Group Title: Research report - Ft. Pierce Agricultural Research and Education Center ; 93-5
Title: Water table effects on yield and consumptive use of citrus
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055961/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water table effects on yield and consumptive use of citrus
Series Title: Ft. Pierce AREC
Physical Description: 13 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Boman, Brian J
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Fort Pierce, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, Insititute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce Fla
Publication Date: 1993]
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Evapotranspiration -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 13).
Statement of Responsibility: Brian J. Boman.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055961
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 66899333

Full Text





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not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
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record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









) 3-".5 WATER TABLE EFFECTS ON YIELD

AND CONSUMPTIVE USE OF CITRUS c: o


Brian J. Boman 0 '-

KEYWORDS
Citrus, Evapotranspiration, Crop coefficients,
Microirrigation, Lysimeters, Water table

BACKGROUND
The experiment described in this report is a multi-year
study which was initiated under South Florida Water
Management District (SFWMD) Contract No. 499-M87-0416 in
1988. The objective of the study was to determine the
effects of water table on the yield and evapotranspiration
(ET) rates of young bearing citrus trees. The study was
extended for two years in 1991 under SFWMD Contract No. C91-
2238 in order to gain additional information on water use as
related to fruit production. The following citation refers
to a paper that was published from this study. It contains
much of the details of the construction and operation of the
lysimeters.

Boman, B. J., and J. P. Syvertsen. 1991. Drainage
lysimeters for high water table citrus studies. In
Lysimeters for evapotranspiration and environmental
measurements. R. G. Allen, T. A. Howell, W. O Pruitt,
I. O. Walter, and M. E. Jensen, (Ed.), Proceedings of
the International Symposium on Lysimetry, ASCE, New
York. p. 318-325.

In addition, the following manuscript has been accepted
for publication. It reports on the water use of the
lysimeter trees during the 1989/90 and 1990/91 seasons.
Reprints of the paper will be available for distribution
following its publication.

Boman, B. J. Evapotranspiration from young Florida
Flatwoods citrus trees. J. Irrig. and Drain. Engr.,
ASCE. (scheduled for publication in Feb. 1994).

Funding for this study (SFWMD Contract No. C91-2238) was
for the 1991/92 and 1992/93 production seasons. However,
where additional data is warranted, this report includes
data that was collected prior to the 1991/92 season.


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5









ABSTRACT
Twenty-one drainage lysimeters were installed in 1988 to
measure water balance parameters for citrus trees. The
lysimeters were designed to simulate the high water table
conditions that exist for the more than 375,000 acres of
citrus grown in the Florida Flatwoods. The lysimeters were
constructed from 11.5 ft diameter by 36 inch deep
polyethylene tanks. Young trees were transplanted into the
lysimeters in 1988. Four experimental treatments consisting
of constant water tables at depths of 24 inches, 30 inches,
and 36 inches plus a fluctuating water table treatment were
included in the study. Trees were watered with a
microirrigation system and all irrigation and drainage water
was metered. Water table levels were maintained by float-
controlled pumps. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) averaged
2860 gal tree-1 for March 1990 to March 1991, 3330 gal tree-1
for March 1991 to March 1992, and 4050 gal tree"- for March
1992 to March 1993. ET rates were not significantly
different among water table treatments. Tree growth, yield,
and juice quality were not affected (p=0.05) by the water
table treatments.

INTRODUCTION
Most of the recent expansion of the Florida citrus
industry has been on Flatwoods soils which are located in
coastal areas where high water tables are present. The
Flatwoods soils usually have a sandy topsoil with slowly
permeable hardpan layers within 18 to 48 inches of the
surface, which confine citrus root zone depths to about 18
inches (Reitz and Long, 1955). Nearly all Flatwoods groves
are planted on beds raised from 18 to 48 inches above the
water furrow.
Water tables under the bedded groves are known to
fluctuate with irrigation and rainfall, with the extent of
the variations dependant upon the soil series, bedding
conditions, and water management (Boman, 1987). Obreza and
Admire (1985) concluded that shallow water tables in the
Flatwoods soils could significantly augment water available
for root uptake. Graser and Allen (1987) suggested that
water table management by controlling at above-normal water
tables in the winter and spring could help provide a year-
round optimum water table for citrus. Upflux of water from
the water table into the root zone can decrease the need for
supplemental irrigations when the water table is less than
30 inches from the surface (Obreza and Boman, 1992).
This study was designed to measure the effects of water
table on young Flatwoods citrus tree evapotranspiration
(ET), tree growth, fruit yield and juice quality and to
determine crop coefficients suitable for scheduling
irrigations on young citrus trees.


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5









the lysimeters.
The spray program and other cultural operations were
applied uniformly to the entire experiment. Granular
fertilizer (8-4-8 N-P-K analysis) was applied three times
per year (Feb., June, Nov.) at the following rates: 1991/92
- 0.9 lb N and K per tree, and 1992/93 1.6 lb N and K per
tree. A herbicide strip was used in the lysimeters and
between-lysimeter areas to control grass and weeds. Post
bloom, summer, and nutritional sprays were applied according
to University of Florida recommendations (Koo, et. al,
1984).
Physical measurements of tree height, trunk
circumference, and canopy diameter were taken on each tree
in July 1989, April 1990, May 1991, May 1992, and May 1993.
Canopy volume was calculated using the procedure by
Hutchinson (1977) as:

Vol = Ht(W2)
(1)
4

where Vol = canopy volume (m3), Ht = tree height (m), and W
= canopy width (m).
Fruit was sampled for juice analysis in early April each
year. About 10 fruit were picked from each tree and grouped
together by treatment for a composite sample. Juice was
analyzed by the Florida Department of Citrus Laboratory in
Lake Alfred. Fruit from each tree was picked and weighed to
determine fruit yield during April or May of each year.
Yield was converted to boxed using the factor of 90 lb of
fruit per box.
Tree water use, growth, production, and juice quality
parameters were analyzed with standard analysis of variance
procedures as a randomized complete block design with each
treatment having five replicates.

ET AND ETo CALCULATIONS
Evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated using the
following water balance equation:

ET = (IR + k(PR) DR)
(2)
ND

where ET = average daily ET (inches day-1), IR = irrigation
volume applied (gal), PR = precipitation depth (inches), k
= constant to convert rainfall depth to volume (gal inch ),
DR = measured drainage (gal), and ND = number of days in
period. Due to the frequent irrigations, changes in the
soil moisture content were negligible between the
measurement.
The crop cycle for 'Valencia' oranges normally begins


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5








with bloom sometime in March. The crop cycle extends over
a year since 'Valencia' oranges are a late-maturing variety
and are normally harvested sometime during the months of
March through June. ET was calculated for the study
beginning in March of each year to coincide with bloom.
Reference ET (ETo) was calculated using the modified
Penman combination method as presented by Burman et al.
(1980). The wind coefficients used in this report were
those by Wright and Jensen (1972). The net radiation term
was estimated from daily solar radiation, temperature, and
dew point data using values and functions developed by
Wright (1982).
Crop coefficients (Kc) relating the tree water use (for
the surface area of the lysimeters) to ETo were calculated.
ET rates (gal day-' ) for each period were converted to
inches day' (by dividing by the lysimeter surface area) and
then divided by the average daily ETo for the same period.
The calculated Kc values were based on the surface area of
the lysimeters. These Kc values were converted to various
tree planting densities by:

Kcn = 0.002388(n)(Kc) (3)

where n is the planting density in trees acI-, Kc is the crop
coefficient calculated based on the lysimeter surface area,
0.002388 is the fraction of aa acre that the lysimeter area
represents, and Ken is the appropriate crop coefficient for
a tree density of n trees ac-.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Climatic Conditions
During the 1990/91 season, the trees were rebounding from
the effects of the December 1989 freeze. Minimum
temperatures during the freeze were -5.00C on the morning of
the 24th and -3.90C on the 25th. The temperature remained
lower than the critical -2.20C for about 12 hours the first
night and about 6 hours the second. The trees dropped most
of their leaves. Typically, about 25% of each tree's canopy
suffered freeze damage and was pruned from the tree.
Rainfall was at or above normal levels for most of the
1990/91 through 1992/93 seasons (Table 1). The 1990/91
rainfall totaled 51.6 inches, however, the months of March
through May were very dry. December was also very dry with
only 0.2 inches of rainfall. A total of 57 irrigation
applications averaging 1829 gal tree-1 were made during the
1990/91 season.
Rainfall was adequate through most of the 1991/92 season.
A total of 32 irrigations were made, with applications
averaging 756 gal tree-1. Rainfall totalled 60.3 inches for
the period. Nearly 14 inches of rain fell during the last


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5









half of July.
Rainfall was even
greater during the
1992/93 season.
Rainfall totalled 63.3
inches, with over 17


Table 1. Monthly summary of
average water applied to each
lysimeter for the 1990/91 to
1992/93 production seasons.

Month Irrigations Rain ETr
(No.) (hr) (gal) (in) (in)


inches occurring during 1990191
the last part of June. Mar 8 6 120 1.3 5.0
July followed, being Apr 7 4 80 0.9 5.8
very dry for most of May 8 8 160 3.0 6.0
very dry for most of Jun 6 6 192 4.2 6.1
the month. Irrigations Jul 4 4 180 9.5 6.5
were necessary most of Aug 6 6 204 5.1 6.0
Sep 5 5 235 10.3 5.2
the month. May, oct 6 6 245 3.6 4.8
October, and December Nov 5 4 188 2.7 4.0
were also dry months. Dec 5 3 130 0.2 3.5
Jan 2 1 45 6.6 3.8
Feb 5 4 50 4.2 3.8
Tree Growth, Yield, and Total 67 57 1829 51.6 60.5
Juice Quality 1991/92
Growth measurements Mar 4 4 108 4.1 5.3
taken on the trees Apr 2 2 .54 6.1 4.8
showed little May 3 3 81 5.8 6.0
showed litJun 6 5 135 5.6 6.3
differences in tree Jul 0 0 0 13.9 6.3
heig h t t ru n k Aug 1 1 27 8.1 7.0
circumference, canopy Sep 0 0 0 6.1 5.0
Oct 2 2 54 4.5 4.1
diameter or canopy Nov 4 4 108 0.9 3.3
volume among treatments Dec 3 2 54 1.3 3.8
or with the control Jan 5 4 108 1.5 3.7
Feb 2 1 27 2.6 4.1
trees (Table 2) for Total 32 28 756 60.3 59.7
during the 90/91 and
91/92 seasons. In the 9929381 18 5
1992/93 season, trees Apr 7 12 324 2.6 5.9
with the 30-inch water May 12 21 567 1.0 6.9
table depth had smaller Jun 2 3 81 17.6 5.4
Jul 11 17 459 3.5 6.9
changes in canopy Aug 2 4 108 6.5 5.3
volume and trunk Sep 4 3 81 5.8 4.9
circumference than Oct 7 10 270 3.7 4.9
Nov 1 2 54 8.1 3.4
trees with the 24-inch Dec 8 7 200 1.9 3.7
water table (p=0.05). Jan 0 0 0 8.2 3.4
Differences between Feb 3 2 55 2.6 3.5
oD er enes between Total 61 84 2280 63.3 59.4
other water table
levels were non-
significant (p=0.05).
Tree height averaged 8.9 ft with canopies 10.6 ft wide
during May 1993. The average trunk circumference was 17.2
inches during the May 1993 measurements compared to 12.6
inches in July 1989 when measurements were initially taken.
The overall changes in canopy volume by water table level
from 1989 to 1993 were non-significant. The check treatment
trees did show a larger increase in trunk circumference than
the 2-ft water table level during this 4-year period.
Differences in trunk and canopy volume increases among the
other water table levels were non-significant (p=0.05).


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5









Table 2. Mean annual and total growth changes in lysimeter and
check trees (N=5).
1990/911 1991/922 1992/933 1989/934
Water
table Canopy Trunk Canopy Trunk Canopy Trunk Canopy Trunk
depth volume circum. volume circum. volume circum. volume circum.
Varied 1.53 1.43 1.31 1.14 1.27 ba 1.12 ba 5.33 1.89 ba
24 inch 1.42 1.24 1.43 1.17 1.41 a 1.24 a 5.99 1.97 ba
30 inch 1.24 1.39 1.50 1.15 1.13 b 1.01 b 4.57 1.58 b
36 inch 1.43 1.43 1.63 1.17 1.23 ba 1.15 ba 6.41 2.04 ba
Check 1.18 1.47 1.69 1.30 1.19 ba 1.11 ba 5.40 2.49 a
1Change in growth calculated as 4/91 value/7/90 value.
2Change in growth calculated as 4/92 value/7/91 value.
Change in growth calculated as 5/93 value/5/92 value.
4Change in growth calculated as 7/89 value/5/93 value.
6Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly
different (p=0.05) according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

There were no differences in the juice quality parameters
between treatments for the fruit harvested during the three
seasons that production was monitored (Table 3). However,
juice content and the soluble solids per box tended to be
less in the check trees than the lysimeters in the 1990/91
and 1992/93 seasons.
Fruit production in the 1990/91 season averaged about 0.5
boxes tree-1, with the control trees outside the lysimeters
having higher production than all of the lysimeter
treatments except the 30-inch water table level. Yields
during the 1991/92 season were about the same, averaging
about 0.4 boxes tree". Again, the check trees produced about
twice the fruit as those in the lysimeters. During the
1992/93 season, production increased dramatically. On most
of the trees, the yield increased 2 to 3 times, averaging
about 1.2 boxes tree-. No differences were noted in 1992/93
between the lysimeters and the check trees.

Water Use
Water table depth did not significantly (p=.05) affect
water use by the trees for any of the years. Therefore, the
data from all lysimeters was combined for analysis. During
the 1991/92 season, the trees had the highest average daily
water use in late July (Fig. 1). Peak daily water use at
this time was 15.7 gal day In the 1992/93 season, peak
water use was in early June with a daily average of 18.1 gal
day- over a 1-week period. In the 1992/93 season, the trees
had higher ET than the 1991/92 season during the April
through June period and then again in November and December.
When the data for the two years was averaged on a monthly
basis, the peak water use was about 14-15 gal day"' during
the June through August period (Fig. 2). This rate fell
offto about 6.0 gal day' during the mid-December to mid-
March period. It must be noted that there was considerable


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5





































'M'A'M'J'I


J A S 0 N D J F


Fig. 1. Mean daily ET by young citrus trees for weekly
periods for the 1991-92 and 1992/93 growing seasons (n=20).


0


20




15



o10-
cn)


S000ooooo 1991/92
***** 1992/93
0

00


0 0
"* oo o
0 0
0o 0 0



0
** O )
0 0
0
O
















DBe9E 1991/92
*.*.* 1992/93
S- Average


6.0 8.5 11.0 13.8 15.0 14.0 12.0 10.5


I I


I I


M A M J


9.5


J I A S I 0 N


8.5 6.0 6.0


* 1-


D I J I F


Fig. 2. Mean monthly ET by young citrus trees averaged from
weekly periods for the 1990/91, 1991/92 and 1992/93 growing
seasons (n-20).


18-


15-


^12-

9o
o0


6 -,


I


I









Table 3. Lysimeter yield and quality measurements by treatment
for the 1990/91 through 1992/93 seasons (N=5).
Water Acid:
table Fruit Juice Brix Soluble Soluble
depth weight content Acid Brix ratio solids Yield solids
(in) (g) (Z) (Z) (Z) (lb box-1)(lb tree-1) (Ib tree-1)
1990/91
Varied 241 62.8 0.60 9.6 16.1 5.45 34.8 bl 2.1 b
24 250 62.1 0.59 9.8 16.6 5.47 44.3 b 2.7 b
30 264 62.7 0.58 10.2 17.7 5.51 51.4 ab 3.1 ab
36 245 62.0 0.66 9.9 15.1 5.53 20.2 b 1.2 b
Check 254 42.4 0.73 10.6 14.5 4.01 79.8 a 3.6 a
1991192
Varied 240 60.5 0.81 12.9 16.0 7.05 27.8 b 2.2 b
24 228 62.1 0.84 13.1 15.6 7.31 11.9 b 0.9 b
30 242 62.5 0.85 13.3 15.6 7.47 39.7 b 3.3 b
36 217 63.5 0.83 13.1 15.8 7.47 29.8 b 2.5 b
Check 233 64.1 0.81 12.5 15.4 7.23 77.6 a 6.2 a
1992/93
Varied 184 68.7 0.83 12.0 14.5 7.45 102 8.5
24 184 67.8 0.88 12.5 14.1 7.61 98 8.4
30 172 61.0 0.99 13.8 13.9 7.58 113 9.5
36 178 64.9 0.86 12.2 14.2 7.12 108 8.6
Check 186 62.4 0.72 11.6 16.1 6.50 115 8.3
1Means within columns for the same parameter for the same year followed by the
same letter are not significantly different (p=0.05) according to Duncan's
Multiple Range Test.


variation above and below the mean on a weekly time step
(Fig. 1).
The seasonal ETo remained nearly constant for the 1990/91
through 1992/93 seasons (Fig. 3), totalling 60.6 inches,
60.3 inches, and 59.8 inches for the three seasons,
respectively. The water use by the trees, however,
increased considerably over this period. In the 1990/91
season, the average water use was 2861 gal or 7.8 gal day .
During the 1991/92 season, the water used increased about
15% to 3333 gal tree'1, or an average of 9.0 gal day"1. in
the 1992/93 season, the water use increased more than 20%
over the previous season, averaging 4047 gal or 11.0 gal
day1. Water use would be expected to continue to increase
over the next several years as the trees become larger and
production increases.
The calculated Kc values were at a minimum of 0.6 during
December and January and peaked at 1.15 in June (Fig. 4).
Again, there was considerable variation from the average for
weekly time periods. The Kc values calculated from the
lysimeters are valid only for the 104 ft2 surface area of
the lysimeters and require adjustment for actual tree
planting density using Eq. 3 (Table 4). For example, the
lysimeter Kc of 1.00 for the month of April converts to 0.36
for a tree density of 150 trees acre-1.
for a tree density of 150 trees acre


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5









4200


3800-


3400-


3000-


2600


1990/91


1991/92


1992/93


Fig. 3. Calculated annual Penman ETo and measured annual
citrus ET (n=20) for the 1990/91 through 1992/93 seasons.

Table 4. Crop coefficients (Kc) for 6- to 7-year-old citrus
trees at various tree planting densities with bare soil
(adjusted from lysimeter surface area).

Lysimeter trees ac"
Month area' 90 120 150 180 210 240
Jan 0.60 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.26 0.30 0.34
Feb 0.70 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
Mar 0.85 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.37 0.43 0.49
Apr 1.00 0.21 0.29 0.36 0.43 0.50 0.57
May 1.12 0.24 0.32 0.40 0.48 0.56 0.64
Jun 1.15 0.25 0.33 0.41 0.49 0.58 0.66
Jul 1.08 0.23 0.31 0.39 0.46 0.54 0.62
Aug 1.00 0.21 0.29 0.36 0.43 0.50 0.57
Sep 0.90 0.19 0.26 0.32 0.39 0.45 0.52
Oct 0.85 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.37 0.43 0.49
Nov 0.70 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
Dec 0.60 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.26 0.30 0.34
1Based on 104 ft area in lysimeter
2Calculated from: 0.002388(Density)(Lysimeter Kc)

Since a herbicide band was maintained the width of the
lysimeters, the data presented should be considered for bare
under-tree conditions. Grassed conditions in row middles
and between trees could raise the water requirements


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5


ETo


-- -


ET


-64



-56
C.
c

48



40


I




































M I A M J J A S I O' N I D


Fig. 4. Mean crop coefficients (Kc) for weekly periods
during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 growing seasons based on the
104 ft2 surface area in lysimeters (n=20).


0


1.4-






r-
C.)
aO
u-

- .
o 0.6


0-
0

L
0


0.2


00 0 0
00
0 --0--- 0
o *o
*o o
O *o

0 0 0
0 0O0 0
0 0 0



0 0

000 ooooo 1991/92
***** 1992/93


J I F









considerably. Smajstrla et al. (1985) found nearly double
the water use by 2-year-old citrus trees with grass cover as
compared to trees with bare soil. Therefore, under field
conditions where the area wetted by microirrigation system
is vegetated, Kc's and water use may be higher encountered
in these lysimeters.


REFERENCES

Boman, B. J. (1987). "Effects of soil series on shallow
water table fluctuations in bedded citrus." Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc., Vol. 100, 141-143.
Burman, R. D., Nixon, P. R., Wright, J. L., and Pruitt, W.
O. (1980). "Water requirements." Chapter 6 of ASAE
Monograph Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation
Systems. M. E. Jensen (Ed.). ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. p.
189-232.
Graser, E. A., and Allen, L. H., Jr. (1987). "Water
relations of 7-year-old containerized citrus trees under
drought and flooding stress." Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc., Vol. 100, 126-136.
Hutchinson, D. J. (1977). "Influence of rootstock on the
performance of 'Valencia' sweet orange." Proc. Int. Soc.
Citriculture, Vol. 2, 523-525.
Koo, R. C. J., Anderson, C. A., Stewart, I., Tucker, D. P.
H., Calvert, D. V., and Wutscher, H. K. (1984).
"Recommended fertilizers and nutritional sprays for
citrus." Inst. Food Agr. Sci., Univ. Fla., Bul. 536D.
30 pp.
Obreza, T. A., and Admire, K. E. (1985). "Shallow water
table fluctuations in response to rainfall, irrigations,
and evapotranspiration in flatwoods citrus." Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc., Vol. 98, 32-37.
Obreza, T. A., and B. J. Boman. 1992. Simulated citrus
water use from shallow groundwater. In Irrigation and
drainage: saving a threatened resource in search of
solutions. E. T. Engman (Ed.). Proc. ASCE Water Forum
'92. ASCE, New York. p. 177-182.
Reitz, H. J. and Long, W.T. (1955). "Water table
fluctuations and depth of rooting of citrus trees in the
Indian River area." Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., Vol.
68, 24-29.
Smajstrla, A. G., Parsons,L.R., Aribi, K., Velledis, G.
(1985). "Response of young citrus trees to irrigation."
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Vol. 98, 25-28.
Wright, J. L. (1982). "New evapotranspiration crop
coefficients." J. Irrig. and Drain. Engr., ASCE,
108(1), 57-74.
Wright, J. L., and Jensen, M. E. (1972). "Peak water
requirements of crops in southern Idaho." J. Irrig. and
Drain. Engr., ASCE, 98(2), 193-201.


Ft. Pierce AREC 93-5




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