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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Fort Pierce ARC Research Report RL-1981-3 June, 1981
Black Bean Variety Trial Fall 1980 !
P. J. Stoffella and J. B. Brolmann SFp /
Sizable black bean market has developed in Florida ovei"the- 'pAt r/O
few years. This is primarily due to the substantial influx of Cubans and
Haitians into south Florida. Black beans currently are being shipped
from New York State to meet Florida's increasing demand. The purpose
of this investigation was to evaluate several black bean genotypes for
growth and yield characteristics under south Florida's environmental
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Eleven black bean genotypes were planted at the Agricultural
Research Center, Fort Pierce, Florida (ARC-FP) on October 1, 1980.
The genotypes consisted of: three plant introduction lines, Mexico
PI 209465, El Salvador PI 304116, and PI 251049; three single plant
selections, 70001, 70002, and 70003 by Dr. R. F. Sandsted, Cornell
University; three cultivars, Arbolito, San Andres #1, and Venezuela
#54; and two commerical cultivars, Black Turtle Soup and Strain 39,
presently grown in the United States.
Land preparation consisted of incorporating approximately 2.24
mt/ha of dolomitic limestone. Raised beds were spaced at 2.1 meters
centers with a 105 cm width. All beds were fumigated with Vorlex
(96 1/ha). A fertilizer application of 4-16-4 (1,568 kg/ha) was
Assistant Professor and Assistant Professor, ARC-Ft. Pierce,
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
broadcast over the beds followed by an application of 8-12-20 (2,352
kg/ha) banned under a strip of.plastic mulch (25 cm wide) (1) placed in
the center of each bed.
All genotypes were seeded at 5 cm within row spacing on October
1, 1980. Two rows (61 cm apart) were planted on each bed, each equidis-
tant from the strip mulch on opposite sides of the mulch. Plots were
3.66 meters in length. A randomized complete block design with three
replications was used.
Prior to harvesting, lodging ratings, on a scale of 1 (erect) to
5 (prostrate), percent pod dryness, and percent leaf retention were
taken. The middle 3.05 meters of each plot was hand harvested on
January 6, 1981. All remaining leaves were removed and plants placed
in burlap bags, air dried approximately 30 days, and weighed (biological
yield). Seed yields were determined by processing plants through a
portable bean thresher.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
No seed or biological yield differences occurred among genotypes
(Table 1). However, seed yield ranged from 1,115 to 1,389 kg/ha for
Strain 39 and 70001, respectively. El Salvador PI 304116, Black Turtle
Soup, and Strain 39 had the highest harvest indices when compared with
the other genotypes. This suggests that these cultivars have a greater
photosynthetic efficiency since a higher percent dry weight accumulation
had gone into reproductive plant parts (seeds) than into vegetative plant
parts (roots, stems, pods),
Lodging resistance was highest for Arbolito, San Andres #1,
Venezuela #54, PI 251049, 70002, and 70003 when compared with Black
Turtle Soup, Mexico PI 209465, and El Salvador PI 304116 (Table 2).
PI 251049 had significantly lower percent pod dryness and higher
leaf retention at time of harvesting when compared to the other
genotypes. No differences for percent pod dryness and leaf retention
occurred among the other genotypes.
Our data show that black bean can be grown during the fall
season in south Florida. Although no seed yield differences occurred
among genotypes, further yield evaluations under different seasons are
needed. Lodging tolerance is an important black bean characteristic
for seed production, particularly under the wet and humid growing
conditions of Florida. Lodged plants during harvesting would decrease
harvestable yield when combined and increase pod and seed rot when in
contact with the soil. Arbolito had the highest lodging tolerance in
our trial. Adequate pod dryness and low leaf retention during
harvesting is needed to facilitate harvesting with the combines.
McMillan 12-D3 with low percent pod dryness and high leaf retention may
have considerable seed yield losses during the combining operation.
More research in areas of plant population, cultural practices, lodging
resistance, and pest management is needed to promote high yields and
grower acceptance of black beans in Florida.
1. Hayslip, N. C. 1979. How to apply strip mulch over banded
fertilizer to reduce leaching. Ft. Pierce ARC Research
Table 1. Mean seed yield,biological yield, and harvest index for several
genotypes during fall 1980 at Fort Pierce ARC, Florida.
Seed Biologicalz Harvest
Genotype yield yield index
Arbolito 1284 2754 46.6
Mexico PI 209465 1248 2532 49.4
El Salvador PI 304116 1287 2387 54.2
San Andres #1 1277 2727 46.9
Venezuela #54 1303 2899 45.2
PI 251049 1140 2605 44.1
70001 1389 2749 50.4
70002 1218 2389 50.9
70003 1331 2700 49.0
Black Turtle Soup 1203 2214 54.3
Strain 39 1115 2126 52.4
LSD 0.05 NS NS 3.8
z Biological yield = (roots + stems + pods + seeds).
Y Harvest index = (seed yield/biological yield) x 100.
Table 2. Mean lodging rating, pod dryness, and leaf retention for several
genotypes during fall 1980 at Fort Pierce ARC, Florida.z
Lodgingy Pod Leaf
Genotype rating dryness retention
Arbolito 1.8 90.5 13.0
Mexico PI 209465 3.5 92.5 13.8
El Salvador PI 304116 4.3 93.0 3.5
San Andres #1 2.0 88.8 13.8
Venezuela #54 2.3 85.0 16.3
PI 251049 2.3 71.3 30.0
70001 2.5 92.5 11.3
70002 2.3 93.8 4.3
70003 2.3 93.0 11.8
Black Turtle Soup 4.8 87.5 15.0
Strain 39 3.3 95.0 5.0
LSD 0.05 1.0 10.8 13.5
SAll data were taken prior to harvesting.
Y Lodging rating based on 1 (erect) to 5 (prostrate).