive years beginning with the 1955-56 season. Three of these e.-peri-
ments were grown during the m-.d-w.in:Ter season, planted in late November or early
December and harvested in March. The experiment reported for the 1957-58 season
wars planted January 30 and Iarvested May 10, 1958, after a previously planted
experiment was lost.

Soil Types: The soil types on which these experiments were conducted were desig-
nated as Immokalee or Leon fine sand.

Previous Cropping: All experiments were conducted on land that had been previous-
ly cropped one or two years to potatoes and/or tomatoes followed by cover crops
of sesbania.

Nutrient Sources:
Primary elements: All treatments receiving organic nitrogen were made with
commercial mixtures being used by growers containing 40% nitrogen derived from
castor pumice and tankage with the exception of those used during the 1958-59
season. The organic nitrogen component in this experiment was 50S and derived
from millorganite, mixed at the Everglades Station.

In all other treatments fertilizers were mixed at the Everglades Station
from the following materials:

Ammonium nitrate
20o Superphosphate
Muriate of Potash

Secondary elements: Where commercial mixtures containing organic nitrogen
were used, secondary elements including magnesium were used in proportions being
used by the grower. In all other mixtures, secondary elements were used-as' :,
follows:

Material Lbs/A .
CopperSulfate -TJ.O i0 -
Manganese Sulfate 12.5
Zinc Sulfate 9.0 .
Ferrous Sulfate 21.0
Borax 8.0
Magnesium Sulfate 150.0

1/ Entomologist, Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce, Florida and Assistant
Horticulturist, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida, respec-
tively.

2/ The writers wish to acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of Tom
Mehlenbacker, Irwin Hopkins, John Baum and L, R. Becker who assisted in the
conduct of these experiments.


April 28, 1959








Application of Materials:

Banded at planting: Two bands of fertilizer were applied 31 to 4 inches on
each side of the seedpiece.

Later banding: A furrow on each side of the ridge approximately 2" deep was
marked out about halfway up the ridge on each side. Fertilizer was applied and
furrow covered with soil. In 1955-56 fertilizer was applied to side of ridge.

Broadcast at planting: Fertilizer was broadcast over the entire plot area
before ridging.

Yields:

Weight in pounds per plot was converted to number of 100-lb. bags per acre.
These yields include both U.S. #1 and U.S. #2 size potatoes.


Results

The attached table lists thirteen treatments applied during a four-year
period. Treatment 8 probably approximates more nearly that followed by most
growers in the area.

1. Split versus single fertilizer applications compare treatments 1 and
3: These treatments containing equal amounts of nutrients were very similar in
response yieldwise the last three years. The first year, however, 1955-56, the
"all at planting treatment" was significantly greater.

2. 6-8-8, 2500 Ibs. per acre with extra sidedresses of nitrogen and
potassium Compare treatment 1 to treatments 5, 6 and 7:
The 1955-56 plot indicated what was subsequently observed in 1957-58, that more
than one extra sidedress of nitrogen and potassium at the rates given tended to
delay maturity and reduce yields. However, one extra sidedress applied about 2"
deep on each side of the ridge not later than 6 weeks after planting and contain-
ing 60 lbs. nitrogen and 60 lbs. potash, consistently gave highest yields that
were significantly greater two years out of the four. It is estimated that the
cost of 600 lbs. of 10-0-10 required for this application is about $14.00.

3. Organic versus mineral nitrogen Compare treatment 1 with treatments
8 and 10 and treatment 4 with treatment 9:
Comparisons were made in each of four years. These data indicate that organic
nitrogen did not increase yields in any of the four years. In 1955-56 the organic
nitrogen plots yielded significantly less than plots receiving all mineral nitro-
gen.

4. Minor elements versus no minor elements Compare treatment 1 with
treatment 12 and treatment 5 with treatment 13:
These plots were grown on soil that had been previously cropped at least one
year and usually with a two-year cropping history. Yields were somewhat lower
with treatments involving no minor elements but differences were not large
enough to be significant. The routine addition of certain minor elements pro-
vides insurance. However, on land having been already cropped for two years
with routine applications of minor elements, the value of annual applications of
zinc and manganese in fertilizer mixes might be questionable if both meneb and
zineb are both used as fungicides.









5. Broadcast versus band Compare treatment 1 with 4 and 8 with 9:
These data are limited, however, band application seems preferable to broadcast.

6. General comments:
Yields were rather low in the three latter experiments. However, it seems from
these data that where higher yields are expected 2500 lbs. of 6-8-8 could be
profitably supplimented by 600 Ibs. of 10-0-10 or 400 lbs. of 15-0-14 per acre
applied not later than 6 weeks after planting, especially if leaching rains have
occurred since the original fertilizer application.

Considerable data have been accumulated at the Potato Investigations Labora-
tory at Hastings and much of this information should be of value to south Florida
sandy soil potato growers.































IRFL 59-3
300 copies





SuCjRY OF IvTATO FIRTLIZER EXPER.0jNS AT PALM CITY AND INDIATOWN, FLORIDA FOR FOUR CONSECUTIVE YEARS 1950-59


Treatment-Lbs ./Acre
N P205 K20
1. 150 200 200

2. 90 200 140


3. 90
60


200 140
0 60


Minor
Elem. How Applied
yes Band-all at plant.

yes Band-all at plant.

yes Band at plant.
Band 6 wks. after


Baum Farm
1955-56
100# bgs/A. Rank
202 (4)


Becker Ranch
1956-57
0# bgs/A Rank
179 (2)


Becker Ranch
1957-58
100# bgs/A Rank
187 (2)


Becker Ranch
1958-59
100# bgs/A Rank
0lo (3)


89 (6)


181


175


4. 150 200 200 yes Broad-all at plant.


5. 150 200 200
60 60

6. 150 200 200
60 60
60 60


7. 150
60
60
60


200
-
-i


200
60
60
60


yes Band at plant.
Band 6 wks. after


yes Band
Band
Band

yes Band
Band
Band
Band


at plant.
6 wks. after
8 wks. after

at plant.
6 wks. after
8 wks. after
10 wks. after


188


170


229


212



214


189


171

189


160


107


100

127


8. 150 200
(40% org

9. 150 200
(40% org

10. 168 280
(6-8-10

11. 150 200
41000-#.ac


200
:anic N)


yes Band-all at plant.
(50% org. N in 1958-59)


200 yes Broad-all at plant.
. N) (50% org. N in 1958-59)

224 yes Band-all at plant.
com. Mix. 40% organic 2800# ac.)

200 yes Band-all at plant.
. gypsum broad. before ridging


12. 150 200 200


13. 150
60


200 200
6c


Mg Band-all at plant.
only
Mg Band ar plant.
on.- Ban 6 wk s after


98 (5)


176
N.S.


142
N.S.


LSD: .05a 11
LSD: .05 P 11


190


166


107


169


187


LSD: .05 = 20


3


I


*


-







Indian River Field Laboratory Mimeo 60-1


BACTERIAL SOFT ROT OF TOMATO FRUIT

by

Robert E. Stall!/


Bacterial soft rot has caused an alarming amount of damage to
harvested tomato fruit in the packing houses recently. This is a dis-
order caused by a parasite that rots the fruit and must be handled as
a disease.

Description: The first sign of this disease is a water-soaked area
on the surface of the fruit. This area will start from a wound, growth
crack or stem-end scar. There is a sharp line between healthy and water-
soaked area. The bacteria quickly convert the interior of the fruit into
a soft, watery mass. The rotted fruit then looks like a bag containing
water. Except in very early stages a foul odor is always associated with
the rotting.

Causal Factocs: The causal bacteria, which are present wherever
tomatoes are raised, are not capable of rotting healthy fruit in the
field. They can only enter the fruit through wounds, growth cracks or
stem-end scars. The recent excessive rains, which caused the combination
of many growthI cracks oias splashing of the bacteria on the fi-uio, are uhe
primary factors for starting the disease. Under these conditions along
with high temperatures, the soft rot becomes established on a few fruits
in the field. The bacteria are then rapidly spread to other fruits when
diseased fruits are dipped in circulated rinse water. All fruits dipped
in water which has been contaminated by a rotted fruit are exposed to the
disease organisms.

Control measures: Since the dipping or rinse water used in the field
is the key to the rapid spread of the organism, the most effective control
is to stop dipping the fruit in the field and use only clean fresh water
in the packing house. Changing rinse water often may help but may not
give adequate control. This will depend on how frequently rotted fruit
are encountered in the field. Adding chlorox to the water to make a 3%
solution (3 gallons chlorox per 97 gallons w-ater) may possibly help, but
is the least effective control.

Other measures that farmers should follow are to not pick fruit when
the vines are wet. At such times bacteria are easily spead. If fruit
must be washed change rinse water often and do not put decaying c: rice
fruit in the rinse water. Such fruit are most likely to harbor -te -..ft
rot ba.<-ei; Ltrivu .b5' 3-c' :':. Y2i'J. a c. .y *s
retarded in transit at temperatures hetweon 50i and 60: Fo I

The above procedures should be followed for the next. week or 10 day '
_- C ^U ^- fDEC Q
17 Assista.nt PIant r atlologi7st, Indi!ln iver Field Laboratory, Fort
Pierce, Florida. 'I'


^K^>


November 3. 11059








-2-


at least. They should also be followed in the future after heavy rains
and when the average daily temperatures fall between 75o and 80o F.
They may be suspended during the cooler months of the year or during
dry weather.

There are no known differences among varieties in susceptibility
to this disease. Varieties commonly raised in Florida are susceptible.











IRFL 60-1
300 copies




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