Group Title: Mimeo report - Indian River field laboratory ; IRFL 64-2
Title: Report of agronomic research results
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055945/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of agronomic research results
Series Title: Indian River Field Laboratory mimeo report
Alternate Title: Indian River Field Laboratory cattleman's and dairyman's field day, April 1, 1964
Physical Description: 4, 13 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kretschmer, Albert E ( Albert Emil ), 1925-
Indian River Field Laboratory
Publisher: Indian River Field Laboratory
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce Fla
Publication Date: [1964]
 Subjects
Subject: Pangolagrass -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Clover -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Legumes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr.
General Note: "April 1, 1964."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055945
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 66462263

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Indian River Field Laboratory Mimeo Reoort IRqL 64-2





INDIAN RIVER FIELD LABORATORY

CATTLEAN'S ANS D D.:-IRTil1Ui'S FIELD DAY

April 1, 1964


REPORT OF AGRONOMIC RESEARCH RESULTS

Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr.1/



1. Late fall fertilization of mature
pangolagrass for quality improvement.
2. Progress report on grass variety test.
3. Progress report on winter annual clover
tests.
4. Progress report on summer-growing legumes.


1/ Associate Agronomist, Indian River Field Laboratory,
Ft. Pierce, Florida.


Aoril 1, 1964







-2-


Figure 3.--The number of units of crude protein increase resulting from
applications of 45 and 90 pounds of nitrogen per acre on December 22 is shown.
The increase was shown to be a function of the rate of nitrogen and the yield
when fertilized. These data were obtained from small plots and represent the
protein increase from December 18 (when some plots were harvested) to January 16
when the remainder were harvested. The triangles represent values for individual
half to one acre plots that were fertilized about 3 weeks prior to a December
harvest for hay in 1963. The rates of nitrogen used are located by each triangle.

Figure 6.--The effects of increased nitrogen rates when applied about 3 weeks
prior to harvest in the winter on crude protein increases in pangolagrass and
coastal bermudagrass are shown. In this test the yield for all plots was constant
prior to fertilization. Yield increases in the three week interval between
fertilization and harvesting were small.

Crude protein contents increased in coastal bermudagrass in a manner similar
to that for pangolagrass, although the initial increase (50 to 100 lbs.N/A) was
much more pronounced than that for pangolagrass.

Figure 7.--Effects of fall and winter fertilization dates and winter harvesting
dates are presented. Two major treatment regimes shown are: (1) fall fertilization
with 64-32-32 (N-P20O-K2O) pounds nor acre, harvested in December 18, 1961, and
fertilized with 90-0-0 pounds oer acre on December 22 and harvested on
Aprill 27, 1962, (2) fall fertilization with 64-32-32, fertilized on December 22
with 90-0-0, and harvested January 16, 1962 and -'.ril 27, 1962.

Yields in the winter for (1) or (2) were similar, but (1) yields were much
greater than (2) on 2pril 27. This is attributed to the fact that fertilization
in (1) occurred after harvesting in the winter.

Nitrogen yields (the total amount of nitrogen calculated to be in that portion
of the pangolagrass harvested) were much larger in the winter for (2) than for (1).
This resulted from the large increase in crude protein in (2) than for (1) in the
winter. In April, however, nitrogen yields for (1) were greater than (2).

Table l.--Three digestibility trials have been conducted in cooperation with
Dr. H. L. Chapman, Jr., animal l Nutritionist, Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade, to determine the value of the increased crude protein resulting from
the late fertilization technique. In addition, a feeding trial is underway to
determine the value of late fertilized (high protein) and unfertilized (low
protein) pangolagrass hay, each bcin7 fed with and without one pound of cottonseed
meal per animal per day. In Table 1 are presented results of the fertilizing
aspects of the test. It was possible to estimate the resulting crude protein
contents in the various blocks by using data obtained in small plot exoeriments.
In only three out of ten blocks was there a large difference between the estimated
crude protein contents and the actual crude protein contents at baling.

There was an opportunity to determine the effects of one, and two and one-half
inches of rainfall on crude protein levels of two high and two low protein grasses.
The effect of rain was negligent. In this observation, the difficulty was in curing
the hay after the two and one-half inches of rain had caused the mowed grass to
become soggy.









2. PROGRESS REPORT ON GRiSS VARIETY TEST

There are twelve grasses in the replicated test. Dry weight yields and crude
protein contents are being compared at two clipping heights. More than 20 individ-
ual plots of other grasses are being fertilized and harvested in a similar manner.
Plots receive a rate of 50-25-25 pounds of N-P205-K20 per acre after each harvest
and arc cut every six weeks; except there is a twelve-week interval in the winter
followed by a four-week interval in the early spring.

Table 2.--Average yields during a two-year period for replicated plots showed
the leading dry matter producers to be: Star bormudagrasses, pangolagrass, rhodes-
grass, and coastal bormudagrass. Winter production for all grasses was low compared
to summer, although rhodesgrass and Star bermuda may be slightly more vigorous.
Clipping at 2 inches was much better than clipping at $ inches.

Table 3.--Dry weight yields of grasses from single plots are presented. Yields
of eight were about the same as the better grasses in the replicated test. Included
was a bermudagrass (#7) and a close relative to rhodesgrass (#136).

Table h.--Crude protein contents of grasses from the replicated test are shown.
Contrary to many beliefs, when fertilized after each harvest protein contents in-
crease during the late fall, winter and early spring. This is a result of slow
grass growth. In the summer the more rapid growth dilutes the nitrogen absorbed.
The total nitrogen per acre absorbed is much greater in the summer, however.


3. PROGRESS REPORT ON WINTER ANNUAL CLOVER TESTS

Thirty winter clovers are being compared. Four replicated plots of each were
seeded on October 10, and four on November 7, 1963. In Table 5 are presented some
of the yield data and dates of first flowering. Hustler berseem was the best of
four tested, although there is some indication that Fahli may be earlier. Of the
Persian clovers, No. 345 is the earliest. Four of the varieties produced more
total dry matter than Louisiana Sl white clover from the October planting date.

October seeded sub clovers failed to grow as well as Louisiana Sl white clover
but Yarloop sub grew better from the November seeding.

Of the miscellaneous clovers listed at the bottom of Table 5 only red clover
yielded as well as Sl. Ball, Mike and T. isthmocarpon have grown extremely well
in other years and there is no obvious reason for their poor showing this year.

Seeds produced from ball clover seeded to three commercial pastures in the
fall of 1962 have germinated and are growing well this year. Yarloop, Bacchus
Marsh, and Nangcela sub clovers produced sufficient seeds last spring to result
in scattered stands. Plants of Miscawi and Fahli bersecm and Texas Persian failed
to become established this fall.








4. PROGRESS REPORT ON SUMMER-GROWING LEGUMES


A replicated yield and crude protein test was established last spring to
determine the compatibility of about 40 summor-growing legumes in a pangolagrass
pasture. Yields and crude protein contents of selected mixtures are presented
in Table 6. Yield and protein data from another test that was discontinued with
the July 1, 1963 harvest also is presented (Blk QF). Data from Blk QF shows that
centro-pangolagrass mixtures yielding from about 1 to 4 tons of dry matter per acre
on July 1, contained 6.6 to 14.0 percent crude protein. Thcre appears to be a
gradual decrease in protein levels of the mixtures as shown by data from Blk AD,
even when 32 pounds of nitrogen per acre were applied in September. Protein levels
on January 6, 1964, however, were above that for pangolagrass alone (check).

The most spectacular legume was Stylosanthes humilis (called Townesville
Lucerne or Stylo). thoughh this is an annual, it produces an abundance of seeds,
and its growth rate is very rapid in the late summer and fall. Protein levels
of the stylo-pangolagrass mixture were the best of the mixtures tested.

Protein contents of Lotononis-pangolagrass mixtures were excellent in early
summer but dropped to a low value of 4 to 6% in the winter.

Although temperatures were mild, centro leaves and seed pods were frosted
one morning and seeds failed to mature. Several Glycine javanica varieties flower
much earlier than #383 (a successful variety in Australia) and are being observed
closely.

This spring centro, Lotononis, Lespedoza cunenta, and Siratro began their
spring growth about March 1. Siratro began to flower about March 15, even though
plants were small.

























IRFL 64-2
300 copies






Figure 1. Effects of Different Fall Dates of Fertilization
on Dry Weight Yields and Crude Protein Contents of Pangolagrass
Harvested in December or January


o 0
o I
1---r


Protein--%
o
7--


/~i
P

I I I j


0











7000




6ooo-

6000

5030 0


4ooo -'





3000
01












A 2 Aug. 31 Oct. 3 Oct. 31
2000 \
rJ\






i000 .
















Figure 2. Effects of Fall Dates and Rates

and of December 22, 1961 Rate of Fertilizer on Dry Weight Yields
of Pangolagrass Harvested on January 16, 1962
2000 j.. N .




_" _ --....- -,
Aug. 2 Aug. 31 Oct. 3 Oct. 31
Fall Dates of Fertilization

Figure 2. Effects of Fall Dates and Rates
and of December 22, 1961 Rate of Fertilizer on Dry Weight Yields
of Pangolagrass Harvested on January 16, 1962










17/



o/'

// /

13 o'" /b



11 Y ,
90-0-0 applied on
Dec. 22, 1961, 25 days
prior to harvest ,

9i ('^





3 -
X)( 0-0-0 ,
? ^ --,g-- --..^ :.g -
/ J' ~Fall Rates




Aug. 2 Aug. 31 Oct. 3
Fall Dates of Fertilization

Figure 3. Effects of Fall Dates and Rates
and of a December 22 Rate of Fertilizer on Crude Protein Percentages
of Pangolagrass Harvested on January 16, 1962


J


//


Oct.31








18




16 -
I


S 0~Older stems
413 Jan. 16
87 Growing tips
Dec. 18


4 ..----- L Older leaves
S 795 .----_ ------ 2170 Dec. 18
716 -1689
716
.---..- 2027 359) Older stems
2 18___ / "*t -g1
S 0-0-0 32-16-16 64-32-32

Rates of N-P20O-K20 Applied on August 2, 1961

Figure 4. The Effects of Different August 2, 1961 Rates of Fertilizer
and 90 Pounds of Nitrogen Apolied on December 22 on Crude Protein Contents
of Pangolagrass Fractions Harvested on December 18, 1961 and January 16, 1962


0
Growing tips
Jan. 16






















Older leaves
/ Jan. 16


283yeld A











= Approximate yields and nitrogen rates of pangolagrass hay
blocks harvested for 1964 feeding trial study.


o 100


(I)






O



$or
0





c

04
4-
0
0r-

C-t
*) u-

r1 E








Sa
11
bs


4. 100


,'\ 90


3000


00oo


5000


6000


Dry Weight


Yields on December 18, 1961


Figure 5. The Effects of 45 and 90 Pound Applications of Nitrogen
on the Increase in Crude Protein of Various Yields of Pangolagrass
from December 18, 1961 to January 16, 1962; and Increases
for Pangolagrass Hay Made in December 1963.


/ 90





80 X
-. 80
\1 9


/: 100


1000


2000


L I ?
: --- --
--------z -- ----~


/'l.90









10 -


9-




8-





7/


/
S/t


Fertilized:
Harvested:


November 15, 1963 with Anmonium Nitrate
December 6, 1963


100


Nitrogen Rate Lbs./A


Figure 6. Effects of Different Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer
on Units of Crude Protein Increase in Coastal Bermudagrass and Pangolagrass.


Ci,

14F


3
50







C-- 0 Dec. 18, 1961
B0- Q April 27 (Dec. 18 prior harvest)
904 >.---A Jan. 16, 1962


A- -\ April 27
-j (Jan.


/


41


16 orior harvest)


~1


-160


0


-130


-120


r-I
CM (n


Fall Dates of Fertilizer

Rate of Fertilizer (N-P205-K20--lbs./A): Fall: 64-32-32
Dec. 22: 90-0-0

Figure 7. Effects of Fall Fertilizer Dates, and Timing
Winter Fertilization with Respect to Winter Harvest Dates
the Spring Dry Matter and Nitrogen Yields of Pangolagrass.


,a~c~c







Table 1. Field Exoeriment Using Late Fall Fertilization on Pangolagrass to be Used for
Hay Feeding Trial


Rate
Fertilized
Dlk. Date!/ Nitrogen/2
No. Fertilized lbs/A
1963


11/21
11/20
11/20
11/18
11/19
11/19
11/18
11/18
11/19
11/19
11/21


90
90
100
100
80
90
90
90
90
80
80


Values ?rior
to Fertilization
Crude Yield
Protein lbs/A
%-10/30/63 11/13/63


5.3
6.0
4.2
4.3
5.3
5.0
8.4
4.7
5.4
5.2


2850
2630
2520
3840
3350
3350
3500
2904
3370
3740


ted Crude Protein Contents Actual Crude Protein
to Fertilization Based Contents at Baling 3_
Pound Nitrogen Rate and
n Small Plot Data
% Increase low high Increase
nitrogen-/nitrogen2/


12.0
13.0
11.3
9.7
11.3
11.0
14.3
11.3
11.4
10.7


6.7
7.0
7.1
5.4
6.0
6.0
5.9
6.6
6.0
5.5


4.S
6.0
4.6
3.7
3.2
3.2
4.3
3.4
4.7
3.3
4.2


12.7
13.3
15.8
11.2
8.9
6.7
10.6
11.3
6.6
8.4
9.8


8.2
7.3
11.2
7.5
5.7
3.5
6.3
7.9
1.9
5.1
5.6


BLocks mowed on 12/9/63 Baled on 12/20/63


After 1 inch of rain
Sampled 12/16/63
Crude Protein %
Low N High N
7 3.6 12.9
1 4h. 12.9


1/ Date fertilized in fall.
2/ As ammonium nitrate applied to one-half block.
3/ All blocks mowed between December 6 and 9, 1963
I/ No nitrogen applied in November.
3/ Received nitrogen in November.


After 2.5 inches


of rain
Samoled 12/18/63
Crude Protein %
Low N High N
5.0 12.1
3.9 14.5


Block sizes ranged from about one-half to one acre.
and most of the hay was baled between December 10 and 13, 1963.


I






id (2 inch clipping height).


C C0J -
r-i r- cm
6 wk.-6 wk.-12 wk.


11530
1670
1460
680
940
820
1220
1760
990
1270
S1110
960


1930
1850
1130
2870
890
t40
540
640
1430
1360
1650
1760


i1200 1370
920 1020


1450
1290
1160
1170
960
570
140
10
1550
1080
1160


960
770


31,410
33,040
34,510
31,460
25,630
28,140
20,341
22,290
18,690
15,630
13,790
13,990


2090
2200
2300
2100
1710
1880
1450
1590
2340
1950
1720
1550


31,100 2070
23,600 1570


1963.
lIbs. of N, 25 Ibs. of P205


0





1593
1435
138
;699
397
669
523
887
725
B41
P21
351
?31
0
bio
9
07
11
86
>53
77
50o
06
90
So
!o

11


--











Table 4. Crude Protein Contents of Various Pasture Grass, i.e. Varieties in Reolicated Yield Test


Harvest Date


Grass-P.I. Number


Star Bermuda i-1082
Star Bermuda 224152
Pangola
Giant Pangola
Suwannee Bermuda
Coastal Bermuda
Pensacola Bahia
Argentine Bahia
Rhodesgrass
Digitaria sp. 279651
Digitaria sp. 279652
Buffelcrass


8.0
r-1.
1A\
10 wk.-6

6.2
7.4
7.4
8.0
8.7
8.5


CO
r"-

wk.-6

6.9
6.8
6.4
8.0
8.1
7.6
8.7
8.4
-
-


"0
04
o
e-,

wk.-6

5.8
6.1
6.0
6.6
6.9
6.2
7.6
8.2


c'
o\



wk.-

5.0
6.2
5.2
5.6
7.3
6.4
7.9
7.4
6.4
7.9
7.4


0CM
10 S0 rO c 0 r0
L r- r-H
0 CM C^J C'J i H
r-q r-A CM fn V
-6 wk.-6 wk.-12 wk.-4 wk.-6 wk.-5 wk.-6
----Crude Protein %----
8.6 16.3 11.8 14.4 8.3 7.4
7.4 15.7 11.6 14.1 8.3 8.1
7.3 16.1 12.0 14.0 8.1 7.1
6.8 18.3 11.3 15.3 8.1 8.4
7.6 15.8 12.4 15.5 7.9 8.8
6.6 15.8 11.8 16.3 8.6 8.2
11.4 15.9 14.0 15.6 9.2 8.4
10.5 15.7 15.4 9.7 9.0
13.1-:- 6.7-, 6.9:-
12.9 6.7 6.6
12.7 6.1 7.0
.9 6.3 7.5


* One replication, all others 4 replications.


IRFI
NJo-


8.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
89.
133.
134.
19.


0\
0C\
r-
wk.-6

7.8
8.2
6.7
9.0
8.8
8.5
8.8
9.5
7.1
6.1
5.6
7.7


0\



7.4
8.3
7.7
7.7
8.5
9.3
8.8
8.0
6.1
6.4
6.9
7.2


8.8
9.0
8.7
9.4
9.7
9.5
10.6
10.2
8.0
7.7
7.7
8.7


---


No.-








Table $.


IRFL
No. Name (P.I. No.)


Dry Weight Yields of Winter Glovers


Seeded October 10, 1963


Datel/
1st flower


Harvest Date, 1964
1/2 1/30 2/11 3/2


Total


Seeded November 7, 1963
Date!/ Harvest Date, 1964
3st flower 1/30 3/2 Total


Berseem
227. Fahli (single cut)
231. 1-iscawi (multi cut)
559. Hustler (multi cut)


Persian
299.
303.
318.
330.
342.
345.
49h. Texas


(164356)
(205316)
(220202)
(222123)
(226530)
(227387)


Bacchus IHarsh
Cranmore
ijangeela
Yarloon


Hike
Commercial
iTolin's Red


(213040)
(213049)
(213074)
(233092)


(2C1210)
3all


T. isthmocarpon
Louisiana Sl IIhite


12/23/63



2/28/66
3/6/64
2/28/64
2/28/64
2/7/64
1/3/64



2/21/64

2/7/64

2/7/64
2/28/64
2/21/64
2/28/61
2/14/64


1/ Plots rated weekly; dashes indicate
2/ Saving for seed.


no flowering as of March 9, 1964.


810
990


2110
1210
1450o




570
910
890
1030


1090
940
1180


1250




960


Sub
130.
138.
154.
161.

21.
520.
562.
525.


1250
860
1450


820

810
920
1030

890


1040
1000
800



840

770


220









44o

170
120


3360
2880
3890

2070
220
1380
1830
1920
10302/
1850

1040
1000
800
44o


170
120
1610

1610


1/30/6k



2/23/6k
3/6/64
3/13/61
3/13/64
2/28/64
2/14/64





2/7/64

3/6/654
3/6/64
2/28/64
3/6/56
2/21/64


1080
146o


740
1110
470
960
1290

700


750
820
460
1130


510
1090
420
900


1090
2020
2640


740
1110
470
960
1290
- 2/
700


750
820
460
1130


510
1090
420
900


770

84o


Planted in the Fall of 1963






Table 6. Dry Weight Yields and Crude Protein Contents of Summer-Growing Legumes
Grown in Combination with Pangolagrass in Block 4D


Dry Wleight Yields-Lbs./A
Blk hF


IRFL
, T-


110 Name


P.T. n~o


Crude Protein-%
Blk F--


V O0 C O\ r-H


Check (no legume)
219 Lotus uliginosus (big trefoil)
371 Stylosanthes humilis (stylo)
378 Centrosema pubescens centroo)
379 "
380 "
381 "
382 "


180172
187098
200731
204368
212980
219833
224967


2680

3210
6660
8190


5990 5990
470 5470
34901/6060o/3760o/13310
S 24702/5990 8460
310036030 9130
23001/425i 5020 11570
S 540 40


14.o

8.3
10.2
6.6


4 5
17.2 9.1
9.1
6.4/
11.6 8.42/


391 247406 4700 U. -
402 Lesoedeza cuneata sericeaa) F-351 -- 2440, 2540 6.7
497 Desmodiumt intortum Hawaii 3030 12610 64- 9.1 6.01 -
483 Phaseolus atroourpureus (siratro) Australia 4110/453/4980 13620 11.1 7.9 4.7
486 Arachis glabrata (wild peanut) Arcadia 2720 2720 .2 -
405 Lotononis bainesii 195478 3240 1360 1390 6.440 50-/ll840 8.7 9.0 13.3 6.5 6.4
406 "" 207986 1120 771 352 3500 9910 13.7 12.9 5.1 4.7
407 I 224983 730 213 11Q/ 6970 11.6 11.4 5.2 -
408 234409 2270 1106/3590-4/ 6870 13.9 13.2 7.0 -
431 Australia 2270 47006/5990 12960 14.4 5.7 4.0
y/ One replication harvested. 2/ Two replications harvested. 3/ Three replications harvested (all others 4 replica
tions harvested). 4/ Does not include the approximate 5,000 to-6,000 pounds per acre of pangolagrass present (see che
on 1-6-64, but where insignificant amounts of summer legume were present, plots were not harvested for yields or prote:
analyses. Does not include harvested plots from Block 4F. / Harvested 12-2-63.
Fertilizer schedule:
Sept. 13, 1963 200 pounds of 16-8-8 per acre.
Jan. 16, 1964 '- 480 pounds per acre of greensand marl (6-8% K20).
Feb. 6, 1964 -- 400 pounds per acre 0-10-20.
Dry Matter percent ranged from about: 18 to 23 on June 4, 19 to 28 on July 1, 26 to 34 on Sept. 11, and 30 to 38 on
Jan. 6.


4.0

9.2
5.2
5.8
5.8


-
ck)
in


i? (- )< / ^WIf\y




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