Group Title: Research report - Ft. Pierce Agricultural Research and Education Center ; FTP-1983-3
Title: Tropical legumes in the Americas
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055976/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tropical legumes in the Americas
Series Title: Fort Pierce ARC research report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kretschmer, Albert E ( Albert Emil ), 1925-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Research Center
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce Fla
Publication Date: [1983]
 Subjects
Subject: Legumes   ( lcsh )
Tropical crops   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055976
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67229173

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





tFort Pierce ARC Research Report FTP-1983-3
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F53 (_vn
IL TROPICAL LEGUMES IN THE AMERICAS


by -i-UME LIBRARY


Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D. EC 05 193
Professor
University of Florida da
Agricultural Research Center ITA.S.-Un l V. Of lor
Ft. Pierce, Florida



Production of beef in the tropics is based almost entirely on grazing
systems with perennial grasses. High costs of fertilizer materials, par-
ticularly nitrogen, limit their use, and thereby stocking rates are low
compared to many temperate areas of the world. Furthermore, quality of
tropical grasses and. legumes generally are less than those of respective
temperate forages at the same age of regrowth.

Research work with the use of tropical legumes in association with
permanent grass pastures began after World War II, but intensive work on
a widespread scale began about 20 years ago. Presently, in most tropical
countries, researchers appreciate the potential value of tropical legumes
in providing nitrogen, better quality and higher stocking rates to the
grazing system, compared to grasses alone without nitrogen fertilization.
Native or naturalized tropical forage legumes can be found in almost all
areas of the tropical Americas. In many instances they have contributed
to the grazing system without notice by the cattle producer.

The commercial success of utilizing tropical legumes has.been much
less than expected based on the favorable research results. In fact, in
only a few instances have long-term persistence of tropical legume based
pastures been a reality. Lack of legume persistence, for one or more
reasons, is the cause. Generally, success with legume use has been better
on areas of poor soil fertility, and in areas where extreme climatic
changes occur, such as district wet-dry or areas subjected to near freezing
temperatures during the winter months. A combination of fertile soil,
year-round rainfall, and vigorous grasses would be the least likely en-
vironment to support persistence in tropical legumes. Commercially avail-
able legume species vary dramatically in growth and flowering habit,
drought and flooding tolerance, infertile soil tolerance, competitiveness
with associated grasses, susceptibility to heavy or light grazing pressures,
and cattle acceptibility. Thus, there appears to be a tropical legume
suited for use under most climatic and soil variable. Successes in
J
Australia, Florida, Colombia, and Brasil have shown that under the correct
management long-term tropical legume pastures can become a reality. In
Table 1 are listed the more prominent commercial tropical legume cultivars.
In Table 2, some of their attributes are outlined. Although not listed
in Table 2, some pests can be a serious problem with some of the legumes.






A-2




Probably the most serious diseases affecting, and at times killing
plants, are anthracnose, virus, and root-knot nematodes. S. guianensis
and S. humilis cultivars, and Fitzroy shrubby stylo are most.affected
by anthracnose. Verano Caribbean and Seca shrubby styles are less
affected, while Capica capitata is least affected.

Carpon desmodium and Alyce clover are badly affected by root-knot
nematodes; and the Desmodium species may be severely affected by "little
leaf" diseases (virus or virus like).

Insects also may cause plant death although their damage appears to
be in more isolated instances than the diseases. In any event, prior to
planting large acreages the rancher should ask Extension, Research, or
neighboring ranchers for information concerning their experiences with
the various species.






S


important tropical legumes


Name


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.


Scientific

Aeschynomene americana
Alysicarpus vaginalis
Arachis glabrata
Calopogonium mucunoides
Centrosema pubescens
Desmodium heterocarpon
Desmodium intortum
Desmodium uncinatum
Calactia striata
Indigofera hirsuta
Lablab purpureus
Leucaena leucocephala


13. Lotononis bainesii
14. Macroptilium atropurpureum

15. Macroptilium lathyroides
16. Macrotyloma axillare
17. Neonotonia wightii

18. Pueraria phaseoloides

19. Stylosanthes capitata
20. Scylosanthes guianensis

21. Scylosanthes hamata
22. Stylosanthes humilis

23. Stylosanthes scabra


Common U.S.A.

Jointvetch
Alyce clover
Rhizoma peanut
Calopo
Centro
Carpon desmodium
Greenleaf desmodium
Silverleaf desmodium
None
Hairy indigo
Lablab bean
Leucaena, Kao Haole

Lotononis
Siratro

Phasey bean
None
Perennial soybean

Tropical kudzu

None
Stylo

Caribbean stylo
Townsville stylo

Shrubby stylo


E-
A
A
P
AP
P
P
P
P
P
A
AB
PT

AP
P

AB
P
P

P

P
P

AB
*A

P


Named Cultivars


Common
Common
Florigraze
Common
Common, Belato, Deodora
Florida.
Greenleaf
Silverleaf
Common
Common
Rongai, Highworth
Peru, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Cunningham
Miles
Siratro

Murray
Archer
Tinaroo, Cooper, Clarence,
Malawi, Brazil IRI No.l
Common

Capica
Schofield, Endeavour, Cook,
Graham, Brazil IRI 1022
Verano
Common, mostly a mixture
of ecotypes
Seca, Fitzroy


h


perennial, B = -biennial,


Names and seed sources of tore


Table 1.


Major
Commercial
Seed Sources

Florida
.Florida, Australia
Florida
Brazil, Australia
Brazil, Australia
Florida
Australia
Australia
Brazil
Florida, Venezuela
Australia
Australia, Brazil,
Colombia, U.S.A.
Australia
Australia, Brazil,
Colombia, U.S.A.
Australia
Australia
Australia, Brazil
Australia,
South America
Colombia
Australia, Brazil
Australia
Australia
Australia


A = annual, T = tree




STable 2. Attributes of some commercial tropicall legumes.


Tropics Subtropics
Good growth-rainfall Good Growth Cool season
(altitude--0-500 meters) altitude growth


Sa n c C 0.a p0 ;r O j P U n 11 .
S 0 0 'a H- C ( H. 0 I 0 o0 (M M *
0 0.03 M (1 0M O O H. n O rt o0 0
C (DO rt rt PH.t 0 I OH. 0 C: N
r 1 I H. O 0 O O C n M rt -
7nOC 33 P H 0 r
(M O O rr n rt 3 w 1
D O C C ( D H r.r 0 D
cr a. n aL mn 0 a H. O C0
H 13 93 3e 0H D 0 O4 M
L.egume Number r4+ -. : r o 0 0 <
+ 3 -4 H O r EUA (A a
(see table 1) Vi : 'm m H. o 0

H 0 0


1. Y Y' Y N Y N N N S M
2. P Y Y N N Y N N N S H
3. Y Y N N Y Y Y N S I1
4. IP Y Y Y N Y N N N S H
5. W Y Y N N Y Y N N S L
6. KPI Y N N N Y N N N M II
7. EW Y N N N Y Y Y N R L .
8. ElW Y N N N Y Y Y N M L
9. W Y Y N N Y Y N Y M M
10. Y Y N N Y N N N S M
11. I' Y Y Y Y Y Y N N* M L
12. Y Y N Y Y Y N N M M
13. 1' Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y R H
14. W Y Y N N Y Y N N M M
15. I Y N Y ', N Y N N N' M L
16. W Y Y N N Y Y N N M M
17. W Y Y N N Y Y Y N R M
18. W Y N Y N Y N N N S M
19. E Y Y N N Y N N N S M
20. E Y N N N Y Y N N M M
21. r Y Y Y Y Y N N N M H
22. E Y Y N Y 'Y N N N S H
23. E Y Y N Y Y N N N M H
V- erect, branchi.n; I' = prostrnte, spreading; W winding, trailing.
Y = yes, couditlons f'1vorahle for normal growth; N no, conditions probably least favorable for normal growth because of
molsture or a].titide.
:.1tuin and/or ;spring; R = rapLd; M = moderate; S = slow or none.
iJIcniLcas r.-eativc degreut of grazing pressure for plant survival or persistence assuming r?.nts permitted to produce seeds
.amuaIl ly; II = withsltands cotuiinuoius heavy grazing pressures without rest period: M = w:.satand- continuous moderate grazing;
ir heavy grazing pressures for several months with infrequent 4.to 6 week rest :e:.od3; L.= wi:istands intermittent grazings
wiLth 4 to 6 week rest. periods.




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