Title: Herbicide evaluations at Indian River Field Laboratory, 1962-1963 season
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Title: Herbicide evaluations at Indian River Field Laboratory, 1962-1963 season
Series Title: Herbicide evaluations at Indian River Field Laboratory, 1962-1963 season
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Orsenigo, J. R.
Publisher: Indian River Field Laboratory
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Bibliographic ID: UF00055949
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Indian River Field Laboratory Mimeo Report IRL6Y-1 August 1963

HERBICIDE EVALUATIONS AT INDIAN RIVER
FIELD LABORATORY, 1962-1963 SEASON _/

J. R. Orsenigo, N. C. Hayslip & A. E. Kretchmer, Jr. 2


Sunmary: For Tomato -

Secondary evaluation of PEBC applied pre-bedding for direct-
seeded tomato weed control (591-7a-63): PEBC (Tillam) applied
to surface soil at 2, 4, and 6 lb/A immediately before forming
tomato beds had little effect on tomato stand but reduced initial plant growth.
Subsequent growth and development were good. Annual grass control improved to
acceptable levels at 6 weeks after treatment. Control of broadleaf weeds and
sedges was not acceptable.

Secondary evaluation of pre-planting, incorporated herbicides
for direct-seeded tomato (591-7b-63): PEBC (Tillam) and tri-
fluralin (Treflan) were sprayed on bed-tops and raked into the
surface soil before seeding tomato. PEBC reduced tomato stand and growth initially
but subsequent plant growth was good. Trifluralin severely injured or killed
tomato. Trifluralin was the better grass and broadleaf herbicide but PEBC provided
acceptable annual grass control for 6 weeks. Broadleaf weed control with PEBC was
acceptable at the higher rates for 3 weeks. PEBC provided better sedge control.

Evaluation of preemergence herbicides for direct-seeded tomato
(591-7c-63): No herbicidal treatment provided acceptable
tomato stand and tolerance and acceptable annual grass, broad-
leaf weed and sedge control. CDAA (Randox) and trifluralin (Treflan) provided good
overall tomato tolerance and grass weed control. Solan and solan / CDEC (Vegadex)
provided good overall tomato tolerance and broadleaf weed control.

Evaluation of herbicides formulated in Encap petroleum mulch
for preemergence weed control in direct-seeded tomato
(591-7d-63): Herbicides formulated in Encap petroleum mulch
were applied preemergence to direct-seeded tomato. The best overall tomato toler-
ance and weed control performance was by CDAA (Randox) 4 lb/A, and CDEC (Vegadex)
4 Ib/A in 200 gpa Encap. Although broadleaf weed control was not acceptable for
more than 3 weeks CDAA 2 lb/A and CDEC 4 lb/A provided the best crop and weed
control performance among the 600 gpa Encap formulations.

For Pangolagrass -

Evaluation of preemergence herbicides for Pangolagrass
establishment (10lY-b-63): Herbicides aided prompt, dense
coverage of sprigged rangolagrass. dimazine, the most effective
herbicide, had no adverse effect on Pangolagrass and provided more than 90 percent
control of annual grass, broadleaf and sedge weeds for an 8-month period. Emid
and 2, 4-D were somewhat less effective.

1. This tabulation of the comparative performance of commercial and experimental
herbicides was prepared for the herbicide researchers and industry. The data
-: herein neither constitute nor imply recommendation of any herbicide for any
usage.
2. Associate Horticulturist, Everglades Experiment Station and Entomologist and
Associate Agronomist, Indian River Field Laboratory, University of Florida.


'- i ? .





Experiment:


Location:

Soil Type:


-2-
591-7a-63: Secondary evaluation of PEBC applied pre-bedding
for direct-seeded tomato weed control.

Indian River Field Laboratory

Immokalee fine sand


Cultural operations:


Design:


The fertilizer schedule included 400 lb/A of 4-8-8 under
the bed and 200 lb/A of 4-8-8 applied over the drill after
planting.


The experiment was installed as a randomized complete block with
3"replications. Plots consisted of a single tomato row 40 ft.
long.


Description of crop:


The Manalucie variety was. planted immediately after
treatment and bedding on 26 March 1963.


Description of weed population: The major weed infestants were crabgrass, goose-
grass, nightshade and purslane. Weed seed were
-germinating but no weed seedlings were emerging
at time of herbicide application.

Description of herbicidal treatments: PEBC (Tillam) was applied at 0, 2, 4, and 6
Ib/A active ingredient in 50 gpa aqueous
solution to the Jevel soil surface with a
hand-carried, CO2 experimental-plot sprayer
prior to bedding. All plots were bedded-over within 15 minutes after herbicide
application.

Application data; Date of application 26 March 1963 (08:40 to 08:55 AM)
Wind SE at 0-4 mph, Sky full sun to bright and overcast.
Spray water pH w 6.5, Spray water hardness 240 ppm.
Soil moisture 0 to 3/8 in depth = 2.5%; 3/8 to
1 in depth a 6.0%.


Rainfall and temperature data:


Accumulated rainfall and average temperature
values are given for the indicated time after
application.


Time after
application

1 week
2
3
4
6


Method of evaluation:


Accum.
rainfall

1.36 in.
1.86
1.86
1.86
3.55


Temperature.of
Max. Min. Mean


62
61
58
55
63


Periodic evaluations were made of tomato stand and
tolerance and of grass and broadleaf weed control.


Experimental results: PEBC applied prior to forming tomato beds had little
effect on tomato stand. Tomato tolerance, initially,
was only about 75% as compared to the control. Later,
tomato plants developed well and growth was rated "good." Annual grass weed
control was marginally acceptable at 3 weeks after application but improved greatly
over a 6-week period. Control of broadleaf weeds (nightshade and purslane) and




-3-
annual sedges was not acceptable. Increasing the rate of PEBC application from
2 to 6 Ib/A did not alter tomato response but did improve weed control. (Table 1)


Experiment:


Installation data:


Description of crop:


591-7b-63: Secondary evaluation of pre-planting
incorporated herbicides for direct-seeded tomato.

Installation data are identical with Experiment 591-7a-63
reported above except as indicated specifically below.

Beds were formed on 25 March and treated and planted
with Manalucie tomato on 26 March 1963.


Description of herbicidal treatments: PEBC and trifluralin were applied in 50 gpa
aqueous solution to formed bed tops with a hand-carried,
CO experimental-plot sprayer. The herbicides were
incorporated into the surface soil to a depth of about 1 inch by hand raking
within 5 minutes after application. Tomato seed were drilled after incorporation.


Application data:


Date of application 26 March 1963 (09:10 to 09:35 AM)


Experimental results: PEBC (Tillam) and trifluralin (Treflan) were applied to
tomato bed-tops and rake-incorporated prior to seeding.
Initial stand and tolerance of tomato were reduced by
PEBC but later growth and development were good. Trifluralin severely injured
or killed tomato. PEBC provided acceptable annual grass control for 6 weeks
but annual broadleaf weed control was acceptable only for the higher rates at
3 weeks after treatment. Sedge control was good. Trifluralin provided excellent
annual grass and good to excellent annual broadleaf weed control for 6 and 3
weeks respectively. Sedge control was not acceptable. (Table 2)


Experiment:


Installation data:



Design:


Description of crop:


591-7c-63: Evaluation of preemergence herbicides for
direct-seeded tomato

Installation data are identical to Experiment 591-7a-63
reported above except where specific differences are
indicated below.

Plots were installed in 2 replications in a randomized
complete block design.

Beds were formed and Manalucie tomato planted on 25
March 1963.


Description of herbicidal treatments: The herbicides listed in Table 3 were
applied in 50 gpa water carrier to the bed tops with
a hand-carried, CO2 experimental-plot sprayer.


Application data:


Date of application 26 March 1963 (09:40 to 10:50 AM)


Experimental results: Preemergence herbicides were applied 1 day after planting
tomato. Acceptable levels of tomato stand and tolerance
were noted for the following treatments: CDAA (Randox)
4 Ib/A, CDAA 2 / CDEC 2 lb/A, PEBC (Tillam) 4 Ib/A, solan 4 Ib/A, solan / CDEC
combinations, and trifluralin 4 lb/A. Tomato stand and tolerance were not
acceptable in plots treated with: amiben (Vegiben) 2 lb/A, CDEC (Vegadex)
4 lb/A, DCPA (-Dacthal 10 lb/A, diphenamid (Enide) 4 lb/A, linuron (Lorox)
1 lb/A and simazine (Simazine) 1 lb/A. Acceptable annual













Table 1. Response of direct-seeded tomato and annual weeds to PEBC (Tillam)
sprays. Values are averages of 3 replications. (591-72-63)


applied as. pe-planting bed-over


Herbicide, Rate


control
PEBC, 2 lb/A
PEBC, 4
PEBC, 6


Tomato 1/
Stand Tolerance


100%
95%
95
100


100%
78
74


Tomato plant
condition


Good
Good
Good
Good


Grass control 3/
3 weeks 6 weeks


8%
62
66
70


o0
70
85
92


Broadleaf control
3 weeks 6 weeks


4%
4
16
33


0%
0
25
55


3/ Sedge /
control


4%
20
12
37


Ratings at 3 weeks after treatments.
Observations at 1 month after treatment.
Annual weed control ratings at 3 and 6 weeks after treatment.
Ratings at 3 weeks after treatment.for annual sedges.


__ _____













Table 2. Response of direct-seeded tomato and annual weeds to pre-planting, incorporated sprays of PEBC and
trifluralin. Values are averages of three replications. (591-7b-63)


Herbicide, Rate


. Tomato V/
Stand Tolerance


Handweeded control 100%
Unweeded control 100


100%
91


Tomato plant
condition
Good
Mod-Good


?2 Grass Control 2/
3 weeks 6 weeks


100%
0


100%
0


Broadleaf control/
3 weeks 6 weeks


100%
0


100%
0


PEBC, 2 lb/A
PEBC, 4
PEBC, 6

trifluralin,
trifluralin,
trifluralin,


Good
Good
Good

Moderate
Dying
Dead


1 lb/A
2
4


87
87
91

95
100
100


Ratings at three weeks after treatment.
Observations at 1 month after treatment.
Annual weed control ratings at 3 and 6 weeks after treatment.
Ratings at 3 weeks after treatment and for annual sedges.


Sedge 3
control
100%
0






grass weed control was provided for 6 weeks by: amiben, CDAA, CDEC, DCPA,
diphenamid, trifluralin and.simazine. Acceptable annual broadleaf weed control
was maintained for 6 weeks by:: amiben, linuron, simazine, solan, and solan
/ CDEC combinations. Annual sedges were controlled best by: amiben, CDAA,
diphenamid, linuron, PEBC, simazine, solan, solan / CDEC combinations, and
trifluralin. Overall tomato tolerance and good broadleaf weed control were
provided by solan and solan / CDEC combinations. No chemical treatment provided
acceptable tomato stand and tolerance and acceptable general weed control.
(Table 3)

Experiment: 591-7d-63: Evaluation of herbicides formulated in
Encap petroleum mulch for preemergence weed control
Sin direct-seeded tomato.

Installation data: Installation data are identical with Experiment
591-7c-63 reported above except where specific
differences are indicated below.

Description of.herbicidal treatments: Herbicides were formulated in Encap
petroleum mulch by Esso Research and Engineering
Company. The specific herbicides, application rates
and Encap rates are indicated in Table 4. The Encap formulations were applied
with a hand-carried, 002 experimental-plot sprayer.in bands centered on the
tomato drill.

Application data: Date of application:- 26 March 1963 (11:10 to
12:05 AM)

Experimental results: Tomato stand and tolerance were acceptable to good in
plots treated with all 200 gpa Encap applications
except dichlobenil (Caseron). Acceptable to good
tomato stand and tolerance were noted for all plots treated at the 600 gpa Encap
level except CDAA, 4 lb/A. Acceptable grass control was maintained for 6 weeks
in plots treated with: CDAA, CDEC and diphenamid in 200 gpa Encap and CDAA or
CDEC 4 lb/A in 600 gpa Encap. Six weeks of acceptable broadleaf weed control was
provided by: amiben, CDAA, CDEC, -DCPA and solan in 200 gpa Encap. Annual sedges
were controlled by all 600 gpa Encap formulations and by all 200 gpa Encap
formulations except amiben, DCPA, diphenamid and swep. The best overall perform-
ance at the 200 gpa Encap level was provided by CDAA, 4 Ib/A and CDEC, 4 Ib/A.
At the 600 gpa Encap level the best overall performance was recorded for CDAA,
2 lb/A and CDEC, 4 lb/A although broadleaf weed control was not acceptable for 6
weeks. (Table 4)

Experiment: 1087-6-63: Evaluation of preemergence herbicides
for Pangolagrass establishment.

Location: Indian River Field Laboratory, 3B

Soil type: Immokalee fine sand:

Cultural operations: The block was prepared and fitted and sprigged to
Pangolagrass on 3 July 1962.

Design: A randomized block design was installed with 3
replications. Treatment plots were 12 ft. wide by
170 ft. long.











Table 3. Response of direct-seeded tomato and annual weeds to preemergence
2 replications. (591-7c-63)


herbicides. Values are averages of


Herbicide, Rate
unweeded control


CDAA, 4 Ib/A
CDEC, 4 lb/A
DCPA, 10 lb/A
diphenamid, 4 lb/A
PEBC, 4 lb/A
trifluralin, 4 Ib/A
linuron, 1 Ib/A
simazine, 1 lb/A
solan, 4 lb/A
Solan, 6
solan, 2/
CDEC, 2 lb/A
solan, 2 /
CDEC, 4. lb/A
solan, 4 /
CDFC, 2 lb/A
amiben, 2 lb/A
CDAA, 2 /
CDEC, 2 lb/A


Tomato Y1
Stand Tolerance


100%

94
81
56
75
94
81
75
0
100
81

100

100

100
81


81%

87
56
56
56
87
75
69
o
100
62

87

94

87
31


94 100


Tomato plant?/
condition


Grass control ,3
3 weeks 6 weeks


Broadleaf control
3 weeks 6 weeks


3/ Sedge4/
control


Good


Good
Good
Fair-Mod.
Mod-Good
Good
Good
Good
Dead
Good
Mod-Good

Good

Good

Good
Mod-Good

Good


87
94
100
94
81
81
62
94
19
25

69

75

62
100

69


31
12
87
31
37
87
100
100
100
87

81

94

94
100

12


30
12
60
12
25
40
97
100
95
87

87

94

94
81


100
69
50
81
100
94
87
100
87
32

87

94

100'
100

94


Ratings at 3 weeks after treatment.
Observations at 1 month after treatment.
Annual weed control ratings at 3 and 6 weeks after treatment.
Ratings at 3 weeks after treatment for annual sedges.









Table 4. Response of direct-seeded tomato and annual weeds to preemergence-applied Encap-mulch/herbicide
formulations. Plots were not replicated. (591-7d-63)

o' Tomato 1/ Tomato plant-/Grass Control S Broadleaf control 3/ Sedge /
Herbicide, Rate Stand Tolerance condition 3 weeks 6 weeks 3 weeks 6 weeks control
In 200 gpa Encap

CDAA, 4 lb/A 100 100% Good 100% 90% 75% 85% l100
CDEC, 4 1 100 100 Good 87 85 87 85 100
CDAA, 2 /
CDEC, 2 87 87 Good 87 40 75 25 100
solan, 4 87 100 Good 0 0 100 80 87
amiben, 2 100 87 Good 62 25 87 85 25
DCPA, 4 87 100 Good 12 O 100 85 37
dichlobenil, 4 0 0 Dead 62 20 100 40 100
diphenamid, 4 100 100 Good 100 85 37 25 50
EPTC, 4 100 100 Good 87 50 12 12 100
PEBC, 4 100 100 Good 12 25 12 25 100
swep, 4 87 75 Good 62 20 100 25 37

In 600 gpa Encap
CDAA, 2 Ib/A .7 75 Good 100 85 87 50 100
CDAA, 4 75 62 Good 100 85 75 50 100
CDEC, 2 100 75 Good 87 62 87 62 100
CDEC, 4 100 87 Good 100 85 87 62 100
solan, 2 100 87 Good 0 0 100 81 100
solan, 4 100 87 Good 0 0 100 75 100
amiben 75 87 Good 75 40 87 62 75

1. Ratings at 3 weeks after treatment.
2. Observations at 1 month after treatment.
3 Annual weed control ratings at 3 and 6 weeks after treatment
4. Ratings at 3 weeks after treatment for annual sedges.







Description of weed population: Weed seed were germinating but no seedlings were
emerging at time of herbicide application. The weed
flora which developed in the control plots included:
goosegrass, crabgrass, purslane, Florida pussley, volunteer tomato, cudweed,
watersedge and vetch.

Description of herbicidal treatments: The herbicides and rates of application in
lb/A active ingredient or acid equivalent (whichever)
appropriate) are listed in Table 5 and Table 6. All
materials were sprayed on the soil surface in 60 gpa aqueous solution with an experi-
mental herbicide tractor.


Application data:


Rainfall and temperature data:


Date of application 5 July 1962 (01:25 to 02:25 PM)
Wind E at 5-8 mph. Sky full sun.

Accumulated rainfall and average temperature values
are given for the indicated time after application.


Time after
application
1 week
2
3
4
6
2 months
3
4
6
8

Method of evaluation:


Accum.
rainfall
1.79 in.
3.33
6.06
6.89
12.71
18.95
24.66
28.27
33.57
38.38


Temperature of
Max. Min. Mean
91 72 82
93 73 83
93 72 82
93 72 82
92 72 82
90 73 82


Periodic ratings were made of pangolagrass stand,
growth habit and annual grass and broadleaf weed
control.


Experimental results: Pangolagrass establishment was more rapid and dense
in plots treated with preemergence herbicides than
in conventional control plots. Pangolagrass stand,
vigor, erectness, runner profusion and ground coverage were improved especially in
plots sprayed with simazine (Simazine), DCPA (Dacthal), Emid, and 2,4-D amine.
Diphenamid (Dymid or Enide) and DMPA (Zytron) were less effective. (Table 5) At
21 months after application, annual grass weeds were controlled best by simazine,
diphenamid and Emid. Annual grass weeds were controlled best at 8 months after
application by simazine, Emid and 2, 4-D. Simazine maintained better than 90
percent control of annual grass weeds for the 8 month period. The best annual
broadleaf weed control at 2|r months after application was provided by simazine,
DMPA and diphenamid. At 8 months after application, broadleaf control was best in
simazine, Emid and 2, 4-D treated plots. Annual sedges were controlled most
effectively by simazine, Emid, 2, 4-D and diphenamid.
The most effective herbicidal treatments were simazine, Emid and 2, 4-D amine.
Simazine performance was outstanding; better than 90 percent control of annual grass,
broadleaf and sedge weeds was maintained for an 8-month period without adverse
effects on Pangolagrass, (Table 5 and Table 6)










Table 5. Response of Pangolagrass to preemergence herbicides applied after sprigging. Values are averages
of 3 replications. (1087-6-63)


Herbicide, Rate Ib/A
simazine, 2
DCPA, 5
diphenamid, 5
Emid, 2
2, 4-D amine, 2
DMPA, 5 3
Urweeded control


Pangolagrass
shoot count Y/ Stand


4.3 sq. ft.
4.9
3.7
4.9
5.7
5.1
2.5


100%
95
.75
100
95
100
83


Pangolagrass Ratings /
Vigor Erectness Runners


87%
95
75
100
95
100
79


100%
loo
100
67
89
100
67
56


100%
100
83
92
92
58
33


Coverage
100%
73
55
73
91
64
45


1. At 7 weeks after treatment.
2. Ratings are given as percentages of the best treatment at 2J months after treatment.
3. Values for 2 replications only.


___












Table 6. Comparative weed control performance of preemergence herbicides applied after sprigging
Pangolagrass. Values are averages of 3 replications.


Heibicides, Rate lb/A


Grass weedc-/
count / sq. ft.


Grass Control 2/
j mos. 8 mos.


Broadleaf weed
count / sq. ft.


1/ Broadleaf Control_/Sedge
2 mos. 8 mos. control


simazine, 2
DCPA, 5
diphenamid, 5
Emid, 2
2,4-D amine, 2
DMPA, 5
Unweeded control


1. At 7 weeks after treatment
2. Ratings given as percentages at 2- months and 8 months after treatment.
3. Ratings given as percentages at 2 months after treatment.


( 0,
,-lo


0.0
1.7
0.1
0.4
0.9
0.7
2.3


91%
62
87
79
41
50
0


924
67
67
77
75
70
0


100%
66
75
58
54
84
0


92%
57
45
72
68
50
0


100%
12
79'
83
83
55
0




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