Group Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Title: An evaluation of bactericides and fungicides for control of bacterial spot and botrytis gray mold of tomato
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 Material Information
Title: An evaluation of bactericides and fungicides for control of bacterial spot and botrytis gray mold of tomato
Series Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stall, Robert E
Indian River Field Laboratory
Publisher: Indian River Field Laboratory
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce Fla
Publication Date: [1962]
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fungicides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Bactericides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Robert E. Stall.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 25, 1962."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00056008
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69243690

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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Indian River Field Laboratory Mimeo Re&ort 62-3 April 25, 1962


AN EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDES IAND FUNGICIDES FOR CO iTROL OF BACTERIAL
SPOT AiD BOTRYTIS GR.Y iOLD OF TOi .TO

Robert E. Stalll/


Information was accumulated on control of two diseases of tomato in the Fort
Pierce area during the 1961-62 seasons. Experiments on control of bacterial soot
(Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Doidge) Dows.) and botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea
Fr.) wiTE hec-als ap~Ipied as sprays are reported below.
In all experiments randomized replicated experimental designs were employed.
Materials were applied with the aid of a specially constructed nower sprayer
operating at adequate pressure to deliver sufficient gallonage to cover foliage.

Control of bacterial soot with cuoric Omadine formulations.--Twenty-nine
sprays were applied during the 9 -days of this test. The spray interval was
determined by a 4-5 day schedule except that sprays were applied after each rain
in addition to the regular schedule.
Bacterial soot became prevalent in the lots. Three ratings of disease
incidence were completed (Table 1). Percentages of fruit affected by bacterial
spot were calculated and are recorded along with yield data in table 2.

Control of bacterial soot with experimental materials.--In this test ten
materials submitted by chemical companies for possible control of bacterial spot
were compared with standard materials. This test was terminated after the plants
were slightly beyond the thinning stage. The soray interval was determined by a
I-5 day schedule except that sorays were applied after each rain in addition to
the regular schedule. Ten sprays were applied during the 3h days of the test.
Three visual ratings based on the per cent of leaflets affected by bacterial
spot were estimated and recorded in table 3. None of the experimental materials
resulted in good control of the disease.

Effect of streptomycin resistance of bacterial soot isolates and control of
the disease with streotomycin.--After the second disease rating in the experimental
materials test Table 3), lesions were collected from unsorayed plants and the
bacterial isolates were tested for streptomycin resistance. Eight per cent of the
isolates were resistant to 100 ppm streptomycin. The same eight per cent were also
resistant to 0 opm.
After the third rating for disease incidence, when streptomycin did not
control the disease, bacteria from all streptomycin-sprayed plants as well as
unsorayed plants were checked for streptomycin resistance. A striking difference
in the amount of resistant isolates on streptomycin-sprayed plants versus unsprayed
plants occurred (Table 4).

Control of botrytis gray mold with fungicides.--This test was completed on
low calcium-lw pH soil during mid-winter, which are conditions favorable for
disease development. The test was designed to try to find if differences occur
in the control of gray mold by recommended materials. Plants were sprayed on a
h-5 day schedule.
The incidence of disease was relatively high. Foliage disease ratings and
percentages of rotted and ghost-spotted fruit are recorded in table U. Surprising
differences occur in control of these three chases of the disease.


1/ Assistant Plant Pathologist. Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, Florida.







control with materials applied as sprays.


Materials1/
1. Check
2. EP-177
3. EP-199
4. MV-229
5. MV-2392
6. MV-252
7. B720
8. Terrami
9. G.S. 2!
10. G.S. 7
11. G.S. 41
12. Manzat
13. A.S.-l'
14. A.s.-1
15. A.S.-1
16. A.S.-1
17. TBCS


Concentration
per 100 gal.


A


ycin
927

2148
e+TBCS
7
7
7
7+TBCS


1.3
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
500
500
1000
1000
1.5+4.0
100
200
400
400 ppm+4.0
h.0


lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
lb.
ppm
ppm
ppm
lb.
lb.


Rating dates
10-16 1.0-25 11-3
6.5e/ 5.3 6.5
2.3 3.3 4.0
4.5 4.0 5.3
2.8 2.5 4.8
3.8 2.3 5.3
4.3 L.5 5.4
6.0 5.0 6.0
1.5 2.0 3.4
1.5 4.3 6.0
4.0 4.5 4.8


1.8
2.8
3.3
2.3
2.0
5.0


1.3
2.3
2.8
2.0
1.3
3.3


2.8
6.0
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.5


L.S.D. 0 .05 1.0 0.9 0.6
L.S.D. 9 .01 1.2 1.1 0.8
1/ EP-177 and EP-199 supplied by Morton Chemical Co.; MV-229, MV-239A and MV-252
supplied by Stauffer Chemical Co.; B720 supplied by Naugatuck Chemical;
Terramycin, G.S. 2927, G.S. 7, G.S. 4248 and A.S.-17 supplied by Chas. Pfizer
and Co., and IHanzate supplied by the E. I. du Pont and Co.

2/ Index based on a 0-10 basis, where O=no disease and 10=at least 1 lesion on all
leaflets.


Table 4. Control of bacterial spot and development of resistant isolates of
Xanthomonas vesicatoria.


Streptomycinx/ Bacterial spot index/
treatments rating dates
opm 10-16 10-25 11-8
0 6.5 5.3 6.5
100 2.8++ 2.3++ 6.0
200 3.3++ 2.8++ 5.8
o00 2.3++ 2.0++ 5.8
+ significant; + h ly sig lcan


%, isolates on 11-10-61 which grew on
indicated pom streotomycin in medium
0 100 200 400
loo_/ 25 15 o
100 85 70 15
100 85 80 25
100 100 90 25


a/ Source of streptomycin was AS-17, 175 streptomycin sulfate.

b/ Index based on a 0-10 scale where 0 equals no disease and 10 equals at least
1 lesion on all leaflets. Ave. of 4 reolicates.


c/ Per cent based on 20 isolates.


Toxicity

++





++
+


_II_


__


Table 3. Bacterial soot








Table 5. Control of three phases of botrytis gray mold with fungicides.


Fungicidel/
Check
Dyrene
Ferbam
Dichlone
Thiram
Caotan


Rate/
100 gal.

2.0
3.0
0.75
2.0
4.0


Foliage index /
2-16 2-22
T5~-l---80~
2.8+ 4.3+
3.8+ 5.8
5.0 7.0
3.3+ 3.5+
4.0+ 6.3


Fruit disease
%rotted % ghost-soot3J
.3" 7.1
3.3+ 1.2++
3.9+ 4.3+
3.0+ 7.6
3.5+ 3.9+
6.2 2.8++


+ significant; ++ highly significant

1/ Active ingredients of the following formulations; ferbam-Fermate, dichlone-
PhygonxL, thiram-Thylate, captan-Captan 501.
All plots received maneb as a blanket treatment.

2/ Foliage index based on a 0-15 basis, where O=no disease at 5 random locations
and 1$=abundant disease at each of 5 random locations.

3/ Data accumulated for the March 19 harvest only.






























IRFL 62-3
300 copies


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