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Map of Central Africa
Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Map of relief expedition to Emin Pasha
I MAP OF '-.
HENRY M. STANLEY'S ROUTE '
"THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT" ,-' '
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THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON
ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY WITH
HENRY M. STANLEY
"THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT"
BY THOMAS W. KNOX
"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "IN SOUTH AMERICA" AND "IN RUSSIA"
"THE YOUNG NIMRODS" "THE VOYAGE OF THE 'VIVIAN '" ETC.
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
BY THOMAS W. KNOX.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Vol-
umes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO JAPAN AND CHINA.
II. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO SIAM AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago.
III. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO CEYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmah.
IV. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTrn IN A JOURNEY TO EGYPT AND PALESTINE.
V. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY THROUGH AFRICA.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Adven-
tures of Two Youths in a Journey through Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili; with
Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and Voyages
upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated.
8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey in European and
Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a Tour across Siberia, Voy-
ages on the Amoor, Volga, and other Rivers, a Visit to Central
Asia, Travels Among the Exiles, and a Historical Sketch of the
Empire from its Foundation to the Present Time. Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO. Adventures of
Two Youths in a Journey with Henry M. Stanley "Through
the Dark Continent." Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE
AND BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open
Polar Sea. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.
HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two
Volumes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. THE YOUNG NIMRODS IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND THE WORLD.
PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.
A- Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United
States or Canada, on receipt of the price.
Copyright, 1887, by HARPER & BROTHERS.-All rights reserved.
A S indicated on the title-page, "The Boy Travellers on the Congo"
is condensed from that remarkable narrative, "Through the Dark
Continent," by one of the most famous explorers that the century has
produced. The origin of the present volume is sufficiently explained
in the following letter:
EVERETT HOUSE, NEW YORK, December 1, 1886.
MY DEAR COLONEL KNox,-It is a gift to be able to write to interest boys,
and no one who has read your several volumes in the 'Boy Traveller' series
can doubt that you possess this gift to an eminent degree. While reading those
interesting and valuable books of yours, I have regretted that they were not issued
in the time of my own youth, so that I might have enjoyed as a boy the treat
of their perusal. Now, the Harpers desire a condensation of my two volumes,
'Through the Dark Continent,' to be made for young folks, but I have neither
the time, nor the experience in juvenile writing, for performing the work. I sug-
gest that you shall produce a volume for your series of Boy Travellers,' and
assure you that it would delight me greatly to have you take your boys, who have
followed you through so many lands, on the journey that I made from Zanzibar to
the mouth of the Congo.
"There is too much in my work in its present form for their mental digestion;
but, narrated in that chaste and forcible style which has proved so entertaining to
them, they would certainly find the journey through Africa of exceeding interest
when made in your company. By all means take Frank and Fred to the wilds
of Africa; let them sail the equatorial lakes, travel through Uganda, Unyoro, and
other countries ruled by dark-skinned monarchs, descend the magnificent and
perilous Congo, see the strange tribes and people of that wonderful land, and re-
peat the adventures and discoveries that made my journey so eventful. You
have my full permission, my dear friend, to use the material in any way you deem
proper in adapting it to the requirements of the Boy Travellers.'
Sincerely yours, as always, HENRY M. STANLEY.
To COLONEL THOSE. W. KNox."
The preparation of this book has been a double pleasure-first, to
comply with the wishes of an old friend, and secondly, to carry the
boys and girls of the present day to the wonderful region that, until
very recently, was practically unknown. I have the fullest confidence
that they will greatly enjoy the journey across equatorial Africa from
the eastern to the western sea, and eagerly peruse every line of Mr.
Stanley's narrative of discovery and adventure.
The portrait of Mr. Stanley is from a photograph taken early in
1886. The maps on the inside of the covers were specially drawn for
this work, and the publishers, with their customary liberality, have al-
lowed the use of wood-cuts selected from several volumes of African
travel and exploration, in addition to those which originally appeared
in Through the Dark Continent."
In the hope that "The Boy Travellers on the Congo" will be as
cordially received as were its predecessors in the series, the work is here-
with submitted to press and public for perusal and comment.
T. W. K.
NEW YOR, May, 1887.
CROSSING THE ATLANTIC OCEAN WITH STANLEY.--"THROUGH THE DARK CONTINENT."--AN Ib-
PROMPTU GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.-PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF STANLEY.-COM',MENTS UPON HIM
BY FRANK AND FRED.--HOW THE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY WAS ORGANIZED.-READING STAN-
LEY'S BOOK.-STANLEY'S DEPARTURE FRIOM ENGLAND FOR ZANZIBAR.- JOINT ENTERPRISE OF
TWO NEWSPAPERS.-PREPARATIONS FOR THE EXPEDITION.-THE "LADY ALICE."-- ARKER AND
THE POCOCKS. ZANZIBAR.-PRINCE BARGIIAS. -- INHABITANTS OF ZANZIBAR. THE WANG-
WANA................ ................................ ................. Page 13
TRANSPORTATION IN AFRICA.-MEN AS BEASTS OF BURDEN.-PORTERS, AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-
ENGAGING MREN FOR THE EXPEDITION.-A SHAURI."-TROUBLES WITH THE "LADY ALICE."-
AGREEMENT BETWEEN STANLEY AND IIIS EN.--DEPARTURE FROM ZANZIBAR.-BAGAMOYO.-THE
UNIVERSITIES MISSION.--DEPARTURE OF THE EXPEDITION.-DIFFICULTIES WITH THE PORTERS.-
SUFFERINGS ON THE MARCH.-NATIVE SUSPENSIONBRIDGES.-SHOOTING A ZEBRA.--LOSSES BY
DESERTION ............. .................................................. 32
RETARDED BY RAINS AND OTHER MISHAPS.-GENERAL DESPONDENCY.-DEATH OF EDWARD POCOCK.
-A CHANGE FOR THE BETTER.--A LAND OF PLENTY.-ARRIVAL AT VICTORIA LAKE.-NATIVE
SONG.--AFLOAT ON THE GREAT LAKE. TERRIBLE TALES OF THE INHABITANTS.--ENCOUNTERS
WITH THE NATIVES. -THE VICTORIA NILE. IPON FALLS.-SPEKE'S EXPLORATIONS.--THE
ALEXANDRA NILE.-ARRIVAL AT KING MTESA'S COURT.-A MAGNIFICENT RECEPTION.-IN THE
MONARCH'S PRESENCE.-STANLEY'S FIRST OPINIONS OF MTESA. .......................... 3
PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF KING MTESA.-HIS RECEPTION OF MR. STANLEY.-A NAVAL REVIEW.-
STANLEY'S MARKSMANSHIP.-THE KING'S PALACE.-RUBAGA, THE KING'S CAPITAL.-RECEPTION
AT THE PALACE.-MEETING COLONEL LINANT DE BELLEFONDS.-CONVERTING MESA TO CHRISTIAN-
ITY.-APPEAL FOR MISSIONARIES TO BE SENT TO MTESA.-DEPARTURE FOR USUKUMA.-FIGHT
WITH THE NATIVES AT BUMBIREH ISLAND. SUFFERINGS OF STANLEY AND HIS COMPANIONS ON
LAKE VICTORIA.-A NARROW ESCAPE.-RETURN TO KAGEHYI.-DEATH OF FRED BARKER.-EM-
BARKING THE EXPEDITION.-KING LUKONGEH AND HIS PEOPLE .......................... 76
DEPARTURE FOR REFUGE ISLAND.- ARRIVAL IN UGANDA.-MTESA AT WAR.- STANLEY JOINS HIM
At RIPON FALLS.--A NAVAL BATTLE ON AN AFRICAN LAKE.--THE WAGANDA REPULSED.-
CAPTURE OF A WAVUMA CHIEF.-STANLEY SAVES THE CHIEF'S LIFE.-How STANLEY BROUGHT
THE WAR TO AN END.--HIS WONDERFUL MACHINE FOR DESTROYING THE WAVUMA.-RETIREMENT
OF THE ARMY.-STANLEY'S RETURN TO HIS CAMP.-EXPEDITION TO MUTA NZEGE.--HOW IT
FAILED. -THE EXPEDITION MARCHES SOUTHWARD.--IN KING RUMANIKA'S COUNTRY.--ARAB
TRADERS IN AFRICA.-HAMED IBRAHIM.-KAFURRO AND LAKE WINDERMERE.-INTERVIEWS WITII
KING RUMANIKA.-EXPLORING LAKE WINDRERMERE.-AN UNHAPPY NIGHT.-IIEMA ISLAND.. 102
STANLEY TELLS ABOUT KING RUMANIKA.-- THE KARAGWE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.--THE KING'S
TREASURE-HOUSE.-OOD-BYE TO IIIS MAJESTY.-HOSTILITY BETWEEN ELEPHANT AND RHINOC-
EROS.-PLUNDERED IN USUI--TIE SOURCES OF TIE ALEXANDRA NILE.-RETROSPECTION.-QUES-
TIONS OF TOPOGRAPHY. INSOLENCE OF MANKORONGO.- DEATH OF BULL."-TROUBLES WITH
TIIE PETTY KINGS.--INTERVIEW WITH TIE FAMOUS MIRAMBO.- GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE
RENOWNED AFRICAN.-AN IMPOSING CEREMONY.-- LOOD -BROTHERHOOD.--HOW GRANT'S CARA-
VAN WAS PLUNDERED. YONGA'S TIREATS.--A COMPROMISE.-A-MONG TIE WATUTA.--IN
SIGHT OF LAKE TANGANIKA.-ARRIVAL AT UJIJI .............................Page 124
MR. STANLEY TAKES THE CHAIR.-DESCRIPTION OF UJIJI.-THE ARAB AND OTHER INHABITANTS.-
MARKET SCENES.-LOCAL CURRENCY.-TIIE WAJIJI.-LAKE TANGANIKA.-STANLEY'S VOYAGE
ON THE LAKE.-RISING OF THE WATERS.--TIE LEGEND OF THE VELL.-- OW THE LAKE WAS
FORMED.-DEPARTURE OF THE EXPEDITION.-SCENERY OF THE COAST.-MOUNTAINS VIWHERE THE
SPIRITS DWELL.-SEEKING THE OUTLET OF THE LAKE.-THE LUKUGA RIVERI.-EXPERIMENTS TO
FIND A CURRENT.-CURIOUS HEAD DRESSES.-RETURN TO UJIJI.-LENGTH AND EXTENT OF LAKE
TANGANIKA ............... ............ .. ................. ............... 152
STANLEY CONTINUES THE READING.--AD NEWS AT UJIJL.-SMALL-POX AND ITS RAVAGES.-DESER-
TIONS BY WHIIOLESALE.-DEPARTURE OF THE EXPEDITION.-CROSSING LAKE TANGANIKA.-TRAV-
ELLERS' TROUBLES. TERRIFYING RUMORS. --PEOPLE WEST OF THE LAKE. SINGULAR HEAD-
DRESSES CANNIBALISM. DESCRIPTION OF AN AFRICAN VILLAGE. APPEARANCE OF THE IN-
IABITANTS. IN MANYEMA.-STORY ABOUT LIVINGSTONE. MANYEMA IOUSES.--DONKEYS AS
CURIOSITIES.-KITETE AND HIS BEARD.-THE LUAMA AND THE LUALABA.-ON THE BANKS OF
TIE LIVINGSTONE ....................... ............ ............. ............. 174
DIFFICULTIES OF LIVINGSTONE AND CAMERON WITII THEIR FOLLOWERS.-PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF
TIPPU-TIB.-NEGOTIATIONS FOR AN ESCORT--TTIPBP-Tm ARRANGES TO GO WITH STANLEY.-THE
WONDERS OF UREGGA.-GORILLAS AND BOA-CONSTRICTORS.-THEIR REMARKABLE PERFORMANCES.
-A NATION OF DWARFS.--HoW STANLEY DECIDED WHAT ROUTE TO FOLLOW.--HEADS OR
TAILS?-" SHALL IT BE SOUTH OR NORTII?"-SIGNING THE CONTRACT WITII T1PIU-TIB.-A RE-
MARKABLE ACCIDENT.-ENTERING NYANGWE.-LOCATION AND IMPORTANCE OF THE PLACE.-ITS
ARAB RESIDENTS.-MARKET SCENES AT NYANGWI.--READY FOR THE START ............ 201
DEPARTURE FROM NYANGWE. THE DARK UNKNOWN. IN THE PRIMEVAL FOREST. AN AFRICAN
WILDERNESS. --SAVAGE FURNITURE. TIPPU-TIB'S DEPENDANTS,- A TOILSOME MARCH.- THE
DENSE JUNGLE.-A DEMORALIZED COLUMN.-AFRICAN WEAPONS.-A VILLAGE BLACKSMITI.-
* SKULLS OF SOKOS -STANLEY'S LAST PAIR OF SHOES.-SNAKES IN THE WAY.--THE TERRIBLE
UNDERGROWTII.--NATIVES OF UREGGA AND TIIEIR CIARACTERISTICS.--SKULLS AS STREET OR-
NAMENTS.--AMONG TIE CANNIBALS.-ON THE RIVER'S BANK.-A SUDDEN INSPIRATION.-TIIE
TRUE ROAD TO THE SEA.-TIPPU-TIB'S DISCOURAGEMENTS.-ENCOUNTERING THE NATIVES.-SUC-
CESSFUL NEGOTIATIONS.-THE EXPEDITION FERRIED OVER TIE RIVER.-CAMPING IN THE WEN-
YA ............................. ............. ... .......... ............ 221
HOW STANLEY OBTAINED CANOES.- THE PEOPLE OF UKUSU.-THEIR HOSTILITY.-A FIGHT AND
TERMS OF PEACE. SEPARATION FROM TIPPU-TIB.-DEPARTURE TOWARDS THE UNKNOWN."-
A SAD FAREWELL.-AMONG THE VINYA-NARA.-THE NATIVES AT STANLEY FALLS.-A FIERCE
BATTLE.-DEFENDING A STOCKADE.-BOATS CAPSIZED IN A TEMPEST AND MEN DROWNED.-BE-
GINNING OF THE NEW YEAR. A BATTLE ON THE WATER.--MONSTER CANOES.- AMONG THE
MWANA NTABA.-- THE NATIVES ARE DEFEATED.--FIRST CATARACT OF STANLEY FALLS.--
CAMPED IN A FORTIFICATION. ............ ... ......................... ..... Page 243
ATTACKED BY THE COMBINED FORCES OF THE MW1ANA NTABA AND BASWA TRIBES.--TIY ARE RE-
PULSED.-EXPLORING THE FIRST CATARACT.-CARRYING AND DRAGGING THE BOATS THROUGH THE
FOREST AND AROUND TIE FALLS.-AN ISLAND CAMP.-NATIVE WEAPONS AND UTENSILS.-AN-
OTHER BATTLE. HOW ZAIDI WAS SAVED FROM A PERILOUS POSITION. CAUGHT IN A NET. -
H1OW THE NET WAS BROKEN.-FISHES IN TIIE GREAT RIVER.-HOW TIHE OTHER CATARACTS WERE
PASSED.--AFLOAT ON SMOOTH WATER.-A HOSTILE VILLAGE.-ANOTHER BATTLE.--ATTACKED
BY A LARGE FLOTILLA. -A MONSTER BOAT.-A TEMPLE OF IVORY.-- O MARKET FOR ELF-
PHANTS' TUSKS.-EVIDENCES OF CANNIBALISM.-FRIENDLY NATIVES OF RUBUNGA.-PORTUGUESE
MUSKETS IN THE HANDS OF THE NATIVES. ....... ................................. .. 259
IN URANGI.-A NOISY RECEPTION.-WONDERFUL HEAD-DRESSES.-A TREACHEROUS ATTACK.-ANIMAL
LIFE ALONG TIIE RIVER.--BIRDS AND BEASTS OF TIE GREAT STREAM.--A BATTLE WITH THE
BANGALA.-FIRE-ARMS IN THE HANDS OF THE NATIVES.-THE SAVAGES, ALTHOUGH IN SUPERIOR
NUMBERS, ARE REPULSED.-I-IGH WINDS AND STORMS.-EFFECT OF THE CLIMATE ON MR. STAN-
LEY'S HEALTH.-A GREAT TRIBUTARY RIVER.-FRIENDLY PEOPLE OF IKENGO.-PROVISIONS IN
ABUNDANCE.--ISLANDS IN THE RIVER.-DEATH OF AMINA.-A MOURNFUL SCENE.--THE LEVY
BILLS.-HIPPOPOTAMUS CREEK.-BOLOBO.-THE KING OF CHUMBIRI.-A CRAFTY POTENTATE.-
IS DRESS, PIPE, WIVES, AND SONS.-INCONVENIENT COLLARS.-CURIOUS CUSTOMS ........ 277
TREACHERY OF THE KING'S SONS. -TIE GREATEST RASCAL OF AFRICA. -A PYTHON IN CAMP.--
STANLEY POOL.-DOVER CLIFFS.--MANKONEH.-FIRST SOUND OF THE FALLS.-BARGAINING FOR
FOOD.-Loss OF THE BIG GOAT.-EXCHANGING CHARMS.-FALL OF TIE CONGO FROM NYANGWIS
TO STANLEY POOL. GOING AROUND THE GREAT FALL. DRAGGING THE BOATS OVERLAND. -
GORDON-BENNET RIVER.- THE CALDRON."-Loss OF THE "LONDON TOWN."--POOR KALUL.--
HIs DEATH IN THE RIVER.-LOSS OF MEN. BY DROWNING.-SAD SCENES IN CAMP ........ 300
THE FRIENDLY BATEKE.-GREAT SNAKES. SOUDI'S STRANGE ADVENTURES.-CAPTURED BY HOSTILE
NATIVES.-DESCENDING RAPIDS AND FALLS.-LOSS OF A CANOE.-" WHIRLPOOL RAPIDS."-THE
LADY ALICE IN PERIL.-GAVUBU'S COVE.-" LADY ALICE RAPIDS.-A PERILOUS DESCENT.
-ALARM OF STANLEY'S PEOPLE.-TRIBUTARY STREAMS.-PANIC AMONG THE CANOE-MEN.-NATIVE
VILLAGES.-INKISI FALLS.-TUCKEY'S CATARACT.-A ROAD OVER A M3OUNTAIN.--AMONG THE
BABWENDI.--AFRICAN MARKETS.-TRADING AMONG THE TRIBES.-SHOELESS TRAVELLERS.-EX-
PERIMENTS IN COOKING.-LIMITED STOCK OF PROVISIONS.-CENTRAL AFRICAN ANTS.-" JIGGAS."
-DANGERS OF UNPROTECTED FEET ............................................... 317
A DISAPPOINTMENT.- NOT TUCKEY'S FURTHEST.- BUILDING NEW CANOES. -THE LIVINGSTONE,"
SSTANLEY," AND "JASON." FALLS BELOW INKISI.- FRANK POCOCK DROtNED. STANLEY'S
GRIEF.-" IN MEMORIAM."-MUTINY IN CAMP.-HOW IT WAS QUELLED.-Loss OF THE "LIV-
INGSTONE."-THE CHIEF CARPENTER DROWNED.-ISANGILA CATARACT.-TUCKEY'S SECOND SAN-
GALLA. -ABANDONING THE BOATS. OVERLAND TO BOMA. THE EXPEDITION STARVING. A
LETTER ASKING HELP.-VOLUNTEER COURIERS.-DELAYS AT STARTING.-VAIN EFFORTS TO BUY
FooD.-A DREARY MARCH.-SUFFERINGS OF STANLEY'S PEOPLE.-THEI LEADER'S ANXIETY.. 335
THE WEARY MARCH RESUMED. RETURN OF THE MESSENGERS. ARRIVAL OF RELIEF.-SCENE IN
CAMP.-DISTRIBUTION OF PROVISIONS.-THE SONG OF JOY.-A'WELCOME LETTER.-"ENOUGH
NOW: FALL TO."-PERSONAL LUXURIES FOR TIE LEADER.-" PALE ALE SHERRY PORT WINE!
CHAMPAGNE TEA! COFFEE! WHITE SUGAR! WIIEATEN BREAD !"-STANLEY'S REPLY TO THE
GENEROUS STRANGERS.--SUMMARY PUNISHMENT FOR THEFT.-GREETING CIVILIZATION.-RECEP-
TION BY WHITE MEN.-THE FREEDOM OF BOM3A.-LIFTED INTO THE HAMMOCK.-CIIARACTERISTICS
OF BOMA.-A BANQUET AND FAREWELL.-- ONTA DA LENHA.-OUT ON THE OCEAN.-ADIEU TO
THE CONGO.................. ............. ................................. Page 351
ARRIVAL AT KABINDA. -WEST AFRICA;' MERCHANTS. DEATH AMONG THE WANGWANA. -ILLNESS
AMONG THE PEOPLE OF THE EXPEDITION. STANLEY'S ANXIETY FOR HIS FOLLOWERS. THEIR
FAILING HEALTH.- ENCOURAGING THEM WITH WORDS AND KIND TREATMENT. -TIE BANE OF
IDLENESS.--LEAVING KABINDA.-SAN PAULO DE LOANDA.-KINDNESS OF TIE PORTUGUESE
OFFICIALS.--II. MAJESTY'S SHIP "INDUSTRY."-CARRIED TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.--THE
WVANGWANA SEE A "FIRE- CARRIAGE."-TO NATAL AND ZANZIBAR.-RECEPTION.--DISBANDING
THE EXPEDITION.-AFFECTING SCENES.-STANLEY'S TRIBUTE TO HIS FOLLOWERS ......... 365
THE LAST MEETING ON BOARD THE "EIDER."-FOUNDING THE FREE STATE OF CONGO.--MR. STAN-
LEY'S LATER WORK ON THE GREAT RIVER.-- BUILDING ROADS AND ESTABLISHING STATIONS.-
MAKING PEACE WITH THE NATIVES.--BULA MATARI.--RESOURCES OF TIE CONGO VALLEY.-
STANLEY'S LATEST BOOK.-STEAMERS ON TIE RIVER.--TIE CONGO RAILWAY.-STANLEY'S PRES-
ENT MISSION IN AFRICA.-EMIN PASHA AND IIS WORK.-HOW STANLEY PROPOSES TO RELIEVE
III.--DR. SCHNITZLER.--BEY OR PASHA ? MWANGA, KING OF UGANDA.-HIS HOSTILITY TO
WHITE M'EN.-KILLING BISHrOP HANNINGTON.-THE EGYPTIAN EQUATORIAL PROVINCE.--LETTER
FROM STANLEY.--HIS PLANS FOR THE RELIEF EXPEDITION.- TIPPU-TIB AND HIS MAEN.-FROM
ZANZIBAR TO THE CONGO ............ ..... ......................... ......... 381
MORE AFRICAN STUDIES.-MASAI LAND.-EARLY HISTORY OF THE MOMBASA COAST.-MOUNT KILI-
MANJARO.-ITs DISCOVERERS AND EXPLORERS.-REBMANN'S UIMBRELLA.-THOMSON'S EXPEDITION
AND ITS OBJECT.-FRERE TOWN AND MOMBASA.-JOURNEY TO MASAI LAND.-HOSTILITY OF THE
NATIVES. NARROW ESCAPES.-MASAI WARRIORS AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS. MANNERS AND
CUSTOMS OF TIE PEOPLE.-TIIOMSON AS A MAGICIAN.-JOHNSTON'S KILIMANJARO EXPEDITION.
-HEIGHT AND PECULIARITIES OF THE GREAT MOUNTAIN.-MANDARA AND IIIS COURT.-SLAVE-
TRADING. MASAI WOMEN.- SURROUNDED BY LIONS. BISHOP HANNINGTON. STORY OF HIS
DEATH IN UGANDA ........................................................... 410
STANLEY'S HUNTING ADVENTURES. --AFRICA THE FIELD FOR THE SPORTSMAN.- HUNTING IN SOUTH
AFRICA.-NIGHT-SHOOTING AT WATER-HOLES AND SPRINGs.-ABUNDANCE OF GAME.-DANGER OF
THIS KIND OF SPORT.--LIONS AND ELEPHANTS.-MAN-EATING LIONS.-IN THE JAWS OF A LION.
-DR. LIVINGSTONE'S NARROW ESCAPE.-THE HoPo, OR GAME-TRAP ON A LARGE SCALE.-DU
CHAILLU AND HIS ADVENTURES. -SHOOTING THE GORILLA.-RESEMBLANCE OF THE GORILLA TO
MAN.-PRODIGIOUS STRENGTH OF THE GORILLA.-HOW HE IS HUNTED.-THE END....... 442
A Scene on the Congo ........... .................. .............. Frontispiece.
Map of Africa showing Route from Zanzibar to Boma .......................... Front Cover.
Map of Emin Pasha's Province and the Congo Routes .......................... Back Cover.
Portrait of Henry M. Stanley............. 12 An African Belle....................... 52
Sandy Hook from Navesink Light-house... 13 An African Blacksmith's-shop............. 53
Stanley in Abyssinia............ ....... 15 Funeral of Edward Pocock : View of Our
Musicians of the Dark Continent......... 16 Camp .............................. 55
Village where Dr. Livingstone Died ....... 18 In Memoriam of Edward Pocock............. 56
James Gordon Bennett .................. 19 An African Lamb...................... 56
The Lady Alice, in Sections.............. 20 Unyamwezi Porter................ ... 57
Candidates for Service with Stanley....... 21 View of Kagehyi from the Edge of the Lake 59
View of a Portion of the Sea-front of Zan- Frank Pocock ........................ 60
zibar, from the Water Battery to Sliangani African Arms and Ornaments ............. 61
Point............................... 23 View near Victoria Lake................ 62
Zanzibar, from the Sea ................. 23 Dwellers on the Shore of the Lake ........ 63
Red Cliffs behind Universities Mission, Zan- The Lady Alice at Bridge Island, Victoria
zibar.............. ................ 24 Nyanza...................... ..... 64
View from the Roof of Mr. Augustus Spar- View of the Bay leading to Rugedzi Chan-
hawk's House....................... 25 nel from Kigoma, near Kisorya, South
The British Consulate at Zanzibar ........ 26 Side of Ukerew6, Coast of Speke Gulf... 65
Seyyid Barghash. ..................... 27 View of Ripon Falls from the Uganda Side. 67
A Zanzibar Nurse-maid................ 28 Dressed for Cold Weather .............. 68
Lady of Zanzibar Reading an Arabic Manu- The Victoria Nile, North of Ripon Falls,
script.............................. 29 Rushing towards Unyoro, from the Usoga
Native Water-carrier, Zanzibar........... 30 Side of the Falls..................... 69
Hindoo Merchant of Zanzibar............ 31 Reception by King Mtesa's Body-guard at
Negro Nursemaid, Zanzibar .............. 33 Usavara ............................ 71
A Zanzibar Bride..................... .34 Waiting Orders........................ 72
Window of an Arab House, Zanzibar...... 35 Sekebobo, Chief of Chagwd. Mtesa, the Em-
Coxswain Uledi, and Manwa Sera, Chief Cap- peror of Uganda. Chambarango,the Chief.
tain ............................... 36 Pokino, the Prime-minister. Other Chiefs. 73
A Merchant of Zanzibar................. 37 Dwarf at the King's Court.............. 74
Tarya Topan................... ..... ... 39 The King's Dinner-dish.................. 76
Universities Mission at Mbwenni, Zanzibar. 40 Fish found in Lake Victoria ................ 78
Harem in the House of the Secretary of the Rubaga, the Capital of the King of Uganda. 79
Sultan of Zanzibar.................. 41 Fleet of the King of Uganda, Ready for
"Towards the Dark Continent." ......... 42 W ar ............................... 81
Scene in Bagamoyo .................... 43 Audience-hall of the Palace at Rubaga.... 82
Wife of Manwa Sera.................... 45 Wooden Kettle-drum................... 83
A Leading Citizen of Bagamoyo.......... 46 African Hatchet, Spade, and Adze.......... 83
The Expedition at Rosako ............. 47 Head of a "Madoqua "-Species of Antelope. 85
View from the Village of Mamboya....... 49 Shugrangu House, an African Mission Sta-
Our Camp at Mpwapwa. ................ 60 tion, with Grave of Mrs. Livingstone..... 87
Detective and Assistants................. 51 Warriors of the Upper Nile Region........ 89
Reception at Bumbirce Island, Victoria Ny- On the Way to the Meeting.. .............. 125
anza ............................... 91 Ground-plan of King's House............. 126
Hut and Granary on the Island............ 93 Treasure-house, Arms, and Treasures of
A W oman of the Island ................. 94 Rumanika........................... 127
Village Enclosing Cattle..................... 95 The Expedition Traversing the Valley..... 129
Heads of Spears........................ 96 Pottery in Usui......................... 130
Central African Goat.................... 97 A Village in W western Usui.............. 132
Cairn Erected to the Memory of Frederick Camp of an Arab Merchant....... ....... 133
Barker: .'. 1 i ..1 Ururi Mountains in the "Bull.". .............. .............. 135
Distance, across Speke Gulf............ 98 A Hut and its Frame......... ............ 136
At the Landing-place of Msossi, King Lu- View in the Interior of an African Village. 137
kongch's Capital...................... 99 Serombo IIuts ......................... 138
Store-house for Grain ................... 99 War-Drum and Idol..................... 139
Wakercwi Stool ...................... 100 A i.. ... i ." one of Miranmbo's Patriots. 139
Wakercn Dwelling-house...... ......... .100 Hillside House in Mirambo's Country...... 140
Fish-nets............................. 100 Unyamwezi Chief and his Wife........... 141
Wakerewc Canoes...................... 100 Shield and Drum........................ 142
Wakerewl Warrior....................... 100 Color-party of an English Expedition in
Strange Granite Rocks of W ezi Island, Mid- Africa............ ... .. ............. 143
way between Usukuma and Ukerew.... 101 Mountains along the Route of the Expedi-
Usukuma Canoe ........................ 102 tion .............. .... ........... .. 145
Island called Elephant Rock............ 103 Fashionable Hair-dressing .............. 147
Mtesa's Camp, Ingira................... 104 One of the W atuta.. ......... ........... 148
One of the Great Naval Battles between the Bow, Spears, Hatchets, and Arrow-Ileads.., 149
Waganda and the Wavuma, in the Channel Idols Sheltered from the Rain.............. 150
between Ingira Island and Cape Nakaranga 105 Arab House near Ujiji. ................... 150
Small Canoe ........................... 106 Whistle, Pillow, and Hatchet ............ 151
View of Country near Mtesa's Camp...... 106 Head of Ugulhha Woman ................. 152
The Floating Fortlet Moving towards Ingira 107 Ujiji, looking North from the Market-place,
Uganda War Canoe..................... 109 Viewed from the Roof of our Tembi at
W angwana Hut in Camp. IIut at Jinja... 110 Ujiji............... ............ ... 153
Head of Central African Hartebeest....... 110 Arab Dhow at Ujiji ..................... 154
The Camp of the Expedition............. 111 A Native of Rua, who was a Visitor at Ujiji 155
Mount Edwin Arnold.................... 112 Dress and Tattooing of a Native of Uguhha 156
Marching towards Muta Nzege: Mount Gor- Charms Worn by the Wajiji............. 157
don-Bennett in the Distance............ 113 A River Ferry-boat................... 158
Grass-roofed IHut, Unyoro ............... 114 Heads of Natives ..................... 158
Native Hut, Karagw6 .................. 114 The rWazaramo Tribe .......... .. ..... 159
View near Kafurro ..................... 115 Rawlinson Mountains ................... 161
Central African Antelope, Karagw\ ...... .116 Head-dress and Hatchet ................. 162
View of Ufumbiro Mountains from Mount Brother Rocks........................ 16:-
near Mtagata Hot Springs ............ 117 The Extreme Southern Reach of Lake Tan-
Rumanika's Treasure-house.............. 118 ganika ............... .............. 164
A Spearman of Karagi ................ 119 Mtombwa ............................. 165
Mountain Scene in Karagivw ............ 119 Kunglw Peaks ........................ 166
Boat on Lake Windermere .............. 120 The "High Places" of the Spirit Mtombwa:
Kagera Skiff .......................... 121 View of Mtombwa Urungn............ 167
Native Woman of Fashion ............... 121 Mount Murumbi, near Lukuga Creek ...... 168
Ihlema lHut ............. .. .. ........ 122 Ubujw6 Head-dress ..................... 170
A Native of Uhha ...................... 122 Uguha IIead-dress...................... 170
Boat of Lake Ihema ................... 122 Village Scene.-Dwellings and Grain-houses 171
Hut of Uganda ............. .......... 123 A W oman of Uguha..................... 172
Small Teimbl of Ugogo. ................ 123 Uhyeya IIead-dress ..................... 172
Iouse of an Arab Merchant near Ruma- Spirit Island, Lake Tanganika .......... 172
nika's Village .............. ......... 124 Sketch Near Ujiji ...................... 173
In Council: The Courtyard of Our Tcmb6 at The Edge of the Forest ................ 227
Ujiji ............................... 175 W ater-bottles .......................... 228
Central African Goat.................... 176 Stool of Uregga ....................... 229
M'Sclazy Haven and Camp, at the Mouth of Uregga House. ....................... 229
M'Schazy River....................... .177 Spoons of Uregga ...................... 229
Huts and Store-house ................... 179 Uregga Spear ......................... 229
Sub-Chief, West of Lake Tanganika....... 180 Cane Settee .......................... 229
Heads of Men of Manyecma............... 181 Bench ............................... 230
Natives of Ubujwd..................... 181 Back-rest ............................. 230
A Native of Uhyeya.................... 182 An African Fez of Leopard-skin ......... 230
One of the Wahyeya of Uhombo. (Back Prickles of the Acacia Plant............. 231
View.) ............................. 182 An African Ant ....................... 231
A Valley among the Hills ................ 183 Marabouts, Storks, and Pelicans in the Forest
Going a-fishing ........................ 184 Lakes .............................. 232
Village Forge and Idol................... 185 A Forge and Smithy at Wane Kirumbu,
Ready for Fighting..................... 1861 Uregga ............................. 233
African Owls.......................... 188 A Young "Soko" Sitting for his Portrait.. 285
A Village in Manyema .................. 189 Head of the Gorilla ..................... 236
A Youth of Ensrt Manyema .............. 190 Backgammon Tray ....... ............. 236
A Manyema Adult ...................... 190 In Full Style .......................... 237
The Valley of Mabaro .................. 191 A Tributary River...................... 239
A Young Woman of East Manyema....... 192 Wangwana Women..................... 240
Village Scene in Southeast Manyema ...... 193 Some of the People on Shore............. 241
House of an Arab Merchant ............. 195 Canoes in the Mouth of the Ruiki River ... 243
House of a Manyema Chief ............. 196 War-hatchet of Ukusu ................. 244
Kitet4, The Chief of Mpungu ............. 198 Stool of Ukusu ........................ 244
Village near Kabungw6 ................. 199 Stew-pot of the W ahika ................. 244
Native Houses at Mtuyu ................. 200 Encounter with a Gorilla ................ 245
Ants'-ncst in Manyema.................. 200 A House of Two Rooms ................ 246
Hill and Village on the Road to Nyangwed.. 201 Canoe Scoop .................. ....... 247
W waiting to be Photographed ........... 203 Scoops .............................. 247
A Young Soko" (Gorilla). .............. 204 Towards the Unknown."................ 247
Blacksmiths at Work .................. 205 Coil of Plaited Rope, Central Africa... .. 248
Native Trap for Game................... 206 War-drums of the Tribes of the Upper Liv-
Canoes on the River.................... 207 ingstone ........................... 249
"Heads for the North and the Lualaba; Tails V;i ,- .. Scene......................... ..250
for the South and Katanga."............ 208 Musical Instruments and Mode of Playing.. 251
A Follower of Tippu-Tib.................. 209 Gorillas and Nest ...................... 253
A Canoe of the Wenya, or Wagena, Fisher- Native Pipe .......................... 254
men ............................... 210 Scene on a Tributary of the Great River-
Pot-pourri ............................ 211 Launching a Canoe.................... 255
View in Nyangw ...................... 212 Mwana Ntaba Canoe (The "Crocodile")... 256
A Bowman............................ 213 Village near the Forest.................. 257
Camp Scene .......................... 214 Native Corn-magazine .................. 258
Escort of Gunners and Spearmen.......... 215 African Stool.......................... 259
Slave Offered in the Market ............. 217 Spear-head............................ 260
Nyangwd Heads ....................... 217 The Kooloo-Kamba, or Long-eared Soko... 261
Nyangw6 Pottery ...................... 218 A Baswa Knife......................... 262
Muini Dugumbi's Followers Attacking Ny- Style of Knives......................... 262
angw6 .............................. 219 Baswa Basket and Cover. ................ 262
Antelope of the Nyangw6 Region......... 220 Shooting a Crocodile at the Rapids ........ 263
Near Nyangwe......................... 221 Cavern near Stanley Falls................ 264
Open Country before Reaching the Forest. 223 The Desperate Situation of Zaidi, and his
Tippu-Tib's Body Servants ............... 224 Rescue by Uledi, the Coxswain of the
Jum ah ............................... 225 B oat ............................... 265
The Seventh Cataract, Stanley Falls....... 266 Death of Kalulu ..................... 315
Pike- Stanley Falls .................... 266 One of Gampa's Men ................... 316
An African Suspension-bridge .......... 267 Village Idols ........................ 317
Fish-Seventh Cataract, Stanley Falls..... 268 Hilly Regions back from the River........ 319
Baswa Palm-oil Jar and Palm-wine Cooler.. 268 Lady Alice over the Falls .............. 321
Mouth of Drum .. .............. ..... 269 Native Mill for Grinding Corn............ 322
Wooden Signal-drum of the Wenya, or Wa- Falls on a Tributary Stream............. 323
genya, and the Tribes on the Livingstone. 269 An Upland Stream and Native Bridge..... 324
Drumsticks-Knobs being of India-rubber. 269 The Nkenk6 River Entering the Livingstone
Shields of Ituka People................ 269 below the Lady Alice Rapids........... 325
Fish-Stanley Falls ........................ 270 Mode of Passing Boats over the Falls...... 327
Monster Canoe ........................ 271 Village on the Table-land .............. 329
Native Spade......................... 272 A Figure in the Market-place ............. 330
The Fight below the Confluence of the Aru- African Market Scene................. 331
wimi and the Livingstone Rivers........ 273 View in the Babwend6 Country........... 332
Spear, Isangi... ....................... 274 Nyitti, an African Potato................. 333
Knives, Rubunga....................... 274 Ugogo Cooking-pot .................... 334
Rings for Protecting the Arm............ 275 Wild Bull of Equatorial Africa........... 334
Rubunga Blacksmiths................. 276 The New Canoes, the Tivingstone and the
Double Iron Bells of Urangi............. 277 Stanley............................. 336
Beak of the Balinmceps Rex ............ 278 Cutting out the New Livingstone Canoe..... 337
The Balinmeeps Rex. .................. 279 In Memoriam: Francis John Pocock...... 338
A Cannibal Chief...................... 281 Fall of the Edwin Arnold River into the
The Attack of the Sixty-three Canoes of the Pocock Basin......................... 339
Piratical Bangala..................... 283 The Chief Carpenter Carried over Zinga
Poisoned Arrows........................ 284 Fall............................ 340
A Crocodile Hunt .................... 285 The Masassa Falls, and the Entrance into
Elephant Hunters on the Congo.......... 287 Pocock Basin, or Bolobolo Pool......... 341
African Knife and Axes................. 288 Camp at Kilolo, above Isangila Falls ...... 342
Spears, and Shield of Elephant-hide ....... 289 View from the Table-land .............. 343
Spectators among the Trees.............. 291 "I want Rum."....................... 345
Encounter with a Hippopotamus ......... 295 Village Scene, with Granary in Foreground. 346
A Present from Chumbiri............... 296 In the Valley .......................... 347
The King of Chumbiri.................. 296 Ant-hills on the Road to Boma .......... 348
Great Pipe of King of Chumbiri.......... 297 One of the Guides ..................... 349
One of the King's Wives at Chumbiri ..... 298 Catching Ants for Food .................. 350
A Bowman.......................... .. 299 Mbinda Cemetery ...................... 351
Son of the King of Chumbiri............ 300 In the Suburbs of Boma................. 352
A Python in an African Forest........... 301 Outbuildings of an African Factory........ 353
The Northern End of Stanley Pool ........ 302 Escort of the Caravan ..................... 354
Map of Stanley Pool ................. 303 Outside the Village ..................... 356
One of the King's Warriors............. 304 View in the Open Country .............. 357
African Reclining-Chair ................ 305 Wooden Idol.......................... 358
A Present from Itsi........................ 306 The White fronted Wild Hog of Central
Floating Island in Stanley Pool........... 308 Africa ............................. 359
Village in the Valley of the Congo........ 309 The Hammock on the West Coast of Africa 360
Native Pottery ........................ 310 The Circumnavigators of the Victoria Ny-
View of the Right Branch, First Cataract, of anza and Lake Tanganika, and Explorers
the Livingstone Falls, from Four Miles of the Alexandra Nile and Livingstone
below Juemba Island.................. 311 (Congo) River ....................... 361
Over Rocky Point close to Gampa's....... 312 Native Belles on the West Coast......... 362
At Work Passing the Lower End of the First Native Blacksmiths near Boma........... 363
Cataract of the Livingstone Falls, near At Rest: Stanley's Quarters at Kabinda by
Rocky Island................ ....... 313 the Sea ........... ............ ...... 365
African Pipes........ ................ 314 Expedition at Kabinda.................. 366
Group of Mr. Stanley's Followers at Kabin- Chief of Coast Tribe in Portuguese Terri-
da, West Coast of Africa, just after Cross- tory................................ 409
ing the "Dark Continent."............ 367 Tattooing among the Coast Natives....... 410
Scenery on the West Coast of Africa...... 368 Doorway of a House at Mombasa......... 411
A Dandy of San Paulo de Loanda.......... 369 Heads of Coast Natives ................... 413
View of San Paulo de Loanda-The Fort of View of Mombasa ...................... 415
San Miguel on the Right................. 371 Camp of an English Explorer in Africa .... 417
Dlows in the Harbor of Zanzibar......... 372 Slave Caravans on the Road.............. 419
The Recuperated and Reclad Expedition as Slaves Left to Die....................... 421
it Appeared at Admiralty Iouse, Simon's A Spring in the Desert ................. 423
Town, after our Arrival on H. .S. Indus- A W edding-dance ...................... 424
try................................. 373 Mandara's Left Ear..................... 426
The Women of the Expedition. ........... 377 A Corner of Mr. Johnston's Settlement .... 427
Stanley, as lie Left England for Africa in View of Kilimanjaro.................... 429
1874 ........................ ....... 378 Camp Scene........................... 430
Stanley, as he Reached Zanzibar in 1877... 379 African Adjutants..................... 432
Ngahmna, a Congo Chief ................. 382 A Well-stocked Hunting-ground.......... 433
View of Vivi, from the Isangila Road ..... 383 Plain and Mountains in Masai Land....... 434
Port of Leopoldville.................... 384 Ear-stretchers and Ear-ornaments......... 436
A Photograph .............. ............ 385 A Masai W warrior ........................ 437
A Congo House. ......................... 386 Masai Married Woman, with Painted Face. 438
The Effect of Civilization ............... 387 Uganda Head-dress ..................... 440
A Native of the Lower Congo ............ 388 Place where Bishop Hannington was Im-
Emin Pasha. ......................... 391 prisoned and Killed................... 441
Blacksmith's Forge and Bellows .......... 392 African Oryx, or Gemsbok............... 442
Some of Emin Pasha's Irregular Troops... 393 South African Hunting-in Camp ........ 443
Ivory-eating Squirrel, Central Africa ...... 394 Night Hunting-Elephants Coming to Drink 445
Battle between Native Warriors and Egyp- An African Serenade. .................... 446
tian Troops.......................... 395 Close Shave by an Elephant .............. 447
Native Warrior in Elnin Pasha's Province. 396 Death-grapple with a Lion................ 448
The King of Unyora and his Great Chiefs. 397 Rhinoceros and Dogs....................... 450
Native W ar-dance..................... 399 Dr. Livingstone in the Lion's Grasp....... 451
Breed of Cattle in Emin Pasha's Province. 400 The Hopo, or Trap for Driving Game...... 453
Lado, Capital of Egyptian Equatorial Prov- Paul du Chaillu in Africa..... .......... 454
inee............................... 401 Gorilla Hunting-Mother and Young at Play 455
School Warrior, Egyptian Equatorial Prov- Du Chaillu's First Gorilla ............... 457
in ............ .................... 402 Head of Kooloo-Kamba. .............. 458
Fortified Village near Lado............... 403 Ear of Kooloo-Kamba .................. 458
Ismaen Abou Hatab, Trusted Officer of Emin Du Chaillu Ascending an African River... 459
Pasha .............................. 404 Gorilla Skull .......................... 461
Village in the '. .'1.. of tile Bengo........ 405 Human Skull.......................... 461
A Traveller's Caravan near Wadelay. ..... 407 Skeletons of Man and the Gorilla ........... 462
A Dyoor, Subject of Emin Paha .......... 408 A Young Gorilla-Du Chaillu's Captive .. 463
.^^' .'I iPj
THE BOY TRAVELLERS
CROSSING THE ATLANTIC OCEAN WITH STANLEY.-" THROUGH THE DARK CON,
TINENT."-AN IMPROMPTU GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. -PERSONAL APPEAR-
ANCE OF STANLEY.-COMMENTS UPON IIMI BY FRANK AND FRED.-HOW THE
GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY WAS ORGANIZED.-READING STANLEY'S BOOK.-
STANLEY'S DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND FOR ZANZIBAR. JOINT ENTERPRISE
OF TWO NEWSPAPERS. -PREPARATIONS FOR THE EXPEDITION.-THE LADY
ALICE.- BARKER AND THE POCOCKS. ZANZIBAR. -PRINCE BARGHASH.-
INHABITANTS OF ZANZIBAR. THE WANGWANA.
T eight o'clock on the morning of December 15,1886, the magnifi-
cent steamer Eider, of the North German Lloyds, left her clock in
New York harbor for a voyage to Southampton and Bremen. Among
-. -- ----"
.-- - .-- -Z --- -.
----- -- .
SANDY HOOK FROM NAVESINK LIGHT-HOUSE.
the passengers that gathered on her deck to wave farewell to friends on
shore was one whose name has become famous throughout the civilized
world for the great work he has performed in exploring the African
continent and opening it to commerce and Christianizing influences.
That man, it is hardly necessary to say, was HENRY M. STANLEY.
Near him stood a group of three individuals who will be recognized
by many of our readers. They were Doctor Bronson and his nephews,
14 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson, whose adventures have been recorded
in previous volumes.*
Slowly the great steamer made her way among the ships at anchor
in the harbor. She passed the Narrows, then entered the Lower Bay,
and, winding through the channel between Sandy Hook and Coney Isl-
and, was soon upon the open ocean. N.- i the Sandy I-Hook light-ship
she stopped her engines sufficiently long to discharge her pilot, and then,
with her prow turned to the eastward, she dashed away on her course at
full speed. Day by day and night by night the tireless engines throbbed
and pulsated, but never for a moment ceased their toil till the "'. 7. -\ as
off Southampton, more than three thousand miles from her starting-
Doctor Bronson was acquainted with Mr. ut:' iu.y, and soon after the
steamer left the dock the two gentlemen were in conversation. After
a little while the doctor introduced his nephews, who were warmly
greeted by the great explorer; he had read of their journeys in the far
East and in other lands, and expressed his pleasure at meeting them per-
As for Frank and Fred, they were overjoyed at the introduction and
the cordial manner in which they were received. They thanked Mr.
Stanley for the kind words he had used in speaking of their travels,
which had been of little consequence compared with his own. Frank
added that he hoped some day to be able to cross the African continent;
the way had been opened by Mr. Stanley, and, with the facilities which
the latter had given to travellers, the journey would be far easier of ac-
complishment than it was twenty or even ten years ago.
Then followed a desultory conversation, of which no record has been
preserved; other passengers came up to speak to Mr. Stanley, and the
party separated. As the steamer passed into the open ocean most of the
people on deck disappeared below for the double reason that there was
a cold wind from the eastward and-breakfast was on the table.
What a charming man Mr. Stanley is !" Fred remarked, as soon as
they had withdrawn from the group.
"Yes," replied his cousin, "and so different from what I expected he
would be. He is dignified without being haughty, and friendly without
familiarity. Before the introduction I was afraid to meet him, but
found myself quite at ease before we had been talking a minute. I'm
"The Boy Travellers in the Far East," in China, Japan, Siam, Java, Ceylon, India,
Egypt, the Holy Land, Africa; The Boy Travellers in South America;" The Boy Trav-
ellers in the Russian Empire." Seven volumes, published by Harper & Brothers, New York.
STANLEY'S CAREER. 15
not surprised to hear how much those who know him are attached to
him, nor at the influence he possesses over the people among whom his
great work has been performed."
"Just think what a career he has had," continued Frank. "After
various adventures as a newspaper correspondent in Spain, Abyssinia,
Ashantee, and other countries, he was sent by the editor of the New
York Herald to find Dr. Livingstone in the interior of Africa. He
found the famous missionary; but when he came back, and told the
story of what he had done, a great many people refused to believe him,
STANLEY IN ABYSSINIA.
because they considered the feat impossible for a newspaper correspond-
ent. He came out of Africa at the same point where he entered it, and
it was said by some that he had never ventured farther than a few miles
from the coast. This made him angry, and the next time he went on a
tonr of exploration in Africa he made sure that the same criticism would
Yes, indeed responded Fred. He went into the African wilder-
ness at Bagomoya, on the east side of the continent, and came out at the
mouth of the Congo, away over on the other side. He descended that
16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
great river, which no white man had ever done before him, and passed
through dangers and difficulties such as few travellers of modern times
have known. And, besides-"
Before Fred could finish the sentence he had begun the Doctor joined
them, and asked Frank where he had put the parcel of books that they
had selected to read during the voyage.
"It is in our room," the youth replied, "and ready to be opened
whenever we want any of the books. We will arrange our things this
forenoon, and I will open the parcel at once."
"You selected Mr. Stanley's book, Through the Dark Continent,' I
believe," Doctor Bronson continued, and I think you had better bring
that out first. Now that Mr. Stanley is with us, you will read it again
with much greater interest than before."
The youths were pleased with the suggestion, which they accepted
at once. Fred laughingly remarked that there might be danger of a
quarrel between them as to who should have the first privilege of read-
ing the book. Frank thought they could get over the difficulty by
dividing the two volumes between them, but he admitted that the one
who read the second volume in advance of the first would be likely to
have his mind confused as to the exact course of the exploration which
the book described.
Doctor Bronson said he was reminded of an anecdote he once heard
MUSICIANS OF TIIE DARK CONTINENT.
FORMING A GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 17
about a man who always read books with a mark, which he carefully
inserted at the end of each reading. Ie was going through the "Life
of Napoleon" at one time, and for three evenings in succession his
room-mate slyly set back the mark to the starting-point. At the end
of the third evening he asked the reader what he thought of Napoleon.
He was a most wonderful man," was the reply; "in three days he
crossed the Alps three times with his whole army, and went the same
way every time."
While the party were laughing over the anecdote Mr. Stanley came
up, and said he wished to have a share in the fun. The Doctor repeated
the story, and explained how it had been called to his mind.
Well," said Mr. Stanley, it would be very unfortunate for Masters
Frank and Fred to get the story of the Dark Continent doubled up in
the manner you suggest. I propose that they shall study it together,
one reading aloud to the other, and, as the entire book is too much for
the limited time of this voyage, they will be obliged to omit portions of
chapters here and there. The readings can take place daily during the
afternoon and evening, and the youth who is to read can devote the
forenoon to selecting the parts of the chapters he will suppress and those
which are to be given to the listeners. I will assist him in his selections
from time to time, and, with due diligence, the book will be finished
before we reach Southampton."
It was unanimously voted that the plan was an excellent one, and
the boys immediately proceeded to carry it out. The volumes were
brought forth, and Frank retired to a corner of the saloon to make a
selection for the first afternoon's reading. Mr. Stanley sat with him a
short time, marking several pages and paragraphs, and then went on
deck, where he joined Doctor Bronson in a brief promenade. Meantime
Fred busied himself with an examination of.several other books of Afri-
can travel; he was evidently familiar with their contents, as he ran
through the pages with great rapidity, and marked numerous passages,
with the evident intention of referring to them in the course of the time
devoted to what we may call the public readings.
There was an intermission of labor towards the middle of the day,
and at this time Frank and Fred made the acquaintance of two or three
other youths of about their age. When the latter learned of the pro-
posed scheme, they asked permission to be allowed to hear how the Dark
Continent was traversed, and their request was readily granted. Conse-
quently the audience that assembled in the afternoon comprised some
six or eight persons, including Mr. Stanley and Doctor Bronson. Neither
18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
of the gentlemen remained there through the whole afternoon, partly for
the reason that they were both familiar with the narrative and partly
because they did not wish to seem otherwise than confident that the
boys knew how to manage matters for themselves. This kind of work
was not altogether new to Frank and Fred, as many of our readers are
aware; and in all their previous experiences they had acquitted them-
When everything was ready Frank began with the opening chapter
of "Through the Dark Continent" and read as follows:
"While returning to England in April, 1874, from the Ashantee War, the news
reached me that Livingstone was dead-that his body was on its way to England!
Livingstone had then fallen He was dead He had died by the shores of
Lake Bemba, on the threshold of the dark region he had wished to explore The
work he had promised me to perform was only begun when death overtook him!
,- --~-7--=---= ... __-
-- : -:-- .. ---
.--_--_- __________--___---_----.__ _-.
--_-.- -- :_- __ ..
VILLAGE WHERE DR. LIVINGSTONE DIED.
"The effect which this news had upon me, after the first shock had passed
away, was to fire me with a resolution to complete his work, to be, if God willed
it, the next martyr to geographical science, or, if my life was to be spared, to clear
STANLEY PLANS AN EXPEDITION. 19
up not only the secrets of the Great River throughout its course, but also all that
remained still problematic and incomplete of the discoveries of Burton and Speke,
and Speke and Grant.
"The solemn day of the burial of the body of my great friend arrived. I was
one of the pall-bearers in Westminster Abbey, and when I had seen the coffin
lowered into the grave, and had heard the first handful of earth thrown over it, I
walked away sorrowing over the fate of David Livingstone.
"Soon after this I was passing by an old book-shop, and observed a volume
bearing the singular title of How to Observe.' Upon opening it, I perceived it
contained tolerably clear instructions of how and what to observe.' It was very
interesting, and it whetted my desire to know more; it led me to purchase quite
an extensive library of books upon Africa, its geography, geology, botany, and
ethnology. I thus became possessed of over one hundred and thirty books upon
Africa, which I studied with the zeal of one who had a living interest in the sub-
ject, and with the understanding of one who had been already four times on that
continent. I knew what had been accomplished by African explorers, and I knew
how much of the dark interior was still unknown to the world. Until late hours
I sat up, inventing and planning, sketching out routes, laying out lengthy lines of
possible exploration, noting many suggestions which the continued study of my
project created. I also drew up lists of instruments and other paraphernalia that
would be required to map, lay out, and describe the new regions to be traversed.
I had strolled over one day to the office of the Daily Telegraph, full of the
subject. While I was discussing journalistic enterprise in general with one of the
staff, the editor entered. We spoke of Livingstone and the unfinished task re-
maining behind him. In reply to an eager remark which I made, he asked:
Could you, and would you, complete the work? And what is there to do?'
"' The outlet of Lake Tanganika is
undiscovered. We know nothing scarce-
ly-except what Speke has sketched out
-of Lake Victoria; we do not even know
whether it consists of one or many lakes,
and therefore the sources of the Nile are
still unknown. Moreover, the western a.
half of the African continent is still a
"'Do you think you can settle all
this, if we commission you '
"'While I live there will be some-
thing done. If I survive the time re-
quired to perform all the work, all shall .
be done.' i" --l '--
"The matter was for the moment
suspended, because Mr. James Gordon --
Bennett, of the New York Herald, had
prior claims on my services.
"A telegram was despatched to New JAMES GORDON BENNETT.
20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
York to him: 'Would he join the Daily Telegraph in sending Stanley out to Af-
rica, to complete the discoveries of Speke, Burton, and Livingstone and, within
twenty-four hours, my 'new mission' to Africa was determined on as a joint ex-
pedition, by the laconic answer which the cable flashed under the Atlantic: Yes;
"A few days before I departed for Africa, the Daily Telegraph announced
in a leading article that its proprietors had united with Mr. James Gordon Ben-
nett in organizing an expedition of African discovery, under the command of
Mr. Henry M. Stanley. The purpose of the enterprise,' it said, 'is to complete
the work left unfinished by the lamented death of Dr. Livingstone; to solve, if
possible, the remaining problems of the geography of Central Africa; and to in-
vestigate and report upon the haunts of the slave-traders. He will represent
the two nations whose common interest in the regeneration of Africa was so well
illustrated when the lost English explorer was rediscovered by the energetic
American correspondent. In that memorable journey, Mr. Stanley displayed the
best qualities of an African traveller; and with no inconsiderable resources at his
disposal to reinforce his own complete acquaintance with the conditions of Afri-
can travel, it may be hoped that very important results will accrue from this un-
dertaking to the advantage of science, humanity, and civilization.'
Two weeks were allowed me for purchasing boats-a yawl, a gig, and a barge
-for giving orders for pontoons, and purchasing equipment, guns, ammunition,
rope, saddles, medical stores, and provisions; for making investments in gifts for
native chiefs; for obtaining scientific instruments, stationery, etc., etc. The barge
was an invention of my own.
It was to be forty feet long, six feet beam, and thirty inches deep, of Spanish
cedar three eighths of an inch thick. When finished, it was to be separated into
five sections, each of which should be eight feet long. If the sections should be
overweight, they were to be again divided into halves for greater facility of car-
riage. The construction of this novel boat was undertaken by Mr. James Mes-
senger, boat-builder, of Teddington, near London. The pontoons were made by
Cording, but though the workmanship was beautiful, they were not a success, be-
cause the superior efficiency of the boat for all purposes rendered them unneces-
sary. However, they were not wasted. Necessity compelled us, while in Africa,
to employ them for far different purposes from those for which they had originally
1 ; :- .. ... ... -;.,..: ',->'=-___
l -'-., _-- ---
1 _- -- --- _-_----4: ,. " .. -
MANY VOLUNTEERS. 21
"There lived a clerk at the Langham Hotel, of the name of Frederick Barker,
who, smitten with a desire to go to Africa, was not to be dissuaded by reports of
its unhealthy climate, its dangerous fevers, or the uncompromising views of ex-
ploring life given to him. He would go, he was determined to go,' he said.
"Mr. Edwin Arnold, of the Daily Telegraph, also suggested that I should be
accompanied by one or more young English boatmen of good character, on the
ground that their river knowledge would be extremely useful to me. He men-
tioned his wish to a most worthy fisherman, named Henry Pocock, of Lower Up-
nor, Kent, who had kept his yacht for him, and who had fine stalwart sons, who
bore the reputation of being honest and trustworthy. Two of these young men
volunteered at once. Both Mr. Arnold and myself warned the Pocock family re-
peatedly that Africa had a cruel character, that the sudden change from the daily
comforts of English life to the rigorous one of an explorer would try the most
perfect constitution; would most likely be fatal to the uninitiated and unac-
climatized. But I permitted myself to be overborne by the eager courage and
devotion of these adventurous lads, and Francis John Pocock and Edward Po-
cock, two very likely-looking young men, were accordingly engaged as my assist-
Soon after the announcement of the 'New Mission,' applications by the score
poured into the offices of the Daily
Telegraph and New York Herald for I -
employment. Before I sailed from IN
England, over twelve hundred letters
were received from 'generals,' 'col- .
onels,' captains,' lieutenants,' mid- o
shipmen,' engineers,' commissioners I
of hotels,' mechanics, waiters, cooks,
servants, somebodies and nobodies, l
spiritual mediums and magnetizers,
etc., etc. They all knew Africa, were ,
perfectly acclimatized, were quite sure
they would please me, would do im- ~.
portant services, save me from any ''i
number of troubles by their ingenuity t
and resources, take me up in balloons i'.
or by flying carriages, make us all in-
visible by their magic arts, or by the -
'science of magnetism' would cause
all savages to fall asleep while we might l
pass anywhere without trouble. In-
deed, I feel sure that, had enough
money been at imy disposal at that CANDIDATES FOR SERVICE WITH STANLEY.
time, I might have led 5000 Englishmen, 5000 Americans, 2000 Frenchmen, 2000
Germans, 500 Italians, 250 Swiss, 200 Belgians,. 50 Spaniards, and 5 Greeks, or
15,005 Europeans, to Africa. But the time had not arrived to depopulate Eu-
rope, and colonize Africa on such a scale, and I was compelled to respectfully
decline accepting the valuable services of the applicants, and to content myself
22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
with Francis John and Edward Pocock, and Frederick Barker-whose entreaties
had been seconded by his mother.
"I was agreeably surprised also, before departure, at the 'great number of
friends I possessed in England, who testified their friendship substantially by pre-
senting me with useful 'tokens of their regard' in the shape of canteens, watches,
water-bottles, pipes, pistols, knives, pocket-companions, manifold writers, cigars,
packages of medicine, Bibles, prayer-books, English tracts for the dissemination
of religious knowledge among the black pagans, poems, tiny silk banners, gold
rings, etc., etc. A lady for whom I have a reverent respect presented me also with
a magnificent prize mastiff named Castor, an English officer presented me with an-
other, and at the Dogs' Home at Battersea I purchased a retriever, a bull-dog, and
a bull-terrier, called respectively by the Pococks, Nero, Bull, and Jack.
"On the 15th of August, 1874, having shipped the Europeans, boats, dogs, and
general property of the expedition, I left England for the cast coast of Africa to
begin my explorations."
Here Frank paused and informed his listeners that he would not read
in full the chapter which followed, as they could not readily comprehend
it without the aid of a map. It contains," he said, "a summary of the
history of the expeditions that have sought to find the sources of the
Nile from the days of Herodotus to the present time, the accounts of
the discoveries of the Central African lakes and of the Nile flowing from
the northern end of Lake Victoria, together with a statement of the
knowledge which Dr. Livingstone possessed concerning the Congo River
and its course. At the end of the chapter Mr. Stanley repeats his pro-
posal to solve the problems concerning the extent of Lakes Tanganika
and Victoria, to find the outlet of the former, and determine whether
the great river which Livingston saw was the Nile, the Niger, or the
Congo. And now we will see," continued the youth, "how Mr. Stan-
ley entered the African continent on his great exploration."
With these words he referred again to the book, and read as follows:
Twenty-eight months had elapsed between my departure from Zanzibar after
the discovery of Livingstone and my rearrival on that island, September 21, 1874.
The well-remembered undulating ridges, and the gentle slopes clad with palms
and mango-trees bathed in warm vapor, seemed in that tranquil, drowsy state
which at all times any portion of tropical Africa presents at first appearance. A
pale-blue sky covered the hazy land and sleeping sea as we steamed through the
strait that separates Zanzibar from the continent. Every stranger, at first view of
the shores, proclaims his pleasure. The gorgeous verdure, the distant purple
ridges, the calm sea, the light gauzy atmosphere, the semi-mysterious silence which
pervades all nature, evoke his admiration. For it is probable that he has sailed
through the stifling Arabian Sea, with the grim, frowning mountains of Nubia on
the one hand, and on the other the drear, ochreous-colored ridges of the Arab
ARRIVAL AT ZANZIBAR. 23
_-ss-- .- .... :-. -_-
_-g --M ---_-
VIEW OF A PORTION OF THE SEA-FRONT OF ZANZIBAR, FROM THE WATER BATTERY TO SHANGANI POINT.
peninsula; and perhaps the aspect of the thirsty volcanic rocks of Aden and the
dry, brown bluffs of Guardafui is still fresh in his memory.
The stranger, of course, is intensely interested in the life existing near the
African equator, now first revealed to him, and all that he sees and hears of fig-
ures and faces and sounds is being freshly impressed on his memory. Figures
and faces are picturesque enough. Happy, pleased-looking men of black, yellow,
or tawny color, with long, white cotton shirts, move about with quick, active mo-
tion, and cry out, regardless of order, to their friends or mates in the Swahili or
Arabic language, and their friends or mates respond with equally loud voice and
lively gesture, until, with fresh arrivals, there appears to be a Babel created,
ZANZIBAR, FROM THE SEA.
24 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
wherein English, French, Swahili, and Arabic accents mix with Hindi, and, per-
In the midst of such a scene I stepped into a boat to be rowed to the house
of my old friend, Mr. Augustus Sparhawk, of the Bertram Agency. I was wel-
comed with all the friendliness and hospitality of my fist visit, when, three
years and a half previously, I arrived at Zanzibar to set out for the discovery
With Mr. Sparhawk's aid I soon succeeded in housing comfortably my three
young Englishmen, Francis John and Edward Pocock and Frederick Barker, and
my five dogs, and in stowing safely on shore the yawl Wave, the gig, and the tons
of goods, provisions, and stores I had brought.
Life at Zanzibar is a busy one to the intending explorer. Time flies rapidly,
and each moment of daylight must be employed in the selection and purchase
of the various kinds of cloth, beads, and wire in demand by the different tribes
of the mainland through whose countries he purposes journeying. Strong, half-
naked porters come in with great bales of unbleached cottons, striped and colored
fabrics, handkerchiefs and red caps, bags of blue, green, red, white, and amber-
colored beads, small and large, round and oval, and coils upon coils of thick brass
wire. These have to be inspected, assorted, arranged, and numbered separately,
have to .be packed in portable bales, sacks, or packages, or boxed, according to
their character and value. The house-floors are littered with cast-off wrappings
and covers, box-lids, and a medley of rejected paper, cloth, zinc covers, and broken
boards, sawdust, and other debris. Porters and servants and masters, employees
and employers, pass backward and forward, to and fro, amid all this litter, roll
bales over, or tumble about boxes; and a rending of cloth or paper, clattering of
hammers, demands for the marking-pots, or the number of bale and box, with
quick, hurried breathing and shouting, are heard from early morning until night.
RED CLIFFS BEHIND UNIVERSITIES MISSION, ZANZIBAR.
VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF MR. AUGUSTUS SPARHAWK' HOUSE.
Frank Pocock. Frederick Barker. A Zanzibar boy. Edward Pocock. Kalul.
Bull-terrier "Jack." "Bull." Retriever Nero." Mastiff" Captain." Prize Mastiff "Castor."
From a Photograph by Mr. Stanley.)
...I Fn TI. .._.B OP M .- -UUSO .-.A'I') HOR
Bmll"] Pocncl" Bll'l~l "'' ~ uzlnby Ewl~ o~lk noo
~l-tere ' -'t --'l'-;~eyl LPer. atif"Cptil" P~ielslR LCRt).(
---o a-- Pl-----:--4~ ignr tn Lc
26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
"During the day the beach throughout its length is alive with the moving
figures of porters, bearing clove and cinnamon bags, ivory, copal and other.gums,
and hides, to be shipped in the lighters waiting along the water's edge, with sailors
from the shipping, and black boatmen discharging the various imports on the sand.
In the evening the beach is crowded with the naked forms of workmen and boys
from the go-downs,' preparing to bathe and wash the dust of copal and hides off
their bodies in the surf. Some of the Arab merchants have ordered chairs on the
piers, or bunders, to chat sociably until the sun sets, and prayer-time has come.
Boats hurry by with their masters and sailors returning to their respective vessels.
Dhows move sluggishly past, hoisting as they go the creaking yards of their la-
THE BRITISH CONSULATE AT ZANZIBAR.
teen sails, bound for the mainland ports. Zanzibar canoes and 'matepes' are ar-
riving with wood and produce, and others of the same native form and make are
squaring their mat sails, outward bound. Sunset approaches, and after sunset
silence follows soon. For as there are no wheeled carriages with the eternal rum-
ble of their traffic in Zanzibar, with the early evening comes early peace and rest.
Barghash bin Sayid, the Sultan of Zanzibar, heartily approved the objects of
the expedition and gave it practical aid. It is impossible not to feel a kindly
interest in Prince Barghash, and to wish him complete success in the reforms he
is now striving to bring about in his country. Here we see an Arab prince, edu-
cated in the strictest school of Islam, and accustomed to regard the black natives
of Africa as the lawful prey of conquest or lust, and fair objects of barter, sud-
THE TRADE OF ZANZIBAR. 27
denly turning round at the request of
European philanthropists and becom- .
ing one of the most active opponents
of the slave-trade-and the spectacle
must necessarily create for him many
well-wishers and friends.
"The prince must be considered
as an independent sovereign. His
territories include, besides the Zanzi-
bar, Pemba, and Mafia islands, nearly
1000 miles of coast, and extend prob-
ably over an area of 20,000 square
miles, with a population of half a mill-
ion. The products of Zanzibar have
enriched many Europeans who traded
in them. Cloves, cinnamon, tortoise-
shell, pepper, copal gum, ivory, orch- -
illa weed, india-rubber, and hides have
been exported for years; but this cat- .
alogue does not indicate a tithe of
what might be produced by the judi- I
cious investment of capital. Those
intending to engage in commercial .
enterprises would do well to study
works on Mauritius, Natal, and the
Portuguese territories, if they wish to
understand what these fine, fertile
lands are capable of. The cocoa-nut
palm flourishes at Zanzibar and on the SEYYID BARGHASH.
mainland, the oil palm thrives luxuri-
antly in Pemba, and sugar-cane will grow everywhere. Caoutchouc remains un-
developed in the maritime belts of woodland, and the acacia forests, with their
wealth of gums, are nearly untouched. Rice is sown on the Rufiji banks, and
yields abundantly; cotton would thrive in any of the rich river bottoms; and
then there are, besides, the grains, millet, Indian corn, and many others, the culti-
vation of which, though only in a languid way, the natives understand. The cat-
tle, coffee, and goats of the interior await also the energetic man of capital and
the commercial genius.
"Those whom we call the Arabs of Zanzibar are either natives of Muscat who
have immigrated thither to seek their fortunes, or descendants of the conquerors
of the Portuguese; many of them are descended from the Arab conquerors who
accompanied Seyyid Sultan, the grandfather of the present Seyyid Barghash.
While many of these descendants of the old settlers still cling to their home-
steads, farms, and plantations, and acquire sufficient competence by the cultiva-
tion of cloves, cinnamon, oranges, cocoa-nut palms, sugar-cane, and other produce,
a great number have emigrated into the interior to form new colonies. Hamed
Ibrahim has been eighteen years in Karagw6, Muini Kheri has. been thirty years
28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
in Ujiji, Sultan bin Ali has been twenty-
five years in Unyanyemb6, Muini Du-
Z gumbi has been eight years in Nyangw6,
Juma Merikani has been seven years in
S- Rua, and a number of other prominent
S' Arabs may be cited to prove that, though
.. they themselves firmly believe that they
// will return to the coast some day, there
'. \' are too many reasons for believing that
they never will.
S"The Arabs of Zanzibar, whether
from more frequent intercourse with Eu-
ropeans or from other causes, are un-
Sdoubtedly the best of their race. More
?H _easily amenable to reason than those of
Egypt, or the shy, reserved, and bigoted
Fanatics of Arabia, they offer no obsta-
Vi cles to the European traveller, but .are
sociablebl, frank, good-natured, and hospi-
table. In business they are keen traders,
and of course will exact the highest per-
". 1 L centage of profit out of the unsuspecting
: i European if they are permitted. They
-. are stanch friends and desperate haters.
'' a Blood is seldom satisfied without blood,
i" 'i1. .'l'i' unless extraordinary sacrifices are made.
S; The conduct of an Arab gentleman is
-- perfect. Impertinence is hushed instant-
ly by the elders, and rudeness is never
A ZANZIBAR NURSE-MAlI. "After the Arabs let us regard the
Wangwana, or negro natives of Zanzibar,
just as in Europe, after studying the condition and character of the middle-classes,
we might turn to reflect upon that of the laboring population.
After nearly seven years' acquaintance with the Wangwana, I have come to
perceive that they represent in their character much of the disposition of a large
portion of the negro tribes of the continent. I find them capable of great love
and affection, and possessed of gratitude and other noble traits of human nature:
I know, too, that they can be made good, obedient servants, that many are clever,
honest, industrious, docile, enterprising, brave, and moral; that they are, in short,
equal to any other race or color on the face of the globe, in all the attributes of
manhood. But to be able to perceive their worth, the traveller must bring an
unprejudiced judgment, a clear, fresh, and patient observation, and must forget
that lofty standard of excellence upon which he and his race pride themselves, be-
fore he can fairly appreciate the capabilities of the Zanzibar negro. The traveller
should not forget the origin of his own race, the condition of the Briton before St.
Augustine visited his country, but should rather recall to mind the first state of the
THE WANGWANA. 29
' wild Caledonian,' and the original circumstances and surroundings of primitive
Being, I hope, free from prejudices of caste, color, race, or nationality, and
endeavoring to pass what I believe to be a just judgment upon the negroes of Zan-
zibar, I find that they are a people just emerged into the Iron Epoch, and now
thrust forcibly under the notice of nations who have left them behind by the im-
provements of over four thousand years. They possess beyond doubt all the vices
of a people still fixed deeply in barbarism, but they understand to the full what and
how low such a state is; it is, therefore, a duty imposed upon us by the religion
we profess, and by the sacred command of the Son of God, to help them out of
the deplorable state they are now in. At any rate, before we begin to hope for
the improvement of races so long benighted, let us leave off this impotent bewail-
ing of their vices, and endeavor to discover some of the virtues they possess as
men, for it must be with the aid of their virtues, and not by their vices, that the
missionary of civilization can ever hope to assist them.
-i ...... -ll. .
great part, the accomplishment of their objects, and while in the employ of those
explorers, this race rendered great services to geography. From a considerable
distance north of the equator down to the Zambezi and across Africa to Benguella
and the mouth of the Congo, or Livingstone, they have made their names familiar
to tribes who, but for the Wangwana, would have remained ignorant to this day
of all things outside their own settlements. They possess, with many weak-
nesses, many fine qualities. While very superstitious, easily inclined to despair,
and readily giving ear to vague, unreasonable fears, they may also, by judicious
management, be induced to laugh at their own credulity and roused to a cour-
ageous attitude, to endure like stoics, and fight like heroes. It will depend alto-
30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
NATIVE WATER-CARRIER, ZANZIBAR.
gether upon the leader of a body of such men whether their worst or best qualities
There is another class coming into notice from the interior of Africa, who,
though of a sterner nature, will, I am convinced, as they are better known, become
greater favorites than the Wangwana. I refer to the Wanyamwezi, or the natives
of Unyamwezi, and the Wasukuma, or the people of Usukuma. Naturally, being
a grade less advanced towards civilization than the Wangwana, they are not so
amenable to discipline as the latter. While explorers would in the present state
of acquaintance prefer the Wangwana as escort, the Wanyamwezi are far superior
as porters. Their greater freedom from diseases, their greater strength and endur-
ance, the pride they take in their profession of porters, prove them born travellers
of incalculable use and benefit to Africa. If kindly treated, I do not know more
docile and good-natured creatures. Their skill in war, tenacity of purpose, and
determination to defend the rights of their elected chief against foreigners, have
furnished themes for song to the bards of Central Africa. The English discoverer
THE WANYAMWEZI. 31
of Lake Tanganika and, finally, I myself have been equally indebted to them, both
on my first and last expeditions.
From their numbers, and their many excellent qualities, I am led to think
that the day will come when they will be regarded as something better than the
' best of pagazis;' that they will be esteemed as the good subjects of some enlight-
ened power, who will train them up as the nucleus of a great African nation, as
powerful for the good of the Dark Continent, as they threaten, under the present
condition of things, to be for its evil."
Here Frank paused and announced an intermission of ten minutes, to
enable the reader to rest a little. During the intermission the youths
discussed what they had heard, and agreed unanimously that the descrip-
tion of Zanzibar and its people and their ruler was very interesting.
HINDOO MERCHANT OF ZANZIBAR.
32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
TRANSPORTATION IN AFRICA.-MEN AS BEASTS OF BURDEN. PORTERS, AND
THEIR PECULIARITIES.-ENGAGING MEN FOR THE EXPEDITION.-A SIA URI.-
TROUBLES WITH THE LADY ALICE--AGREEMENT BETWEEN STANLEY AND
HIS MEN.- DEPARTURE FROM ZANZIBAR. BAGAMOYO.- THE UNIVERSITIES
MISSION.-DEPARTURE OF THE EXPEDITION.-DIFFICULTIES WITH THE POR-
TERS.-SUFFERINGS ON THE MARCH.-NATIVE SUSPENSION-BRIDGES.-SHOOT-
ING A ZEBRA.-LOSSES BY DESERTION.
B EFORE the reading was resumed, one of the, youths asked if Zan-
zibar was the usual starting-point for expeditions for the explora-
tion of Africa. Mr. Stanley was absent at the moment the question was
asked, but the answer was readily given by Doctor Bronson.
Zanzibar is the usual starting-point,' said the Doctor, but it is by no
means the only one. Livingstone's expedition for exploring the Zambesi
River set out from Zanzibar, and so did other expeditions of the great
missionary. Burton and Speke started from there in 1856, when they
discovered Lake Tanganika; and, four years later, Speke and Grant set
out from the same place. Lieutenant Cameron, in his journey across
Africa, made Zanzibar his starting point; and the expedition of Mr.
Johnson to the Kilimandjaro Mountain was chiefly outfitted there,
though it left the coast at Mombasa.
"Zanzibar," continued Doctor Bronson, "is the best point of depart-
ure for an inland expedition anywhere along the east coast of Africa,
for the reason that it is the largest and most important place of trade.
Its shops are well supplied with the goods that an explorer needs for his
journey, and its merchants have a better reputation than those of other
African ports. Everything in the interior of Africa must be carried on
the backs of men, there being, as yet, no other system of transportation.
Horses cannot live in certain parts of the interior of Africa, owing to the
tsetse-fly, which kills them with its bites; and even were it not for this
fly, it is likely that the heat of the climate would render them of little
use. Occasionally, a traveller endeavors to use donkeys as beasts of
burden, but these animals are scarce and dear, and of much less use than
in other lands. Until Africa is provided with railways-and that will
TRANSPORTATION IN AFRICA. 33
NEGRO NURSErAID, ZANZIBAR.
not be for a long while yet-the transportation, must. be done by men.
Every caravan that leaves the coast for the interior of the continent re-
quires a large number of porters; and the difficulty of obtaining them
is one of the greatest annoyances to merchants and travellers."
One of the youths said he supposed it was because the demand was
so great that there was not a sufficient number of men.
Not at all," replied the Doctor. There are plenty of men in Africa,
but they are not particularly anxious to work. Their wants are few,
and they can live upon very little; consequently they are not over-
desirous to go on a journey of several hundred miles and carry heavy
burdens on their shoulders or heads. Added to their laziness is a lack'
of a feeling of responsibility or of honor. After engaging to go on a
journey they fail.to, appear -at, the appointed time, and whenever they
34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
are weary of their work they coolly drop their burdens at the side of
the road and make off into the bushes. In the first few days of a jour-
ney a traveller is always deserted by many of his porters, and it is only
when he gets far from the coast and has possibly entered an enemy's
country that he can keep his men together. All travellers have the
same story to tell, and they all agree that the Zanzibari porters are the
most faithful of all in keeping their engagements, or, to say it better, the
least unfaithful. For this reason, also, Zanzibar is a favorite starting-
point for explorers. Frank will
now read to us about the difficul-
ties which Mr. Stanley encountered
in outfitting his expedition."
Acting upon this hint, Frank
Opened the book and read as fol-
J lows :
'noi It is a most sobering employment,
S the organizing of an African expedi-
tion. You are constantly engaged,mind
and body; now in casting up accounts,
and now travelling to and fro hurriedly
Sto receive messengers, inspecting pur-
I chases, bargaining with keen-eyed, re-
i lentless Hindi merchants, writing memo-
randa, haggling over extortionate prices,
r-a_ packing up a multitude of small utili-
b -"g _n ties, pondering upon your lists of arti-
-----_ ap .. t cles, wanted, purchased, and unpur-
chased, groping about in the recesses
of a highly exercised imagination for
A ZANZIBAR nBRIDE. what you ought to purchase, and can.
not do without, superintending, arrange
ing, assorting, and packing. And this under a temperature of 950 Fahr.
"In the midst of all this terrific, high-pressure exercise arrives the first batch of
applicants for employment. For it has long ago been bruited abroad that I am
ready to enlist all able-bodied human beings willing to carry a load. Ever since
I arrived at Zanzibar I have had a very good reputation among Arabs and Wang-
wana. They have not forgotten that it was I who found the old white man'-
Livingstone-in Ujiji, nor that liberality and kindness to my men were my spe-
cial characteristics. They have also, with the true Oriental spirit of exaggeration,
proclaimed that I was but a few months absent; and that, after this brief excur-
sion, they returned to their homes to enjoy the liberal pay awarded them, feeling
rather the better for the trip than otherwise. This unsought-for reputation
brought on me the laborious task of selecting proper men out of an extraordinary
number of applicants. Almost all the cripples, the palsied, the consumptive, and
ENGAGING MEN FOR THE EXPEDITION. 35
-- 1 -:
WINDOW 0F AN ARAB HOUSE, ZANZIBAR.
the superannuated that Zanzibar could furnish applied to be enrolled on the mus-
ter-list, but these, subjected to a searching examination, were refused. Hard upon
their heels came all the roughs, rowdies, and ruffians of the island, and these,
schooled by their fellows, were not so easily detected. Slaves were also refused,
as being too much under the influence and instruction of their masters, and yet
many were engaged of whose character I had not the least conception, until,
ii6onths afterwards, I learned from their quarrels in the camp how I had been mis-
led by the clever rogues.
All those who bore good characters on the Search Expedition, and had been
despatched to the assistance of Livingstone in 1872, were employed without delay.
Out of these the chiefs were selected: these were, Manwa Sera, Chowpereh, Wadi
Rehani, Kachdch6, Zaidi, Chakanja, Farjalla, Wadi Safeni, Bukhet, Mabruki Man-
yapara, Mabruki Unyanyembe, Muini Pemibe, Ferahan, Bwana Muri, Khamseeri,
Mabruki Speke, Simba, Gardner, Hamoidah, Zaidi Mganda, and Ulimengo.
All great enterprises require a preliminary deliberative palaver, or, as the
Wangwana call it, Shauri.' In East Africa, particularly, shauris are much in
vogue. Precipitate, energetic action is dreaded. Poli, poli!' or Gently 1' is the
warning word of caution given.
SThe chiefs arranged themselves in a semicircle on the day of the shauri, and
36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
I sat A la Turque fronting them. What is it, my friends? Speak your minds.'
They hummed and hawed, looked at one another, as if on their neighbor's faces
they might discover the purport of their coming, but, all hesitating to begin, final-
ly broke down in a loud laugh.
Manwa Sera, always grave, unless hit dexterously with a joke, hereupon af-
fected anger, and said, 'You speak, son of Safeni; verily we act like children !
Will the master eat us '
'ii1110', :1, 7 '
osity. We have come, master, with words. Listen. It is well we should know
Imitating the son of Safen teni'hus ncouracious blandness, and his low tone of voicesman's duty, hesi-
,osity. We have come, master with wods Listen It is well we should know
Imitating the son of Safeni's gracious blandness, and his low tone of voice, as
listening group were too important to speak it loud, I described in brief outline
the prospective journey, in broken Kiswabili. As country after country was men-
tioned of which they had hitherto had but vague ideas, and river after river, lake
after lake named, all of which.I hoped with their trusty aid to explore carefully,
from their lips, but when I concluded, each of the group drew a long breath, and
from their lips, but when I concluded, each of the group drew a long breath, and
AN AFRICAN "SHAURL" 37
-. : "7,
A MERCHANT OF ZANZIBAR.
almost simultaneously they uttered admiringly, 'Ah, fellows, this is a journey
"'But, master,' said they, after recovering themselves, 'this long journey will
take years to travel-six, nine, or ten years.' Nonsense,' I replied. Six, nine,
or ten years! What can you be thinking of? It takes the Arabs nearly three
years to reach Ujiji, it is true, but, if you remember, I was but sixteen months
from Zanzibar to Ujiji and back. Is it not so ?' 'Ay, true,' they answered.
'Very well, and I assure you I have not come to live in Africa. I have come
simply to see those rivers and lakes, and after I have seen them to return home.
You remember while going to Ujiji I permitted the guide to show the way, but
when we were returning who was it that led the way ? Was it not I, by means of
that little compass which could not lie like the guide ?' 'Ay, true, master, true
every word Very well, then, let us finish the shauri, and go. To-morrow we
will make a proper agreement before the consul;' and, in Scriptural phrase, they
forthwith arose and did as they were commanded.'
"Upon receiving information from the coast that there was a very large numn
her of men waiting for me, I became still more fastidious in my choice. But with
all my care and gift of selection, I was mortified to discover that many faces and
characters had baffled the rigorous scrutiny to which I had subjected them, and
38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
that some scores of the most abandoned and depraved characters on the island
had been enlisted by me on the expedition. One man, named Msenna, imposed
upon me by assuming such a contrite, penitent look, and weeping such copious
tears, when I informed him that he had too bad a character to be employed, that
my good-nature was prevailed upon to accept his services, upon the understanding
that, if lie indulged his murderous propensities in Africa, I should return him
chained the entire distance to Zanzibar, to be dealt with by his prince. He deliv-
ered his appeal with impassioned accents and lively gestures, which produced a
great effect upon the mixed audience who listened to him, and, gathering from
their faces more than from my own convictions that he had been much abused
and very much misunderstood, his services were accepted, and as he appeared to
be an influential man, he was appointed a junior captain with prospects of promo-
tion and higher pay.
Subsequently, however, on the shores of Lake Victoria it was discovered-for
in Africa people are uncommonly communicative-that Msenna had murdered
eight people, that he was a ruffian of the worst sort, and that the merchants of
Zanzibar had experienced great relief when they heard that the notorious Msenna
was about to bid farewell for a season to the scene of so many of his wild exploits,
Msenna was only one of many of his kind, but I have given in detail the manner
of his enlistment that my position may be better understood.
"The weight of a porter's.load should not exceed sixty pounds. On the ar-
rival of the sectional exploring boat Lady Alice, great were my vexation and aston-
ishment when I discovered that four of the sections weighed two hundred and
eighty pounds each, and that one weighed three hundred and ten pounds! She
was, it is true, a marvel of workmanship, and an exquisite model of a boat, such,
indeed, as few builders in England or America could rival, but in her present con-
dition her carriage through the jungles would necessitate a pioneer force a hun-
dred strong to clear the impediments and obstacles on the road.
I found an English carpenter named Ferris, to whom I showed the boat and
explained that the narrowness of the path would make her portage absolutely im-
possible, for since the path was often only eighteen inches wide in Africa, and
hemmed in on each side with dense jungle, any package six feet broad could by
no means be conveyed along it. It was therefore necessary that each of the four
sections should be subdivided, by which means I should obtain eight portable
sections, each three feet wide. Mr. Ferris; perfectly comprehending his instruc-
tions, and with the aid given by the young Pococks, furnished me within two
weeks with the newly modelled Lady Alice. Meantime I was busy purchasing
cloth, beads, wire, and other African goods, the most of them coming from the
establishment of Tarya Topan, one of the millionaire merchants of Zanzibar.
I made Tarya's acquaintance in 1871, and the righteous manner in which he then
dealt by me caused me now to proceed to him again for the same purpose as for-
"The total weight of goods, cloth, beads, wire, stores, medicine, 1.:.l.1i.'.
clothes, tents, ammunition, boat, oars, rudders and thwarts, instruments and sta-
tionery, photographic apparatus, dry plates, and miscellaneous articles too numer-
ous to mention, weighed a little over eighteen thousand pounds, or rather more
than eight tons, divided as nearly as possible into loads weighing sixty pounds
CONDITIONS OF THE CONTRACT. 39
each, and requiring therefore the car-
rying capacity of three hundred men.
The loads were made more than usu-
ally light, in order that we might trav-
el with celerity, and not fatigue the
"But still further to provide against
sickness and weakness, a supernumer-
ary force of forty men were recruited
at Bagamoyo, Konduchi, and the Ru-
fiji delta, who were required to as-
semble in the neighborhood of the
first-mentioned place. Two hundred
and thirty men, consisting of Wang-
wana, Wanyamwezi, and coast people
from Mombasa, Tanga, and Saadani,
affixed their marks opposite their
names before the American consul, -- -
for wages varying from two to ten -
dollars per month and rations, accord- .- -
ing to their capacity, strength, and in-
telligence, with the understanding that TARYA TOPAN.
they were to serve for two years, or
until such time as their services should be no longer required in Africa, and were
to perform their duties cheerfully and promptly.
"On the day of signing' the contract each adult received an advance of
twenty dollars, or four months' pay, and each youth ten dollars, or four months'
pay. Ration money was also paid them from the time of first enlistment, at the
rate of one dollar per week, up to the day we left the coast. The entire amount
disbursed in cash for advances of pay and rations at Zanzibar and Bagamoyo was
$6260, or nearly thirteen hundred pounds.
"The obligations, however, were not all on one side. Besides the due pay-
ment to them of their wages, I was compelled to bind myself to them, on the word
of an 'honorable white man,' to observe the following conditions as to conduct
1st. That I should treat them kindly, and be patient with them.
2d. That in cases of sickness, I should dose them with proper medicine, and
see them nourished with the best the country afforded. That if patients were un-
able to proceed, they should be conveyed to such places as should be considered
safe for their persons and their freedom, and convenient for their return, on con-
valescence, to their friends. That, with all patients thus left behind, I should leave
sufficient cloth or beads to pay the native practitioner for his professional attend-
ance, and for the support of the patient.
3d. That in cases of disagreement between man and man, I should judge
justly, honestly, and impartially. That I should do my utmost to prevent the ill-
treatment of the weak by the strong, and never permit the oppression of those
unable to resist.
40 THE BOY .TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
"That I should act like a father and mother' to them, and to the best of my
ability resist all violence offered to them by savage natives, and roving and law-
"They also promised, upon the above conditions being fulfilled, that they
would do their duty like men, would honor and respect my instructions, giving me
their united support, and endeavoring to the best of their ability to be faithful
servants, and would never desert me in the hour of need. In short, that they
would behave like good and loyal children, and 'may the blessing of God,' said
they be upon us.'
How we kept this bond of mutual trust and forbearance will be best seen in
the following chapters, which record the strange and eventful story of our journeys.
The fleet of six Arab vessels which were to bear us away to the west across
the Zanzibar Sea were at last brought to anchor a few yards from the wharf of the
American Consulate. The Wangwana, true to their promise that they would be
ready, appeared with their bundles and mats, and proceeded to take their places
in the vessels waiting for them. As fast as each dhow was reported to be filled,
the nakhuda, or captain, was directed to anchor farther off shore to await the sig-
nal to sail. By 5 p. M., of the 12th of November, 224 men had responded to their
names, and five of the Arab vessels, laden with the personnel, cattle, and mditriel
of the expedition, were impatiently waiting, with anchor heaved short, the word of
command. One vessel still lay close ashore, to convey myself, and Frederick Bar-
ker-in charge of the personal servants-our baggage, and dogs. Turning round
to my constant and well-tried friend, Mr. Augustus Sparhawk, I fervently clasped
his hand, and with a full heart, though halting tongue, attempted to pour out my
feelings of gratitude for his kindness and long-sustained hospitality, my keen re-
gret at parting, and hopes of meeting again. But I was too agitated to be eloquent,
and all my forced gayety could not carry me through the ordeal. So we parted in
almost total silence, but I felt assured that he would judge my emotions by his
UNIVERSITIES MISSION AT MBWENNI, ZANZIBAR.
p "- ,--,_ll_-. -_1-,.ll i 'ill' -I'
_________________ ';' ''~ '''' k'II _______ 'lj ,.,,I, 'I''Ii __________
,I ,, II,
"- I-: "
m I" 'Ii.. ...
I/Il /) _
AET H S O ---F _'-_-R-.OF H SL NOM BA
N 11 11 IF11
..- ._ --- --w- --- ---+ -- _ _-- _
HAREM IN THE HOUSE OF THE, SECRETARYIL OF THE SULTAN OF ZAN'ZIBAR.
42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
A wave of my hand, and the anchors were hove up and laid within ship, and
then, hoisting our lateen sails, we bore away westward to launch ourselves into the
arms of Fortune. Many wavings of kerchiefs and hats, parting signals from white
hands, and last long looks at friendly white faces, final confused impressions of
the grouped figures of our well-wishers, and then the evening breeze had swept us
away into mid-sea, beyond reach of recognition.
The parting is over! We have said our last words for years, perhaps for-
ever, to kindly men! The sun sinks fast to the western horizon, and gloomy is
the twilight that now deepens and darkens. Thick shadows fall upon the distant
land and over the silent sea, and oppress our throbbing, regretful hearts, as we
glide away through the dying light towards the Dark Continent.
"TOWARDS THE DARK CONTINENT.
"Upon landing at Bagamoyo, on the morning of the 13th of November, we
marched to occupy the old house where we had stayed so long to prepare the first
expedition. The goods were stored, the dogs chained up, the riding asses teth-
ered, the rifles arrayed in the store-room, and the sectional boat laid under a roof
close by, on rollers, to prevent injury from the white ants-a precaution which, I
need hardly say,.we had to observe throughout our journey. Then some more
ration money, sufficient for ten days, had to be distributed among the men, the
young Pococks were told off to various camp duties, to initiate them to exploring
life in Africa, and then, after the first confusion of arrival had subsided, I began
to muster the new engages.
There is an institution at Bagamoyo which ought not to be passed over with-
out remark, but the subject cannot be properly dealt with until I have described
the similar institution, of equal importance, at Zanzibar: viz., the Universities
Mission. Besides, I have three pupils of the Universities Mission who are about
THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 43
to accompany me into Africa-Robert Feruzi, Andrew, and Dallington. Robert
is a stout lad of eighteen years old, formerly a servant to one of the members of
Lieutenant Cameron's expedition. Andrew is a strong youth of nineteen years,
rather reserved, and, I should say, not of a very bright disposition. Dallington is
much younger, probably only fifteen, with a face strongly pitted with traces of a
violent attack of small-pox, but as bright and intelligent as any boy of his age,
white or black.
The Universities Mission is the result of the sensation caused in England by
Livingstone's discoveries on the Zambezi and of Lakes Nyassa and Shirwa. It was
despatched by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the year 1860, and
consisted of Bishop Mackenzie, formerly Archdeacon of Natal, and the Rev. Messrs.
Proctor, Scudamore, Burrup, and Rowley. It was established at first in the Zam-
besi country, but was moved, a few years later, to Zanzibar. Several of the reverend
gentlemen connected with it have died at their post of duty, Bishop Mackenzie
being the first to fall, but the work goes on. The mission at Bagamoyo is in
charge of four French priests, eight brothers, and twelve sisters, with ten lay
brothers employed in teaching agriculture. The French fathers superintend the
tuition of two hundred and fifty children, and give employment to about eighty
adults. One hundred and seventy freed slaves were furnished from the slave cap-
tures made by British cruisers. They are taught to earn their own living as soon
as they arrive of age, and are furnished with comfortable lodgings, clothing, and
"' Notre Dame de Bagamoyo' is situated about a mile and a half north of Bag-
amoyo, overlooking the sea, which washes the shores just at the base of the toler-
ably high ground on which the mission buildings stand. Thrift, order, and that
peculiar style of neatness common to the French are its characteristics. The
cocoa-nut palm, orange, and mango flourish in this pious settlement, while a vari-
is-ENE IN BAGAMOTO.
SCENE IN BAGAMOTO.
44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
ety of garden vegetables and grain are cultivated in the fields; and broad roads,
cleanly kept, traverse the estate. During the superior's late visit to France he
obtained a considerable sum for the support of the mission, and he has lately
established a branch mission at Kidudwe. It is evident that, if supported con-
stantly by his friends in France, the superior will extend his work still farther
into the interior, and it is therefore safe to predict that the road to Ujiji will in
time possess a chain of mission stations affording the future European trader and
traveller safe retreats with the conveniences of civilized life.*
There are two other missions on the east coast of Africa: that of the Church
Missionary Society, and the Methodist Free Church at Mombasa. The former has
occupied this station for over thirty years, and has a branch establishment at
Rabbai Mpia, the home of the Dutch missionaries, Krapf, Rebmann, and Erhardt.
But these missions have not obtained the success which such long self-abnegation
and devotion to the pious service deserved.
On the morning of the 17th of November, 1874, the first bold step for the in-
terior was taken. The bugle mustered the people to rank themselves before our
quarters, and each man's load was given to him according as we judged his power
of bearing burden. To the man of strong, sturdy make, with a large development
of muscle, the cloth bale of sixty pounds was given, which would in a couple of
months, by constant expenditure, be reduced to fifty pounds, in six months per-
haps to forty pounds, and in a year to about thirty pounds, provided that all his
comrades were faithful to their duties; to the short, compactly-formed man, the
bead-sack, of fifty pounds' weight; to the light youth of eighteen or twenty years
old, the box of forty pounds, containing stores, ammunition, and sundries. To
the steady, respectable, grave-looking men of advanced years, the scientific in-
struments, thermometers, barometers, watches, sextant,.mercury-bottles, compasses,
pedometers, photographic apparatus, dry plates, stationery, and scientific books,
all packed in forty-pound cases, were distributed; while the man most highly
recommended for steadiness and cautious tread was intrusted with the carriage of
the three chronometers, which were stowed in balls of cotton, in a light case weigh-
ing not more than twenty-five pounds. The' twelve Kirangozis, or guides, tricked
out this day in flowing robes of crimson blanket-cloth, demanded the privilege of
conveying the several loads of brass-wire coils; and as they form the second ad-
vanced guard, and are active, bold youths-some of whom are to be hereafter
known as the boat's crew, and to be distinguished by me above all others except
the chiefs-they are armed with Snider rifles, with their respective accoutrements.
The boat-carriers are herculean in figure and strength, for they are practised bear-
ers of loads, having resigned their ignoble profession of hamal in Zanzibar to carry
sections of the first Europe-made boat that ever floated on Lakes Victoria and Tan-
ganika and the extreme sources of the Nile and the Livingstone. To each section
of the boat there are four men, to relieve one another in couples. They get higher
pay than even the chiefs, except the chief captain, Manwa Sera, and, besides re-
ceiving double rations, have the privilege of taking their wives along with them.
Mr. Stanley's words were prophetic. Since the above was written a mission has been
established at Ujiji and several other missions at points along the road between Lake Tau-
ganika and Bagamoyo.
DEPARTURE FROM THE COAST. 45
There are six riding asses also in the expe-
dition, all saddled, one for each of the Euro-
peans-the two Pococks, Barker, and my-
self-and two for the sick; for the latter
there are also three of Seydel's net ham- .
mocks, with six men to act as a kind of /
"At nine A.M. we file out of Bagamoyo
in the following order: Four chiefs a few
hundred yards in front; next the twelve
guides, clad in red robes of Jobo, bearing
the wire coils; then a long file of two
hundred and seventy strong, bearing cloth, -f
wire, beads, and sections of the Lady Alice;
after them thirty-six women and ten boys,
children of some of the chiefs and boat-bear- .
ers, following their mothers and assisting 4 t .
them with trifling loads of utensils, followed .
by the riding asses, Europeans, and gun- -'
bearers; the long line closed by sixteen
chiefs who act as rear-guard, and whose du- ,- '
ties are to pick up stragglers, and act as.
supernumeraries until other men can be pro- '-'-.
cured; in all, three hundred and fifty-six
souls connected with the Anglo-American -
expedition. The lengthy line occupies
nearly half a mile of the path which, at the WTFE OF MANWA SERA.
present day, is the commercial and explor- (From a Photograph.)
ing highway into the lake regions.
Edward Pocock acts as bugler, and he has familiarized Hamadi, the chief
guide, with its notes, so that, in case of a hilt being required, Hamadi may be
informed immediately. The chief guide is also armed with a prodigiously long
horn of ivory, his favorite instrument, and one that belongs to his profession,
which he has permission to use only when approaching a suitable camping-place,
or to notify to us danger in the front. Before iHamadi strides a chubby little
boy with a native drum, which he is to beat only when in the neighborhood of
villages, to warn them of the advance of a caravan, a caution most requisite, for
many villages are situated in the midst of a dense jungle, and the sudden arrival of
a large force of strangers before they had time to hide their little belongings
might awaken jealousy and distrust.
In this manner we begin our long journey, full of hopes. There is noise
and laughter along the ranks, and a hum of gay voices murmuring through the
fields, as we rise and descend with the waves of the land and wind with the sinu-
osities of the path. Motion had restored us all to a sense of satisfaction. We
had an intensely bright and fervid sun shining above us, the path was dry, hard,
ind admirably fit for travel, and during the commencement of our first march
nothing could be conceived in better order than the lengthy, thin column about to
confront the wilderness.
46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS O.N THE CONGO.
A LEADING CITIZEN OF BAGAMOYO.
"Presently, however, the fervor of the dazzling sun grows overpowering as
we descend into the valley of the Kingani River. The ranks become broken and
disordered; stragglers are many; the men complain of the terrible heat;. the
dogs pant in agony. Even we ourselves, under our solah topees, with flushed
faces and perspiring brows, with handkerchiefs ever in use to wipe away the drops
which almost blind us, and our heavy woollens giving us a feeling of semi-asphyx-
iation, would fain rest, were it not that the sun-bleached levels of the tawny,
thirsty valley offer no inducements. The veterans of travel push on towards the
river, three miles distant, where they may obtain rest and shelter, but the inexpe-
rienced are lying prostrate on the ground, exclaiming against the heat, and crying
for water, bewailing their folly in leaving *Zanzibar. We stop to tell them to rest
awhile, and then to come on to the river, where they will find us; we advise, en-
courage, and console the irritated people as best we can, and tell them that it is
only the commencement of a journey that is so hard; that all this pain and wea-
riness are always felt by beginners, but that by and by it is shaken off, and that
those who are steadfast emerge out of the struggle heroes.
FIRST DAY OF THE JOURNEY. 47
"Frank and his brother Edward, despatched to the ferry at the beginning of
these delays, have now got the sectional boat Lady Alice all ready, and the ferry-
ing of men, goods, asses, and dogs across the Kingani is prosecuted with vigor,
and at 3.30 P.M. the boat is again in pieces, slung on the bearing-poles, and the
expedition has resumed its journey to Kikoka, the first halting-place.
But before we reach camp we have acquired a fair idea as to how many of
our people are stanch and capable, and how many are too feeble to endure the
fatigues of bearing loads. The magnificent prize mastiff dog Castor died of heat
apoplexy within two miles of Kikoka, and the other mastiff, Captain, seems likely
to follow soon, and only Nero, Bull, and Jack, though prostrate and breathing
hard, show any signs of life.
"At Kikoka, then, we rest the next day. We discharge two men, who have
been taken seriously ill, and several new recruits, who arrive at camp during the
night preceding and this day, are engaged.
As there are so many subjects to be touched upon along the seven thousand
miles of explored lines, I propose to be brief with the incidents and descriptive
sketches of our route to Ituru, because the country for two thirds of the way has
been sufficiently described in How I Found Livingstone" and elsewhere.
At Rosako the route began to diverge from that which led to Msuwa and
Simba-Mwenni, and opened out on a stretch of beautiful park land, green as an
English lawn, dipping into lovely vales, and rising into gentle ridges. Thin, shal-
--HE EXPEDITION AT OSAKO.
= -- .. .
I - -V .
THE EXPEDITION AT ROSAKO.
48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
low threads of water, in furrow-like beds or in deep, narrow ditches, which expose
the sandstone strata on which the fat, ochreous soil rests, run in mazy curves
round forest clumps or through jungle tangles, and wind about among the higher
elevations, on their way towards the Wami River. We followed this river for
some distance, crossing it several times at fords where the water was about two
and a half feet deep. At one of the fords there was a curious suspension-bridge
over the river, constructed of llianes, with great ingenuity, by the natives. The
banks were at this point sixteen feet high above the river, and from bank to bank
the distance was only thirty yards; it was evident, therefore, that the river must
be a dangerous torrent during the rainy season.
"On the 3d of December we came to the Mkundi River, a tributary of the
Wami, which divides Nguru country from Usagara. Simba-Mwenni-the Lion
Lord-owns five villages in this neighborhood. He was generous, and gratified
us with, a gift of a sheep, some flour, and plantains, accepting with pleasure some
cloth in return.
The Wa-Nguru are fond of black and white beads and brass wire. They
split the lobes of their ears, and introduce such curious things as the necks of
gourds or round disks of wood to extend the gash. A medley of strange things
are worn round the neck, such as tiny goats' horns, small brass chains, and large,
egglike beads. Blue Kaniki and the red-barred Barsati are the favorite cloths in
this region. .The natives dye their faces with ochre, and, probably influenced by
the example of the Wanyamwezi, dress their hair in long ringlets, which are
adorned with pendicles of copper, or white or red beads of the large Sam-sam
".Grand and impressive scenery meets the eye as we march to Makubika,
where we attain an altitude of two thousand six hundred and seventy-five feet
above the ocean. Peaks and knolls rise in all directions, for we are now ascend-
ing to the eastern front of the Kaguru Mountains. The summits of Ukamba are
seen to the north, its slopes famous for the multitude of elephants. Farther in-
land we reached the spine of a hill at four thousand four hundred and ninety feet,
and beheld an extensive plain, stretching northwest and west, with browsing herds
of noble game. Camping on its verge, between a humpy hill and some rocky
knolls, near a beautiful pond of crystal-clear water, I proceeded with my gun-
bearer, Billali, and the notorious Msenna, in the hope of bringing down something
for the Wangwana.
The plain was broader than I had judged it by the eye from the crest of the
hill whence we had first sighted it. It was not until we had walked briskly over a
long stretch of tawny grass, crushed by sheer force through a brambly jungle, and
trampled down a path through clumps of slender cane-stalks, that we came at last
in view of a small herd of zebras. These animals are so quick of scent and ear,
and so vigilant with their eyes, that, across an open space, it is most difficult to
stalk them. But, by dint of tremendous exertion, I contrived to approach within
two hundred and fifty yards, taking advantage of every thin tussock of grass, and,
almost at random, fired. One of the herd leaped from the ground, galloped a few
short, maddened strides, and then, on a sudden, staggered, kneeled, trembled, and
fell over, its legs-kicking the air. Its -companions whinnied shrilly for-their mate,
and presently, wheeling in oiroles. with -graceful motion, advanced nearer, still
HUNTING A LION. 49
~ -- -- -- :-=... _
eaten. The remnant of the herd vanished.
whinny'ing, until I dropped -,other, with a erushino, ball through the head-inuch
,' '-inst iny wish, for I think zebras were created for better purpose than to be
Billali, requested to run to camp to procure Wangwana to carry the meat,
was only too happy, knowing what brave cheers and hearty congratulations would
greet him. Msenna was already busy skinning one of the animals, some three
hundred yards from me, when, turning my head, I made out the form of some
tawny animal, that was advancing with a curious long step, and I recognized it to
be a lion. I motioned to Msenna, who happened to be looking up, and beckoned
hlim. What do you think it is, Msenna ?' I asked. Simba [a lion], master,' he
The animal approached slowly, while I made ready to receive him with an
explosive bullet from the elephant rifle. When within three hundred yards he
paused, and then turned and trotted off into a bit of scrubby jungle, about eight
hundred yards away. Ten minutes elapsed, and then as many animals emerged
from the same spot into which the other had disappeared, and approached us in
stately column. But it being now dusk I could not discern them very clearly.
We both were, however, quite sure in our own minds that they were lions, or at
any rate some animals so like them in the twilight that we cbuld not imagine them
to be anything else. When the foremost had come within one hundred yards I
fired. It sprang up and fell, and the others disappeared with a dreadful rush. We
now heard shouts behind us, for the Wangwana had come; so, taking one or two
with me, I endeavored to discover what 1 felt sure to be a prostrate lion, but it
could not be found.
The next day Manwa Sera went out to hunt for the lion-skin, but returned
after a long search with only a strong doubt in his mind as to its having been a
50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
lion, and a few reddish hairs to prove that it was something which had been eaten
by hyenas. This day I succeeded in shooting a small antelope of the springbok
On the 12th of December, twenty-five days' march from Bagamoyo, we ar-
rived at Mpwapwa.
Mpwapwa has also some fine trees, but no forest; the largest being the tam-
arind, sycamore, cottonwood, and baobab. The collection of villages denominated
by this title lies widely scattered on either side of the Mpwapwa stream, at the
base of the southern slope of a range of mountains that extends in a sinuous line
from Chunyu to Ugombo. I call it a range, because it appeared to be one from
Ml'.. l... ,; but in reality it is simply the northern flank of a deep indentation in
the great mountain chain that extends from Abyssinia, or even Suez, down to the
Cape of Good Hope. At the extreme eastern point of this indentation from the
western side lies Lake Ugombo, just twenty-four miles from Mpwapwa.
OUR CAMP AT MPWAPWA.
(From a Photograph.)
"Desertions from the expedition had been frequent. At first, Kach6ch6, the
chief detective, and his gang of four men, who had received their instructions to
follow us a day's journey behind, enabled me to recapture sixteen of the deserters;
but the cunning Wangwana and Wanyamwezi soon discovered this resource of
mine against their well-known freaks, and, instead of striking east in their depart-
ure, absconded either south or north of the track. We then had detectives posted
long before dawn, several hundred yards away from the camp, who were bidden
to lie in wait in the bush until the expedition had started, and in this manner we
succeeded in repressing to some extent the disposition to desert, and arrested very
many men on the point of escaping; but even this was not adequate. Fifty had
DESERTIONS AND HOW THEY WERE CHECKED. 51
r2- .- ..
DETECTIVE AND ASSISTANTS.
abandoned us before reaching Mpwapwa, taking with them the advances they had
received, and often their guns, on which our safety might depend.
Several feeble men and women also had to be left behind, and it was evident
that the very wariest methods failed to bind the people to their duties. The best
of treatment and abundance of provisions daily distributed were alike insufficient to
induce such faithless natures to be loyal. However, we persisted, and as often as
we failed in one way we tried another. Had all these men remained loyal to their
contract and promises, we should have been too strong for any force to attack us,
as our numbers must necessarily have commanded respect in lands and among
tribes where only power is respected.
"One day's march from Mpwapwa brought us to Chunyu-an exposed and
weak settlement, overlooking the desert or wilderness separating Usagara from
Ugogo. Close to our right towered the Usagara Mountains, and on our left
stretched the inhospitable arm of the wilderness. Fifteen or twenty miles distant
to the south rose the vast cluster of Rubeho's cones and peaks.
The water at Chunyu is nitrous and bitter to the taste. The natives were
once prosperous, but repeated attacks from the Waheh6 to the south and the
Wahumba to the north have reduced them in numbers, and compelled them to
seek refuge on the hill-summits.
On the 16th of December, at early dawn, we struck camp, and at an energetic
pace descended into the wilderness, and at 7 P. M. the vanguard of the expedition
entered Ugogo, camping two or three miles from the frontier village of Kikombo.
52 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
The next day, at a more moderate pace, we entered the populated district, and
took shelter under a mighty baobab a few hundred yards distant from the chief's
Here Frank announced that it was late in the afternoon, and he
wished to take a promenade on deck. With the permission of his audi-
tors he would postpone the narrative until evening. The proposal was
accepted, but before the youth could retire he was warmly thanked by
those whom he had so agreeably entertained.
AN AFRICAN BELLE.
A GLOOMY CHRISTMAS. 53
RETARDED BY RAINS AND OTHER MISHAPS.-GENERAL DESPONDENCY.-DEATH OF
EDWARD POCOCK.-A CHANGE FOR THE BETTER.-A LAND OF PLENTY.-AR-
RIVAL AT VICTORIA LAKE.-NATIVE SONG.-AFLOAT ON TIE GREAT LAKE.-
TERRIBLE TALES OF THE INHABITANTS.-ENCOUNTERS WITH THE NATIVES.-
THE VICTORIA NILE.-RIPON FALLS.-SPEKE'S EXPLORATIONS.-THE ALEX-
ANDRA NILE.-ARRIVAL AT KING MTESA'S COURT.-A MAGNIFICENT RECEP-
TION.-IN THE MONARCH'S PRESENCE.-STANLEY'S FIRST OPINIONS OF MTESA.
I-THEN the audience assembled in the evening Frank turned rapidly
several pages of the book and said that Mr. Stanley's expedition
was greatly retarded by the heavy rains which fell frequently and con-
verted the ground into a water-soaked marsh, through which it was very
difficult to proceed. Christmas day was a day of gloom, as everybody
was wet and cold and hungry; the natives had little grain to sell, and
the expedition was reduced to half-rations of food.
-" ', '-.
AN AFRICAN BLACKSMITH'S-SHOP.
Mr. Stanley wrote in his diary that he weighed one hundred and
eighty pounds when he left Zanzibar, but his sufferings and lack of
nourishing food had brought him down to one hundred and thirty-four
pounds in thirty-eight days; and the young Englishmen that accom-
panied him were similarly reduced. In every new territory they entered
54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
they were obliged to pay tribute to the ruler, according to the custom of
Africa, and the settlement of the question of tribute required a great deal
of bargaining. There were frequent desertions of men, and in many in-.
stances they had not the honesty to leave behind them their loads andt
guns. At one place it was discovered that fifty men had formed a con-
spiracy to desert in a body, but the scheme was stopped by arresting the
ringleaders and disarming their followers.
Some twenty or more men were on the sick-list and too ill to walk,"
said Frank, "several were carried in hammocks, and others were left at
the native villages, in accordance with the arrangements made at Zanzi-
bar. The expedition halted four days at Suna, in the Warimi country,
where grain was purchased at a high price, and the people seemed in-
clined to make trouble. The leader of the expedition was obliged to use
a great deal of tact to conciliate the chiefs of this people, who are numer-
ous and well-armed, so that an attack would have been no easy matter
to resist. Edward Pocock was taken seriously ill at Suna, and carried
in a hammock to Chiwyu-four hundred miles from the coast, and at an
elevation of five thousand four hundred feet above the sea. In spite of
all the attentions he received, he died soon after their arrival at the lat-
ter place. I will read Stanley's account of the burial of his faithful com-
panion and friend:
"We excavated a grave, four feet deep, at the foot of a hoary acacia with
wide-spreading branches; and on its ancient trunk Frank engraved a deep cross,
the emblem of the faith we all believe in; and, when folded in its shroud, we laid
the body in its final resting-place, during the last gleams of sunset. We read the
beautiful prayers of the church-service for the dead, and, out of respect for the
departed-whose frank, sociable, and winning manners had won their friendship
and regard-nearly all the Wangwana were present, to pay a last tribute of sighs
to poor Edward Pocock.
When the last solemn prayer had been read, we retired to our tents, to
brood, in sorrow and silence, over our irreparable loss."
"By the 21st of January," said Frank, "eighty-nine men had de-
serted, twenty had died, and there were many sick or disabled. Mr.
Stanley would have been justified in fearing that he would be obliged to
abandon his expedition and retreat to the coast. The loads were reduced
as much as possible, every article that could in any way be spared being
thrown out and destroyed. On the 24th the natives attacked the camp,
but were driven back; and another battle followed on the 25th, with the
same result. On the 26th the march was resumed, and the hostile region
was left behind. New men were engaged at some of the villages, the
weather improved, provisions were abundant, and in the early days of
S t- -- -.00 __-m_ i_ _-1
FUNERAL OF ED)WARD POCOCK: VIEW OF OUR CAX?.
56 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
A NEMO N --
S '+ D -"-" _'
February the halting-places of the expedition presented a marked con-
trast to those of a month earlier.
The country in which they were now travelling," Frank continued,
"was a fertile region, with broad pastures, and occasional stretches of
forest-a land of plenty and promise. The natives had an abundance on-f
AN AFRICAN LAMB.
A LAND OF PLENTY. 57
cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens, which they sold at low prices; they
were entirely friendly to the travellers, and whenever the expedition
moved away from its camps, it was urged to come again. Mr. Stanley
gives the following list of prices, which he paid in this land of abund-
1 ox 6 yards of sheeting.
I goat 2 "
1 sheep 2 "
1 chicken 1 necklace.
6 chickens 2 yards of sheeting."
"On the 26th of February it was reported that another day's march
would bring them to the shore of the Great Nyanza, the Victoria Lake.
I will now read you what Mr. Stanley says about this march, and his
first view of the lake.
"On the morning of the 27th of February we rose up early, and braced ourselves
for the long march of nineteen miles, which terminated at 4 P.M. at the village of
The people were as keenly alive to the importance of this day's march, and
as fully sensitive to what this final journey to Kagehyi promised their wearied
frames, as we Europeans. They, as well as
ourselves, looked forward to many weeks of
rest from our labors and to an abundance of
"When the bugle sounded the signal to
Take the road,' the Wanyamwezi and Wang-
wana responded to it with cheers, and loud
cries of Ay indeed, ay "indeed, please God;'
and their good-will was contagious. The na-
tives, who had mustered strongly to witness
our departure, were affected by it, and stimu-
lated our people by declaring that the lake
was not very far off-' but two or three hours'
We dipped into the basins and troughs %
of the land, surmounted ridge after ridge, UNYAMWEZI PORTER.
crossed water-courses and ravines, passed by
cultivated fields, and through villages smelling strongly of cattle, by good-natured
groups of natives, until, ascending a long, gradual slope, we heard, on a sudden,
hurrahing in front, and then we too, with the lagging rear, knew that those in the
van were in view of the Great Lake the lake which Speke discovered in 1858.
Frank Pocock impetuously strode forward until he gained the brow of the
bill. He took a long, sweeping look at something, waved his hat, and came down
towards us, his face beaming with joy, as he shouted out enthusiastically, with
the fervor of youth and high spirits, 'I have seen the lake, sir, and it is grand!'
58 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
Frederick Barker, riding painfully on an ass, and sighing wearily from illness and
the length of the journey, lifted his head to smile his thanks to his comrade.
"Presently we also reached the brow of the hill, where we found the expedi-
tion halted, and the first quick view revealed to us a long, broad arm of water,
which a dazzling sun transformed into silver, some six hundred feet below us, at
the distance of three miles.
"A more careful and detailed view of the scene showed us that the hill on
which we stood sloped gradually to the broad bay or gulf edged by a line of green,
wavy reeds and thin groves of umbrageous trees scattered along the shore, on which
stood several small villages of conical huts. Beyond these, the lake stretched like
a silvery plain far to the eastward, and away across to a boundary of dark-blue
hills and mountains, while several gray, rocky islets mocked us at first with an
illusion of Arab dhows with white sails. The Wanyamwezi struck up the song of
'Sing, O friends, sing; the journey is ended:
Sing aloud, O friends; sing to the great Nyanza.
Sinig all, sing loud, O friends, sing to the great sea;
Give your last look to the lands behind and then turn to the sea.
"'Long time ago you left your lands,
Your wives and children, your brothers and your friends:
Tell me, have you seen a sea like this
Since you left the great salt sea?
Then sing, O friends, sing; the journey is ended:
Sing aloud, 0 friends; sing to this great sea.
This sea is fresh, is good, and sweet;
Your sea is salt, and bad, unfit to drink.
This sea is like wine to drink for thirsty men;
The salt sea-bah! it makes men sick.'
I have in the above (as literal a translation as I can render it) made no at-
tempt at rhyme-nor, indeed, did the young, handsome, and stalwart Corypheus
who delivered the harmonious strains with such startling effect. The song, though
extemporized, was eminently dramatic, and when the chorus joined in.it made the
hills ring with a wild and strange harmony. Reanimated by the cheerful music,
we flung the flags to the breeze, and filed slowly down the slopes towards the fields
About half a mile from the villages we were surprised by seeing hundreds of
warriors decked with feathered head-dresses and armed to the teeth, advancing on
the run towards us, and exhibiting, as they came, their dexterity with bows and
arrows and spears. They had at first been alarmed at the long procession filing
down the hill, supposing we were bent on hostilities, but, though discovering their
error, they still thought it too good an opportunity to be lost for showing their
bravery, and therefore amused us with this by-play. Sungoro Tarib, an Arab resi-
dent at Kagehyi, also despatched a messenger with words of welcome, and an in-
vitation to us to make Kagehyi our camp, as Prince Kaduma, chief of Kagehyi,
was his faithful ally.
ON THE SHORE OF LAKE VICTORIA. 59
.-.. = :: _: -. -.:- .... .r,.^ l _
,-:,:,-?- '1 ; ^ ' --'
.~--.- =_- 1% ._ -- -
VIEW OF KAGEtYI FROM THE EDGE OF THE LAKE.
(From a Photograph.)
"In a short time we had entered the wretched-looking village, and Kaduma
was easily induced by Sungoro to proffer hospitalities to the strangers. A small
conical hut, about twenty feet in diameter, badly lighted, and with a strong smell
of animal matter-its roof swarmed with bold rats, which, with a malicious per-
sistence, kept popping in and out of their nests in the straw roof, and rushing over
the walls-was placed at my disposal as a storeroom. Another small hut was pre-
sented to Frank Pocock and Fred Barker as their quarters.
"In summing up, during the evening of our arrival at this rude village on the
Nyanza, the-number of statute miles travelled by us, as measured by two rated pe-
dometers and pocket watch, I ascertained it to be seven hundred and twenty. The
time occupied-from November 17, 1874, to February 27, 1875, inclusive-was one
hundred and three days, divided into seventy marching and thirty-three halting
days, by which it will be perceived that our marches averaged a little over ten
miles per day. But as halts are imperative, the more correct method of ascertain-
ing the rate of travel would be to include the time occupied by halts and marches,
and divide the total distance by the number of days occupied. This reduces the
rate to seven miles per diem.
We all woke on the morning of the 28th of February with a feeling of intense
relief. There were no more marches, no more bugle-calls to rouse us up for an-
other fatiguing day, no more fear of hunger-at least for a season.
At -9 A.M. a burzah, or levee, was held. First came Frank and Fred-now
quite recovered from fever-to bid me good-morning, and to congratulate them-
selves and me upon the prospective rest before us. Next came the Wangwana
and Wanyamwezi chiefs, to express a hope that I had slept well, and after them
the bold youths of the expedition; then came Prince Kaduma and Sungoro, to
whom we were bound this day to render an account of the journey and to give the
60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
I ql" ,i i j,
(From a Photograph taken at Kagehyi.)
latest news from Zanzibar; and, lastly, the princess and her principal friends-for
introductions have to be undergone in this land as in others. The burzah lasted
two hours, after which my visitors retired to pursue their respective avocations,
which I discovered to be principally confined, on the part of the natives, to gos-
siping, making or repairing fishing-nets, hatchets, canoes, food-troughs, village
fences, and huts, and on the part of our people to arranging plans for building
their own grass-huts, being perfectly content to endure a long stay at Kagehyi.
"Though the people had only their own small domestic affairs to engage their
attentions, and Frank and Fred were for this day relieved from duty, I had much to
do-observations to take to ascertain the position of Kagehyi, and its altitude above
the sea; to prepare paper, pens, and ink for the morrow's report to the journals
which had despatched me to this remote and secluded part of the globe; to make
calculations of the time likely to be occupied in a halt at Kagehyi, in preparing
and equipping the Lady Alice for sea, and in circumnavigating the great Nianja,'
as the Wasukuma call the lake.* It was also incumbent upon me to ascertain the
Captain Speke spelled it "Nyanza," which means "lake," or "great water." Out of
regard to the work of the great explorer the name has been retained,
NATIVES OF THE LAKE REGION. 61
political condition of the country before leaving the port and the camp, that my
mind might be at rest about its safety during my contemplated absence. Esti-
mates were also to be entered upon as to the quantity of cloth and beads likely to
be required for the provisioning of the expeditionary force during my absence,
and as to the amount of tribute and presents to be bestowed upon the King of
Uchambi-of which Kagehyi was only a small district, and to whom Prince Ka-
duma was only a subordinate and tributary. In brief, my own personal work was
but begun, and pages would not suffice to describe in detail the full extent of the
new duties now devolving upon me.
AFRICAN ARMS AND ORNAMENTS.
The village of Kagehyi, in the Uchambi district and country of Usukuma,
became after our arrival a place of great local importance. It attracted an unusual
number of native traders from all sides within a radius of twenty or thirty miles.
Fishermen from Ukerew6, whose purple hills we saw across the arm of the lake,
came in their canoes, with stores of dried fish; the people of Igusa, Sima, and
Magu, east of us in Usukuma, brought their cassava, or manioc, and ripe bananas;
the herdsmen of Usmau, thirty miles south of Kagehyi, sent their oxen ; and the
tribes of Muanza-famous historically as being the point whence Speke first saw
62 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
this broad gulf of Lake Victoria-brought their hoes, iron wire, and salt, besides
great plenty of sweet potatoes and yams.
Within seven days the Lady Alice was ready, and strengthened for a rough
sea-life. Provisions of flour and dried fish, bales of cloth and beads of various
kinds, odds and ends of small possible necessaries were boxed, and she was de-
clared at last to be only waiting for her crew. Would any one volunteer to ac-
company me A dead silence ensued. Not for rewards and extra pay ?' Another
dead silence: no one would volunteer.
Yet I must,' said I, depart. Will you let me go alone ?'
'What then ? Show me my braves-those men who freely enlist to follow
their master round the sea.'
All were again dumb. Appealed to individually, each said he knew nothing
of sea life; each man frankly declared himself a terrible coward on water.
"' Then what am I to do '
Manwa Sera said :
"' Master, have done with these questions. Command your party. All your
people are your children, and they will not disobey you. While you ask them
as a friend, no one will offer his services. Command them, and they will all go.'
IE W NEAR VICTORIA LAKE.
So I selected a chief, Wadi Safeni-the son of Safeni-and told him to pick
out the elect of the young men. Wadi Safeni chose men who knew nothing of
boat-life. Then I called Kach6ch6, the detective, and told him to ascertain the
names of those young men who were accustomed to sea-life, upon which Kach6ch6
informed me that the young guides first selected by me at Bagamoyo were the
sailors of the expedition. After reflecting upon the capacities of the younger
A VOYAGE OF EXPLORATION. 63
men, as they had developed themselves on the road, I made a list of ten sailors
and a steersman, to whose fidelity I was willing to intrust myself and fortunes
while coasting round the Victoria sea.
Accordingly, after drawing up instructions for Frank Pocock and Fred Bar-
ker, on about a score of matters concerning the well-being of the expedition during
my absence, and enlisting for them, by an adequate gift, the good-will of Sungoro
and Prince Kaduma, I set sail on the 8th of March, 1875, eastward along the shores
of the broad arm of the lake which we first sighted, and which henceforward is
known, in honor of its first discoverer, as Speke Gulf.'
DWELLERS ON THE SHORE OF THE LAKE.
"The reluctance of my followers to venture upon Lake Victoria was due to
what they had heard about it from Prince Kaduma's people. There were,' they said,
a people dwelling on its shores who were gifted with tails; another who trained
enormous and fierce dogs for war; another a tribe of cannibals, who preferred
human flesh to all other kinds of meat. The lake was so large it would take years
to trace its shores, and who then at the end of that time would remain alive ?' Its
opposite shores, from their very vagueness of outline, and its people, from the dis-
torting fogs of misrepresentation through which we saw them, only heightened the
fears of my men as to the dangers which filled the prospect."
"Mr. Stanley explored the shores of Speke Gulf," said Frank, after
a short pause, and then proceeded to follow the eastern shore of the
great lake, which stretched out to the east and north apparently as limit-
less as the ocean. On the islands of Speke Gulf he found great num-
bers of crocodiles, and at almost every step he took among the reeds, on
the shore of one of the islands, a huge crocodile rushed past him into the
water. Hippopotami were numerous, some of them coming disagreeably
near to his boat, and evidently desiring to make his acquaintance. The
natives around the gulf were not hostile, but caused despondency in the
hearts of Stanley's men by predicting that it would take him eight years
to circumnavigate the lake.
"But on the shores of the lake itself the people showed signs of hos-
64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
utility, and came to the water's edge with their spears and shields. On
such occasions the party kept away from land and parleyed at a safe
distance. Once a war-canoe carrying some forty men armed with spears
and slings came close alongside the Lady Alice; the men in the canoe
were insolent and evidently wanted to fight. Before beginning, how-
ever, they exhibited their skill by throwing stones with their slings, and
whenever they made good shots the strangers applauded and smiled. In
fact, they had been smiling all the time since the canoe came alongside.
When he considered the time had come to put an end to their in-
solence, Mr. Stanley drew his revolver and fired rapidly into the water
in the direction where the last stone had been flung. The effect was
ludicrous in the extreme, as none of the fellows had ever before heard
the sound of a firearm. They sprang into the water and swai away
for dear life, leaving their canoe in the hands of the strangers. They
were finally coaxed back, but were more respectful in their demeanor.
At another time," said Frank, the natives came with a large fleet of
canoes and attacked the Lady Alice, but were driven off without serious
difficulty. Mr. Stanley's plan was, in fights of this sort, to use his large
rifle with explosive shells, which he aimed just at the water-line of the
canoes. The craft would thus be sunk or disabled, while the crew, who
are all good swimmers, ran no risk of being drowned. Pursuit would
thus be stopped, and the Lady Alice have plenty of time to escape.
,_ -~-- __ :--_---_ -
THE "LADY ALICE" AT BRIDGE ISLAND, VICTORIA NYANZA.
"Without accident, the adventurous party reached the outlet of the
lake and visited Ripon Falls, the head of the Victoria Nile, which flows
--__ Tm -------- -- _-------- .......- -
z _____ __.__.. _
VIEW OF THIE BAY LEADING TO RUGEDZI CHANNEL FROM KIGO-MA, NEAR KISORYA, SOUTH SIDE OF UKEREWI COAST OF SPEKE (,ULF.
(Prom avPhotogqraph by M1r. Sta /e~y.)
z _~~-~~~;-,---,---~-_ -,,-i,-
-~ ~ ~ ~~- VI)---W OF~ T~EBYLAIG OPGOICAN. RMRDMA ERRSRASUHSD F KIE CAT FSESGL
(EHr htqaphb ~~t~lq
66 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
into the Albert Nyanza. The latter lake is the source of the White
Nile-the Nile of Egypt, and one of the historic rivers of the world."
One of the youths asked how the Ripon Falls received that name.
"The name was given by Captain Speke, the first white man who
ever saw the falls," replied Frank. He may be called their discoverer,
as the visit to the falls was made during his exploration of the Victoria
Nyanza. At the time his expedition was fitted out, the Marquis of Ripon
was the president of the Royal Geographical Society, and hence the
name that Captain Speke gave to the falls."
"I suppose, then, that the Victoria Nyanza, or Victoria Lake, is the
source of the Nile," another of Frank's auditors remarked.
Frank looked inquiringly at Doctor Bronson, who immediately came
to the youth's assistance.
"For all practical purposes," said the Doctor, Captain Speke's claim
that he had discovered the source of the Nile when he found the stream
which drained the lake, was a just one. But by common consent of
geographers the source of a river is the brook or rivulet, however tiny,
that rises farthest from its mouth. Adopting this as a rule, the source
of the Nile was not the Victoria Lake itself, but its longest affluent, and
this is a question not yet fully determined, though it is fairly well settled
that the honor belongs to the Alexandra Nile, or Kagera River, which
is certainly the longest affluent of the lake. The Kagera River flows
from Alexandra Lake, which lies nearly due west from the southern end
of Victoria Lake; the distance is about one hundred and fifty miles in a
direct line, but much greater according to the African routes of travel."
Did Mr. Stanley visit Alexandra Lake and find out what streams
flowed into it ?" one of the youths inquired, as Doctor Bronson paused.
He was unable to do so," was the reply, and no other traveller has
yet completed the exploration. Some geographers think that the longest
affluent of Lake Victoria will yet prove to be one of the streams coming
in from the eastward, and having its source at the base of Mount Kilima-
Njaro; but until this is shown to be an established fact, we may assume
that the Alexandra Nile is the head of the great river of Egypt, as it
certainly is the largest stream that flows into Victoria Lake."
Are there any other falls on the Victoria Nile besides the Ripon
Falls just mentioned ?" was the next inquiry from the audience.
There are several falls and rapids on the stream," the Doctor an-
swered, "the most important being Murchison Falls, not far from where
the Victoria Nile emerges into Albert Lake. Lake Albert is more than
a thousand feet below the level of Lake Victoria, and therefore you may
S~,; _,, -, -.-::- ;-;~~-;- -_ .... .--; -.- -- ____:;-;;--.-: - ...---~_T_ --_-----__-_-
..... :_____ __
2 ~ -1 _-. -a.
-~ -.-_ -. -- -.
VIE~W OF RIPON FALLS FROM THE UGANDA SIDE
(From a Photograph by Mr. Stanley.
_.-__=_ .-=. = :_--- --= .= -:
c=_ .. __ : -_ -_-- -
7IEW OF RIPON FALLS FROM TRE UGANDA SIDE.
(From~ a Photograph by dir. Stanlley.)
68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
expect a rapid descent of the river that con-
nects these two bodies of water.
"During the time that Egypt had partial
control of the lake region of Central Africa,
its government established a military station
at Foueira, on the Victoria Nile, just above
the Kuruma Falls. The river was explored
S. from one end to the other, and it was as-
certained that, though there were several
places where for many miles the current
was comparatively placid, there were so
many falls and rapids that navigation was
-- practically impossible. Consequently no
_' -"- use was made of the stream, and all expedi-
DRESSED FOR COLD WEATHER. tions through that region travel by land.
Unless an expedition is sufficiently power-
ful to force its way, travellers avoid the villages and keep as much as
possible in the wilderness, to escape the extortionate demands of its petty
chiefs, who invariably demand a high tribute. Whatever they see they
want, and it requires a great deal of diplomacy to escape from them
without being stripped of everything of any value.
"But we are wandering from the route where we left Mr. Stanley,"
said Doctor Bronson, "and will now turn back to see where he went
after visiting Ripon Falls. Frank will inform us."
Under this hint Frank continued:
Where the lake narrows at the head of the Victoria Nile, or just
above the falls, there is a V-shaped bay which is called Napoleon Chan-
nel. On the east of this channel is the country of Usoga, and on the
west that of Uganda. The latter is the territory of the famous King
Mtesa, or rather it was his territory at the time of Mr. Stanley's visit, as
he has since died and left the kingdom to his son.
Mr. Stanley found the people of Uganda friendly; and by one of
the local chiefs he sent a message to the king to announce his coming.
Then he waited at one of the islands until the chief returned with Mtesa's
reply, which was that Stanley should come and see him. Escorted by a
small fleet of war-canoes, commanded by a native named. Magassa, he
proceeded on his journey to Usavara, the port of Mtesa's capital, about
ten miles farther inland. I will read Mr. Stanley's account of his re-
When about two miles from Usavara we saw what we estimated to be thou-
THE VICTORIA NILE, NORTH OF RIPON FALLS, RUSHING TOWARDS UNYORO, FROM THE USOGA SIDE OF THE FALLS.
(From a Photograph by Mr. Stanley.)
70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
sands of people arranging themselves in order on a gently rising ground. When
about a mile from the shore Magassa gave the order to signal our advance upon it
with firearms, and was at once obeyed by his dozen musketeers. Half a mile off
I saw that the people on the shore had formed themselves into two dense lines, at
the ends of which stood several finely-dressed men, arrayed in crimson and black
and snowy white. As we neared the beach volleys of musketry burst out from
the long lines. Magassa's canoes steered outward to right and left, while two or
three hundred heavily-loaded guns announced to all around that the white man
had landed. Numerous kettle and bass drums sounded a noisy welcome, and flags,
banners, and bannerets waved, and the people gave a great shout. Very much
amazed at all this ceremonious and pompous greeting, I strode up towards the
great standard, near which stood a short young man, dressed in a crimson robe,
which covered an immaculately white dress of bleached cotton, before whom Ma-
gassa, who had hurried ashore, kneeled reverently, and turning to me begged me
to understand that this short young man was the katekiro. Not knowing very well
who the katekiro" was, I only bowed, which, strange to say, was imitated by
him, only that his bow was far more profound and stately than mine. I was per-
plexed, confused, embarrassed, and I believe I blushed inwardly at this regal -re-
ception, though I hope I did not betray any embarrassment.
"A dozen well-dressed people now came forward, and grasping my hand de-
clared in the Swahili language that I was welcome to Uganda. The katekiro
motioned with his head, and amid a perfect concourse of beaten drums, which
drowned all conversation, we walked side by side, and followed by curious thou-
sands, to a courtyard, and a circle of grass-thatched huts surrounding a larger
house, which I was told were my quarters.
The katekiro and several of the chiefs accompanied me to my new hut, and
a very sociable conversation took place. There was present a native of Zanzibar,
named Tori, whom I shortly discovered to be chief drummer, engineer, and gen-
eral jack-of-all-trades for the kabaka (king). From this clever, ingenious man I
obtained the information that the katekiro was the prime-minister or the kabaka's
deputy, and that the titles of the other chiefs were Chambarango, Kangau, Mkwen-
da, Seke-bobo, Kitunzi, Sabaganzi, Kauta, Saruti. There were several more pres-
ent, but I must defer mention of them to other chapters.
Waganda,* as I found subsequently, are not in the habit of remaining incu-
rious before a stranger. Hosts of questions were fired off at me about my health,
my journey and its aim, Zanzibar, Europe and its people, the seas and the heavens,
sun, moon, and stars, angels and devils, doctors, priests, and craftsmen in general;
in fact, as the representative of nations who know everything,' I was subjected
to a most searching examination, and in one hour and ten minutes it was declared
*Waganda signifies "people of Uganda." The prefix Ki, as in Ki-Swahili or Ki-
Sagara, denotes language of Swahili or Sagara. The prefix U represents country; Wa,
a plural, denoting people; M, singular, for a person, thus:
U-Sagara. Country of Sagara.
Wa-Sagara. People of Sagara.
M-Sagara. A person of Sngara.
Ki- Sagara. Language of Sagara, or after the custom, manner, or style of Sagara, as
English stands in like manner for anything relating to England.
-_ _. __ _-_ --- --- --
: _-j-I-i __ ________-=______- _. ... -___ __-__--_-
RECEPTION BY KING MTI SAY'S BODY-GUTARD AT USA VAZA.
1--- ',"k', ---s
-~~-~_~,i-~I~~-~-~~=~;T~- ~ ~ ,--- __I~ ...,=-,~_- _._-.--,= ...-. ~~1- ---.,,"".,.,
E :- -_
,G .=-- -~
--~~~~-- ... _= --_. ....
RECEPTION BY KING MTI,;SS BOD'Y-G[A.B.D AT USAVARZ,,
72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
unanimously that I had 'passed.' Forthwith, after the acclamation, the stately
bearing became merged into a more friendly one, and long, thin, nervous black
hands were pushed into mine enthusiastically, from which I gathered that they
applauded me as though I had won the honors of a senior wrangler. Some pro-
ceeded direct to the kabaka and informed him that the white man was a genius,
knew everything, and was remarkably polite and sociable, and the kabalca was said
to have 'rubbed his hands as though he had just come into the possession of a
"The fruits of the favorable verdict passed upon myself and merits were seen
presently in fourteen fat oxen, sixteen goats and sheep, a hundred bunches of ba-
nanas, three dozen fowls, four wooden jars of milk, four baskets of sweet potatoes,
fifty ears of green Indian corn, a basket of rice, twenty fresh eggs, and ten pots
of maramba wine. Kauta, Mtesa's steward or but-
t ler, at the head of the drovers and bearers of.
these various provisions, fell on his knees before
me and said:
"'The kabaka sends salaams unto his friend
i who has travelled so far to see him. The kabaka
cannot see the face of his friend until he has
eaten and is satisfied. The kabaka has sent his
; slave with these few things to his friend that he
i -may eat, and at the ninth hour, after his friend
i has rested, the kabaka will send and call for him
S to appear at the burzah. I have spoken. Twi-
yanzi-yanzi-yanzi (thanks, thanks, thanks).
Ii I replied suitably, though my politeness was
Snot so excessive as to induce me to kneel before
the courtly butler and thank him for permission
to say I thanked him.
wAITING ORDERS. The ninth hour of the day approached. We
had bathed, brushed, cleaned ourselves, and were
prepared externally and mentally for the memorable hour when we should meet the
foremost man of equatorial Africa. Two of the kabaka's pages, clad in a. costume
semi-Kingwana and semi-Kiganda, came to summon us-the Kingwana part being
the long white shirt of Zanzibar, folded with a belt or band about the loins, the
Kiganda part being the Sohari doti cloth depending from the right shoulder to the
feet. The kabaka invites you to the burzah,' said they. Forthwith we issue
from our courtyard, five of the boat's crew on each side of me, armed with Snider
rifles. We reach a short, broad street, at the end of which is a hut. Here the
kabaka is seated with a multitude of chiefs, Wakungu and Watongoleh, ranked
from the throne in two opposing kneeling or seated lines, the ends being closed
in by -drummers, guards, executioners, pages, etc., etc. As we approached the
nearest group it opened and the drummers beat mighty sounds, Tori's drumming
being conspicuous from its sharper beat. The foremost man of equatorial Africa
Wakungu is the plural of mkungu, a rank equivalent to "general." Watongoleh is
the plural of mtongoleh, or "colonel."
SEKEBOBO, CHIEF OF CIIAGWE. MTESA, THE EMPEROR OF UGANDA. CHAMBARANGO, THE CHIEF.
POKINO, THE PRIME-MINISTER.
(From a Photograph by Mr. Stanley.)
74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
rises and advances, and all the kneeling and seated lines rise-generals, colonels,
chiefs, cooks, butlers, pages, executioners, etc., etc.
The kabaka, a tall, clean-faced, large-eyed, nervous-looking, thin man, clad in
a tarbush, black robe, with a white shirt belted with gold, shook my hands warmly
and impressively, and, bowing not ungracefully, invited me to be seated on an iron
stool. I waited for him to show the example, and then I and all the others seated
He first took a deliberate survey of me, which I returned with interest, for
he was as interesting to me as I was to him. His impression of me was that I was
younger than Speke, not so tall, but better dressed. This I gathered from his
criticisms, as confided to his chiefs and favorites.
"My impression of him was that he and I would become better acquainted,
that I should make a convert of him, and make him useful to Africa-but what
other impressions I had may be gathered from the remarks I wrote that evening
in my diary:
"' As I had read Speke's book for the sake of its geographical information, I
retained but a dim remembrance of his description of his life in Uganda. If I
remember rightly, Speke described a youthful prince, vain and heartless, a whole-
sale murderer and tyrant, one who delighted in fat women. Doubtless he de-
DWARF AT TIE KING'S COURT.
scribed what he saw, but it is far from being the state of things now. Mtesa has
impressed me as being an intelligent and distinguished prince, who, if aided in
time by virtuous philanthropists, will do more for Central Africa than fifty years
of gospel teaching, unaided by such authority, can do. I think I see in him the
light that shall lighten the darkness of this benighted region; a prince well worthy
the most hearty sympathies that Europe can give him. In this man I sec the pos-
sible fruition of Livingstone's hopes, for with his aid the civilization of equatorial
Africa becomes feasible. I remember the ardor and love which animated Living-
AT THE COURT OF KING MTESA. 75
stone when he spoke of Sekeletu; had he seen Mtesa, his ardor and love for him
had been tenfold, and his pen and tongue would have been employed in calling all
good men to assist him.'
"Five days later 1 wrote the following entry:
I see that Mtesa is a powerful emperor, with great influence over his neigh-
bors. I have to-day seen the turbulent Mankorongo, King of Usui, and Mirambo,
that terrible phantom who disturbs men's minds in Unyamwezi, through their em-
bassies kneeling and tendering their tribute to him. I saw over three thousand
soldiers of Mtesa nearly half civilized. I saw about a hundred chiefs who might
be classed in the same scale as the men of Zanzibar and Oman, clad in as rich robes
and armed in the same fashion, and have witnessed with astonishment such order
and law as is obtainable in semi-civilized countries. All this is the result of a poor
Muslim's labor; his name is Muley bin Salim. He it was who first began teaching
here the doctrines of Islam. False and contemptible as these doctrines are, they
are preferable to the ruthless instincts of a savage despot, whom Speke and Grant
left wallowing in the blood of women, and I honor the memory of Muley bin Salim
-Muslim and slave-trader though he be-the poor priest who has wrought this
happy change. With a strong desire to improve still more the character of Mtesa,
I shall begin building on the foundation-stones laid by Muley bin Salim. I shall
destroy his belief in Islam, and teach the doctrines of Jesus of Nazareth.'
"It may easily be gathered from these entries that a feeling of admiration for
Mtesa must have begun very early, and that either Mtesa is a very admirable man,
or that I am.a very impressionable traveller, or that Mtesa is so perfect in the art
of duplicity and acted so clever a part, that I became his dupe."
Here Frank paused, and suggested that they would leave Mr. Stanley
with the King of Uganda until the next day, when Fred would take up
the reading during the afternoon and evening. As it was near the time
for retiring, no one made any objection to adjournment, and in a very
few minutes the members of the impromptu geographical society had
76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF KING MTESA.- HIS RECEPTION OF MR. STANLEY.-A
NAVAL REVIEW.--STANLEY'S MARKSMANSHIP.-THE KING'S PALACE.- RU-
BAGA, THE KING'S CAPITAL.-RECEPTION AT THE PALACE.-MEETING COLONEL
LINANT DE BELLEFONDS. -CONVERTING MTESA TO CIIRISTIANITY,-APPEAL
FOR MISSIONARIES TO BE SENT TO MTESA.-DEPARTURE FOR USUKUMU.-FIGIIT
WITH THE NATIVES AT BUMBIREII ISLAND. -SUFFERINGS OF STANLEY AND
HIS COMPANIONS ON LAKE VICTORIA.-A NARROW ESCAPE.-RETURN TO KA-
GEH-YI.-DEATH OF FRED BARKER. EMBARKING THE EXPEDITION. -KING
LUKONGEH AND IlS PEOPLE.
IT was Fred's turn to read on the second day of the voyage, and early
in the morning he began his preparations. With the aid of Mr.
Stanley he marked the portions of the chapters that he would read and
those that could be omitted in view of the brief time at their disposal:
At the opening of the afternoon session of his geographical society Fred
announced that he would begin the day's work by reading the descrip-
tion of King Mtesa's personal appearance as Mr. Stanley has recorded it.
In person Mtesa is tall, probably six feet one inch, and slender. He has very
intelligent and agreeable features, reminding me of some of the faces of the great
stone images at Thebes, and of the statues in the museum at Cairo. He has the
same fulness of lips, but their grossness is relieved by the general expression of amia-
bility blended with dignity that pervades his face, and the large, lustrous, lambent
eyes that lend it a strange beauty, and are typical of the race from which I believe
him to have sprung. His color is of a dark red-brown, of a wonderfully smooth
surface. When not engaged in council he throws off unreservedly the bearing
that characterizes him when on the throne, and gives rein to his humor, indulging
in hearty peals of laughter, lie seems to be interested in the discussion of the
THE KING'S DINNER-DISH.
AN AFRICAN NAVAL REVIEW.
manners and customs of European courts, and to be enamoured of hearing of the
wonders of civilization. He is ambitious to imitate, as much as lies in his
power, the ways of the white man. When any piece of information is given him,
he takes upon himself the task of translating it to his wives and chiefs, though
many of the latter understand the Swahili language as well as he does him-
Mr. Stanley writes that the king treated him with great courtesy,"
said Fred, after a short pause, "and they evidently liked each other's
acquaintance. One day the king invited him to witness a naval review
on the waters of Murchison Bay, on which Usavara is situated: at a signal
from Mtesa forty magnificent canoes, each rowed by thirty men, swept
around a point of land and drew up in front of the shore where the king
and his guest and attendants were stationed. The captain of each canoe
was dressed in a white cotton shirt and a cloth head-cover, neatly folded
turban fashion, while the admiral wore over his shirt a crimson jacket,
profusely decorated with gold braid, and on his head the red fez of Zan-
zibar. Each captain, as he passed the king, seized shield and spear, and
went through the performance of defence and attack by water.
"When the review was over the king asked Stanley, whom he called
Stamlee, to show him how the white men could shoot. It was a heavy
responsibility to be thus the representative of the shooting abilities of
the whole white race, but there was no way of escaping it. A young
crocodile was asleep on the rocks, and Stanley nearly severed its head
from its body at the distance of one hundred yards with a three-ounce
ball, an act which was accepted as conclusive proof that all white men
"And now" said Fred, "I will read the account of Mr. Stanley's
visit to Rubaga, the capital city of Uganda. It is about ten miles from
Usavara, the place where Mr. Stanley met the king, as has just been de-
scribed. His majesty was on a hunting excursion at Usavara at the time
of the explorer's arrival; he was accompanied by his court, after the
manner of the kings of other countries under similar circumstances.
"On the 10th of April the court broke up its hunting-lodges at Usavara, on
Murchison Bay, and moved to the capital, whither I was strongly urged to follow.
Mtesa, escorted by about two hundred musketeers and the great Wakungu and
their armed retainers, travelled quickly; but owing to my being obliged to house
my boat from the hot sun, I did not reach the capital until 1 P.M.
The road had been prepared for his Imperial Majesty's hunting excursion, and
was eight feet wide, through jungle and garden, forest and field. Beautiful land-
scapes were thus enjoyed of rolling land and placid lake, of gigantic tamarinds and
gum-trees, of extensive banana groves and plantations of the ficus, from the bark
78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
of which the national dress, or mbugu, is made. The peculiar domelike huts, each
with an attempt at a portico, were buried deep in dense bowers of plantains which
filled the air with the odor of their mellow rich fruit.
The road wound upward to the summits of green hills which commanded ex-
quisite prospects, and down again into the sheltered bosoms of woody nooks and
vales and tree-embowered ravines. Streams of clear water murmured through
these depressions, as they flowed towards Murchison Bay. The verdure was of a
---. z -" -. --
FISH FOUND IN LAKE VICTORIA.
Sama-Moa, in the Nyassa tongue; round, open-mouthed, scaled, and pig-headed-looking creature, twenty
brilliant green, freshened by the unfailing rains of the equator; the sky was of
the bluest, and the heat, though great, was tempered by the hill breezes, and fre-
quently by the dense foliage overhead.
Within three hours' march from Usavara, we saw the capital crowning the
summit of a smooth, rounded hill-a large cluster of tall, conical grass huts, in the
centre of which rose a spacious, lofty, barnlike structure. The large building, we
were told, was the palace! the hill, Rubaga; the cluster of huts, the imperial
From each side of the tall cane fence enclosing the grass huts on Rubaga hill
radiated very broad avenues, imperial enough in width. Arriving at the base of
the hill, and crossing by a corduroy' road over a broad slimy ooze, we came up
to one of these avenues, the ground of which was a reddish clay strongly mixed
with the detritus of hematite. It gave a clear breadth of one hundred feet of
prepared ground, and led by a gradual ascent to the circular road which made the
circuit of the hill outside the palace enclosure. Once on the domelike height, we
saw that we had arrived by the back avenue, for the best view of this capital of
magnificent distances was that which was obtained by looking from the burzah of
the palace, and carrying the eye over the broad front highway, on each side of
which, as far as could be defined from the shadows of the burzah, the Wakungu
had their respective courts and houses, embowered in gardens of banana and fig.
Like the enclosure round the palace courts and quarters, each avenue was fenced
with tall matete (water cane) neatly set very close together in uniform rows. The
by-streets leading from one avenue to another were narrow and crooked.
z **- ---==-----. ______ _______
W ~3 _______________
80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
While I stood admiring the view, a page came up, and, kneeling, announced
that he had been despatched by the emperor to show me my house. Following
him, I was ushered within a corner lot of the fenced square, between two avenues,
into what I might appropriately term a 'garden villa' of Uganda. My house,
standing in the centre of a plantain garden about one hundred feet square, was
twenty feet long, and of a marquee shape, with a miniature portico or cave pro-
jecting like a bonnet over the doorway, and was divided into two apartments.
Close by, about thirty feet off, were three domelike huts for the boat's crew and
the kitchen, and in a corner of the garden was a railed space for our bullocks and
goats. Were it not that I was ever anxious about my distant camp in Usukuma,
I possessed almost everything requisite to render a month's stay very agreeable,
and for the time I was as proud of my tiny villa as a London merchant is of his
In the afternoon I was invited to the palace. A number of people in brown
robes, or white dresses, some with white goatskins over their brown robes, others
with cords folded like a turbdn round their heads, which I heard were distinguish-
ing marks of the executioners, were also ascending to the burzah. Court after
court was passed until we finally stood upon the level top in front of the great
house of cane and straw which the Waganda fondly term kibuga, or the palace.
The space at least was of aulic extent, and the prospect gained at every point was
also worthy of the imperial eyes of the African monarch.
On all sides rolled in grand waves a voluptuous land of sunshine and plenty
and early summer verdure, cooled by soft breezes from the great equatorial fresh-
water sea. Isolated hill-cones, similar to that of Rubaga, or square tabular masses,
rose up from the beautiful landscape to attract, like mysteries, the curious stranger's
observation, and villages and banana groves of still fresher green, far removed on
the crest of distant swelling ridges, announced that Mtesa owned a land worth
loving. Dark, sinuous lines traced the winding courses of deep ravines filled with
trees, and grassy extents of gently undulating ground marked the pastures; broader
depressions suggested the cultivated gardens and the grain fields, while on the far
verge of the horizon we saw the beauty and the charm of the land melting into
the blues of distance.
The drums sounded. Mtesa had seated himself on the throne, and we has-
tened to take our seats.
Since the 5th of April, I had enjoyed ten interviews with Mtesa, and during
all 1 had taken occasion to introduce topics which would lead up to the subject of
Christianity. Nothing occurred in my presence but I contrived to turn it towards
effecting that which had become an object to me, viz., his conversion. There
was no attempt made to confuse him with the details of any particular doctrine.
I simply drew for him the image of the Son of God humbling himself for the
good of all mankind, white and black, and told him how, while he was in man's
disguise, he was seized and crucified by wicked people who scorned his divinity,
and yet out of his great love for them, while yet suffering on the cross, he asked
his great Father to forgive them. I showed the difference in character between
him whom white men love and adore, and Mohammed, whom the Arabs revere;
how Jesus endeavored to teach mankind that we should love all men, excepting
none, while Mohammed taught his followers that the slaying of the pagan and the
FLEET OF THE KING OF UGANDA, READY FOR WAR.
82 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
unbeliever was an act that merited Paradise. I left it to Mtesa and his chiefs to
decide which was the worthier character. I also sketched in brief the history of
religious belief from Adam to Mohammed. I had also begun to translate to him
the Ten Commandments, and Idi, the emperor's writer, transcribed in Kiganda the
words of the Law as given to him in choice Swahili by Robert Feruzi, one of my
boat's crew, and a pupil of the Universities Mission at Zanzibar.
N [ '
: ._:: :--= ._-.: =: -
AUDIENCE-HALL OF THE PALACE AT RUBAGA.
"The enthusiasm with which I launched into this work of teaching was soon
communicated to Mtesa and some of his principal chiefs, who became so absorb-
ingly interested in the story as I gave it to them that little of other business was
done. The political burzah and seat of justice had now become an alcove, where
only the moral and religious laws were discussed.
"Before we broke up our meeting Mtesa informed me that I should meet a
white man at his palace the next day.
A white man, or a Turk?'
"' A white man like yourself,' repeated Mtesa.
"' No; impossible !'
"'Yes, you will see. He comes from Masr (Cairo), from Gordoom (Gordon)
Ah, very well, I shall be glad to see him, and if he is really a white man,
I may probably stay with you four or five days longer,' said I to Mtesa, as I shook
hands with him, and bade him good-night.
"The white man,' reported to be coming-the next day, arrived at noon with
great eclat and flourishes of trumpets, the sounds of which could be heard all over
the capital. Mtesa hurried off a page to invite me to his burzah. I hastened up
by a private entrance. Mtesa and all his chiefs, guards, pages, executioners, claim-
ants, guests, drummers, and fifers were already there, en grande tenue.
RECEIVING A WHITE VISITOR. 83
Mtesa was in a fever, as I could see by the paling of the color under his eyes
and his glowing eyeballs. The chiefs shared their master's excitement.
What shall we do,' he asked, 'to welcome him ?'
"'Oh, form your troops in line from the entrance to the burzah down to the
gate of the outer court, and present arms, and as he comes within the gate let your
- drums and fifes sound a loud welcome.'
Beautiful!' said Mtesa. Hurry Tori, ('h.IinI. ii oI:., Sekebobo: form them
in two lines just as Stamlee says. Oh, that is beautiful! And shall we fire guns,
No, not until you shake hands with him; and, as he is a soldier, let the
guards fire, then they will not injure any one.'
Mtesa's flutter of excitement on this occasion made me think that there must
have been a somewhat similar scene before my landing at Usavara, and that Tori
must have been consulted frequently upon the form of ceremony to be adopted.
What followed upon the arrival of the white man at the outer gate had best
be told as an interlude by the stranger himself.
"' At two o'clock, the weather having cleared up, Mtesa sent a messenger to
inform me that he was ready to receive me. Notice is given in the camp; every
one puts on his finest clothes; at last we are ready; my brave Soudanians look
quite smart in their red jackets and white trousers. I place myself at their head;
trumpets flourish and drums sound as we follow an avenue from eighty-five to a
AFRICAN HATCHET, SPADE, AND ADZE.
84 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
hundred yards wide, running direct north and south, and terminating at Mtesa's
"'On entering this court, I am greeted with a frightfuluproar; a thousand
instruments, each one more outlandish than the other, produce the most discord-
ant and deafening sounds. Mtesa's body-guard carrying guns present arms on my
appearance; the king is standing at the entrance of the reception-hall, I approach
and bow to him t la torque. He holds out his hand, which I press; 1 immedi-
ately perceive a sunburnt European to the left of the king, a traveller, whom 1
imagine to be Cameron. We exchange glances without speaking.
". Mtesa enters the reception-room, and we follow him. It is a narrow hall
about sixty feet long by fifteen feet wide, the ceiling of which, sloping down at the
entrance, is supported by a double row of wooden pillars which divide the room
into two aisles. The principal and central room is unoccupied, and leads to the
king's throne; the two aisles are filled with the great dignitaries and chief officers.
At each pillar stands one of the king's guard, wearing a long red mantle, a white
turban ornamented with monkey-skin, white trousers and black blouse with a red
band. All are armed with guns.
"' Mtesa takes his place on his throne, which is a wooden seat in the shape
of an office arm-chair; his feet rest upon a cushion; the whole placed on a leop-
ard's skin spread over a Smyrna carpet. Before the king is a highly-polished
elephant's tusk, and at his feet are two boxes containing fetiches; on either side
the throne is a lance (one copper, the other steel), each held by a guard; these are
the insignia of Uganda; the dog which Speke mentions has been done away with.
Crouching at the foot of the king are the vizier and two scribes.
Mtesa is dignified in his manner, and does not lack a certain natural air of
distinction; his dress is elegant-a white couftan finished with a red band, stock-
ings, slippers, vest of black cloth embroidered with gold, and a tarbouche with
a silver plate on the top. He wears a sword with ivory-inlaid hilt (a Zanzibar
weapon), and a staff.
I exhibited my presents, which Mtesa scarcely pretended to see, his dignity
forbidding him to show any curiosity.
"'I address the traveller, who sits in front of me, on the left of the king:
SHave I the honor of speaking to Mr. Cameron ?"
STANLEY. No, sir; Mr. Stanley."
"' MYSELF. M. Linant de Bellefonds, member of the Gordon-Pasha Expedi-
"' We bow low to each other, as though we had met in a drawing-room, and
our conversation is at an end for the moment.
"' This meeting with Mr. Stanley greatly surprises me. Stanley was far from
my thoughts; I was totally ignorant of the object of his expedition.
"'I take leave of the king, who meanwhile has been amusing himself by
making my unlucky soldiers parade and flourish their trumpets. I shake hands
with Mr. Stanley, and ask him to honor me with his presence at dinner.'
Colonel Linant de Bellefonds having thus described our meeting, there re-
mains but little for me to add.
"As soon as I saw him approaching the burzah, I recognized him to be a
Fenchman. Not being introduced to him-and as I was then but a mere guest
M. LINANT DE BELLEFONDS. 85
of Mtesa, with whom it was M. Linant's first desire to converse-I simply bowed
to him, until he had concluded addressing the emperor, when our introduction
took place as he has described.
"I was delighted at seeing him, and much more delighted when I discovered
that M. Linant was a very agreeable man. I observed that there was a vast differ-
ence between his treatment of his men and the manner in which I treated mine,
and that his intercourse with the Waganda was conducted after exactly opposite
principles to those which governed my conduct. He adopted a half-military style
which the Waganda ill brooked, and many things uncomplimentary to him were
uttered by them. He stationed guards at the entrance to his courtyard to keep
the Waganda at a distance, except those bearing messages from Mtesa, while my
courtyard was nearly full of Watongolehs, soldiers, pages, children, with many a
HEAD OF A "MADOQUA --SPECIES OF ANTELOPE.
dark-brown woman listening with open ears to my conversation with the Waganda.
In fact, my courtyard from morning to night swarmed with all classes, for I loved
to draw the natives to talk, so that perfect confidence might be established between
us, and I might gain an insight into their real natures. By this freer converse
with them I became, it seemed, a universal favorite, and obtained information
sufficient to fill two octavo volumes.
"M. Linant passed many pleasant hours with me. Though he had started,
from Cairo previous to my departure from Zanzibar, and consequently could com-
municate no news from Europe, I still felt that for a brief period I enjoyed civil-
ized life. The religious conversations which I had begun with Mtesa were main-
tained in the presence of M. Linant de Bellefonds; when questioned by Mtesa
about the facts which I had uttered, and which had been faithfully transcribed, M.
86 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
Linant, to Mtesa's astonishment, employed nearly the same words, and delivered
the same responses. The remarkable fact that two white men, who had never met
before, one having arrived from the southeast, the other having emerged from the
north, should nevertheless both know the same things, and respond in the same
words, charmed the popular mind without the burzah as a wonder, and was treas-
ured in Mtesa's memory as being miraculous.
"The period of my stay with Mtesa drew to a close, and I requested leave to
depart, '...*_,, the fulfilment of a promise he had made to me that he would
furnish me with transport sufficient to convey the expedition by water from Kage-
hyi in Usukuma to Uganda. Nothing loath, since one white man would continue
his residence with him till my return, and being eager to see the gifts I told him
were safe at Usukuma, he gave his permission, and commanded Magassa to collect
thirty canoes, and to accompany me to my camp. On the 15th of April, then, escorted
by Magassa and his Watongolehs, and also by M. Linant and ten of his Nubian
soldiers, we left Rubaga and arrived at Usavara.
"In the evening I concluded my letters dated 14th of April, 1875, which were
sent to the Daily Telegraph and the New York Herald, the English and American
journals I represented here, appealing for a Christian mission to be sent to Mtesa.
The appeal, written hurriedly, and included in the letter left at Usavara, was
"' I have, indeed, undermined Islamism so much here that Mtesa has deter-
mined henceforth, until he is better informed, to observe the Christian Sabbath as
well as the Moslem Sabbath, and the great captains have unanimously consented to
this. He has further caused the Ten Commandments of Moses to be written on a
board for his daily perusal-for Mtesa can read Arabic-as well as the Lord's
Prayer and the golden commandment of our Saviour, Thou shalt love thy neighbor
as thyself." This is great progress for the few days that I have remained with
him, and, though I am no missionary, I shall begin to think that I might become
one if such success is feasible. But, oh! that some pious, practical missionary
would come here! What a field and harvest ripe for the sickle of civilization I
Mtesa would give him anything he desired-houses, lands, cattle, ivory, etc.; he
might call a province his own in one day. It is not the mere preacher, however,
that is wanted here. The bishops of Great Britain collected, with all the classic
youth of Oxford and Cambridge, would effect nothing by mere talk with the in-
telligent people of Uganda. It is the practical Christian tutor, who can teach
people how to become Christians, cure their diseases, construct dwellings, under-
stand and exemplify agriculture, and turn his hand to anything, like a sailor-this
is the man who is wanted. Such a one, if he can be found, would become the
saviour of Africa. He must be tied to no church or sect, but profess God and his
Son and the moral law, and live a blameless Christian, inspired by liberal prin-
ciples, charity to all men, and devout faith in Heaven. He must belong to no
nation in particular, but to the entire white race. Such a man, or men, Mtesa,
Emperor of Uganda, Usoga, Unyoro, and Karagw--an empire three hundred and
sixty geographical miles in length, by fifty in breadth-invites to repair to him.
IHe has begged me to tell the white men that, if they will only come to him, he
will give them all they want. Now, where is there in all the pagan world a more
promising field for a mission than Uganda ? Colonel Linant de Bellefonds is my
A .RM-ISS.ON A..G O-N_
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F~l~STO -15 ,
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SHGAGUHUEA FRCNMSSO TAIN WT RVEO RS IINSOE
88 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
witness that I speak the truth, and I know he will corroborate all I say. The
colonel, though a Frenchman, is a Calvinist, and has become as ardent a well-wisher
for the Waganda as I am. Then why further spend needlessly vast sums upon
black pagans of Africa who have no example of their own people becoming Chris-
tians before them? I speak to the Universities Mission at Zanzibar and to the
Free Methodists at Mombasa, to the leading philanthropists and the pious people
of England-. Here, gentlemen, is your opportunity-embrace it! The people on
the shores of the Nyanza call upon you. Obey your own generous instincts, and
listen to them; and I assure you that in one year you will have more converts to
Christianity than all other missionaries united can number. The population of
Mtesa's kingdom is very dense; I estimate the number of his subjects at two
millions. You need not fear to spend money upon such a mission, as Mtesa is
sole ruler, and will repay its cost tenfold with ivory, coffee, otter-skins of a very
fine quality, or even in cattle, for the wealth of this country in all these products
is immense. The road here is by the Nile, or via Zanzibar, Ugogo, and Unyan-
yemb6. The former route, so long as Colonel Gordon governs the countries of the
Upper Nile, seems the most feasible."'
"When the letters were written and sealed I committed, them to the charge
of Colonel Linant. My friend promised he would await my return from Usukuma;
meanwhile he lent me a powerful field-glass, as mine, being considerably injured,
had been given to Mtesa.
The parting between M. Linant and myself I shall allow him to describe:
"' At 5 A.M. drums are beaten; the boats going with Stanley are collecting
"' Mr. Stanley and myself are soon ready. The Lady Alice is unmoored;
luggage, sheep, goats, and poultry are already stowed away in their places. There
is nothing to be done except to hoist the American flag and head the boat south-
ward. I accompany Stanley to his boat; we shake hands and commend each
other to the care of God. Stanley takes the helm; the Lady Alice immediately
swerves like a spirited horse, and bounds forward lashing the water of the Nyanza
into foam. The starry flag is hoisted, and floats proudly in the breeze; I imme-
diately raise a loud hurrah with such hearty good-will as perhaps never before
greeted the traveller's ears.
"' The Lady Alice is already far away. We wave our handkerchiefs as a
last farewell; my heart is full; I have just lost a brother. I had grown used to
seeing Stanley, the open-hearted, sympathetic man and friend and admirable travel-
ler. With him I forgot my fatigue; this meeting had been like a return to my
own country. His engaging, instructive conversation made the hours pass like
minutes. I hope I may see him again, and have the happiness of spending several
days with him.'"
One of the youthful auditors asked at this point what became of
Colonel Linant de Bellefonds. Fred replied as follows to the inquiry:
He remained about six weeks at Mtesa's court, looking for the return
of Mr. Stanley. The latter was delayed in various ways, and finally
Colonel Linant started on his return to Gondokoro, to report to his supe-
rior officer, Gordon Pasha. He had a severe battle with the natives of
MAGASSA'S INEFFICIENCY. S9
Unyoro; it lasted several hours, but he managed to escape and reach
Gordon Pasha's headquarters. In the following August he was sent on
an expedition among the Bari tribe, and, at a place called Labore, he and
all the men accompanying him were killed. He was an efficient officer,
and was greatly liked by those with whom he served.
Mr. Stanley was greatly delayed on his return to Usukuma," Fred
continued, "by the inefficiency of Magassa and his habits of procrasti-
nation. He did not assemble the required number of canoes which
Mtesa had promised, and when Stanley sent him for more he returned
W OS OF UPPER .
WARRIORS OF THE UPPER NILE REGION.
90 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
without them. His whole course of action was one of duplicity, and
caused a great deal of trouble and delay to the expedition. Stanley was
not sufficiently powerful to force him to obey, and he was too far away
from Mtesa's capital to inform the king of the bad conduct of his lieu-
"On the way down the coast Mr. Stanley explored the Alexandra
Nile for a short distance. He reported it about five hundred yards wide
at its mouth, and narrowed to a width of one hundred yards about two
miles above. Its current was so strong that the LadZ / Alice breasted it
with difficulty, and, after an ascent of three miles, the attempt to go
farther was abandoned. In one place a depth of eighty-five feet was
obtained with the sounding-line, and it was evident that the volume of
water discharged by the river is very large. The people residing in the
valley of the Alexandra Nile call it the mother of the river at Jinga,'
or the Ripon Falls.
"At Bumbireh Island the expedition stopped to purchase food, of
which they had run short, but the natives proved to be unfriendly.
Bumbireh is about eleven miles long by two in width, and has a popu-
lation estimated at four thousand, scattered in some fifty villages. H-ere
is Mr. Stanley's account of his experiences at this island.
"At 9 A.M. we discovered a cove near the southeast end of the long island,
and pulled slowly into it. Immediately the natives rushed down the slopes, shout-
ing war-cries and uttering fierce ejaculations. When about fifty yards from the
shore I bade the men cease rowing, but Safeni and Baraka became eloquent, and
said, It is almost always the case, master, with savages. They cry out and threat-
en. and look big, but you will see that all that noise will cease as soon as they hear
us speak. Besides, if we leave here without food, where shall we obtain it ?'
The last argument was unanswerable, and though I gave no orders to resume
their oars, four of the men impelled the boat on slowly, while Safeni and Baraka
prepared themselves to explain to the natives, who were now close within hearing,
as they came rushing to the water's edge. I saw some lift great stones, while oth-
ers prepared their bows.
We were now about ten yards from the beach, and Safeni and Baraka spoke,
earnestly pointing to their mouths, and by gestures explaining that their bellies
were empty. They smiled with insinuating faces; uttered the words 'brothers,'
' friends,' good fellows,' most volubly; cunningly interpolated the words Mtesa-
the kabaka--Uganda, and Antari, King of Ihangiro, to whom Bumbirch belongs.
Safeni and Baraka's pleasant volubility seemed to have produced a good effect,
for the stones were dropped, the bows were unstrung, and the lifted spears low-
ered to assist the steady, slow-walking pace with which they now advanced.
"Safeni and Baraka turned to me triumphantly, and asked, What did we say,
master?' and then, with engaging frankness, invited the natives, who were now
about two hundred in number, to come closer. The natives consulted a little while,
EB L r
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6- - '--
... .5 u- -.
tCPINA UEIt SAD lTlIkN~NA
92 THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO.
and several-now smiling pleasantly themselves-advanced leisurely into the water
until they touched the boat's prow. They stood a few seconds talking sweetly,
when suddenly, with a rush, they ran the boat ashore; and then all the others,
seizing hawser and gunwale, dragged her about twenty yards over the rocky beach
high and dry, leaving us almost stupefied with astonishment !
"Then ensued a scene which beggars description. A forest of spears was lev-
elled; thirty or forty bows were drawn taut; as many barbed arrows seemed
already on the wing; thick, knotty clubs waved above our heads; two hundred
screaming black demons jostled with each other, and .ti,,,._._l.1 for room to vent
their fury, or for an opportunity to deliver one crushing blow or thrust at us.
In the meantime, as soon as the first symptoms of this manifestation of violence
had been observed, I had sprung to my feet, each hand armed with a loaded self-
cocking revolver. But the apparent hopelessness of inflicting much injury upon
such a large crowd restrained me, and Safeni turned to me, though almost cowed
to dumbness by the loud fury around us, and pleaded with me to be patient. I
complied, seeing that I should get no aid from my crew; but, while bitterly blam-
ing myself for my imprudence in having yielded-against my instincts-to placing
myself in the power of such savages, I vowed that, if I escaped this once, my own
judgment should guide my actions for the future.
"I assumed a resigned air, though I still retained my revolvers. My crew
also bore the first outburst of the tempest of shrieking rage which assailed them
with almost sublime imperturbability. Safeni crossed his arms with the meekness
of a saint. Baraka held his hands palms outward, asking, with serene benignity,
'What, my friends, ails you ? Do you fear empty hands and smiling people like
us ? We are friends; we came, as friends, to buy food, two or three bananas, a
few mouthfuls of grain or potatoes or muhogo (cassava), and, if you permit us, we
shall depart as friends.'
Our demeanor had a great effect. The riot and noise seemed to be subsid-
ing, when some fifty new-comers rekindled the smouldering fury. Again the for-
est of spears swayed on the launch, again the knotty clubs were whirled aloft,
again the bows were drawn, and again the barbed arrows seemed flying. Safeni
received a push which sent him tumbling; little Kirango received a blow on the
head with a spear-staff; Saramba gave a cry as a club descended on his back.
I sprang up this time to remonstrate, with the two revolvers in my left hand.
I addressed myself to an elder, who seemed to be restraining the people from
proceeding too far. I showed him beads, cloth, wire, and invoked the names of
Mtesa, and Antari their king.
"The sight of the heaps of beads and cloth I exposed awakened, however,
the more deliberate passions of selfishness and greed in each heart. An attempt
at massacre, they began to argue, would certainly entail the loss of some of them-
selves. 'Guns might be seized, and handled with terrible effect, even by dying
men, and who knows what those little iron things in the white man's hands are ?'
they seemed to be asking themselves. The elder, whatever he thought, responded
with an affectation of indignation, raised his stick, and to the right and left of
him drove back the demoniac crowd. Other prominent men now assisted this
elder, whom we subsequently discovered to be Shekka, the King of Bumbireh.
"Shekka then, having thus bestirred himself, beckoned to half a dozen men,