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UFPKY NEH LSTA



Florida farmer & fruit grower
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055763/00048
 Material Information
Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower
Uniform Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower (Jacksonville, Fla. 1887)
Alternate title: Florida farmer and fruit grower
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill. ; 50 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: C.H. Jones & Brother
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: March 23, 1887
Publication Date: 1887-1889
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1887)-v. 3, no. 3 (Jan. 16, 1889).
General Note: A.H. Curtiss, editor.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000454290
oclc - 11040152
notis - ACL6442
lccn - sn 95026760
System ID: UF00055763:00048
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch (Live Oak, Fla.)
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch and farmer and fruit grower

Full Text





























VOL. 1---NO). 12.


JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MARCH


PRICE


$2 A YEAR.





23,


1887.


Introduction of Teosinte. A GRASS FOR WINTER PASTURE.
This magnificent grass, a native of -
South America, has been introduced Texas Blue Grass Successfully
;into cultivation within a few yeirs in Cultivated in Florida.
nearly all sub-tropical country es. It has UlV d o a.
been grown in Florida for the past six BY W. P. HORNE.
or eight years, but in a desultory manner We have found at last what Florida
owing to the difficulty of reproduction. has always needed to make her stand at
It has been discovered of late, however, the head of all the States, and that is a
that good seed may be matured in the winter grass for stock
southern counties. Two years ago I saw this grass adver-
In this connection it is int resting to tised in a Texas paper. I sent and
read the following, which was written bought one thousand plants, and a dol-
by the eminent botanist, Prof. Asa lar's worth of seed, and planted it in
,Gray, for the American Agriculturist, in March on a ich piece of land which had
1880: been cow-penned the ye r before.
The Director of the Botanic Garden The first year I kept it well cultivated,
and Government Plantation at Adelaide, by keeping all the weeds and grass hoed
S. Australia, reports favorably of this out. It grew and did better than I had
strong-growing, corn-1 ke forage plant, expected. After the first year's trial I
the Euchlkana luxurians:;14at the pre- saw that it would do well to keep it
vailing dryness did not injure the plants, cultivated during the summer months.
which preserved their healthy green, Now, the next thing I wanted to know
while the blades of the other grasses was, would it grow and do well in this
suffered materially. The habit of throw- State without cultivating, for it would
ing out young shoots is remarkable, 60 not pay to cultivate gr s3.
or 80 rising to a height of 5 or 6 feet. Last winter I set out another patch of
Further north, at Palmerston (nearer the it, adjoining the one I set the year be-
equator), in the course of 5 or 6 months, fore. It grow some during the winner.
the plant reached the height of twelve In the spring the crab grass came up
to fourteen feet, and the stems on one amonz it as thick as it could grow, and
plant numbered 56 The plants, after soon had my Texas grass covered up
mowing down, grew again several feet head and ears. By August the crab
in a few days The cattle delight in it ,grass was three feet high, and it looked
in a fresh state; also when dry. impossible for anything to live under it.
Undoubtedly there is not a more pro- I really thought that I should never see
lific forage plant known; but, as it is es- another sprig of my Texas blue grass.
sentially tropical in its habits, this About the first of September I had the
luxuriant growth is found in trop cal crab grass cut for hay. I then saw, to
or sub-tropical climates. The chief draw' my astonishment, that my grass was not
back to its culture with us will be that dead, bit was as green as it could be. I
the ripening of the seed crop will be turned three or four milch cows on the
problematical, as early frosts will kill the patch to eat out the crab grass. That
#plant. To make the Teosinte a most was in September. I noticed that the
useful plant in Texas and along our cows would rather eat the blue grass.
whole southwestern border, the one 'But after keeping them on the patch,
,.,thing needful is to develop early flower- most of the days for three weeks, we had
ing varieties, so a3 to ge' seed before frost, a very windy day, and it being very dry
And this could be done without doubt, last fall I put fire in and burnt the
if some one in Texas or Florida would whole thing off-blue grass and all.
set about it. What it has taken ages to In a few days the blue grass came up
do in the case of Indian corn, in an un- and commenced to thicken and spread
conscious way, might be ma'nly done in all over the ground. In a few weeks it
a human life-time by rightly directed was five or six inches high. I have kept
care and vigorous selection. Who is the a colt and two calves on it nearly all
man who is going to make millions of winter. Whenever they had eaten it
blades of grass grow where none of any down, I took them out for a few days.
account ever grew before? I think it has been grazed down five or
S* *six times the past winter. I am keeping
Cultivation Of TeOSinte. the stock off of it now and will let it
A correspondent of the Southern-Live grow up and go to seed in May. After
Stock Journal, writing presumably from that time it does not grow much until
Mississippi, describ-s his experience with fall.
the Teosinte or Guatemala grass, as fol- I have given this grass the worst
lows: chance I could think of just to see if I
I never in my life before saw anything could kill it and to thoroughly test it,
like grass or corn that would yi-ld near and after trying it for two years I am
so much to the acre as Teosinte. It grew perfectly satisfied that the Texas blue
from about 11 to 15 and 16 feet high and grass is a grand success in Florida. With
averaged from 12 to 35 stalks to each this grass Florida will be redeemed.
hill. The leaves grew very long and With her fine climate there is nothing to
thick, making a dense mass of beautiful keep her behind any of her sister States
fodder. It grew so thick and made so for stock raising.
much shade that scarcely a sprig of grass Major Carlos Reese, of Marion, Ala.,
or weeds could grow with it. This was says that every acre planted in this grass
indeed a grand sight to behold, many is worth one hundred dollars, and I fully
came to witness it and were much agree with him. I am certain that if I
pleased, had ten acres of this grass, on good rich
I planted my seed about the first of land, it would take a good deal of money
May, in rows 8 feet apart, and two seeds to buy it.
to each hill, about 18 inches apart in the I find that October is the best tima to
drill. When it came up I filled missing plant the sets and also to sow the seed,
places by transplanting and replanting, but it will grow any time before April,
A portion of my land was good brown and if cul ivated some will grow on un-
bottom and other portions were hillside, til June.
red clay land, rather poor. I bedded my I will give your readers my plan of
land with single horse plows, then har- planting it. Have a piece of land well
rowed it off.wi'h a sharp tooth harrow manured until it is rich-rich land suits
and planteZ my seed with a Calhoun anything best. To have it grow off fast
corn-planter. and spread quickly, the richer the land
When t'ei plants were up and large the better. Break the land well and
enough to work, I scraped off the rows harrow it until smooth. Mark the rows
with a cotton scraper, hoed out the grass off twenty inches apart with a hoe
and weeds, ''and then ran a bull tongue handle or narrow hoe, something just to
around the plants. I then sprinkled a make a mark so as it can be seen Drop
s mall quantity of Stern's fertilizers in single plants about twenty inches apar .
the furrow on one side; I covered this Set the plants as you would cabbage
by running two furrows with 22-inch plants If the soil should be dry, water
sweep, When the plants were three feet once. They are very easy to live..
high, I ran'the sweep as before, cleaning Prepare the land the same way for
everything and plowing out middles planting the seed. Mark the rows one
'same time. This was all the plowing inch deep and cover very shallow, the
done, a "ttle hoeing was done after- same as for turnip seed. The seed are
* wards. 2.- grew so fast and shaded the very fine and light, and you will have to
ground so quick, the grass and weeds pinch off and drop a few seed at a time.
could not grow. I generally kick a little dirt on them and
I cut pari, of this and fed to my horses, step on the seed to keep the soil down.
, mu'es, cows, calves ani hogs. They all New land is best for planting the seed,
. ate it greedily and wanted more. It is as very little grass will come up until
i.weet,.1ike sorghum. I cut the balance the plant can get a start to grow. Let
of this crop about September 20th, and me say to all who may wish to plant the
put in my silo green. It was so long and seed, do not put them on grassy land.
unhandy, I had it cut in two pieces. As the seed and plants are very small
None of this matured any seed. I left a and delicate, it takes some time for the
few bills--there: were tassels but no plants to become strong enough to grow
seed. y l a among grass and weeds. When the seed
I opened my silo a short time ago, and first comes up the young grass is as fine
- have been feeding ensilage composed of as cambric'needles, and it requires some
teosinte, mrllo maize, chicken corn and attention .to keep them clean. But after


a small lot of common corn. I found the plants have rooted well it will take
, .Some o f it green and sweet, some nicely thunder and lightning to kill them. It
dried, and tome sour, and a good many puts me in mind of a young gosling.
rotten, spots from leaks by careless cov- When young they are very tender and
ering. easily hurt, but when grown up you can-
My stock are very fond of the Teosinte not pull one's head off.
green or .dried. I am highly. pleased Well, Mr. Editor, the Texas blue
With all results so far, and don't know grass is a success in Baker county, but,
anything that I would recommend soon- as the old woman said, the proof of the,
er-for forage or ensilage. pudding is to chew the bag. Now to


prove that this grass is a success here, I
invite any one who would like to see it
growing to come up to Glen St. Mary,
and I wi 1 take pleasure in showing them
my patch.
The reason why I offer this induce-
ment is that some time ago I noticed, in
some paper published in this State, that
some man in South Florida said that the
Texas blue grass was a failure there. I
,hink he must have planted it on the top
of a saud scrub, where the land was so
poor that it would not grow a gopher.
Let me say, in conclusion, that if any
of your readers wish to try any of the
plants or seed, I can spare a few of
each.
PEACH HILL NURSERIES,
Glen St. Mary, Fla.
The Texas Blue Grass.
The cultivation of this excellent grass
seems not to have been attempted, even
in its native State, earlier than the year
1876. The success which has attended
its culture in Texas may be gathered
from the following extracts from an ar-
ticle on the subject contained in a recent
report of the Department of Agricul-
ture;
The Poa arachnifera, locally called


should a man want hay when he can
hAve green grass to feed on? With a
pasture well set in this grass you cannot
run after your cows fast enough to get
them to eat hay in our coldest weather.
Very few of our farmers are paying any
attention to grass, but most of them are
raising cotton to the exclusion of corn,
wheat, oats, etc., and I am convinced
it will take some very severe lessons in
experience to teach them that grass is
the main stake in agriculture, either as
hay or pasture."
Mr. C. B. Richardson, of Henderson,
Texas, says of the same grass, the seed
of which he obtained from Mr. Hogan:
"I planted the seed in the spring in
three short rowson quite a poor, sAndy
spot in my garden. They came up well
and grew finely until the dry weather
set in about the middle of June. It then
appeared to dry up and I decided it to
be a failure on high, sandy lands. But
when the rains came on in September it
started up afresh and is now (March 27)
six inches high, after having been eaten
to the ground in December and again in
January. I planted the rows two feet
apart, and while it was young kept
down the crab grasss. Now it has en-
tirely sodded the space between the rows


by the aid of a lens. be identified with
certainty, they may be distinguished
apart by any one acquainted w ith them
as far as they can be seen. Blue grass
has a blue green color, and but few
stems spring from a single point; E ton's
grass has a yellow-green co or, and it in-
clines to grow in tufts or stools. In the
latter respect it has the same habit of
growth as wheat and oats; on poor
ground there may be but one stem,while
in rich ground the stems are very nu-
merous. Blue grass has a looser seed-
top and it speads by underground run-
ners stolonss); Eaton's grass has fine,
fibrous roots and it multiplies by seed,
which is produced in abundance.
As there is scarcely another grass that
goes to seed in March or April it is easy
enough to detect the Eatonia where it
grows. We have found it rather spar-
ingly along road sides and in cultivated
fields, and from its behavior on tilled
ground we have been led to believe that
if sowed as blue grass and red-top are
sowed it would afford excellent pastur-
age during a portion of winter and
spring.
During its season of growth there are
no weeds to interfere with it, hence it
could be cut in very clean condition. It
might occupy the same ground with
crab grass and the two would afford
pasturage almost the year round. When
Florida's experimental farm is establish-
ed we hope to see the merits of Eaton's
grass tested. Meanwhile we recommend
anyone who can identify it to give it a
trial. The middle of fall is probably the
best time for sowing it.
A. H. C.
Botanical Notes.
When last at Key West and on the
point of leaving, we heard a report that
there was on Long Keyla grove of the
royal palm. Surmising that it might
prove to be the newly discovered chamee-
phoenix Sargentii, we requested Prof.
Sargent to investigate'the matter on his
trip to the keys in November last.
On the very day that our article on
the new palm went to press we received
a letter from Prof. Sargent, dated Feb.
17, saying, "I have learned this winter
that the growth of palms on the east end
of Long Key belong to our new species."
Long Key is situated some sixty miles
from Elliott's Key, where this palm was
discovered, half way between there and
Key West. As Long Key is not much
cultivated it is to be hoped that this
grove will not be molested by the axe-
man.
On the 1st of March Prof. Sargent
wrote as follows: "I am going to start
for Texas in a few days and shall proba-
bly stop a week at Key West with Lieut.
Hubbard for the purpose of exploring
the keys a little further. If I do this I
shall be able, perhaps, to find out some-
thing more about the palm.
"Why don't you go down to Lake
George in May and hunt up Illicium par
viflorumP As you know, it has never
been collected since the days of Michaux.
It ought not to be difficult to find. He
speah'of it as very comm:non to the south
of the Lake."
We hope that some of our readers who
reside in the neighborhood of Lake
George will make a search for this
shrub. It oughtto flower this year in
April and May. Later it may be rec-
ognized by its star-shaped seed heads.
It will be found to bear a general re-
semblance to the bana: a shrub (Magno-
liafuscata), both in flowers and foliage,
but the leaves are more clustered, like
those of a laurel. According to Mich-
aux's description the flowers are about
three-fourths of an inch in diameter and
consist of from six to twelve roundish
concave yellow petals. Probably the
color is a dull yellow or greenish yellow.
The crushed leaves will be found to
emit an anise-like odor, and the bark to
have rather a acrid flavor.
Like other species of star-anise it
will be found to be a handsome shrub,
well worthy of cultivation. Like the
Magnoha cordata and Gordonia pubes-
cens, it has been lost sight of by botanists
for half a century or more. The person
who re-discovers either will do a good
service. It may be looked for anywhere
in northeastern Florida and will proba-
bly be found in bay-heads or ham-
mocks. A. H. C.
FIBRE PLANTS.'

Discoveries and Inventions ofD.
P. Burden, ofSanford.
BY D. R. PILsanv*
Probably no display made at the re-
cent South Florida Fair at Orlando was
worthy of more attention, or signified
more for Florida than the unostentatious


showing of samples of fibre from
various plants, exhibited by the
inventor of the wonderfully simple and
economical processes for its separation.
The Boards of Trade of Sanford and
Jacksonville could not do a wiser thing
than to secure complete samples for an
exhibit in their rooms, for the inspection
of strangers and capitalists, and pay the
industrious inventor a handsome sum


for them too. His expenses for experi-
ments and patents must begreat, and no
ducats coming in.
The simplicity of the separating pro
ceys, its rapidity, only a minute or two
being required to remove thecuticle, the
pulpy and coloring material, leaving the
fibres white, clean and the full length of
the stalk or leaf; no long continued mac-
eration and bleaching; no hetchelling, as
the fibres are perfectly independent.
The proportionally large amount of
fibre to the bulk of leaf is noticeable, one-
third or over of some of the plants
show.j, and these are plants growing al-
most without care. Some of them, nota-
bly bear grass, grow wild, on the mean-
est, dryest, and most utterly worthless
lands and wou'd need only to be planted
and leaves gathered, with a period of
three or four months for harvest. It
seems to solve the problem of getting
something out of nothing. It would
niake the waste places glad and the
desert to blossom as the rose.
I doubt whether a spot can be found
too dry, too sandy, or any other way
too poor to produce a heavy growth of this
Yucca (bear grass), which produces a fibre
two to four feet long, of great strength
and excellence. The Mexican Agave is
a plant of wonderfully rapid growth.
Mr. Burdon has had thirty pounds from
one plant in one year. As one plant re-
quires but one square yard of ground,
and as the fibre is worth at least six to
seven cents per pound, while the cost of
manufacture is not over one end one
half cents, the margin of profit is very
large.
The number of plants abounding in
fibre, adapted to Florda soil and climate
is to be noticed; Mexicm Agave grows
rapidly, makes a soft silky fibre; Banana,
soft, long and beautiful; Spanish bayo-
net, fine and strong; pine-apple, finest
and silkiest of all, may be called fine as
silk.
The Pita grass, indigenous in Cuba,
will grow here; its fibre is four to five
feet long and as strong as silk The
Spanish maguey, whose fibre is imported
from South America, grows spontane-
ously there, is a rapid grower and not
exhaustive to the soil. A syndicate has
control of the imported market, the
amount reaching 12,000,000 pounds an-
nually, on which a profit of 10 to 12
cents is made. The business is vast and
has great promise for Florida.
SANFORD, Fla., March 14.
0 0
Olive Culture.
D. F. Newsom, of Arroyo Grande, hav-
ing been asked to give his experience in
olive culture, thus writes on the subject
to the San Luis Obispo Register: "I
think February and March the best
months for planting cuttings, which
should be about eight incha long, and
put into the ground seven inches, slight-
ly inclining north, They shAould be
planted in rows convenient for irrigat-
ing, and should be watered every ten or
fifteen days. When well rooted trans-
plant where wanted-to grow. Plenty of
sand will cause the cuttings to root
quicker.
"Any one who starts to raise olives with
an idea of obtaining berries in less than
ten years, will in all probability be dis-
appointed; neither should they think -of
neglecting either cuttings or trees. I an
now gathering my olives and preparing
them for pickle.
"For oil making, the olive should be
ripe. Father Gomez, who was Mission
Priest at San Luis Obispo while I was
County Clerk and ex-officio School Super-
intendent from 1853 to 1857, assisted me
in many ways, and had me to assist him,
in both picking olives and making oil;
either can be done with little expense.
For making oil, Father Gomez used an
old mill-stone to crush the berries, he
then put them in a copper kettle with a
spout on one side and a handle opposite;
the kettle was suspended over the-fire
and filled to the top with water, the oil
rose to the surface and was poured off,
and more water added until the oil was
extracted."
*
Southern Plums.
No species of plum seems to succeed so
well in the South as the Chickasaw and
its descendants. We no not say that
others will not grow and prove satis-
factory, but, in general, they have not
done so. From the Chickasaw comes the
Wild Goose, so called from the fable that
the original seed was taken from the crop
of a wild goose. This, of course, is not
impossible, but it is improbable.
From the same source came the Mari-
anna plum, propagated by that experien-
ced and reliable horticulturist, J. V.
Munson, of Denison, Tex. This new


candidate for public favor claims to be
large, early, good quality, curculio-proof,
rapid grower, free from thorns, orna-
mental, and does not sucker. Surely
these good qualities will recommend it
to every lover of plums among our fruit
growing and loving friends. We might
mention other highly recommended
varieties, but have not sufficient data on
hand at present to give a decidedOpinion
as to their merits --Times-Democrat.


q<


TEXAS BLUE GRAQ
a.-Young plant startinzi from st
c.-Splkelet of flo
d.-Eaton's Grass (Eatoi


.S (Poa arachnifera.)
tolon. b. -Flower top or panicle.
owers (maatufled.)
nia obtusattv-magnified.)
by mean of its runners. It stood the
very hot'and dry summer when only
four months from the seed. I am much
pleased with it, and intend to save seed
and plant a meadow in the fall."


Texas blue grass, has been known for
many years as one of,the native grasses
of Texas, and during the past six years
has been made the subject of some ex-
tended experiments chiefly by Mr. Geo.
H. Hogan, of Ennis, Ellis county. We
give below some extracts from his letters
relating to the subject;
"I call it Texas blue grass, and if it
were possible to patent it I would not give
it for all the mineral wealth of Texas. I
find it spreading rapidly over the coun-
try, and I claim for it all and more in
Texas than is awarded to the Poapraten-
sis i i Kentucky. It seems to be indigen-
ous to all the prairie country be-
tween the Trinity river and the Brazos
in our State. It blooms here about the
last of March, and ripens its seeds by the
15th of April.
"Stock of all kinds, and even poultry,
seem to prefer it to wheat, rye, or any-
thing else grown in the winter. It seems
to have all the characteristics of the
Poa pratensis, only it is much larger and
therefore affords more grazing. I have
known it to grow ten inches in ten days
during the winter. The coldest winters
do not even nip it, and although it seems
to die down during the summer it
springs up as soon as the first rains fall
in September and grows all winter. I
have known it in cultivation some five
years and have never been able to find
a fault in it. It will be ready for pas-
ture in three or four weeks after the first
rains in the latter part of August or first
of September.
'I have never cut it for hay. Why


*
A Valuable Spring Grass.
There i a grass to be found at this
time of the year in perfect development,
to which ive wish to call special atten-
tion, believing that it may be made use-
ful for early pastures. Its botanical
name commemorates that of-Prof. Amos
Eaton, whose botanical works were
standard text books fifty years ago.
Eatonia obtusata is its botanical name,
and for noriten vulgare we will call it
Eaton's gras.
We ha thought to have our artist
represent beside the blue grass, but
conclude e could not make it look
materially different from that-unless
he picture tle roots-so we had him
represent simply the "spikelets" of flow-
ers, whickwill be seen to be very differ-
ent from that of the blue grass. In
Eaton's grass there are two smooth
flowers supported by a pair of glumess"
which are very unlike each other, the
larger being remarkably obtuse, whence
the specific name obtusata. In the blue
grass both glumes are narrow and acute
and the tht'ee to five flowers usually bear
a tuft of extremely fine hair at the base,
whence thq specific name arachnifera
(pronounced a-rak-itif-e-ra), which may
be translated cobweb-bearing.
While either of these grasses may thus,





of their patronage. With best wishes
for its success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and patronage,
feeling assured for the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.'
[From the Mariana Courier.]
The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER, published by C. H. Jone, &
Bro., proprietors of the Times- Union at
Jacksonville, is now on our table. The
initial number of this publication proves
plainly its aim and purpose, and it will
ee of vast importance to the fruit grow-


90


will do me the honor to publish what
follows:
The ravages of the phylloxera can
never be understood, nor the efficacy of
suggested remedies duly appreciated,
unless the natural history of the insect
be first studied. Being somewhat difficult
to popularize, the following description
will, it is hoped, be sufficiently clear,
though by many it may be considered
too bald, while to others the order of
presenting the facts may appear unsci-
entific.
The life of the insect, which somewhat
resembles a beetle, goes on in a contin-
uous round, called by the French a vicious
circle. Like the silkworm, it undergoes
many changes-always three, sometimes
five. Those which have five changes
possess wings, are called nymphs, and
are capable of flying in a swarm for five
miles or so. Let our circle begin in
August with the nymphs busily moving
on the ground and on the stems of the
vines. When ready, the swarm takes to
flight, and being aided by a fine sense of
smell and vision, alights a few miles off
on a vineyard, then in its greatest fra-
grance. The nymphs are all females,
and soon begin to lay their eggs, of
which the large ones are females, the
small ones males-the only appearance
of the mqle in the vicious circle. In
twenty days the young insects are fully
grown, when the pairing at once begins,
and in a few days more one egg is laid,
generally in the exfoliations of the stem.
It is called the winter egg. The parents
die and the egg remains where it is laid
untii the following April, when it is
hatched. The young insect, a female,
travels usually down the stem and enters
the ground. There it fixes its proboscis
into the root, lays thirty eggs, all fe-
males, and dies. The eggs soon come to
maturity, and the young ones, behaving
as their parents, pursue their course fur-
ther into the ground, when each lays
thirty eggs, all females, and dies. There
may be eight generations in one year,
but if only five generations, the number
produced at the same rate would be
25,000,000 insects from one ancestor. In
winter the process is suspended but it is
continued during the summer months of
the three following years, at the end of
which period it is supposed to be ex-
hausted, having produced from one an-
cestor a number of millions of insects far
beyond the power of human mind to
conceive. Who, then, can wonder that
the vines no longer retain their vitality ?
As before described, the insects, which
descend far into the ground, have only
three changes, and they have no wings.
Others, comparatively a few, have the
instinct to rise toward the surface, and
after undergoing two more changes, ap-
pear on the ground with wings. They
are the nymphs described above as the
beginning of the vicious circle.

Food Value of Mushrooms.


BY J. G. K.
This is an important question, in
which every owner of an orange
tree in Floiida has an ihteiest.
The cold of January, 1886 reduced
the bearing capacity of our trees
fully 40, and some say 50 per cent. dur-
ing the past summer, and yet, the prices
received for the fruit this year, except
for a few extra choice varieties, like the
tangerines, have been less than in any
previous year, before the cold damaged
the trees and froze the fruit. Even
now, after the glut of the markets has
passed away, after all danger of frosts
a over, and March has come, with its
summer-like warmth, when the fruit is
fully ripe and at its prime, the reports of
ea!es in the Northern cities show prices
at which the growers cannot ship their
oranges there and realize pay for their
labor, to say nothing of the value of the
fruit.
Our "russets," which, in juiciness,
sweetness and flavor, excel the
"brights," have been so manipulated in
the markets, so subordinated to appear-
ance and other non-essentials, that they
have paid nothing for the fruit. Prices
for these have not averaged to exceed
$1.40 a box holding a bushel. Out of
this has been deducted 75 cents for
freight, 10 cents for cartage and 14 cents
for commission, thus leaving the grower
41 cents for the box, gathering, packing,
cartage to place qf shipment, fruit and
risks of loss by careless handling, delays,
frosts and decay.
No prudent business man could afford
, to accept the fruit as a gift, if condition-
ed with the requirement of shipping it to
those city markets. The question of
blame need not be discussed, whether
the freights are too high, the methods of
sale the best or radically wrong, or what
mniay be the cause, one thing is certain,
the God-impressed russet stamp of the
Florida orange has been converted into
:a mark of depreciation of our choicest
fruits. Appearance of the peel, which
is cast away as useless, is made to excel
-qualities of taste to the detriment of the
producer.
But we are not without remedy, if we
will use it. Fashion of eyesight cannot
override the desire of the palate, and
sooner or later must yield. We can
shut off the supply, cease shipping any
more of our juicy, sweet and high flavor-
ed oranges, and give to fashion the
bright, smooth skinned, tart and flavor-
less fruits of the wet lands, and keep our
"'russets for other uses, for wine, pre-
serves, marmalade, sweetmeats and jel-


by Shanghai from Tahiti in 1872 was ons, carts, wheelbarrows of crates,
107,000 taels, alld in 1873, 138,000 taels- crates on darkies heads, baskets of cups
the tael is worth about 6s. sterling. The on their arms (for the small growers
fungus shipped, Exidia auricula indwe, is have to "pool" their pickings to fill a
said to be very rich in fungine and ni- crate), it is a lively time. Again at
trogen. It is a very bulky freight, 10 night they come in with their crates to
tons taking as much room as 30 tons of put them on ice, and they gather at the
ordinary freight, depot to patter, gossip and compare re-
S__ turns, for the strawberry growers are
quick witted, keep, and intelligent men.
A STRAWBERRY COLONY. The largest Lawtey growers are Lewis
& McCullpy,-V. J. Shipman, E. L. Staf-
A Day with the Pickers, Pack- ford, J. Noble, W. Fisher, G. W. Jen-
ers and Shippers nings, C. Bailey, G. C. Sanderson, S.
San Powers. There are between 80 and 90
BY S. POWERS. acres.
The first thing in the morning is to -'-"'
get out and drum up a lot of pickers. VENTILATED CARS.
These are mostly colored women and
children, and they are not very trust- Experiences with Perishable
worthy. They like to go from field to
field, where they think the berries are Products at the North.
thickest and where they can make Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower:
money fastest. They receive two cents The question of how best to ship the
a quart for picking, Each picker is fur- perishable products of the Florida horti-
nished with a tray and six quart cups; culturist, is one of vital import if the
when they come in they receive a print- producer expects adequate returns. The
ed ticket for six quarts, or so many one- two systems, refrigerator and ventilated
quart tickets for odd quarts. At the crates, are both in use, both have strong
end of the week they get checks for advocates and good points in their favor.
their tickets, which are payable in cash A new comer of short experience here
at the store, or if they wish to save up would learn more and so contributes his
their mon y, they get dollar-tickets, also mite of more than twenty years' trial at
payable in cash. the North, with fruits ripening from
It was feared there would be scarcity April to September, and most of the
of pickers, but the fame of Lawtey time the average temperature above that
strawberries has gone out widely into of Florida.
the country, and whi'e families come in Reaching points fully as waim, it was
with their children and hire a house or of the greatest importance to do so in
rooms, or hire board for the season, fhe shortest time and best manner. The
There are enough and to spare. The express companies were the only availa-
wages are a high consideration to the ble means of transportation for nr
poor country people, coming at a dry perishable products. In a sh(rt
time of the year in the farmer's exche- time we learned to dread the "tender
quer. A smart picker can earn $1.50, mercies" with which our darlings were
$1.75 or even $2 00 a day in good plants, handled. We were thus led to other and
Some growersawill not allow the pickers better methods.
td gather berries while the dew is on, in In July thirty years ago, the writer
the belief that it will cause them to mo1d made a trial of a car load of apples,
and rot. But one grower who shipped peaches, pears, tomatoes, nutmeg mel-
largely last year by express, in open ons, etc., on a two days'trip from South-
crates without ice, asserted that berries orn*Illinois to Chicago. No car was to
picked with the dew are kept fresher be had, that was ventilated, but an old
than those picked dry. The train comes stock car, with thereof so open as to ad-
at noon; growers do not like to keep ber- mit rain, had there been any during the
ries over night, if it can be helped; trip. On the top of the load was placed
hence the temptation to pick while the afew cratesof blackberries. The result
dew is on is very strong, and no bad re- was so satisfactory that it became regu-
suits from it have yet been reported, lar and the railroad company was in-
Young pickers have to be watched and duced to build cars suitable for the trans-
chided, else they will play, tuin somer- portation of strawberries and raspberries
saults on the beds, mash the berries, etc. as well as other perishable fruits.
Women and girls are the best pickers. Minor shipments had to be made to
Care must be taken to have the picking smaller markets by express, with the
done well. If the berry is seized and former sad results. The Mississippi
pulled the stem will come out, leaving a river, however, was tried and shipments
pit in the berry which is likely to rot. by boats fifty to sixty hours out, deliv-
A long stem fills up the cup too fast and ered to such points in better condition
is dishonest. The right way is to seize than by express twelveto fourteen hours
the stem with the thumb and finger close on the road. These shipments proved
to the berry and give a little twitch that better ventilation was indispensa-
sideways, this leaves a stem just about ble.
long enough. Some yeers later the refrigerator car
In the rich soil of the Northern States was brought into notice, which after
the strawberry season only laa three or repeated i trials, was so perfected as to
four weeks in each locality, ;kind differ- prove quite* successful. During warm
ent varieties have to be planted to make weather it can hardly be dispensed with,
it last even so long. Here our season especially in connection with the cooling
lasts three or four months with one va- warehouse before shipment. In connec-
riety. In the rank, large plants of the tion with these a thorough and judicious
North a picker can get a quart on a row ventilation is necessary, to avoid damp-
ten feet long; here he will have to go ness from the melting ice in wt rm
three or four times as far at the best of weather and to prevent freezing in cold
times. In the North the rows are three weather.
feet apart or more, and are cultivated The writer proved by repeated trials,
by horse power. Here they are only 18 that in warm weather, for strawberries,
or 20 inches apart, and are cultivated by raspberries and blackberries, the quart
man power with small wheel plows and box or basket failed to carry the fruit in
wheel cultivator,. The plants are low as good condition as a very shallow pint
and small compared with the Northern box, which proved to be the right thing
ones, but the wonderful thing is that in the right place.
they keep putting out berries for so The Express Company should be in-
many months, duced to furnish suitably ventilated
The packing house is a small struc- cars, with extra springs, such as are in
ture in or near the field, and arranged so common use for palace sleeping, dining
as to give ample ventilation. The ber- room and parlor cars, when much of the
ries are poured out on the table thin, the damage now resulting to fruit would be
small, defective and over-ripe ones are done away with.
culled out, and the very largest and SEMINOLE.
finest are put into another lot by them- TAMPA, Fla. *
selves for "toppers." The New York
market requires each quart cup to be Miscellanei Ous.
"topped" or "faced" or "headed;" but
the Philadelphia market, consistently The Georgia Stock and Agricultural
with Quaker solidity and honesty, and Journal estimates the dogs of Georgia at-
hatred of sham, wants the berries 200,000. It thinks 5,000 probably valua-
packed decently, fairly, and of the same ble-the other 195.000 utterly worth-
quality all through. less.
It is a hard matter to get a berry picked Simplest polish for oiled furniture:
at exactly the right stage for such a long Rub oiled furniture with woolen cloth
shipment and such a fastidious market, saturated slightly with oil.
If picked too ripe it will mold, rot or Whatever you would have your chil-
turn sour; if picked too green, though dren become, strive to exhibit in your
it may color up in transit, yet it is likely own lives and conversation.
to be insipid or sour, and when a Flor- "All me a e mnfre nd eul"
ida strawberry, grown with t~ie sun yet but the dieffiult is somer ae born equal
a month below the equinox, is sour, it is to balf a doze-othrs,
squealing sour. Still, I have been told to half a dozen others
by a very competent judge, himself a One thing can be said in favor of the
grower for fifteen years, that the Flor- ice man-if he has any left over, he does


ida berries, even of the Newnan Im- not warm it up for breakfast.
proved variety (which is grown in Law- Before the wedding day she was dear
tey) are as sweet as the berries produced and he was her treasure; but afterward
on the sands of New Jersey and Mary- she became dearer and he was treas-
land. urer.
whether the cups are "topped" or Asphaltum dissolved in oil of turfen-
not, it is important to round them up tine is recommended as one of the best
well, for two reasons. The long journey varnishes for smoke-stacks or steam-
shakes them down, and a shrunken cup pipes.
of berries looks bad in the market. Sec- Borax in the roortinofa saltspoon-
ond, if they are not rounded up, they ful of the owdprepd to a nart of a t-
will jostle about and become bruised. It is a desire fle addition toqold starch
is far better to have a half dozen berries a durable addition to cold starch.
mashed at the top of the cup-in the mid- Always shake clothes well before put-
die of the heap, by the next cup above, ting them into the bluing water, other-
than to have every one in the cup wise blue streaks will trouble the good
shaken about. One of the most consci- laundress.
entious commission merchants of Phila- It is said by one who has tried it, that
delphia told me he wanted to see four or cayenne pepper sprinkled unon hot flan-
five berries mashed at the apex of the nels will afford instant relief to persons
cup, simply as a guarantee-that the rest troubled with neuralgia.
would be heldfirmly in their places. When you have spilled anything on
After the packing comes the shipping. the stove, or milk has boiled over and a
The merits of the refrigerarr car and suffocating smoke arises, sprinkle the
the open crate have been sufficiently spot with salt, and it will disappear im-
discussed in your columns at present, mediately
After the shipments become large
enough to justify, we have a refrigerator Husband (jokingly)--"Oh, PI'm the
car standing on the track all the while; mainstay of the family. Wife-" Yes,
the berries can be placed in this as fast and I'm the jib-boom, and the-and the
as they are crated. There are three ship- Small boy (from experience)-
ments a week, with considerable "And the spanker, too, mamma."
amounts sent by express on the alternate A bit of soft paper is recommended by
days. It is good-policy to pick the ber- an English doctor for dropping medi-
ries every day; this prevents any from cines into the eye, as being equally ef-
getting too ripe. fective as brushes, glass droppers, etc.,
At noon, just before train time, when and far less likely to introduce foreign
the growers are hastening in with wag- substances.


lies. Time was when the sweet, juicy The interesting circumstance cited in
and high flavored oranges of Florida Mr. Green's letter brings up again a sub-
drove the products of Valencia from the ject to which allusion has twice been
tables of the King and grandees of made in our columns, namely, the
Spain. So, too, the withholding of "rus- feasibility of cultivating mushrooms in
sets" from these fashion controlled Florida. Some of the caves in Jackson,
markets will put an end to the unreason- Hernando and other counties might be
able dictates now governing the mar- used for this purpose.
kets. As many of the wild mushrooms are
Growers need not lose these "russets" poisonous it is well before using them to
nor any of what the middlemen term put them to such a test as Mr. Green de-
unmarketable oranges. They need not scribes. Any kind that oxen will eat
rot under the trees, or lose their juici- without injury ought to be wholesome
ness and flavor from over-ripeness; need food for man. As few realize the value
not be frozen by untimely frosts in Flor- of this article of food and the extent of
ida, or by blizzards on their routes, its consumption the following from a
or hyperborean temperatures in Department Report is produced in proof
Northern store-houses, because we have of the importance of the industry:
ways and means nearer home by which Rohllrauseb and Siegel, who claim to
we can make them pay profits. Suppose have made exhaustive investigations
we set up factories, wherever demanded into the food values of mushrooms, state
wherein the peel, the oil, the pulp and that "many species deserve to be placed
the jifice of these oranges shall be con- beside meat as sources of nitrogenous
verted into marketable commodities, nutriment," and their analysis, if correct,
We should thereby become independent fully bears ozt the statement. The ni-
of markets based on color, smoothness of trogenous values of different foods as
rind, or some caprice of dudeism. compared with the mushroom are stat-
It pals to plant millions of acres with ed as follows: Protein substancecalculat-
ape vines, where the land is valued at ed for 100 parts of bread, 8.03; of oatmeal,
200 to $500 an acre, in Europe and Cali- 9.74; of barley-bread, 6.39; of leguminous
fornia, and where the crop must be tax- fruits, 27.05; of potatoes, 4.85; of mush-
ed yearly $10 per acre forirrigation, and rooms 33.0. A much larger proportion of
make the products into wine. But in the various kinds of mushrooms are edible
Florida land may be had for $40 an acre, than is generally supposed, but a pre-
which needs no outlay for irrigation, judice has grown up concerning them
and which if set to sweet orange trees in this country which will take some
that shall produce only "russets," and time to eradicate; nevertheless, they con-
produce ten times the quantity of juice tribute so considerable a portion of the
of the acre of grapes, equally heavy in food product of the world that we may
saccharine matter with grape juice, and be sure their value will not be perma-
makes a wine in no respect inferior to nently overlooked, especially when we
the vintages of California or Europe. consider our large accessions of popula-
We need not depend upon using up tion from countries in which the mush-
our sweet and high flavored "russets" in room is a familiar and much-prized edible
wine making. They may be canned, In France mushrooms form a very
converted into preserves, sweetmeats large article of consumption and are
and jellies, in which condition they will widely cultivated. The mushroom beds
bid defiance to the sneers of fashion, or cultivated in the caves are frequently
casualties of climate. What say the miles in extent. A cave at Mery is men-
orange growers? What say the business tioned as containing, in 1867, 21 miles of
men of the orange portions of the State? beds, and producing not less than 3,000
Shall we continue in the old ruts, or pounds in weight daily. Another at
work out and pave a new way leading to Frep'llon contains 16 miles of beds. The
success? catacombs and quarries of Paris and
LIUxoNA, Fla., March 10, 1887. vicinity and the caves of Moulin de la
Roche, Sous Bicetre, and Bagneux pro-
TeP e duce immense quantities of mushrooms.
The Phylloxera. They are all under Government super-
Daniel Watney, of Kingston Hill, vision and are regularly inspected like
London, writes to the editor of the Lon- the mines.
don Times under date of January 6th, The mushroom which is cultivated in
on the subject of the phylloxera in these quarries and caves almost to the
France, as follows: exclusion of all others is the "Snow
The disastrous story of the last French Ball," Agaricus arvensis. This truffle is
vintage, as given in the Times of January held in high esteem and is largely ex-
8th, is worthy of more than a passing ported. In 1872 the quantity of truffles
thought. For the four years from 1875 to exported from France was valued at over
1878, inclusive, the average yield was 3,000,000 francs, and in 1879 at nearly
1,275,000,000 gallons. The last three vint- 10,000,000 francs. Immense quantities
ages have decreased at a greater rate than of the Agaricus dekciosus are sold in the
100,000,000 gallons a year, and now it is Marseilles markets. The Fistulina hepa-
reported that in the vintage of 1886 more tica is also in great demand, and many
than one-fifth of the yield was produced other varieties appear from time to time
from dry raisins and dregs of the first in the markets throughout France. The
and second press. By deducting such Chinese, who are noted for the care be-
inferior product from the total yield of stowed on their esculent vegetation, use
the year, we have 433,000,000 gallons, or large quantities of the edible fungi, im-
one-third of the average yield of the porting largely from Japan and Tahiti.
four years ending with 1878. The trade in edible fungi from Tahiti to
It is beginning to be the fashion to as- China commenced about the year 1866;
cribe this decrease chiefly to mildew and in 1868 only 70 tons were shipped; in
other causes, and not so much to the 1873, 135 tons were exported to China,
phylloxera. That such is not my opin- and in 1874, 152 tons were exported.
on will e sufficqiently evident if you The value of the mushrooms imported


Practice, etc.
will be contributed to by persons who haye made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the- State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will thisjournal be-
come the "organ" of any associationor locality
it will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
partiality.
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesda
of each week.

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Address subscriptions and other business com-
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C. H. JONES & BRO.,
PUBLISHERS.
Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A.H. CURTISS, Editor
S Jaoksonville, Fla.


FLORIDA FARMER AND ERUIT .GROWER. MARCH 23, 1887 .,


SVfhafdd'ndfafden


HOW OUR PAPER is REGARDED.

A Few of Many Comments. by
Correspondents and Press.
Judging from the expre sions of ap-
proval which are coming to us daily
from correspondents and the press, and
from the rapid increase of our subscrip-
tion list, it is evident that the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more
favorable reception than we had ven-
tured to expect.
In a few instances we can give the sen-
timent of a letter by quoting one or two
sentences. as in the following examples:
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tuial Col'ege of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
South."
Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro-
fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tion and prediction. They may be fully
relied upon for conscientious correc-
ness of statement and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. J. Wmin. Ewan, writing from
Miami, Dade county, says : "Certainly
you are do;ng a good work in establish-
ing an enlightened and scientific system
of agriculture, which heretofore has
been seriously neglected. Your paper is
inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
ment, and progressive in principle, and
surely must succeed."
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
writes : "I am in love with your paper,
but am taking .so many now that until
some subscription runs out I can't take
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
your paper soon."
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
Hahfax, writes as follows : "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
and if asked to surrender the FARMER
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
good work."
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening, as
well as his able writings on farm topics,-
entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
himself as follows : "The first number
of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was
duly received and is the best thing in its
way I have seen. It is just the paper(
needed, and if you keep it up to the pres-
ent standard of excellence must become
popular with the people. I can't see
where you have left any room for im-
provement."-
Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your able paper fills a
want long felt in this part for a good ag-
ricultural paper. Success to you."
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
writes: "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
raising, etc."'
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thu;: "I like your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
tural. paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every
week."
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
S(uth. I predict immense success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I do
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. W. S. Moore, of Alachua county,
writes: "I have read with much inter-
est your FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
and am much pleased with it. It is
much needed and can be made of much
value to Florida."
Mr. A. F. Brown, of Putnam county,
writes: "I am very much pleased in-
deed with the new paper. It is just
what we have needed for a long time.
Success to it."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
done."
Mr. H. W. Greetbam, of Orlando,
writes: "I am greatly pleased with the
sample copy of your paper, and feel
sure it will prove a valuable addition to


agricultural literature devoted especially
to Florida."
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
six months."
[From the Citra New Era.]
We have received the first number of
the FLORIDA FARMER AAD FRUIT-GROW-
ER, published at Jacksonville. It is an
elegant publication and deserves to suc-
ceed, and we trust it will.
[From the Texas Farmer.)]
Florida is not behind her sister South-
ern States in material progress. It
ought to be called the land of fruits and
flowers, for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics, to which we refer the reader'
for further information.
From the Southern Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number [of
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER] failed
to reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, while the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. Many of our
readers are interested directly and sec-
ondarily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy


AN IMPORTANT QUESTION.

Has the Business of Orange
Growing been Overdone?


FLORIDA






AND-







DETni T-rnwrO T
weei (g JoBr ,al,


-][2 Y .J A.LIJLJ- ^\ JL J. J LX L:J

Farm,


Garden,


Orchard
AND
HOUSEJIOL90 E WO!%y






A. H.CURTISS,
EDITOR.
This journal will have for its leading object
the p: emotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and great
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations a
a large portion of Florida are as yet,but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journa
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and all influences affecting such results;
also to suggest experiment, describe new or little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the first number and con-
tinuing through the season for

Tree Planting,
There will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than tho e or tho 'citrus group-which have
proved most successful in this State. Each va-
riety will be described and
Illustrated,
And there will bie notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
Forage Plants,
And other subjects will be illustrated to a limited
extent.
Much attention will be devoted to

Live Stock
And to the home production of forage andfertili
zers, two economies which are essential to sue
cessful farming.
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
of the
*
Turf, Field and Farm,
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of the mar
kets, and the departments of
Truck-Gardening,


Floriculture,
Poultry,
Veterinary







k


I


SSfarm.


The Bee's Sting.
From lengthened observations, W.
Clarke, a Canadian, has come to the
conclusion that the most important
office of the bee's sting is that which is
performed in doing .the artistic cell
work, capping the comb and infusing
the formic acid by means of which honey
receives its keeping qualities. The sting-
is really a skillfully contrived little
trowel with which the bee finishes off
and caps the cells when they are filled
brimful of honey. This explains why
honey extracted before it is capped over
does not keep well. The formic acidic
has not been injected into it. This is;
done in the very act of putting the last
touches on the cell-work, when the sting
pierces the plastic cell surface and de-
posits the fluid which preserves the
honey.-Ex.

. L'EtWLE A& CO.,

STOVES,

CROCKERY


BAR GOODS,

WOODENWARE.


PRICES THE LOWEST.

C. S, L'ENGLE & CO,,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA


W. N. JUSTICE

Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 313 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
made on day of sale.
J. O'. BLOTNT,

Yp A -171 ESSTA=A-. R ESE
BARTOW, FLORIDA.
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, foi Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and 'arg- tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up: Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of pood, high. ro ling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $35 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
SM- Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.


91


small tile (say two inch) be used, there
should be a sole of boards underneath,
because it stands to reason that some
place in a distance of any given number
of feet will be softer than others, and of
course the tile on the soft place will set-
tle down and cause a depression in the
line, which will fill with sand, especially
fine mica particles, which will obstruct
the flow of water and cause the drain to
choke at that point, and consequently all
above it. Now if a sole of boards is laid
underneath, they cannot sink.
My way of putting down long ditches
is as follows: In the first place, I level
my ground to get the proper fall, lay it
off, and stake the line of ditch. Then
with a good pair of horses I run off the
ditches with a furrow plow twice in
each row, which cleans and throws it
out tolerably well Then I change the
horses to a subsoil plow, with long
double tree,with chain attached,and long
jockey-stick to run up and down until
the proper depth is reached, men follow-
ing after, each time, and with narrow-
blade shovels removing the loose earth.
I use the common long handled shovel
cut down to six inches in width, which
is plenty wide enough for any ordinary
drain. Then scrape the bottom with a
hoe or drag six inches wide to smooth it,
and give the water an even flow. Then
lay boards the whole length, and lay
tile on boards, one man to lay the tile
and hold in place, while another fills in
snme earth to keep them stationary
After, the whole line is laid fill in with
the two horse plow. I use four inch
strips for the bottom.
Our ground is mostly black surface
soil, with subsoil of gravel and potter's
clay mixed, impervious to water, and
almost as hard as concrete, so that a
man can hardly get a sharp pick into it;
but I find that the subsoil plow loosens
it six inches wide and three deep in
every passage through the ditch.
This is my way of putting down
ditches, and if any one has any better, I
should like to hear-I am always willing
to learn.
____ *
Destroying the Corn Weevil.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
The following has been received from
the Agricultural Department in relation
to the destruction of the very obnoxious
insect, known as the "corn weevil"
(callandra oryzce), in answer to a letter
addressed to the Department at Washing-
ton in relation to the effect of the use of
bisu!phide of carbon upon the germinat-
ingeffects of seeds in grain with which
it has been used:
WASHINGTON, D. C., March 4th, 1887.
J. G. KNAPP, Esq.,
State Agent, Limona, Fla.
SIR:-Yours of 1st inst. in reference to
the grain weevil has been received. The
entomologis' reports that the salvation of
corn in the South fr( m this insect is
largely a matter of early harvesting and
purification after harvest with the bi-
sulphide vapor. So long as the corn is
left standing in the fields after ripening,
the beetles have easy access and their
larve cannot be destroyed. Once
harvested, however, and stored in cribs
the remedy can be used whenever it
seems to be needed.
The fun-es of the bisulpbide will not
injure the, germinative faculty of the
sound grains and it is doubtful whether
even seeds, which have been entered by
the weevil, will be further injured by
the fumes. It is the most thorough re-
medy which can be used, and the cheap-
est for its thoroughness.
SThe Carolina method which you de-
scribe will be very apt, it seem to me, to
induce moulding and rotting.
Your respectfully,
NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner.
--
Origin of Fruit Canning.
It is a singular fact that we are indebt-
ed to Pompeii for the great industry of
canning fruit. Years ago, when the ex-
cavations were just beginning, a party
of Cincinnatians found in what had been
the pantry of a house many jars of
preserved figs. One was opened and
they were found to be fresh and good.
Investigation showed that the figs had
been put into jars in a heated state, an
aperture left for the steam to escape, and
then sealed with wax. The hint was
taken, and the next year canning fruit
was introduced into the United States,
the process being identical with that in
vogue in Pompein twenty centuries ago.
The old ladies in America who can to-
matoes and peaches do not realize that
they are indebted for this art to a people
who were literally ashes but a few years
after Christ.-Ex.


just over the backbone being so broad,
galling is prevented. Now, you have a
backband fit for the roughest kind of
service.
STARKE, Fla., Feb. 17, 1887.
0 *
Agricultural Value of Peas.
In the South Carolina Agricultural
Bulletin T. W. Holloway discourses of
the field pea as follows:
The pea I regard as an essential crop
for all farmers to cultivate. The pea is
the clover of the South in increasing the
fertility of the soil, besides furnishing
food for man and beast.
The continued overflow of my bottom
lands from the 18th May, until too late
to rely upon them for a crop of corn,
made it necessary to provide the means
for my stock, and to do this I commenc-
ed to plant peas so soon as the wheat and
oals were harvested. On the first plat of
thirteen acre--wheat field-I planted one
bushel black, half bushel red or stock,
and the balance in cow or clay peas.
From the one bushel black, say four
acres, I picked 1,816 pounds, in the hull;
of the red or stock, half bushel, 536
pounds; seven acres clay, 3,098 pounds,
or 5,450 pounds from thirteen acres, with,
perhaps,. 50 pounds to the acre in fields,
too green at the picking.
It will thus be seen that the black
N ielded 454 pounds, the red 268 pounds,
and the clay 442 pounds to the acre. The
prospect the last of August promised a
much greater yield, but the hot dry
weather throughout September lessened
the yield at least one half.
The black and clay variety ies ripened
rapidly under the hot sun, losing all the
leaves, while the red held their leaves,
and are still holding the leaves. My ex-
perience is, the red pea is preferable
when the vine is the object desired; but
the speckled or whip-poor-will is prefer-
able in this, that while they do not vine,
yet, in cutting the vines, when the peas
have matured, lose less in handling.
The clay pea, plant two weeks or
more later than those mentioned, ripens
nearly as early, and held their 1, ave-
better.
My observation as well as experience
has proven that the vining varieties
should not be planted earlier than the
last week in June. The speckled or
whip-poor will may be. planted at any
season after the first of May, with good
results.
When peas are planted for the benefit
of the soil, as well as for forage, the vin-
ing varieties are preferable.
If our farmers were to plant more
peas, and follow with cotton, the yield
will be greatly increased from the vege-
table matter of the decaying vines, be-
sides securing nitrogen in the soil, taken
up from the atmosphere during the
growth of the plants.
The question of securing and saving
pea vines is an important one, and, if
not properly done, the leaves are
lost in handling and much of the virtues
lost.
I hauled mine, half cured, and put on
poles in the barn, so as to get a free cir-
culation of air, and they are thus cured.
Or, better still, haul in the vines and
store away by putting a layer of vines
and a layer of what or oat straw
alternately. The vines will cure
beautifully this way, and thus improve
the straw as forage, and certainly secur-
ing the leaves.
The pea vines should not be cut until
t hey are matured, and at least one-half of
the peas are ripe.

HOME-MADE FERTILIZERS.

The Superior Value of Composts
and Liquid Manures.
BY C. H. G
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
Too much money is annually spent
for the commercial fertilizers. If the
farmer and fruit-grower would give
more attention and forethought to the
COMPOST HEAP
he could raise more truck and fruit at
less expense than he can with the chemi-
cal fertilizers.
There are among many brands of com-
mercial fertilizers, a few good ones only.
The majority are worthless, or have but
little value, in proportion to the price
charged-all advertised to be the best
and "only good." But the few reliable
brands (less than half a dozen all told)
cannot always be depended upon for a
satisfactory yield of fruit or vegetables,
owing to the variation in soils. One
man may apply 1,000 pounds to the
acre and get poorer results than another


who used only 500 pounds.
High and dry lands show better re-
sult from small- and frequent applica-
tdns-200 pounds to the acre at a time,
and put on three or four times during
growth of plants-will produce a larger
yield of vegetables on high pine lands
than the same quantity in one applica-
tion would.
On low lands that hold moisture and
contain more vegetable matter (humus),
one liberal dose, if a reliable fertilizer,
wi 1 usually give satisfactory yields.
I believe the commercial fertilizers are
best used as a top dressing around the
plant or tree. If the farmer enriches
the soil in preparation before setting
trees or planting seed or plants-as he
should do-he will apply some good rich
compost or other home-made manures,
like George Hutchingson's "Favorite,"
or the very desirable and now well
known "Calcined Humus." Both of
these are particularly adapted for sandy
soi's and will permanently improve
them.
Then there is Prof. Newman's formula,
to-wit: 1,000 pounds cotton seed meal,
300 pounds of kainit, 700 pounds super-
phosphate. Pulverize the kainit and
mix thoroughly together and apply in
the drill, 500 to 1,000 pounds to the acre.
If broadcast, use 1,000 to 2,000 pounds to
the acre and harrow thoroughly into the
soil. This fertilizer will adapt itself to
any land and bring good returns.
Cotton seed meal used alone under
strawberry plants made fine plants,
whih are now fruiting heavily. No
other fertilizer, was used, and apparently


as good results can be seen from this
single application of cotton seed meal as
where the same weight of high grade
commercial fertilizer was used at double
the cost. But usually cotton seed meal
is more effective when mixed with other
materials, as in Prof. Newman's formula,
or in the compost. If 'used alone it
should in all cases be thoroughly mixed
in the soil at least a month before plant-
ing.
But after all is said we return to our
first statement,
THE COMPOST HEAP
is best of all manures and should occupy
more attention from the farmers and
fruit-growers in Florida. It is the great
crop producer and money saver, and
there is never any danger of burning up
plants by putting on too much.
Let every fruit-grower each spring or
fall prepare such a compost as the fol-
lowing and the results of its application
to trees will astonish and delight him
A heap of leaves, muck, or rubbish of
any organic matter should be placed
near the house to receive the wood
ashes, the soap suds, the kitchen and
chamber slops. Another heap should
be formed at the stables, or rather a pit
should be dug and half filled with the
absorbing materials, in which should be
thrown old bones and spoiled meat, the
carcasses of fowls and animals, all the
old fish and meat brine, the soil from
the privies, the liquid manures from the
stalls, and to the whole iron should be
added in some shape; cinders from the
blacksmith shop are good. All this
mass is effectually deprived of offensive
smell by covering with a fresh supply of
muck whenever an escape of nitro-ge-
nous matter is perceived.
The effect of such a compost applied
to fruit trees is almost startling in the
rapidity and hardness of growth it in-
duces, and in the luscious and highly
colored fruit a soil so fertilized will bring
forth.
This subject would not be complete
without considering the advantages to be
derived from the application of
LIQUID MANURES.
Of all forms in which manure can beap-
plied the liquid manure is the most con-
venient and the most effective. No gar-
den or orchard should be without a tank
of this article, as its judicious use will
often enable us to mature a fine crop
under very unfavorable circumstances.
Its great advantage consists in the imme-
diate results obtained.
To prepare and preserve liquid ma-
nure two tanks with good covers should
be made in some convenient spot. In
small gardens an oil barrel from your
grocer will answer. They should be
filled with chamber and kitchen slops
and soap suds-the latter generally being
warm. When horse, cow and other ma-
nure can be obtained it may be mixed
with water and added to the contents of
of the barrels or tanks. Hen manure is
a very valuable addition.
After standing a week or ten days it
will be fit for use and may be applied to
the surface about trees or p ants. In
order that full effects of liquid manure
should be felt without injury, it is in-
dispensable, 1st, that it should be weak
(one part to six parts water), and fre-
quently applied; 2d, that it should be
perfectly clear; 3d, that it should be ad-
ministered when plants are in full
growth. If too strong it is apt to pro-
duce great injury. If turbid it carries
with it in suspension a large quantity of
sedimentary matter which fills up the
interstices of the soil, or deposited on
the roots themselves, greatly impedes
their power of absorption.
To use liquid manure very weak and
very often is, in fact, to imitate'nature,
than whom we cannot take a safer
guide. The time for applying liquid
manure is when the fruit is beginning
to swell and has acquired by its even,
green surface, a power of suction capa-
ble of opposing that of the leaves. At
that time liquid manure may be applied
freely and continued from time to time
as long as the fruit is growing. But at
the first sign of ripening, or even earlier
it should be withheld.
ORANGE PARK, Fla., March 5, 1887.

The Action of Gypsum.
The agricultural value of gypsum or
land plaster is thus analyzed by Dr. E.
H. Jenkins of the Connecticut Experi-
mental Station:
First.-Plaster has no affinity for
nitrogen. When moist it will absorb
and retain carbonate of ammonia.
Plaster is sulphate of lime, and in
moist condition' is decomposed by
carbonate of ammonia and carbonate


of lime, and sulphate of ammonia are
produced.
Second.-Carbonate of ammonia is
volatile; the strong ammoniacal odor of
stables and urinals is due to it. Sulphate
of ammonia is not volatile at any ordi-
nary temperature.
Third.-Plaster sprinkled on manure
heaps and in stables prevents loss of car-
bonate of ammonia.
Fourth.-How great the loss of am-
monia may be in stables, etc., is not easy
to say. An amount of ammonia that
can be smelled is very small, and would
hardly be worth the saving, but no doubt
the loss under some circumstances,
more particularly in warm weather, is
considerable. -The advantage of using
plaster in stables is largely in this: That
the air which the animals breathe is kept
sweeter and more wholesome.
Fifth.-Loam is a very excellent deodo-
rizer and absorbent of ammonia. It
would have to be used in larger quanti-
ties than gypsum, and would therefore
increase very considerably the weight of
the manure to be handled.
Sixth.-Carbonate of lime in gypsum
simply dilutes it. The fixation of am-
monia is caused solely by the sulphate of
lime; the less sulphate present the less
efficiency of the gypsum as a fixer of
ammonia.
Seventh.-Gypsum does not retard the
rotting of manure.
Air, but don't sun, feather ticks and
pillows; the sun draws the oil, making
an unpleasant smell.


(.LASSWARE]


LAMPS,
OIL STOVES,


ft


MAITLAND NURSERIES.


ALL VARIETIES OF

ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.



Buds-not placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.

We make a specialty of the
--EARLY SPANISH RANGE----
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees of tlie latter that [stood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOWe HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.

~
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,


100 pounds first at 5j cents .
35 pounds second at 41 cents .
15 pounds third at 4 cents .
3 gallons molasses at 15 cents .


$5.12
1.57
60
45
$7.75


The value per ton of
Plaquemines parish factory
estimated as possible:


cane of the
was, fairly


110 pounds first at 5 cents .
35 pounds second at 4 cents .
15 pounds third at 4 cents .
5 gallons molasses at 12 cents .


$5.50
1.571
60
60


$8.271
These two factories, handled as central
?factories, obtained an average of about
8 a ton for the cane they manipulated.
It average for the 2,000,000 tons of
ca0e ground in the State in the year just
closed was less than $5.75 per ton.
The deduction is plain: If the entire
Louisiana crop had been treated by the
best machinery now in use in our sugar
fields the State would have to-day been
richer by $4,500,000 or more.
We have simply shown the clear gain
in the value of the product turned out.
Now there has been another enormous
gain in the cost of manufacture, which
would probably put the improved central
factory at least $3 per ton ahead of our
average sugar-houses.
The cost of handling and treating cane
is immensely reduced in such central
factories, as we have cited. They have
every appliance for increasing ex-
traction, saving waste, and diminishing
the heavy expense of fuel consumption,
and are fitted with such modern im-
provements as the cane shredder, the
automatic pressure regulator, the bagasse
burner, filter presses and the double-
effect evaporating apparatus.
These are some of the lights the Louis-
iana planters have before them in their
endeavor to adopt the central factory
system in this State. It, is almost
beyond possibilities for individuals to
put up modern sugar manufacturing,.
establishments costing in the neigh-
borhood of $100,000. But it seems that
this is a fine field for capital or for the
combination of individual interests into
co-operative associations.
It is a great misfortune that a crop
raised through the means of costly and
scientific tillage should be largely sac-
rificed in the processes of crude manu-
facture. Instances are seen in this State-
where the much abused sugarmill is
rivaling diffusion in its results; and
where the inventions of our own citizens
and the enterprise of individuals are
getting 50 per cent. more value out of a
given crop than the vast majority are
doing.
Two hundred factories, like those in
the Teche and Plaquemines, had they
been conveniently situated in different
portions of the sugar district, could have
taken the Louisiana sugar crop of 1886,
made nearly a hundred million pounds
more sugar out of it, and done the
manufacturing work at a far less ex-
pense than that of the 700 or 800 sugar-
houses actually in operation.-Times-
Democrat.

Laying Tile Drains.
A correspondent of the Country Gen-
tleman gives his experience in draining
land underlaid with hardpan:
I notice a great deal about ditching in
your paper of late, and as I have had a
great deal of ditching to do myself (hav-
ing cut and laid 11,000 feet of tile drain
from March lsttoJune 1st, 1886), I give
you my experience as far as possible.
Many people complain of the choking
up of their drains, but if properly put
down they ought to last and work per-
fectly for a life time. In the first place,
on account of expense, farmers are apt
to get their tile too small. Secondly,
they are often not leveled properly. If


P. 0.


Winter Park Fla


ONSIGNMENTS OF EGGS,
S l CHICKENS, FRUIT, AND
COUNTRY PRODUCE
SOLICITED BY
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
WHOLESALE PRODUCE
COMMISSION MERCHANT,.
28 OCEAN STREET,
JACKSONVILLEA
PLA.


ILEY, GROVER & CO.,


STATE AGENTS FOR -


RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S

SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO,

DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI


PHOSPHATE,


*


AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.


Get our Prices before buying.



END YOUR

sJob prirti.^
TO THIE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS


I-I!. :PTTT.OW,

FRUITAND VEGETABLE PACKING,

FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
0
Usually have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS

Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
Best of location, viz:


S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


Circulars and Stencils on application,


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 23, 1887.


SUGAR MANUFACTURE.

Improved Methods Essential to
Profitable Production.
In the present unsettled condition of
the sugar industry our planters seem to
have come to the conclusion that the '
time has about arrived for some evo-
lution or revolution in their business
to meet the change which has come
over its face during the past three
years.
Three years of ruinous prices have de-
monstrated the fact that however im-
mutable the laws and methods of culti-
vation may be the manufacturing busi-
ness must be progressive here as it is in
other portions of the world.
Merely for the sake of convenience
we will put the Louisiana sugar crop
of 1886 at 200,000,000 pounds of sugar
and 12,000,000 gallons of molasses. If
the average yield per ton of cane ground
was 100 pounds of sugar and six gallons
of molasses it was more probably to the
tonnage than any crop ever made in
this State, and the product, at prevailing
prices, was worth about $5.50 or $5.75 '
per ton.
In the Louisiana sugar district two
factories have report ed a remarkable
yield; not a remarkable yield when
one considers the quantity of sugar ex-
isting in the cane, but a remarkable
yield for Louisiana machinery. One of
these, in the Teche, shows by its books
that it has recently finished a crop
which yielded 150 pounds sugar per ton
of cane ground, as an average; another,
in Plaquemines parish, shows the
statistics to prove that it has made 160
pounds per ton (dry sugar) from its en-
tire crop. Now the minimum molasses
production from 100 pounds of sugar is
thirty-four pounds or three gallons of
low polarization centrifugal molasses;
therefore the first-named factory made
150 pounds dry -sugar and fifty-one
pounds of molasses at the least (or, say,
four and a half gallons, with permission
to use fractional gauging).
The Plaquemines factory made 160
pounds dry sugar and fifty-five pounds
of molasses, or about five gallons.
On an average of this season's market
the value of the Teche factory's product
was apparently as much as


HINTS FOR THE PLOWMAN.

How to Overcome Some Com-
mon Difficulties.
BY H. E. LAGERQREN.
After a stoppage of the plow, always
back it a little, and raise the point, be-
fore starting again. This will save your
horse's shoulders and muscles.
When the plow catches a root which
the horse is almost but not quite able
to break or pull out, take your hands off
the handles; then he can do it.
If the pilot of your new plow point is
square, chip off with a hammer the
right hand corner and round it off on
the grindstone. It can then free itself
of trash and will have a better grip in
the ground.
If your horse walks fast with your
cast-iron plow, smear some thick coat
tar on the bottom of the point occasion-
ally, also on the flange of the moldboard,
in contact with the point. This will les-
sen the chances of the joints breaking,
by deadening the blows when it hits ob-
structions.
Never plow when the ground is wet.
Besides crowding and packing, instead
of pulverizing the ground on top, the
horse bogs, and with every step com-
presses that below, deeper than the plow
goes.
When your horse eats grass while
pulling the plow, put a muzzle on him
instead of checking him up high; for in
his endeavors to reach the grass he will
tug on the bridle reins, thereby pulling
forward the top of the hames. The
draught will then be on the points
of the shoulders, making them sore.
And when his head is thus braced, you
must pull on the lines much harder in
guiding him.
Have your plow sharp. If the point
be too hard to file, use the grindstone.
A dull, uneven edge can not cut through
grass roots and trash, but catches and
holds it, and your work to keep t e plow
in the ground is harder than is the
horses to pull it. And although the top
soil may be turned over and mellowed,
the increased weight of the plow will
injuriously pack that immediately be-
low.
In plowing under pea vines and weeds
of any kind with a common plow, the
more shallow, and the faster it runs, the
better the work will be done.
if the horse gets a bad bruise or
scratch on his leg, treat as follows:
Wash clean; take a strip of soft thin
cloth long enough to wrap around the
leg three or four times. On one end of
it smear some shoemaker's wax in the
shape of a ring, whose inside shall be a
little larger than the wound. Stick this
over the wound and it will firmly ad-
here to the hair around it. Wrap the
bandage tightly around the limb, smear-
ing on some wax occasionally, so that it
sticks to the hair and to itself. When
finished, press it well with your warm
hand, and it will stay on till you take it
off.
Almost all "Yankee plows" are unfit
for our thin soils and crab grass. They
are made for tough clay land, and to
pulverize rather than to turn over. Al-
though their long points lessen the
draught, they loosen the roots of the
crab grass so that they are pulled up in-
stead of cut through, and so choke the
plow. You must either let down or saw
off the beam and have the backband
nearer the dock than the withers, or
else put one-third of your weight on the
handles, to make the plow run shallow.
In the latter case the friction on the sole
of the p'ow is more than doubled; the
land side soon wears out and the bottom
of the furrow is crushed. Either way,
by tipping the pldw back, it is only the
forward part of the already too flat
moldboard which gives impetus to the
furrow-slice, and this so poorly that it
would generally fall back again if it was
not pushed over with the foot, or by
continually jerking the plow to the
right. They are bad enough on level
ground, but when the dirt has to be
thrown up lill, as is the case when trees
are planted on the mounds, they are
abominable. Manufacturers would
surely remedy the evil if they knew of
it. Why don't our hardware dealers
see to that?
SBackbands, as they are commonly
made, are a source of constant trouble
and annoyance from their frequent
breaking. One that necessity forced
the writer to invent, and which is war-
- ranted for two years, is made thus: Cut
from the best backhand stuff a piece
about two and one-half times as long
as the backhand you use; double it; now
have the blacksmith cut off of a rod of


iron about one-sixth of in ihch thick,
two pieces, each one an inch longer than
the width of the backhand to be. Let
him bend square one-half of both ends
of the irons so that they appear thus m .
Now let him dent each piece in the mid-
dle of the back so that there will be a
slight hollow. The outlines now still
more resemble the figure.
Lay the old backhand alongside the
new one. Lay one iron on each end of
the latter, so that they are opposite the
buckles or pegs of the -former. Then
fold over them the ends of the back-
band, and fasten securely with screws
or copper rivets. The ends of the irons
keep them confined; they must hang
down. Now, midway between them
make an incision in the band; have two
open "mending links;" poke them
through the slits and over the
irons so that they will rest in their hol-
lows, laps down, Midway between the
ends of the band, take one thickness in
each hand and pull in opposite direc-
tions till it is one and one-half times as
wide as before.. Fasten with a few
stitches.
Put the smooth side of the band near-
est the horse. Stick one or both hooks
of the mending link through links of
the trace chains. Let them stay open.,
and changing them will be ea y. Fasten
pieces of stiff leather beneath them,
should they chafe the horse. The part









least to fight with us against railroad self-protrction, do their work better and ties than gypsum and would therefore
extortion, more of it, sow good clean seed, keep increase very considerably the weight of
G. M. MATHER. better stock and take good care of it, the manure to be handled.
BLOOMINGDALE, Fla. too; pay no speculative price for ma- Sixth.-Carbonate of lime in gypsum,
The new Constitution expressly forbids chinery and take far better care of that. simply dilues it. The fixation of ammo-
members of the Legislature to receive -Farmers' Advocate. nia is caused solely by th sulphate of
members of the Legislature to receive lime; the less sulphate present the less
free transportation. If any member is Industrial Schools. the efficiency of the gypsum as a fixer of
known to violate this law let him be ammoEditor a.orida Farmer anda. Grower:
marked. In the next number we shall E i F re ne Seven th.-Gy psum does not returd the-
markd In the next number we shall r. H. C. Fosterhas recently given the rotting of manure.
have considerable tosay of the railroads, result of his experiments in F orida in o
Meanwhile we hope to receive reinforce- the matter of ensilage and how to pre-
ments, pare the silo and fodder. He has shown Hints to Correspondents.
-----that we can construct cheap wooden silos The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER.
and fill them with grass, corn or pea AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
Freight on Oranges. vines and make good feed for all stock, vited to contribute to its columns articles
A Leesburg correspondent asks us to and as the common cow pea grows so and notes on all subjects pertaining to,
direct attention to the high freight rates lxuriany ere in e rainy season e the farm, garden, orchard and house-
on oranges charged by the Florida ratesilo -offers a good way to save it. The ob- hold affairs. The range of topics which
on drange charged byd te )Floridoa raiil-da oy db s hn nmnh
section to pea vine forage heretofore has wilb- icse ~ hsjunlmyb
roads before they are delivered to their Iwenlthebdiicusty ocnts im thisb journal maybe
Northern connections. He says : "The beely in the rainysculto curn g ecli gathered from the subjoined table, which
ruinous rates commence at home, and if y Mr Fosters n an ro uire that he may serve to suggest what might other-
there is not some step taken in the mat- Mr. oster p an requires a b wise escape attention:
ter to get P trsportaion, it wll vines be cut in short lengths, but I haveF
ter to get loeaper transportation, it will before me The Fouthern Cultivator fur FARM MANAGEMENT.
bankrupttwo-thirds of the orange-grow- March, which copies from The Southern Clearing land, draining land, crops for
er fthe ights to the East he says, be- Live Stock Journal the published result of new land, succession of crops, intensive
The freights to the ast, e says, e- an experiment with ensilage put up in a farming, treatment of different soils,
cause of the competition of water routes, wooden silo, and the stuff was hot cut at resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
are reasonable, but those to Western all-just put in whole. This silo was penning, green manuring.
points are almost prohibitory, and will built above ground and the walls were a' DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
result in handing those markets over to little out of the perpendicular, being m, ttle ho, shep
California fruit. The cost per box to about 6 inches wider at the top to gives ouses, Brmuldesfe, disease heep,
New York, according to the figures he the map a wedge shape, so as topre poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
gives, is 60 cents, $1.40 per box to Chi- morefirmly against the walls. ment.
cago in less than car-load lots, and 91 We need experiments here in this line. SPECIAL FERTILIZERS.
cents per box in car-load lots from Lees- In fact we need an agricultural and me- Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
burg to Chicago. "I do not wonder, chanical school for boys like the one at yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
fie adds, "that the markets East Starkville, Miss., with an experimental per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
are glutted with oranges, with this farm attached. Nearly 400 boys are ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, cornm-
state of affairs, for it virtually shuts there in attendance, and by laboring.3 or posts. .
us out of the markets West, unless we 4 hours a day their expenses are muchI FORAGE CROPS.
ship in car lots; andwhen we o they reduced. There have been many fail- Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grasw
charge us from $12 to $15per. car for ures in this line, but the Mississippi Col- Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
iigo refrigerator cars and transfers. lege is a success. The femalee college for grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
Add to this the ost of shippingke $237.5 girls at Columbus, Miss., is doing for the blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
per car from here, it will make $242.50 girls what the A. & M. College is doing millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
per car. a a irnia for boys. Horticulture, telegraphy, hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
With the low rates made to California bookkeeping, shoi t hand, cooking and um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
growers by the trans-continental rbil- laundry work are taught, and the ex- melilotus.
roads, it is important for the Florida penses are low. Board -is furnished at I STAPLE CROPS
roads and their connections to bear in actual cost, viz: $7 to $8.50 per month or as ewheat--Varieties
mind that there is such a thing as taxing including lights. Both these schools are I n, ot, ry, wheat-Varieties.
the orange traffic more than it will bear. full beyond their capacity and many are yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
It is no more to their interest than to refused admittance. ties encountered, general treatment.
that of the growers to pass this limit.- Florida should copy the Mississippi Cotton-Long and short Staple-Plant-
STimes-Union. schoolsregardl. o ep d loc ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
schiools regardless of expense, and locate iagenient of seed, products from the-
, them not in the interest of any town or agee
s The Orange Market. county, but where the best facilities,
Editor Florida Farmer and Pruit-Grower: exist, and the best hiducements are offer- culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
Editor orida Farmer and Fuit- Grower: ed for agriculture, horticulture, dairy-1
f Is the orange business to be a failure? ing, etc. I am aware that we have an tion of market.
I hear this question asked by persons Agricultural College at Lake City, but, Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florido,
who have worried through the many as I understand it, there is no farm at- recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
r discouraging features incident to raising tached, board is $15 per month, and of facture.
o an orange grove and have looked for- course it is poorly attended. Such FRUITS.
- ward hopefully to the time when their schools as Mississippi has established, are Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varied
Streets would bear and turn the tide in an honor to the State, enable poor ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
their favor by the sale of fruit, children to educate themselves, and are ods of propagation, methods of planting
That time had come, the trees were full to overflowing and hundreds are and culture comparative effects of fer-
a laden with their golden promises, busy turned away, while other so-called agri- tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
hands were eagerly gathering, packing cultural colleges languish. Graduates of of fruit wine and other products.
and shipping. the Mississippi A. & M. College are Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
Now for the returns-two, three, four sought as managers of dairy and other plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mill-
- weeks pass and no word; then a letter of farms, berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
y inquiry is sent and an answer received; The next legislature should put this pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
h "Fruit is being held on account of glut State in an advanced positure in this pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
in the market. respect. The appropriation should be almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,.
The question arises: What has caused sufficient to make it a success and all be strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
e this condition in our Northern markets? centered on one school for boys and one rieties, their characteristics, effects of
Certainly not over-production, for Flor- for girls, and not be divided among seve- soil, weather, etc., best methods of
r ida has not a full crop of fruit. -Louisi- ral schools, making the amount to each culture.
d ana has scarcely any oranges, and Call- too small to offset the object sought. FLOWER GARDEN.
f fornia has not yet shipped enough to af- SUBSCRIBER.FLOWER GADEN
Sfeet the markets. DADE CITY Fla., Plants adapted to this climate, out-
e The foreign orange could not drive March 10th, 1887. door culture, management of green-
, our "Floridas" out of the market. Then, house.
e what is the matter? Evidently we must An Old Fraud in New Form. NATIVE TREES AND HERBS;
look in another direction for our answer. Planting trees for ornament or utility,
. It may not be anything in particular, The "wire fence man" is a new swind- the burning over of forest lands, .the
but a combination of circumstances: ler working the farmers. His modus lumber and turpentine industries, the
s stringency in the money market; exces- operandi is thus described: He wan, s tanning industry, phenomena of plant
. sive cold, which not only prevents mov- the privilege of exhibiting his wire fence I life, weeds and noxious plants.
e ing oranges into small towns, but also stretcher machine to farmers in your N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
Decreases the demand, for it is not a township on your farm, and for which T-- -
e good time to suck oranges with the ther- privilege he will build you 30 or 40 rods editor for identification. Information is
*s mometer~below zero. of good fence for exhibition, and all that d desired respecting popular names and
y What effect has the Florida Fruit Ex- he asks of you is to board him, go after |uses"
change had in unsettling the market? the machine at the nearest depot and INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES..
It is evident they have got the commis- pay the charges, not to exceed $3, for Nature of damage done and remedies.
n sion men on the war path, and it seems the fence allset up where youjwant it. In
t at the present time that both are glaring order to have all satisfactory, and as a. MSCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS.
r at each other, neither being willing to warrant of the farmer's good intentions, Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
e make any concessions. This may be fun he requires him to sign a written con- the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
for them but how is it with the poor or- tract on a postal card, which he-mails to and dog laws, fences anti roads, legisla-
i- ange grower? It may be best to fight it his partner, and which proves to be an tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
ll out on that line if 'we can "grin and order'for the machine, price $200, worth portation, marketing produce, experi-.
y bear it." Perhaps it may be the "making about $25. After the machine comes, a mental farms, agricultural education,
r- of the pup." new man turns up with his postal order home manufactures, natural history
I am fully satisfied that if the Ex- for the machine, and requires payment of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
-" change was patronized by all orange of $200, as per agreement on card. IHe vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,.
e growers and properly managed it would claims to be attorney for the- company, farm machinery, farm implements,.
n be eventually a success; but even the and threatens to sue in the United water supply, cooling appliances, re
ir stockholders fail to support it and force States Court at Utica until he gets the cipes for cooking, home decorations,
their fruit on the market through other note. The same game is being played household economy, mineral and earths,
channels, to come into direct competi- out V est, where the agent threatens to climatology, hints on the care of chil-
n tion with the Exchange; without any bring suit in Connecticut, or some other dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-


)y desire for such a result, but taking no State at a distance. It adds another in- ments, etc.
proper precaution to prevent it. When stance for the necessity for the oft re- In treating of the above and related
y dealers are aware of this condition they peated injunction to sign no papers for a subjects, practical experience is much to
will not buy, hoping for a drop in prices stranger.-Home and Farm. be preferred to theoretical knowl-
caused by over supply and the cutting of edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
prices by both parties. Still oranges The Action of Gypsun,. cussion which have to be treated of
keep pouring in because there is no un- from a somewhat theoretical stand-
derstanding between them, then comes The agricultural value of gypsum or point.
h wo d to Florida, "A glut in the mar- land plaster is thus analyzed by Dr. E. In describing any method of experi-
,h ket." H. Jenkins, of the Connecticut Experi- ment it is desirable that all external in-
re I am satisfied that unless the Ex- mental Station: fluences be explained;, for example, in
d change has full control of the largest Fixst.-Plaster has no affinity for nit- the case of a crop, the character of the
part of the crop it is worse than useless rogen. When moist it will absorb and season, of the soil, of the subsoil and
to try to make it a success. Will the retain carbonate of ammonia. Plaster the method of planting and cultivating,
large producers continue this suicidal is sulphate of lime, and in moist condi- all have an important bearing on the re-
in policy another year? I tion is decomposed by carbonate of am- sult. Bare statements of results are of
x- R. J. W. monia and carbonate of lime, and sul- little value, though they may be worthy
it TANGERINE, Fla., March 8th, 1887. phate of ammonia are produced. i of mention.-
he Second.-Carbonate of ammonia is We do not desire letters written mere-
If The Prey of Non-Producers. volatile; the strong ammoniacal odor of ly in praise of special localities unless
to stables and urinals is due to it; Sulphate claims to favor are based on the products
ur Farmers are of all classes, the most of ammonia is not volatile at any ordi- or productiveness of the soil. Articles
a, important, least protected and most nary temperature; of an animated or vivacious style are de-
1k heavily taxed. They need and deserve Third.-Plaster sprinkled on manure sirable by waypof variety, but practical
s. protection, but generally get no more heaps and in stables prevents loss of car- statements and descriptions should be
es than the highwayman accords to his bonate of ammonia, concise and as much to the point as poe-
er victims. They do but little. to help Fourth.-How great the loss of ammo- sible.
k. themselves, anid are considered the le- nia may be in stables, etc., is not easy to All communications for the editorial
in gitimate prey of all non-producers, say. An amount of ammonia that can department should be addressed to
id Touch the interests of any class who are be smelled is very small and would EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWEa
Ip the natural enemies of the human race hardly be worth the saving, but no doubt
of and see how quick they will have legal the loss under some circumstances, par-
he protection. Farmers are legally robbed ticularly in warm weather, is considera- Canada HIard-Wood Unleached
er and plundered with impunity to fill the ble. The advantage of using plaster in A V
a- coffers of those who neither need nor de- stables is largely in this, that the air AS H ES I
Ie serve protection, are told they have no which the animals breathe i3 kept sweet- Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ve cause to complain, have all that belong er and more wholesome, ious weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more
rd to them. Yet farmers are somewhat to Fifth.-Loam is a very excellent deo- tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
b eiadrreels. PrAS.an n~STfree ~onapito.
Ve blame for their, worst troubles. .They dorizer and absorbent of=-ammonia. Itieand anays fon applic o
at have the ballot and should use. it for would have to be used in: larger quanti- i ox 437 Napanee,'dhtario, Canado.


WIND-MILLS AND ARTESIAN WELLS.
The same enquirer wishes to know
which is the most practical, best, and in
the long run the cheapest, the artesian
well or the wind-mill, and he wishes the
address of some reliable artesian well
company.
In the long run the artesian well is
best and cheapest without doubt, espe-
cially where water can be obtained so
easily as in Florida; but the construction
of a wind-mill is cheaper, and is not sub-
ject to chances, as is the case in boring
for water.
BEGGAR WEED.
The same enquirer wishes to know the
comparative value of this plant and the
cow pea for replenishing the fertility of
the soil and for feeding to stock.
The beggar weed is best for forage and
the cow pea best for improving land,
especially for a first crop on wild land.
We were told by the Rev. Lyman Phelps,
of Sanford, that he cultivates a kind of
beggar weed that is superior to the com-
mon Desmodium molle. There are sev-
eral species growing in States north of
Florida, which we would consider
superior, but we doubt if they would
succeed in this State. Concerning these
forage plants and the question of water
supply we would like to hear from those
who can write from experience.
BUDDING ON WILD OLIVE.
E. W. A., of Ormond-on-the-Halifax,
asks if the cultivated olive can be budded
on the wild species. We think it can,
and that where a grove of the Osman-
thus can be left in clearing up a ham-
mock it may be converted into a genuine
olive orchard, but we would advise not
to transplant for this purpose.
MULLEIN-LEAVED SOLANUM.
"A Subscriber" residing on the Indian
river desires to know the name of a stout,
Branching plant, with mullein-like leaves
and with flowers and berries resembling
Those of the Irish potato, a specimen of
- which is sent by letter.
It is the Solanum verbascifolium oz
mullein-leaved solanum, belonging tc
Sthe same family as the Irish potato, to-
- mato and egg-plant, but of no known
use. Back of Key Largo we have seer
Sit growing 25 feet in height and with
- stem 6 inches thick.
KATYDID EGGS.
A. D. F., of Interlachen, sends an or
ange leaf bordered with symme'ricall
overlapping, drab-colored objects while.
e look like some sort of seed.
a These are the eggs of the katyd 'thb
s big hump-backed green grass ppe
y which is frequently seen in summer an(
e more frequently heard. Each egg, i
Uninjured, will split open on one edgi
r and out will step a young katydid
which has to moult repeatedly before
a attaining to mature proportions.
e The vitality of most of the eggs is de
R stroyed by a minute fly which pierces
a them and deposits its own eggs inside
n On hatching the little grub feeds on th
a soft part of the egg, and on reaching th
- winged stage pierces the shell and flie
. away. The holes made by the fly ma;
d be detected on most of the eggs.
The extent to which insects prey upoi
,. one another is little appreciated, bu
. this is the principal way in which thei
r increase is kept in check. There ar
-_ many insects which, if allowed to mult
e ply without any check, would drive a
-. other forms of life from the world. B
t finding and introducing the natural pai
n asitesof insects which hav6 been intro
g duced from other countries without th
o. natural enemies, the entomologist ca
re assist materially in bringing about their
)f extermination.
g Some other inquiries have bee
d answered sufficiently, we think, b
d articles which have appeared recently


in our columns.
le *
7e QUEER FACTS ABOUT FREIGHTS.
3. -- -
es The following is from a letter which
m was mislaid. Some paragraphs which
y were not of a character to keep long at
le omitted. The remainder is fresh an
3d sound, pithy and to the point:
of Editor 7Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower:
or Freights are queer things. We ca
ship a box of oranges from here by e3
a press to New York for 60 cents, and
I- costs 75 cents to send it by freight. Th
nt express does most of the business.
we want to send a box of oranges
New Orleans it costs 90 cents from ou
depot, but if we will send it to Tamp;
at a cost of 10 cents, it will come bac
by us on its way rejoicing, for 40 cent
The road handles it twice and carri<
st it further for 50 cents less. Steam(
competition at Tampa does the world
b- If steamer competition at Tampa ca
work such wonders, a little railroad
ce commission competition would he
is those who are entirely at the mercy (
. the P. I. Company. Work hard for tl
is commission, as free tickets and oth(
-h favors stuck in the ears of our legisli
c. tors will drown the cries of the peop
or to a great extent. The railroads ha%
not been idle. The Plant road tried hat
n- to elect a Senator from this county. W
Sdo expect our; agricultural papers i


(


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 23, 1887.


The Florida Farmer and Frmt Grower.
A. II. CURTI88, Editor.

C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.


Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.

THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion o(f the agricultural and
Industrial interests of Florida. It is published
every Wednesday.
Terms of Subscription.
For one year........... ............. .................. 2.00
For six m months .......................................... 1.00
Clubs of five to one address..................... 7.50
With dally TIMES-UNION, one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.;0
With WEEKLY TIMES. one year ...... .. 2.75
AirSubscriptions in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date Is not
changed Immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
Jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
his paper. Writers may affix such signatures
to their articles an they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
of good faith. Rejected communicationscan-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEdENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rat s furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check,
Postal Note Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
Jacksonville, *Fal.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

FIRST PAGE- Introduction of Teosinte; Culti-
vation of Teosinte; A Grass for Winter Pas-
ture; Texas Blue Grass (Illustrated); A Val-
uable Spring Grass; Botanical Notes; Fibre
Plants; Olive Culture; Southern Plums.
SECOND PAGE-An Important Question; The
Phylloxera; Food Value of Mushrooms; A
Strawberry Colony; Ventilated Cars, etc.
THIRD PAGE-Hints for the Plowman; Agri-
cultural Value of Peas; Home-made Fertili-
zers; The Action of Gypsum; Sugar Manu-
facture; Laying Tile Drains; Deistroying the
Corn Weevil; Origin of Fruit Canning, etc.
FOURTH PAGE (Editorial)-Seed Distribution
Acknowledgments; Signs of a Brighter Day;
Inquiries and Answers; Queer Facts About
Freights; Freight on Oranges; The Orarg(
Market; The Prey of Non-Producers; Indus-
trial Schools; An Old Fraud in New Form.
FIFTH PAG,-(edited by Helen Harcourt)
Our Home Circle; Cosy Corner; Family
Friend; Young Folks' Corner.
SIXTH PAGE-Veterinary Counsel: Heaves
Worms, Thrush, Weak Knees, Warts, Leak-
ing Milk; For Telling Horses' Age; Hints to
Horsemen; Handling Bulls; Lice on Cattle
How to Spay Heifers; Thoroughbred Poultry
How to Mark Chickens; The Poultry Yard
etc.
SEVENTH PAGE-A Novelty in Flowers lllus
ratedd; A Gate Without Hinges (Illustrated)
.Box for Setting Hens (Illustrated); The Wheel
barrow Ladder (Illustrated); A Night in
Jungle; Researches on Snake Poisons; etc.
EIGHTH PAGE-State News in Brief; Remin
iscen 'es of Dr. Perrine; The Hammocks o
Florida; The Riviera of America; Marcl
Weather; Reforts of the Cotton, Tobacco an
Orange Markets, and of the Jacksonvill
Wholesale and Retail Markets.
--
SEED D STRIBUTION.

We beg our readers to take notice tha
our stock of tree seeds was exhausted or
the 19th inst, when we made a final dis
tribution. Any further demands wi]
impose upon us the unpleasant duty o
returning stamps.
A few years hence, thousands of beau
tiful trees will have been added +o Flori
da's adornment through our humble in
atrumentality, and it will afford u
pleasure to continue the good work front
year to year.
We shall now await with much inter
est the development of that wheat w
distributed last fall. We have favorable
reports of its growth from various part
of the State.
-----** '--
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

Those famous orchards in Afric
which were owned by certain ladies
called the Hesperides, doubtless pr(
duced some very fair fruit, perhaps
--qtiua to those of California, but the
would not have taken a single premium
at a Florida fair, at least if the Re1
Lyman Phelps, of Sanford, were amon
the exhibitors.
Having sampled some of Mr. Phelp!
oranges recently, we have made up ou
mind that four, at least, of his fort
four varieties, are improved seedlings (


Hesperidian fruit. They are the JaffE
Majorica, Maltese Oval and St. Micha
Blood. Their names indicate that the
originated not far from the Africa
coast. This and other reasons not nece
sary here to particularize, convince us
the correctness of the above opinion
Among the Jaffas sent us by M
Phelps were some rusty ones, which w
pronounced superior to the bright on(
and superior to any other orange we ev
ate,and, in fine,stiperior to any other fru
or other article of food or drink which
was ever subjected to our unerring sen
of taste. Knowing what to expect, v
gave the brights to a favored few and r
stained all the russets. Golden fruit a
fair to behold, but give us the rusty coa
every time ; as for a russet Jaffa, it
food fit for the gods.
Some time ago we received a trip
orange grown at Sanderson. Wheth
it was an average sample of Sanderso
oranges, or anew "patent combination


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or an orange grown especially for
editorial use, we were not advised. If
our opinion was expected, we would
say that we think it no improvement on
the common style of orange. In fact, we
disapprove of the style. The middle or-
ange gets badly jammed up and robbed
of all its pulp by the two outer ones.
Then, too, a sausage-shaped orange will
not go through any of the patent sizing
machines, and we don't think it could, be
placed on the market to good advan-
tage.
We presume thesenderhad no thought
of securing a free advertisement of a new
variety, nor any other motive, save to
surprise us. We frankly confess that
since our first sight of a double orange,
we never were more surprised. At the
same time, we beg to announce that we
shall not again be surprised by a triple
orange, but we are open to surprise by
the quadruple variety, which, as yet, we
-ave not seen.
In view of the approaching season of
editorial offerings we think of preparing
a table showing the minimum size of
various fruits and vegetables of
which we shall condescend to
take editorial notice. Of a ruta-
baga, for example, nothing less than a
ten pounder would tempt us to dip pen
in ink, but a three-pound bunch of
Black Hamburgs would recieve most
favorable mention and we would write a
poem over a fifty-pound watermelon.
Verbum sat Sapienti.
--
SIGNS OF A BRIGHTER DAY.

From Prof. J. N. Whitner, President
ef the Farmers and Gardeners' Institute,
which recently assembled at DeFuniak
Springs, we learn that at the late meet-
ing, which we were unable to attend,
; the name of the association was changed
; to that of the Farmers and Fruit-Grow-
t ers. The FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWEB
Swill naturally feel a lively interest in
the doings of this new organization, and
; we trust that this interest will be recip
rocated by the Farmers and Fruit-Grow-
, ers' Association.
The newly adopted name strikes us as
o being eminently appropriate for an as
; sociation which aims to represent th(
, interests of the producing classes of the
whole State-as the FARMER AND FRUIT
- GROWER does.
; Neither this nor the Nurserymen's As
a sociation are sectional. They are both
the stronger for that, and. each should
- be strengthened by the work of* th(
f other. Then *comes the experiment
h '
d station to assist both and to strengthen
e the agricultural college. Then comes
the State Department of Agriculture by
which the work accomplished by these
several agencies may be collated, sys
tematized and presented in best form fo
t the guidance of the public.
n Florida stands on the threshold of
Snew agricultural eraand is about to take
Sa new departure. When the FARME]
f AND FRUIT GROWER was announced
year ago, the State was enveloped in
1- gloom. It seemed to most persons
i- rash act to try to establish a new agri
-" cultural paper under such circumstances
as But the proprietors of the paper believe
m they saw the dawn of a better day
and planned for the work which they bf
- lived would be demanded on the morrow
e Having now entered fully upon ou
e work we feel assured, through the ex
s pressed sentiments of the people,that w
have at least laid the right sort of four
dations on which to build up a grea
paper. Our paper might have bee
a strengthened at the outset by becoming
?s -the organ of some railroad or some ass(
o- ciation, but we knew it would become er
)s long a source of weakness. The taint c
y patronage, subsidy, bribery, is something
m not easily to be got rid of, and ba


v. habits are most damaging when acquire
g in youth.
"Let the dead bury their dead." Th
s' FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER is a livi
ar paper and deals only with live subjects
Y- If any one else thinks the public wish(
of to be served with fossil ideas, let hin
Sa, continue in that line of trade. If an
el one thinks that dry bones can be mad
'y to breathe and walk, we shall be please
n to watch developments-it is "none o
s- our funerals." We are not working fo
of the present dollar-in-hand, but with
n. view to future attainments, having con
r. stantly in view Florida's advancement
ve in substantial prosperity.
es *
er :INQUIRIES AND ANSWERS.
lit --~
Dh SUN TIME.
se J. B. P., of Ellenton, asks for the mo
ve accurate and practical methods of o
e- training sun time.
re If one has standard time for referrn<
ts he can calculate from that. When it
is noon by standard time in Florida it
11:27 a. m. by sun time. Without sue
)le standard, sun time may be obtained a
er curately by a transit instrument,
n approximately by a 50-cent pocket su:
," dial... .. ..






































What Mr. Beyer says.p,
,* *a ** Ple ptm
best thanks for the splendid seeds received from yourfirm.
S It would be a rather lengthy list if I should name all, but
will say thatamongst38 first, and 3 second premiums
awarded me at our fairs in Northern Indiana and
Southern Michigan, 28 first premiums were for vege.
,tables raised from your seeds. What firm can beat
"this? 11 AUGUST BzYEB, So. Bend, Ind.
Seed of this quality I am now ready to sell to every one
who tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FREI my
vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1887. Old customers
need not write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild
potato. JAS. J. H. GREGORYBT, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mass


Ormond Land Agency,

East Coast of Uolusia


JF0XR


,. T. PAINE, -


- PRESIDENT.


Florida Orange Food per ton.............$23.00
Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00
Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 30 per
cent.; Sulphate of Potash, 12 per cent.; Mag-
nesia, 6 per cent. Lime Soda and other val-
uable ingredients.
CO'W :P-T AR,
RED ROVER, WHIPPOORWILL AND CLAY
FOR SEED '
Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
Tree.


0


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 23, 1887.


The


Florida


Times-Union


PRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSE.


Best


Equipped


Inthe South


PLAIN AND


NOTICE.
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Sixty days after the first publication of this
notice application will be made to the Legis-
lature of Florida, for the passage of a charter
of the "Florida Fruit Exchange," whereby
the capital stock may be increased to a sum
greater than Fifty Thousand Dollars; the- par
value of shares to be reduced from One Hun-
dred Dollars to Ten Dollars per share; to al-
low the corporation to purchase and convey
such real and personal property as may be
deemed necessary to its usefulness, Includ-
ing vehicles of transportation; to lease or
erect buildings for storage of produce, and
advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
such matt rials as may be useful to fruit grow-
ers and gardeners, and generally to transact
such business as may for the interest of mem-
bers and others connected with fruit growing
and kindred pursuits, and for such other
powers and privileges as may be deemed
necessary and proper.
GEO. R. FAIRBANKS,
GEO. H. NORRIS,
D. GREENLEAF,
M. J. DOYLE,
T. W. MOORE,
J. D. MITCHELL,
WM. E. STANTO0;,
ROB'T BULLOCK,
B. M.BAER
Board of Directors,
Florida Fruit Exchange.
Jacksonville, Fla.., February 16,1887.


HANGERS


A- SPECIALTY


FOLDERS


I


fu SwIomf -- --------


HELEN HARCOURT. Editor.


NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMASHIP LINE.
TRI-WEEKLY SERVICE BIW'WEEN
NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE
Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, ThIrsday
and Saturday, at 3 p. n.
FROM JACKSONVILLE-CHEROKEE (new), and SEMINOLE (new), every FRIDAY.
FROM FERNANDINA- DECA WARE and YErMASEE every MONDAY, p. m., CITY
OF A TLANTA and CITY OF COL UMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p. m.
The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
the coastwise service. For further information, apply to
CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt.,
Fernandina, Fla., Jacksonville, Fla., S. W. cor. Bay and Hogan.
THEO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, WM. P CLYDE & CO.,
35 Broadway,N. Y. General Agents, 35 Broaalway, N. Y


Tlrie Bes He tlh RnesOr"t
Is on the Lineof the Florida Southern.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com-
ing to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
this Centre of the Lake Region. For further particulars address,
S. L. REED, Pittman, Fla.
sizee 40x1oo T EM V17 on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., onl $8. A
03 feet in U-0 AI choice 5-acre tract for an ORANGE
GROVE costs but $50.
High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-R
ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. O. Order or A
Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title ,LOR D
perfect, from the


Our Cosy Corner.


P. 0. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.


- Ormrnond.

C county,


.FLORIDA FERTILIZING GO.


JOB




PRINTING








AT PRICES BELOW COMPETITION






Railroad, teamboat


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ORMOND ON THE HALIFAX,


FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES


----CALL ON OR ADDRESS--



JAMES CARNELL,


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93


his younger years as a sailor, he set-
tled down after his marriage, to carve
out a comfortable home for his family,
by dint of hard, persevering labor, his
lack of education shutting him out from
other avenues of support.
And now, in one swift second of time.,
all this is changed
A few days since, while out hunting,
his gun was accidently discharged,
while resting against his arm; the whole
load passed through it, shattering the
bones so utterly between the wrist and
elbow, that ampu'ation below the elbow
joint was the only resource.
And so, when this poor fellow rises
from his bed of pain of body and an-
guish of mind, it will be to face the
seemingly impossible problem of sup-
porting himself and his family with but
"bne arm to do the work for them all I
A man of more education may find
employment, but who can suggest any
resources open to a man whose sole de-
pendence appears to be upon manual
labor ?
It may be that some of our readers
may know or th'nk of some way in
which this unfortunate man may yet
be enabled to support his loved ones,
who lean wholly upon him.
If so, in the name of Him who has
commended us to "do unto others as ye
would that they should do unto you,"
let them speak out; a timely suggestion
may lead to happy results.
It is possible, only possible (surgical
science has made such strides of late),
that if the means to purchase can be se-
cured, an artificial hand may be made
to supply the place of the one lost, to
such an extent as to enable the plow and
spade, and axe to be grasped, with the
aid of the sound hand. We have heard
of cases where all this has been done,
and it is possible it can be in this case;
we pray that it may be so.
But this we know, without the shadow
of a doubt, James Davis is for the pres-
ent, at least, cut off from earning a
single dollar for his family; he and they
need help, need it urgently.
Sisters, cousins, wives and mothers,
husbands and fathers, we appeal to you
for their relief, and believe that the ap
peal will not be made in vain. The ed-
itor of Our Home Circle will faithfully
acknowledge and forward all contribu-
tions sent in for the James Davis fund.
"Be merciful after thy power. If thou
hast much, give plenteously; if thou
hast little, do thy diligence gladly to
give of that little; for so githerest thou
thyself a good reward in the day of ne-
cessity."
"Give alms of thy goods, and never
turn thy face from any poor man, and
then the face of the Lord shall not be
turned away from thee."

The Family Friend.
We give below an excellent and inex-
pensive recipe for making
LEMON PIE.
Ingredients: One teacup powdered sugar,
one tablespoonful butter, one egg, one
lemon, juice and grated rind, removing
the seeds with care, one teacupful of
boiling water, one tablespoonful corn-
starch dissolved in boiling water.
Stir the corn-starch into the boiling
water, set it aside, then cream the but-
ter and sugar, and pour the hot mixture
over them.. When quite cool, add the
lemon and bcat-n egg. Th's quantity
makes one good-sized pie. Bako with
one crust.
STEWED RABBIT.
S(English style).-Cut the rabbit up in
nice-sized pieces, wash well and dry.
Then fry them a nice brown. Take two
large onions, slice very thin, fry also,
and dredge with flour. Put all in a
saucepan, with pepper, salt and some
good stock-or water, with herbs, mixed,
carrot and turnip-but if possible the
stock, as only the onions are served with
it. Let it stew gently two hours, rub
down a piece of butter with a little cat-
sup or hot sauce. Just ten minutes be- f
fore serving stir aP together.-F.
BOILED RICH.
To every teacup of rice put one quart
of water, salt to taste. Let the water s
boil hard, then throw in rice previously 1
well washed; when it begins ,o boil, do
not allow it to be stirred, and boil twenty 1
minutes, not touching it: pour off any f
water remaining; place the saucepan on f
back of range, partially covered for a
few minutes; when turned out into the (
dish for the table, each grain will be !
found separate. The rice should stand r
on the back of the range until it appears
dry on the top, then shaken out into a c
dish, not removed with the spoon a


NEW WAY TO COOK CHICKENS. f
Cut the chicken up, put it in a pan o
and cover it with water; let it stew as
usual, and when done make a thickening
of cream and flour, adding a piece of
butter, and pepper and salt. Have made
and bake a pair of short-cakes, made as i
for pie-crusts, but roll thin and cut in
small squares. This is much better than
chicken pie, and more simple to mke. 1
The crusts should be laid on a dish and
the chicken gravy poured over while t
both are hot. r
DRY BREAD AND COLD MEAT UTILIZED.
Chop your beef -very fine, then soak
your bread in cold water Until it is very 0
soft; take it in the hands and squeeze as v
much of the water out of it as you can, i
having two thirds as much bread as b
meat; mix the bread and meat thor
roughly together, beat three eggs well t
and mix in, add salt and pepper to taste, a
make in balls the size of a biscuit, and
fry slowly in butter or frying fat till e
brown on both sides, f
If everyone knew how delicious and
refreshing a drink can be made from r
strawberries, few would be willing to go r
without it during the long summer days.
Try this recipe for yourselves: t
STRAWBERRY VINEGAR, f
Put the berries into a stone vessel and s
mash them to a pulp. Add cider vinegar, f
no spurious imitation, but the genuine n
article, enough to cover it well. Stand ii
n the sun twelve hours, and as much h
onger in a cool room in the house. Stir
t up well occasionally during this time. p


Strain, and put as many fresh berrie
back as you took out; pour the strained
vinegar over them; mash, and set in thi
sun all day. Strain a second time th
next day. To each quart of this juice
allow one pint of water.
To each three pints of this liquid (juic
and water mixed), add five pounds o
the best white sugar.
Then place over a gentle fire and sti
until the sugar is dissolved. Heat slowly
to boiling, skimming off the scum, an(
as soon as it fairly boils, take off an(
strain. Bottle while warm, and seal thi
corks with sealing-wax, or bees-wax and
rosin-or, better and easier and quite a
effectual, tie .cotton batting over thE
cork, taking care there is no breal
in it.
A little of this vinegar in a tumbler o
water makes a most refreshing drink.
STRAWBERRY WINE.
An excellent wine is made as follows
Mash and strain the berries (if fresh anc
ripe, three quarts should yield about one
quart of juice). To each quart of juice
aid one quart of water and one pounce
of sugar. Stir up well and ferment in a
clean, sweet cask, leaving the bung out.
When the working subsides close tightly,
or rack off into bottles. A stone jug will
answer in place of the cask.
Altana tells us as follows, how to
make
B-- AN HOUR-GLASS STAND.
Take the top of three flour barrels,
nail two together for the bottom, the
other for the top; have a stout stick the
height of a table, brace this in the centre
of top and bottom. Tack around the top
plain calico or bright cotton without
gathers-mine is drab silicia with cre-
tonne ; top, old flannel cut into fringe
with a heading of black braid feather-
stitched with red silk; tie the centre
with a ribbon and bow, and tack on the
cloth at the bottom. Have used ours in
the sitting-room for lamp nearly a year;
never has upset yet; would be nicer for
bed-room. [And safer without the lamp.
Remember the story of "the pitcher that
went once too often to the well." The
lamp is'too risky.-ED.]

Our Young Folks' Corner.
ITS STANDING OFFER.
A nice picture book each month to the boy
or girl who sends us the largest list of subscrib-
ers for "THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER" during that month.
A beautifully bound copy of the famous
children's magazinee, St. Nicholas, to the boy
or girl whe sends us the largest number of
subscribers during six months.
Write us letters descriptive of places, things
or doings; write us on one side the page; give
your age.
The best letter received will be published
each week.
Now go to work and see who wins.
The Story of Picaro.
(Concluded.)
What became of Peek's poor, mother-
less fledgling is one of the things that
can only be conjectured; it disappeared
in a few days, and then how lonely little
Picaro felt f
It was easy to see how he grieved over
the loss of his mate and their baby birds,
for he came and sat on the arbor and
sang and sang such a sweet, plaintive
song-we had often heard it before, and
noticed that Brownie always came in
answer to it.
But not now! Our poor Picarro sang
in vain, but it was a long while before
he gave up calling and listening for the
wonted cheerful reply. Sometimes he
even took food to the tree where their
nest had been, hoping that he might
thus lure Brownie back again.
Finally, however, he gave up looking
and calling, and'then, in his loneliness,
sought the society of his human friends
more than ever.
It only needed for the window to be
raised for Master Peek to come in and
make himself at home, and many were
the conversations-very one sided, to be
sure-that he held with the bird re-
lected in the window-pane, or in the
mirror on our bureau.
Sometimes he sat on the backs of our
chairs, or on top of the elbow of the
stove-pipe, when there was no fire be-
low, and talked to us.
The cold days came and all the other
birds went away, but still Peek remained,
faithful to his old home and human
friends.
One cold morning we saw him sitting
on his window-sill, looking like a puff-
ball, and a draggled one, too, for it was
raining, and he was both cold and wet.
We had some nice warm milk at hand,
condensed miik, too, that was ready for
another of our pets, of whom you will
hear presently, and it occurred to us to
fill a little glass saltcellar with it and put


On Peek's table.
If you only could have seen how he
Irank that warm milk I It really seemed
as if he would never stop, and at almost
every swallow he tapped at the glass, as
f to say, "Thank you; thank you so
much I"
So, from that day to this, the saltcel-
ar of milk is one of the permanent feat-
ures of Picaro's table, and if it happens
o get empty--well, he tells us of it
eight away I
Sometimes early in the morning, when
t is hardly daylight, and I am scarcely
awake, the first thing I hear is a small
voice at the window, scolding with all
ts might, and then there follows a bump,
umb, bump all over Peek's table, and I
know that the saltcellar is empty and
hat Peek is telling me so by scolding,
md dragging it over the board.
And if the little dish that holds his
egg, or cheese, or corn, is empty, he in-
orms us of that fact in the same way.
He is evidently bent on making all the
acket he can until we meet his de-
nands.
Often, too, when my study door is-
Dpen. I hear a queer little pattering on
he floor, and looking down, there is
friend Picaro come to visit me, a visit of
elf interest, if the truth must be told,
or he soon hops solemnly to a saucer of
milk that he knows he will always find
n one particular spot, and there he helps
himself. "
When he has taken all he wants, he
proceeds to examine everything in the


s room, and retires when he is ready, an<
I not one moment before.
e And now the warm days of spring
e have come, and lonely Picaro is lonely:
, no more. The "winter of his discontent'
is gone and he is no longer a widower
e He has not only taken to himself
f another wife, but he has already, thu
early in the season, taught her to com(
r to his table, and soon she will be as fear
F less as himself. But one thing we hav
I noticed-she approves of the solid food
I on the table, but about the milk, he:
e opinion is very different from Peek's
I We saw her try it the other day, an
s such a shaking of her head and wiping
Sof her beek as followed was comical.
I And so it looks as if our bird window
would soon repeat the history of las
f summer, when father and mother and
babies all sat at, or rather on, the the ta
ble together.
Little cousins, I want you to hav(
some tame free birds of your own-; try
it, and see how much more pleasure
there is in kindness than in thoughtless
cruelty.
Boys, are the mother's jelly glasses
giving out ? If they are you can come
[to therescue, for here is a way:
TO CUT GLASS BOTTLES FOR JELLY CUPS,
S A simple, practicable way of cutting
off glass bottles for cups or jars, is tc
take a red not poker with a pointed
end, make a mark with a file to begin
the cut, then apply thehot ihon and a
crack will start, which will follow the
iron wherever it is carried. This is, on
the whole, simpler and better than the
use of strings wet with turpentine, etc.
UMBRELLA FRAMES MADE USEFUL.
A pretty stand for umbrellas and
canes may be made out of the frame of
an ol6 umbrella. Remove the cover and
partly open the umbrella, securing it in
the desired position by a few tacks.
Cover with thick silver paper, pasting it
to fit in a sort of cornucopia. Then
make a lining of oil-cloth, white or light
brown. Bind the edge with braid. A
bordering of fancy paper may be used,
entirely covering the braid if preferred
Ornament the stick with a bow or rib-
bon.
HICKORY-NUT CAKES.
One egg, one-half cup nuts sliced fine,
drop on buttered tins one teaspoonful in
place, two inches apart, or roll and bake
like sand tarts.
HICKORY-NUT MACKARONS.
Take meats of hickory nuts, pound
fine, and add mixed ground spices, make
frosting as for cakes, stir meats and
spices in, putting in enough to make it
convenient to handle; flour the hands
and make the mixture into balls the size
of nutmegs, lay them on buttered tins,
giving room to spread and bake in a
quick oven. These are excellent.

KAFFIR CORN FOR SEED PURPOSES.
AMBER CANE SEED.
GERMAN MILLET,
CATTAIL, OR PURE MILLET,
.SPANISH PEA-NUTS,
JOHNSON GRASS, ETC.
everythingg to Plant. Address
SO. SEED CO., Macon, Ga.
J. R. Ellis, President.

Bees and Queens.
Orders will be booked now for delivery dur-
ing April, May or June, of my superior race
of pure

Italian Bes and Ques
Queens by mail a specialty.
Give me a trial order.
For prices or other information, address
H. C. HAI T,

Enstis, Orange Co., Fla.

FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOPY,
Before yon decide where to go in SOUTH
FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of;
THE ORANGE GROVE.
You will find better and cheaper bargains in
MANATEE County in groves, farms, ranches of
any size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove," is
an "old timer," but neither moss backed or hide
bound; he is here to stay and "There is millions
in it." Three Millions of Acres'on his Books.
Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.


With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
new,
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will
be answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by
mail when accompanied by stamp for
reply.
Subscribers are cordial'y invited to
tke a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex-
change views, experiences and recipes
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an-
other."
Communications intended for publi-
cation must be brief, clearly written,
and only on one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Montclair. Fla.


COlvl::P-A-lT--T7


TI OPIOC.AjL -LATrD


We most gladly give the post of honor
this week to the following letter, the
writer of which hails from one of Flor-
ida's most favored sections, Polk county.
We heartily commend her suggestions
to our readers, and as heartily wish that
all our Florida homes were reared upon
as noble a basis as the one she outlines
The advice to "be brave, roll up our
sleeves, and make as light work as we
can," is good, sound common sense, and
we wish there were more of it abroad.
We shall preach a sermon from this text
ere long.
"Altana," however, is more favored
than many of her sisters, for there are
many, very many, who are more than
willing to "roll up their sleeves," but
who, instead,can only cry out "the spirit
is willing, but the flesh is weak," more
also, not all husbands are unselfish or
thoughtful enough to urge their wives
to spare work when it affects their own
comfort, nor are all children as helpful
as those who bless Altana's home, and
lighten, rather than add to, her burdens.
To our correspondent's concluding
query, we reply, "ay! come again, hon-
est, true-heaited words are good for us
all; let us "help one another." We hope
also to meet the good children of a good
mother in "Our Young Folks Corner."
They can surelysay something there to
benefit and interest their cousins.
DP'AR EDITOR.-You have asked us to
come to the front, so here I am. Am
glad that Mrs. Brown remonstrates,
have felt like it myself while reading
articles from flying tourists through
Florida.
This is our third winter here, and I
don't think there have been more than
two weeks this winter that we haven't
had roses, and two years ago we had
them all winter; have had boquets of
white and blue violets and other flowers
from the woods all winter.
I liked your article on the help ques-
tion, but it will take some time to per-
feet any plan.
Why not be brave, roll up your sleeves,
and make as light work as we can, and
get all the happiness out of it possible ?
Our little girl, eleven years old, and I,
wcrk together (during vacation.) We
play too; she plays we are cooks in a ho-
tel. I ask her to go to market for vege-
tables or berries; she goes to the garden'
or grove, pulls or picks whatever sent
for, and then she sells them; of course I
want to buy; no money passes between
us, but she enjoys playing this way, and
has no one else to play with.
She has six children (dolls); I am their
grandma; she-often brings her oldest
child (about two feet long) to visit me,
and so we get the work done, and she
doesn't realize that it is work.
But I was going to tell you how I am
learning to lighten work, I suppose my
northern sisters will say "getting lazy
so ruick ?' but I deny it, for I never
worked harder.
We (my oldest son and I) only wash
once in two weeks, have a washing ma-
chine and wringer, which hlie engineers,
draws water, builds fire under the sugar
kettle, and when the water boils, we
wash.
When I put the clothes out on the
line, I shake them well, and when dry,
sheets, pillow slips, under clothing,'
night shirts, co'ored shirts, and towels,
I fold neatly before I put in the clothes
basket. When they are in the house,
each article goes to a drawer or shelf
without ironing, these are our every day
wear. My husband begged me to let the
work shirts go without ironing, said I
wouldn't know the difference after being
worn a day. [Rightl "May his shadow
never grow less. -Ed.] I did as he
wished, adding the others gradually. I
find I have enough starched things to
keep me busy.
S Your wash stand made me wish to
tell you of some other honie-made fur-
niture which may be new to some. [Di-
rections for "our hour-glass stand,"
sent by our correspondent, we have
handed over to "The Family Friend" to
":make a note on 't." Let us have oth-
ers.--Ed.] Editor, shall I come again ?
ALTANA.
IN BEHALF OF THE UNFORTUNATE
We appeal to you, sisters and cousins
of "Our Home Circle," ay! and-to every
reader of THE FLORIDA FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER, wives and mothers,
husbands and fathers, f
It is no idlb plea that we make, but !
one full of earnestness, and for a family
in sore need of all the help and comfort
that true-hearted humanity can render.
J[n the editor's neighborhood lives an
honest, hard working man, James Da- r
vis by name, who-has been the sole sup- '
port of a wife,three young children-one
an infant-and has also aided his wife's


almost helpless parents. i
He has supported them cheerfully and n
willingly, by the work of his hands, t
clearing land, plowing, setting trees, i
but more especially as a well-digger. 1
A man in the prime of life, passing i





MIL-p-


NPO

Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
animals may be addressed to Dr. D. O. Lyon,
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column.

Veterinary Counsel.


PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD,
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J. Boardman Smith's
pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
after June 1st. rite for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.
BAYPORT,
Hernando County, Elorida,


SDon't Fad to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or
invest elsewhere.
"THE BANNER COUNTY."
Awarded First Prize, $250, for Best General Exhibit at South Florida
Exposition February, 1867.

THE HERNANDO


REAL ESTATE AGENCY,
BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA,
-OFFER FOR SALE--
Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or m
bearing, Truck or General Farming Lands, High or Low
Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.

Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and
do a large business in Loans.

There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, io to
15 per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both
on Town and Farm Property. -

BR 0 0 KS VIL LE
Situated on a hill, altitude 828 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,
is properly called
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA."
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well
stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
bearing Orange Groves, presents to. the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,.
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
Special attention is called to the
L.A.COOCT-T- G HEI OVl !

A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stopk Company.
This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 820 acres
of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, oue of
the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western boundary
for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R. &
N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pemberton's Ferry,
from which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation
competing lines.
There'are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100
acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to 30
years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these
trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they, are protected on the
north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a-beautiful lake.
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc.. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No prettier sites for
winter homes on the:Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will
be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,
we will take

One-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do experienced
orange growers, and they are the proper.judges, think of such a price for such a
property?. The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.' ..?.
L," ENNESS. 0. PRESTON.


94


by all veterinary books for grown ani-
mals. Mr. Votaw, who usually selects
spring calves in the fall, in pleasant
weather, spays in the side, throwing the
calf down and tying its feet together like
a sheep or hog.
The American Live Stock Cyclopedia
has the following instruction: "Lay the
heifer on her left side with the legs
stretched back. Clip off the hair from
the angle between the point of the hip
and last rib; make an incision, running
up and down, large enough to admit the
hand; pass the hand into the abdomina
cavity and find the womb; follow up a
horn of the womb until the ovary is,
reached, pull the ovary out and either
cut or twist it off-preferably the latter,
to avoid bleeding. If cut off, the artery
should be twisted to arrest the hemor-
rhage. The parts are put back and the
other ovary is brought up and operated
on similarly. This one may be mort
difficult to bring out, but gentle traction
will accomplish it. Great care should
be taken to keep everything as clean a-
possible, as hair or other foreign particle,
introduced into the belly might cause,
fatal peritonitis. Stitch up the walls w,
the belly first, then the skin, with "cat
gut" (si!k will do almost as well, or shoe-
maker's tread). The ranch band, super-
intended by a careful man, can perform
this operation at the same time and a
well as castrating the bull calves, and
thousands of dollars can be saved,
which now are as large as cart-wheels
to the majority of rancheros.-Times-
Democrat.
--. *
THOROUGHBRED POULTRY.

Showing the Economy of 'Buy-
ing High-Priced Fowls.
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
Be sure to select those which will
grow and thrive well in this climate.
From actual experience, we only know
of four breeds that do well here, viz.:
Wyandottes, Plymouth Rocks,White and
Brown Leghorns. There are others, we
have heard, do equally as well, but as
we are writing from actual experience,
we cannot recommend hem. It is just
as easy to raise pure-bred fowls as it is to
raise mongrels. The pure-bred lay more
and larger eggs, and are very much su-
perior to the mongrel in appearance,
and fully repay the buyer for paying a
little more for them. So, always be
sure you are buying a first-class article,
with no disqualifications. The disquali-
fications and good points can be found
in the American Standard of Excellence.
If they were describeI here they would
be treated nearly as thoroughly as they
are in the Standard, and we would con-
sider it waste room when the Standard
can be purchased so cheaply.
A ROUND PRICE FOR A ROUND FOWL.


Feeding Calves.
Thousands of valuable calves are killed
annually by feeding cold skim milk.
You should have a thermometer, and
warm the milk as near to 98 degrees as
possible-and then you will not be apt
to have )our calves affected with colic
and diarrhea.
The learned Professors tell As, also, to
mix in boiled flaxseed with the skimmed
milk, to supply the oil taken out by the
cream.
It is better to feed calves three times a
day than twice per day.
More calves are injured by over-feed-
ing skim milk than under-feeding.-So.
Live Stock Journal.
*& *


old, and they take nearly two years to
arrive at their full growth. The teeth,
as the horse grows older, get blunter and
shorter, and so to an experienced judge
are a sure indication of age. Up to six
years old the mouth is in a distinct and
riodical state of structural change.
here is no difficulty in determining the
age up to that date. After that the age
must be judged by the shape of the
mouth and the appearance of the teeth
called the mark. At six years of age
the cuts leave the two centre teeth above,
at seven the next two above, at eight the
outer or corner teeth above.
At nine the two center teeth below
lose the cuts, at ten the next two below,
and at eleven the outer or corner teeth
below. After a little practice the close
observer can scarcely make a mistake.
The changes that occur are the same in
all horses, or nearly so.-The Sportsman.
*
Hints to Horsemen.
Always keep to the right of the road.
Caution the groom to screw the nuts
on tight after oiling.
See that the yoke straps of your
double team are not worn thin.
All saddles set better and safer if they
have croupers attached.
Stumbling horses should have their
bearing reins reasonably tight.
Examine the bit to see that it is not
worn too much at the rings and joints.
Ladies riding horseback should see
that the saddle girths are re-tightened if
necessary.
See that the horse is not hitched too
close, that he may not hit the axle while
speeding.
Have the safety straps on the shafts
oiled occasionally and the coupling bolts
examined.
Never drive too near those on horse-
back that they may not get into your
wagon wheel.
Always trot your horse over and under
railroad crossings so that the teams fol-
lowing you will not get blocked.
Always keep your lines well in hand,
so that in case your horse shies or sud-
denly jumps, or is of a nerV'ous disposi-
tion, you can control him.
When you have your girl out be care-
ful as to which part of the road you are
on when you hand her the lines, or she
will run you into some one sure.
If you drop your whip or your horse
casts a shoe, always turn your horse
around and stand by his head, with one
hand holding one of the reins below the
bit, as you stoop to pick the article up.
In riding on the saddle keep the knees
and thighs well to the saddle and the toes
straight with the horse and not pointed
out, thus adding to the security of your
seat in case of a sudden plunge of your
horse.
TT-_- 4-L1- -1--1, J p


The following inquiries and answers
are selected from the veterinary columns
of Home and Farm:
HEAVES.
A valuable horse I think has the
heaves. It commenced in very hard
breathing and coughing. He was better
but is worse now. It commenced in the
spring.
ANSWER.-Feed four times daily in-
stead of three, the quantity of food not
to be increased. Limit the quantity of
hay somewhat, and do not feed hay con-
taining clover. Wet all food and do
not feed within one hour of working.
Water should be given frequently, that
large quantities may not be taken. Place
a piece of unslacked lime the size of a
hen's egg in a quart of water, and after
all action has ceased, pour off the clear
solution and mix one part of it with two
of linseed or sweet oil. Shake well, and
of the mixture thus made mix a half
pint with each feed; less if the bowels
become relaxed. This lime need not be
renewed when more lime water is
wanted; simply fill the bottle with wa-
ter, and use as in the first instance.
Give ten grains of tartar emetic twice
daily. A veterinarian on the spot
might make other suggestions.
WORMS
Give a remedy for worms in horses.
ANS.-In general terms the best
treatment is comprised in tonics, good
care and placing salt where it will be
within reach of the animal at all times.
As a tonic there is, perhaps, nothing,bet-
ter than dried sulphate of iron given in
two-drachm dozes with gentian and anise
seed. This should be given morning
and night during six or eight weeks,
omitting its administration for a few
days occasionally if the bowels become
constipated. If with the foregoing
treatment the animal gets a ball con-
taining eight drachms of barbodoes aloes
after the first four weeks of treatment,
there will be little trouble with worms.
THRUSH.
A mare ten years old is in good condi-
tion every way but for the thrush in fore
feet.
ANS.-Cut away all half detached
fragments of the frog, and dress with
powder composed of mild chloride of
mercury ten, and powdered charcoal one
part. Press this powder well into the
Scleft of the frog. See to it that-the horse
stands in a clean dry stall.
WEAK KNEES.
A five-year old horse has weak knees,
which, after a hard drive, will tremble.
They are a little bent.
ANs.-Take away the manger and
make the animal eat from the floor.
Shower the legs with cold water and
rub briskly until dry Give the animal
a long rest, or permanent deformity may
result, The elatic bandage may aid
you materially. .
WARTS.
I have a young horse on whose body
and limbs have appeared large warts.
ANs.-A wart is simply an over-
growth of the external layer of the skin.
The only speedy and permanent cure is
a surgical operation. Caustic and other
local applications are worse than useless.
LEAKING MILK.
A cow leaks her milk when her bag is
very full. Some say soak her teats in
alum water. Will it prevent it ?
ANs.-Do not interfere except to milk
the cow at such times as will prevent
the occurrence. You state the case well.
It is true, that "when the bag is very
. full" the "leak" occurs. It is equally
true that distension of the udder to an
extent causing this "leak" is attended
with more or less pain, and this pain, if
not relieved, as it should be, by milking,
Induces a congestion which furnishes
the undiscoverable, the mysterious
"What can it be?" when the cream
room manager is almost desperate in at-
tempting to account for"just a suspicion"
of something wrong with this or that
animal's milk. Yes, and more than this,
it is just here that many a case of garget
has its origin, its end being the death of
the animal, or her retirement from the
herd.
A .ARD MILKER.
A cow milks very hard. How can I
make her milk easily ?
ANs.-Place before her at milking
time some food of which she is particu-
larly fond. Or, use a milking tube. Is
there any fault with the teats ?
$
For Telling Horses' Age.


The full-grown horse possesses 24 back
teeth, that is, six in each side of each
jaw; these are called molars or grinders.
He has twelve front teeth; that is, six in
each jaw. Mares have no tushes. The
foal has either at his birth or shortly
afterward eight milk teeth; that is, four
on each jaw; at about twelve months
two more milk teeth come in each jaw.
These remain unchanged till he is three
years old. The mouths of the yearling
and two-years-old cannot be confounded.
The yearling mouth shows no signs ot
use, and the corner teeth are shelly'only;
at two years old these teeth are strong
and well grown, and the corner teeth
filled up. A little before three years the
two centre teeth of each jaw fall out
and are replaced by permanent ones. A
little before five the two remaining teeth
are shed, and in their place come perma-
nent ones. The upper milk teeth usually
fall out first.
SThus the mouth is completed as to its
front teeth; the corner tooth, however,
is but imperfectly developed, being at
present a shell only; this shell at six
years old has filled up and is a complete
tooth. This is the-difference between a
5 and a 6 year-old. The tushes appear be.,
tween three and a half and four years


Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a&,
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Hack Line.
ROYAL PALM NURSERIES

MANATEE, FLORIDA.
Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur-'
sery stock adapted to Florida and te South.'
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers.
RE SOONER BROS,.
Manatee, Florida.


Milk Fever. *
Milk fever is a disease of the blood
consequent upon a disordered circula-
tion. and is a sort of apoplexy, the brain
being inflamed and congested, and the
nervous system prostrated. Usually, a
cow affected with this disease lies still,
with the head on the flank, but some-
times dashes the head about violently.
Mild cases alone are amenable to treat-
ment, which would be to give a strong
purgative-sixteen to twenty ounces of
epsom salts, with half an ounce of car-
bonate of ammonia, light feeding, and
rest in a dark, clean, cool, quiet, stable.
-American Dairyman.
*
A Cure for Chicken Cholera.
With a small quantity of glycerine
combine a half ounce of the crystals of
carbolic acid with one quart of water.
With this solution impregnate the drink-
ing water of the fowls in the proportion
of one or two ounces to the gallon. This
is also a prophylactic when added to
their food or drinking water.-Ex.


'fos o i o n



On IONs oarg r one bre my o

can be made into any number of differ-
ent ways of marking, or one breed may
be marked fifteen times differently, as
shown by the dots in the cut. This can
be increased by marking the skin of the
wing. It is a great advantage for young
chicks. The eggs are marked from the
different breeds, and as soon as the
chicks are hatched they are marked with
the marker, and by so doing you can
tell their age and every death in regard
to them. This punch is worth its price
several times over in detecting the
chicken thief. The cut shows full size.
They are nickel-plated, have steel cutter
and spring, and made small and neat to
carry in the vest pocket. Sent by mail
for 25 cents each. There are two sizes,
one for chicks and one for fowls.


R. N. ELLIS, C. E. A. E. MCCLURE, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects & Civil En ein rs,
Plans for
HOTELS, PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
INGS, SANITARY ENGINEERING, &0.
P. 0. ox78t1. Rooms 7sand 8 PalmettoBlock,
Bay Street.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


0


F.P. CHAMBERLAIN.


A. W. CUSCADS


SO U'.'-iA FLO:.I:[IDA.


Real Estate Aogency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Office: TwIggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.


The Poultry Yard.
Homoeopathic doses, if any, for hens.
Early breakfasts for the fowls in win-
ter.
Animal food like meat or milk is
always appreciated by the hens. It will
comrie back animal food, in the shape of
eggs.
Tell us that the egg-shells are very
thin or quite often entirely absent,
and we tell you that lime in the food is
what is lacking.
The asphalt pavement can make you a
good floor for the henhouse at a moder-
ate cost. Such a one would be, in a de-
gree, moist, whilst also dry enough and
n-n- / lt a anic-\ f n L-P n I* n-l


J. W. GROVES,
Oriole, Florida.


or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Jacksonville, Florida.


nave te acK strap of your harness it economy to the buyer to pay a ht bactaapofKpo-
made strong; too many of them are good-round price for a good round bird? "Artificial chicks get a false start at
made thin and weak. A number of ac- When a person enquires the price of a birth, and trom n y observation are
cidents have occurred because of the never so strong as the rugged specimenstp
ehronore oir a ea is todth ea

breaking of the back strap, thus letting purchase a fine Cockerel for $5 ,10 reared in the old fashioned way. I have
down the breeching and causing the every nine out of ten persons are going noticed also tI ha the meat of the incu-
horse to kick and run.-Detroit Free to be staggered a little, unless they are bator product is comparatively pale and
Press. accustomed to poultry-raising and its flabby-looking and lacking inflavor and
*" cares, prices, etc. But stop to think and that such fowls do not command the
Handling Bulls. reason a moment. Figure it out and higher price, as many first-class hotels
A writer in one of our foreign ex- convince yourself that it is not only the will ot use them." This is what an ex-
changes gives the following as his ex- best thing to do, but that it is a necessity perienced poultry dealer of Boston offers
perience in handling young bulls to if you wish to increase your meat or egg on the subject.
prevent them from becoming cross and production. A fo wl infestedwith vermin is oa mis-
unmanageable: "It is a most excellent At first thought it does seem like a erable object. Thrive it cannot. No
idea to accustom the yearling to recog- large sum of money to put into a single man who will allow the presence of in-to
nize that he is not free. It prevents fowl, when common fowls can be bought ts desereste success atpoultry raising.
those rough gambols in the box when for fifty and seventy-five cents apiece. The shortest cut tnt having any verin
the attendant enters, which, nine times But we will suppose the person wishing about is to pevent ites approach. They
out of ten, are the cause of man and beast to purchase is a shrewd man, and so he material composing the nests for layipg
losing their tempers. As a rule, we asks the question, Can I afford it?" and hens, andfor which straw alone is as
have found the bulls best under control he does not stop with asking the ques- good as any, should be frequently de-
where the attendant has been a small- tion, but sits down and figures out the 'troyed and especially after hatching.
almost a feeble man. Men of that type correct answer. "I raise," he says, "one Before fresh material isprovided in the
do not often provoke a struggle for hundred chickens each summer. These nest, some carbolic disinfectant ought
mastery, even with a calf; and it is with will dress in the fall about four pounds. tobe lightly syringed about. Scattering occag
calves-inthehobbledehobstage, thatthe If I buy the Wyandotte.cock and cross some sulphur over t khe dust bath occa-
foundation of viciousness is generally it with them, I shall get a meatier chick sonally will tend to keep the hens
laid. The calf is roughly 'suppressed' with less waste, and one that will dress clean. n ndr rit ndions
when he only meant play, and in conse- from one-half to one pound more on the is easily carried on. For the setting
quence he bears malice or feels fear. same feed. hieai ar'rh t in
But a calf which has never been at "Let us take the lowest, figure, and nests securearoom in which to place
liberty to romp never expects to be able suppose our one hundred chicks average them, where the temperature can be
to do so, and one great cause of con- five pounds apiece; that will make five cotrehd. a oo ne e a
tention is thus absolutely prevented." hundred pounds of poultry, a gain of inannoy fairly close building by using a
-Ex. one hundred pounds. Poultry is worth in o fi ose bu e uin
from twenty to twenty-five cents a pile ofhfreh horse manure underneath
Lice on Cattle. pound-callit twenty. One hundred at it, covering the manure with a laver of
The following remedy is from a cor- twenty cents a pound will be $20. If I earth, on whichis to manurcoe thewill provides of
respndet o th Souher Lie Sockcan buy tl~t Cockerel for $5, 1 shall be straw or hay. The manure will provide
respondent of the Southern Live Stock can buy thit Cockerel for $5,And thall be both modified heat and a desirable de-
Journal: $15 b the transaction And that is eof moisure When the chicks are
At this season of the year there may not all. These fowls, being meatier gr keep them protected from the hicks areud-
be seen many lean, unthrifty calves, with will bring-from one to five cents a pound out keden changes in protempcted from the sud-
long, rough hair. Some of these calves more; and our 500 pounds at one cent a twenty-four changes in temperature, and aftererously.
will not thrive, although they may eat pound advance would be $5. This, ad- we h
heartily and. have the best food. Lice ded to the $15, makes $20 clear profit POULTRY FENCES.
multiply with wonderful rapidity, and. over and above the price paid for the One of the principal drawbacks in
in many cases a close examination will Cockerel. I cannot afford not to buy raising poultry in yards is the cost of
disclose the fact that these little pests him." the fences. Galvamnized wire is an ex-
are the cause of the trouble. The fol- Or we will suppose he cares more for ce lent material, but it allows no pro-
lowing is a remedy which I have found eggs than he does for dressed poultry, tection in winter from winds. Boards
to be effective and cheap: and he is questioning whether he can af- are expensive in some sections, and pal-
To three parts of cotton-seed oil, add ford to pay $5 for a White or Brown wings or pickets are not always obtaina-
one part kerosene oil, Apply locally, rub- Leghorn. "My hens," he argues, "pro- ble. A good and cheap fence may be
bing in lightly so as to reach the roots of duce about seven dozen eggs a year. made of lath, and if rightly constructed
the hair. The kerosene does the work, They are very fair hens, and as I keep will-ast for a number of years. A lath
and the dilution with cotton-seed oil 100, that is 700 dozen a year. They fence six feet high may be made by
keeps it from taking off the hair. bring me on a'n average twenty-five placing the posts eight feet apart, using
cents per dozen. Let me see: 700 times three strips running from post to post,
twenty-five cents equal $175. Yes, that for the purpose of holding the lath. If
How to Spay Heifers. is it. They bring $175 per year. If I preferred, a one-foot board may be used
That spaying is the most profitable and cross this Leghorn in with my hens, the in place of the bottom strip. Place the
effective way to relieve or prevent an pullets, from the cross, will 'lay about second (or middle) strip two feet above
overstocked range is now universally ad- ten dozen eggs per year; that will be the bottom one, and nail half laths to
mitted, but still many do not practice it, ten hundred dozen eggs. At twenty- the'two strips, cutting four foot laths in
some because they have not been driven five cents per dozen, that will come to two pieces for that purpose. This will
to it, and others have not the ready $250-$75 more for eggs in one year by make the two feet of fence at the bot-
money to pay for the work, and have not laying out $5 for a Cockerel. I'll take tomn strong enough to resist considerable
learned how to do it themselves. The him; I cannot afford not to have him." pressure, keeping off dogs and even
expense, $1 per head, when hired, is no Now, this hypothetical case is easily larger animals. The third strip should
small item these hard times, when it made a real one. The supposed advan- be three feet above that in the middle,
comes to spaying several thousand, tage from the purchase of a thorough- and whole laths should be nailed to
Wmin. Votaw, of Dimmitt county, has bred male to improve the common flocks them which will leave each lath pro-
been practicing spaying on his ranch for of a farmer is not exaggerated. The re-I jecting one foot above the top strip.
a number of years past, and has largely ality of this advantage is recognized in When completed the fence will be six
profited thereby in the sale of beeves at respect to all stock, but more so in re- feet high, or seven if a board is used at
top prices: and recently Dr. Carothers, gard to poultry, because amalgamation the bottom, or two feet from the ground,
of La Salle county, spayed a large num- is more frequent. And it is the superi- where it is most needed. The bottom
ber of female stock. He invited many ority of thoroughbred over common half laths may be placed very closely
of his neighbors to be present, and in- stock, and the power it has of transmit- together, but two inches of space will
structed them and their ranch hands in ting its own valuable qualities, which be sufficient for the upper ones. Such a
the operation, which proved very suc- makes the special value that fanciers put fence will cost but little, and is the
cessful. His manner of spaying isinthe upon their stock._ They ask more for cheapest good fence that can be made,
belly just behind the navel, while in such stock because it is actually worth so far as the cost of material is cone*rn-
upright position, which is recommended more. ed.-Farm, Field and Stockman.


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 23, 1887.


How to Mark Chickens.
Mr. W. H. Wigmore, No. 107 South
Eighth street, Philadelphia, Pa., has in-
vented a neat little instrument that can
be carried in the vest pocket, intended
for marking chicks or fowls in the
webs of the feet. It is invaluable' to
breeders or farmers, as the markings
will enable them to recognize their
fowls at a glance, either with or without
feathers. If you have fowls stolen you
need no better proof than
your own private marking,
which need not be known to
Anyone but yourself, keeping
Ja register as shown by the
o tc. Thop fifteen figures


Winter


Homes


Florida


ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.

Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new house.
A Church, Scho-, .....y mails, stores, bakery, sawmill and hotel. Large area already-planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
Ifor acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,





95


back with scarcely a halt in his gait.
The tiger was waiting for him about
twenty feet from the edge of the basin.
He was crouched fr a spring, and his
ail moved in a menacing way. The big
beast uttered another "woof 1" and went
for him with head down and teeth grind-
ng. Just at the right instant the tiger
rose and sailed right over his enemy like
a ball curving in the air, and the rhinoc-
eros passed oin for thirty feet before he
could check himself. Again the tiger
was in waiting, and now he uttered a
continuous purring, as if the affair was
great sport to him. As soon as the
rhinoceros got eyes on him he charged
again, and this time the tiger lighted on
his back and clung there. The big fellow
stood still for a moment and then began
galloping around in a circle and giving R
utterance to snorts of rage. It struck
me all at once that I ought to take ad-
vantage of the situation to secure my
gun. I started to descend, but it seemed
that the tiger had his eyes on me. He
left the back of the rhinoceros and came l
e
for me with great bounds, and I made
haste back to my perch. The rhinoceros 0
followed him to the tree and for ten min-
utes persevered in his attacks, the tiger
now growling and showing his teeth and t
evidently becoming annoyed. Heseveral
Times leaped to the bacK or ne oeasc ana t
clawed at him in the fiercest manner, but
I doubt if he inflicted any injury through
the tough hide. The rhinoceros stepped i
on the stock of my rifle and crushed it,
and I knew then I was doomed to an all
night watch on the platform with only l
the knife to defend myself.
.After ten or fifteen minutes of hard
work without accomplishing anything in
the way of besting the tiger, the rhinoc-
eros got some sense in his head and moved
on into the jungle, where he thrashed
about in an ugly way for a long time.
The tiger soon showed by his actions that
he wanted me very badly. He uttered
furious growls, clawed at the bark of the
tree and made several springs which
brought him within arm's length of-the.
platform. He had just fallen back from
one of these bounds when he uttered a
sound so unlike all others which had pre-
ceded it that my attention was at once at-
tracted. I made out in an instant, that he
had been seized by a large serpent. For
aught I knew the snake may have been
curled on one of the great lower limbs of
my own tree. There were plenty of dead
leaves and other refuse under the tree,
and the parties to the struggle kicked up
such a cloud of stuff that. I could not al-
ways get a clear view of them. I made
out that the snake, which was probably a
boa, had succeeded in getting a turn or
two around the tiger, while the latter was
using his teeth and claws in the most
vigorous manner to.free himself. They
rolled about for three or four minutes,
and then the tiger began whining exactly
like a defeated dog. This culminated in
a long drawn wail, and then I knew that
the boa had gained a victory. I saw him
moving the body around, but presently,
he drew it into the shadow and I heard
sounds to indicate that he was making
off with it. My defenseless position took
my courage away, and what did I do but
descend and head for the village. That I
ever reached it was considered a miracle,
for the jungle through which I passed
seemed alive with wild beasts. What I
knew was cowardice on my part was
taken by all the others to be the feat of a
man who could not feel what fear was.
Next day we returned to the pool, but
found neither snake nor tiger, and the
rhinoceros had also taken himself away.
-New York Sun

Ancient Paris' Amphitheater.
The city of Lutetia, as Paris was called
in the palmy days of the Roman empire,,
was famed for the beauty and extent of
its public buildings, as also for its endless
labyrinth of catacombs that, however, it
is said were built at a later date as a
refuge for the citizens against the inroads
of their countless enemies. In some huge
excavations that were made in the heart
of Paris three years since the delivers
came across massive blocks of masonry
that belonged to the amphitheater of the
ancient city. In a series of careful ex-
aminations of the grounds, a mass of valu-
able objects was found, consisting of frag-
ments of sculpture, cornices, capitals,
fluted columns, fragments of inscriptions
and statues, Gallo-Roman pottery, frag-
ments of amphoras, fibulse of bronze, bone
and ivory, needles, and, lastly, numerous
Roman coins. *
Recently a meeting was hed on the spot
where the relics had been dug up, and the
progress made in examining and classify-
ing them was reported on. It appears
that the amphitheater of Lutetia belongs


to an earlier period than the baths near
the Hotel de Cluny. It is now proposed
that tie relics shall be collected in a per-
manent building as a national monument
of special interest to Frenchmen, and that
hand books shall be prepared and sold at
low prices, giving an account of the re-
mains and explaining the nature of the
circus games and interludes performed-in
the amphitheater, and of the great assem-
blies sometimes held in the vast space
usually reserved for the performances.
This building will form a part of the at-
tractions of the Paris exhibition, and will
suggest in striking contrast to the busy
scene around that ancient city now en-
tombed within the civic gates. San Fran-
cisco Chronicle.
A Strange Parisian Idea.
A gentleman who has spent some time
in Europe in the study of electrical inter.
ests, was asked the reason for the slow
growth of isolated incandescent lighting
in Paris. He said that nothing more than
a two inch plank was allowed to be placed
over a steam boiler. There was a strange
idea that a boiler on exploding rose in the
air and fell in exactly the same spot, and
that if there was anything heavy enough
in the way to prevent this intelligent ac-
tion on the part of the bursting boiler,
much damage might be done.-Boston
Budget.

Mollin is the name of a new vehicle
for the application of drugs to the Ekin.
It is a soft soap containing an excess of
fat with glycerine. It is said to be very
readily absorbed.


not have the stretches, as clover keeps the
bowels from becoming constipated; and
for the same reason they do not need lin-
seed meal, which they should always have
if fed on timothy hay. This does not
agree with sheep, and should always be
fed in connection with roots or linseed
meal to offset its constipating effect.

Manure Spreaders.
"For manure spreaders," says J. J. H.
Gregory, Marblehead, Mass., who has had
large experience with farm implements,
"the Kemp is a great help to commercial
farming. I believe it will pay for itself it
used on twelve acres of grountl yearly.
Three men will put on sixty loads a day
by its use. I would advise to put a board*
behind the driver as a protection from
stones which may be in the manure and
are often thrown over the front of the
machine. The price is quite reasonable
and will pay a large return on the money
invested."
A Sixty Dollar Silo.
A North Carolina farmer has a silo
built on top of the ground of heavy plank.
It has double walls, four inches apart,
filled with earth to exclude the air. The
ensilage is covered with boards, and the
boards covered with earth, an ordinary
roof keeping off the rain. It is 13x16 feet,
and cost only $60.

A Convenient Fruit Ladder.
Farmers who are not already provided
with strong step ladders will do well to
provide themselves with one or more be-
fore the busy season begins. Where there
is a work shop and a chest of good tools
ladders as well as numerous other farm
conveniences may be made at a trifling
expense.


"WHEN I WAS A BOYl19
6"When I was a boy," the grandsire said
To the bright lad by his knee,
"Of the victors crowned with fame I read .
Who triumphed on land and seal
And through the years, from the deathless pagM
A summons has sounded long:
To youth, and manhood, and hoary age,
The message is this: 'Be Strong l"
"When I was a boy-" he paused and said.
To the listener by his knee,
"Of the men who were as lights I read
In a dark world's history!
They prized the truth and were loved of God,
And no fear of man they knew;
And still from the glorious heights they trod.
JThe message was this: "Be True!"
-J. R Eastwood in The Quiver.

RESEARCHES ON SNAKE POISONS.
Peculiarities of the Venom of Serpents.
How Death Is Caused.
The Smithsonian institution has pub-
ished Dr. Mitchell's and Professor Reich-
ert's researches on snake poisons. The
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal says
of the work: "The new researches have
been executed with so great skill, the re-
sults are so important, and the presenta-
tion of the whole matter is so excellent,
that the memoir must at once be ranked
a classic." We give a few of the results:
No chemical difference can be detected
in the poison of all known snakes. The
poison resembles in some respects the
saliva of other animals, and differs but
little from normal elements of the blood.
Introduced within the living tissues, it
produces destructive changes more rapidly
than any other known substance, and yet
it is harmless within its own tissues. Here-
in, as The Journal suggests, it resembles
the gastric juice, which digests all sub-
stances except that of the stomach itself.
Like most other poisonous substances,
it is associated with more or less innocu-
ous matter, from which the active princi-
ple can be separated by chemical analysis
and obtained pure.
It has generally been supposed that
the malignant effect of the poison-was
due to an intense inflammation to which
it gave rise. But in inflammation it is
principally the white corpuscles that
escape from the blood vessels, while
snake poison causes the blood to exude
unseparated. In "the former case, also,
the blood strongly coagulates; in the
latter, it retains its fluidity.
The red blood globule, in its normal
form, is biconcave, or hollowed out on
both sides; the poison renders it round,
softensjt, and causes the -globules to run
together like a gelatinous mass. The
tissues become black with the infiltrated
blood, break down, and rapidly putrify
and slough. .
It is probable that in most cases death
results from the paralysis of the respira,-
tory centers--those parts of the brain
that preside over the acts of respiration.
The bushmen of South Africa use as
an antidote the powdered poison sac of a
different species of snake- some, a small
lizard, dried, powdered and rubbed into
incisions around the bite. Observations
of travelers seem to confirm the efficacy
of these antidotes.-Youth's Companion.

Queer Things in China. *
A decree has beeS published in The
Pekin Gazette which gives definite shape
to the negotiation of China 7 1-%
pope. The cathedral schools, dwelOin
houses, hospital, museum, printing office
and library, so well known for 150 years
as the Peitang, are to be removed to" an-
other site a quarter of a mile distant.
The bishop is highly praised and rewarded
with second rank decorations, as is also
Mr. Commissioner Deitring of the cus-
toms, Tientsin. Abbe Favier,. who went
to Rome and Paris from Pekin to con-
duct the negotiations, is honored with the !
third rank decorations and 500. The
accord of France with China seems to be
perfect.
The new cathedral and other buildings
will be erected at the expense of the Chi-
nese government, following in this re-
spect the example set by the great Em-
peror Kanghi in the latter part of the
Seventeenth century. The empress.
wishes- to have the cathedral, which
overlooks a park where she will reside
occasionally, in the western precincts of
the palace. What she will do with the
cathedral is a secret, and perhaps not yet
decided.-London News.

Enriching the Language. -


Tennyson has at last bequeathed to the
English language a word that will rhyme
with "youngster." It is tonguester,",
Now why is not an auctioneer a lungster
and a barkeeper a bungster? Our language
must be enriched.-Washington Post,


In the last three days of 1886 there
were sold in Paris .$600,000 worth of
flowers. The demand for camelias out-
ran the supply, which was 10,000
dozens.

Der man who figures dot dis world
Svhas created simply to gif him a chance
to lif vhas shenerally buried' mi a very
short funeral procession.--Carl Dunder
in Detroit Free Press.

Ii the grave of one of the ancient In-
dian chiefs at Oaxaca, Mexico, recently
opened, an idol of pure gold was dis-
covered. ,

The total area of land under hop culti-
vation throughout the world is 800,000
acres, of which nearly a fourth are in
Bavaria.
Professor Lockyer declares that only
about 6,000 stars are visible to the eye.

"Tommy, you seem to take your
grandpa's death very much to heart."
IYes, Mr. Benson. You see it's tha
first time erandpa ever died.",


be found far more convenient arid saving
of time than the latter.
In the 'Sheep Fold.
Indiscriminate physicing of sheep is
ruinous to them. They don't want sul-
phur, or pine brush, or hemlock boughs-
only good clover hay, and a moderate
feed daily of mixed corn, rye and buck-
wheat.
Dry quarters are indispensable to their
health. Look out for early lambs. Watch
the ewes closely every day, and wheft the
udder is springing and other indications
of lambing are seen put the ewe in a
pen by herself. Lambs are sure to be lpst
by neglect of this precaution.
Newly born lambs sometimes starve be-
cause the ewe's teats are closed by the
glutinous colostrum or new milk, or they
die by the closing of the bowels by the
glutinous discharge. Both of these dan-
gers should be averted by watchfulness
and care. When an unmotherly ewe gets
over the first twenty-four hours with her
lamb the trouble is over and she becomes
reconciled and even affectionate. This is
most common with the young ewe, and
these should be held until the lamb
sucks a few times and is strong
enough to get its milk from the ewe.
The ewes and their lamb should be
kept apart fron the rest of the- flock.
Ram lambs should be docked and emas-
culated when a week old. They suf-
fer little by the operation at this time.
The tail may be clipped with the shears,
and the whole of the scrotum may be re-
moved by the same method in a second
A pinch of sulphate of copper on the
wound causes rapid healing.-Rural New
Yorker.
A Word About Drainage.
,J. H. Gregory, the well known seeds-
man, at Marblehead, Mass., in a talk on
drainage before a meeting of New England
farmers, said that stone drains (with which
he has had considerable experience) are a
waste of time and labor, and that no man
can afford -to lay the same unless he does
it to get rid of the stone. Tile, he affirmed,
has a vast capacity for carrying off water,
far greater than is generally supposed.
Mr. Gregory advised that when laying tile
the trench is to be dug only just wide
enough to admit the tile. He also sug-
gested that there be a catch pool to receive
the sediment and waste from the drains,
which is half as valuable as manure.
There ought always'to be the same ar-
rangement in front of the drain to stop
the floating particles from drifting into it
and clogging it up when the water is high.
The drain must be kept open at the end
and the tile kept free throughout in order
to obtain full benefit from the same.
As regards the cost of laying tile drains,
Mr. Gregory's experience led him to be-
lieve that if one gets down to hard pan
the cost is about the same .as it is for
dithing upland. For ditching low land
(meadow land) the cost need not be more
than twenty-five cents per rod; this, in
fact, is a standing price:

Profitable Strawberries.
i In a report made by W. W. Farnsworth
Sto the Ohio Horticultural society, this gen-
Stleman claims that the Crescent stands
Clearly at the head of the list for profit or
Sandy and loam soils. No staminates hav
Proved profitable with him, neither Sharp
Less nor Wilson. While the Bidwell prom
- ises well, it never performs. Downing
Srusts badly. James Vick fails, except in
I cultivated stools. Phelps is of small size
Windsor is a good market berry and Minei
- does well for home use and a near market
e Cumberland, though but a moderate
Sbearer, is good, and the Queen, a poo:
la, bearer, Js an excellent and handsome
s berry. The Daniel Boone is somewhat
s affected by rust.

Box for Sitting Hen.
' The following sketch and description o
i a nesting box for poultry has been trie(
with success by a New York poultr
t grower:


A WHITE ROSE. t

The red rose whispers of passion, f
And the white rose breathes of love; i
Oh, the red rose is a falcon, r
And the white rose is a dove.
But I send you a cream white rosebud
With a flush on its petal tips; w
For the love that is purest and sweetest
Hlas a kiss of desire on the lips.
-John Boyle O'Reilly.

A NIGHT IN A JUNGLE.
s
While lying in camp a fine opportunity
was given me to observe from a single
standpoint the characteristics of the
rhinoceros, the tiger and a snake of an-
ather species. We had our camp in a vil-
lage which was half deserted on account
of the proximity of a bad rhinoceros and
two or three man eating tigers. A bad
rhinoceros, it may be explained, is the
same thing as a bad elephant. It is one
that has lost in a fair fight his leadership
and is driven away in disgrace. The
rhinoceros isn't social like the elephant
and seldom more than two are found to-
gether. Once in a while some old chap
gets so ugly that there is no living with
him and he is deserted- until the spell
passes off. While bad he will fight any-
thing that walks flies or swims and in his
blind fury he will charge a thicket as soon
as a moving object.
About a mile from the village and
reached by a path through the forest was
a pool at which many of the wild animals
came to slake their thirst. We went over
one morning and built a platform for one
of us to stand on in the branches of a con-
venient tree, and then hunted about until
we found places for my two companions
on paths which were beaten hard under
the feet of thousands of animals. It was
in the dry season and the pond was low.
Therefore it might be expected that the
pool would be sought out by animals
from a great distance. Nothing of ac-
count came to it in the day time, as expe-
rience had taught us. It is only after
sundown that elephants, the rhinoceros,
lions, tigers, panthers, and such beasts,
approach a pool to drink, especially if it
is in a hidden place. No doubt some of
them may go two or three days without
water, but the hunter who takes his stand
at a pool is always certain of big game of
some sort.
We set out for our stations about an
hour before sundown, each of us having
a native attendant to remain through the
night. Just before we reached the pool,
and while my man was trotting along a
few feet ahead of me a jaguar leaped
down upon him from a limb with a loud
scream. The beast rather overshot his
mark, but clawed the man's shoulder
severely. The native uttered shouts of
error, and I fired a shot which missed
Sbeast, and he licked his chops at me
a savage manner and bounded away.
Io man could not go on with me. He
wvs severely hurt and in great pain, and
It him to run back to the village for
ratment and send out another man. He
gas off at once, and I kept the path until
reaching the pool and then lost no -time
in ascending to the scaffold. I had a
heavy rifle and plenty, of cartridges and in
my belt the hunting knife usually car-
ried. It was only when ready to ascend
the platform that I discovered the absence
of my pair of Colts with their powder and
bullets. Those things had been entrusted
to my servant, and he had been in such a
hurry to return to the village that he had
carried them off with him. Just then,
however, the loss of the pistols did not
seem of much account to, me. I climbed
the platform, pulled my gun up after me,
and pretty soon began to listen for the
halloo of the man who would be sent out
to stay with me. I had reason to expect
him before sundown, for the distance was
not great and the natives move rapidly on
an errand, but the red orb disappeared,
the shadows of evening fell and I heard
nothing of him. I knew then that he
would not come at all, as it would be risk-
ing his life to enter the jungle after sun-
down.
The pool was in the center of a cleared
space about half an acre in extent and
the .ground was uneven. As there was
no such thing as a creek or rivulet in the
neighborhood the pool must have been
formed by a springJ which bubbed up
among the rocks. Darkness had scarcely
come when the moon came up to make
the cleared space almost as light as day
,and about the same time the wild beasts
began to move about. I could hear them
snarling and growling on all sides and
located a jaguar in a tree not far removed
from mine by his continued snarling at
something in the jungle. I moved about
to get a better look and suddenly lost my


grasp on the gun and had the mortifica-
tion of hearing it strike the ground below
with a heavy crash. My idea was to get
possession of it again as soon as possible,
and I had descended at least half way
When there was a snarl from the roots of
the tree which brought my hair on end.
I recognized the presence of a tiger who
might have been waiting there for five
minutes for all I knew. As I hurried
back to my perch I heard his sharp claws
tearing at the bark and I was truly thank-
ful for the knowledge that he could not
climb. As I reached my perch Idrew my
knife as the only weapon left me and the
tiger feeling that I had escaped him for
the momentwalked out into the moon-
light with deliberate step, looked up at
me with a low growl, and then stood at
the edge of the pool and lapped the water.,
He was engaged at this when I heard a
loud "woofl" from the jungle, and the
next instant a rhinoceros broke cover and
came charging at the tiger with a rush
that would have knocked down a stone
wall. His movement proved that he was
a bad rhinoceros, and it was probably this
fellow who had annoyed and excited the
jaguar.
The tiger had warning enough as the
big beast came across the open, and he
stood in his tracks until I thought he
would be run down before he moved a
foot. Then he lightly sprang aside, and
the rhinoceros crashed into the pool, out
on the other side, and came lumbering


40


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A NOVELTY IN FLOWERS.
Lovers of flowers will read with interest
a description of this rarely magnificent
and attractive climber:
The genus Mina (named after Don Fran-
cisco Xavier Mina, a Mexican minister,) is
S closely allied to Ipomcea and resembles in
growth and its three lobed foliage the sev-
eal species of this family, but totally dif-
ferent are the flowers as concerns their
form and their lovely colors. The flowers
appear on fork-like racemes, bearing them-
selves upright or almost erect out of the
dense and luxurious foliage, and present
thus with their bright colors an extraor-
dinary striking aspect; the flowers are,
as buds, at first bright red, but change
through orange yellow to yellowish white
when in full bloom. Another interesting
and most singular feature of this plant is,
that it retains the racemes developed at
first during the whole flowering season;
the buds growing. successively at the tops
-of. the racemes, while the lower flowers
after blooming for a considerable time
fade, bearing thus continually clusters of
-' flowers from the bottom up to the highest
vine of the plant. The oldest racemes at-
tained a length 'of fifteen to eighteen
inches by the end of September and pro-
duced thirty to forty individual flowers
each, of which were six to ten in full
bloom or in colored buds at one time.
The tube-like flowers are borne uni
laterally and almost horizontally on the
upright racemes and measure when fully
developed three-quarters of an inch in
length while the uppermost colored bud is
only one-eighth of an inch long. This
plant is a rapid growing climber. Seeds
come in March, and the seedlings cult
rated in pots until the middle of May
when they were planted out in the open
ground,' at the beginning of August had
formed pyramids over eighteen feet in
height well furnished with luxurian
foliage and profusely covered with flowers
It is claimed for Mina Lobata that i
thrives well on sunny situations and i
well suited for covering arbors, trellises
etc., on account of its rapid growth and
great dimensions.
Points in Potato Culture.
In a discussion as to the best manunr
for white potatoes at the recent annua
meeting of ,the New Jersey Horticultura
society, the majority of the members ex
pressed themselves as decidedly in favor:
of chemical fertilizers. The opinion ver)
generally prevailed that stable manure
does not produce tubers of good quality
Potato rot was also considered. One mem
ber said that the sulphuric acid in chemi
cal fertilizers acts as a partial preventive(
' to rot. Another member advised sulphat
t irono copperass) as a remedy for rot.
The opinion was also expressed tha
commercial fertilizers produce about a
good results in sweet potato culture a
does stable manure. Shallow plowing, i
was agreed, makes short, thick tubers
while deep tillage results in long, slende
Stones. The "Kentucky red" was pro
bounced a very promising variety of swee
potato.
A Gate Without Hinges.
A gate can be madewithout hinges
s Bays as good authority as The America]
Agriculturist, by having the hanging stih
somewhat larger than the front stile an(
making- both ends rounded.


THE WHEELBARROW LADDER.


Our cut represents an exceedingly con-
venient device in way of ladders, so it can
be wheeled about from tree to tree easily
and quickly by one person. The Ohio
Farmer tells how to make it: Get two
handcart wheels, or any light, stout
wheels. The dimensions of the device
may vary to suit circumstances. If the
trees are tall, the ladder may be longer
and stand straighter, etc. Care must be
taken to secure foot of ladder by weights,-
to overbalance the weight at top. The
board at top of ladder is to set the basket
on.

Facts Farmers Ought to Know.
Cream scalded too high is melted into
oil. Oil does not come to butter in the
churn.
In New England and the middle states
prices of home grown corn are even lower
than a year ago, the decline ranging from
two to five cents per bushel, owing to low
rates of transportation. The southern
states show quite a marked appreciation
in the value per bushel, the advance being
especially notable in those states devoted
largely to cotton.
Professor Cook, of Lansing, Mich., has
killed cabbage worms with a mixture of
one pound of buhach with 200 gallons of
water.
One thing appears to have been very
clearly demonstrated-viz., that a larger
quantity of potatoes, as well as potatoes
of a better quality, can be grown with
chemical fertilizers than with manure.
Making the plum orchard a poultry run
will greatly diminish the number of in-
sects which prey upon the trees.
Mr. Albaugh, of Miami county, O., says
that a grower there sowed oats among his
grapes every spring to prevent rot, and
considered it a success. Mr. Miller, of
Ohio, sowed copperas-about one pound
to a square rod-in his vineyard early in
the summer and again later. No rot has
appeared since this treatment.
Raising draught horses pays. The
Iowa Homestead goes so far as to affirm
that no department of the farm pays bet-
ter. It says: "A good 2-year-old filly,
by a good native mare, will sell at
twelve and a half cents per pound. A
good gelding 3 years old will sell for as
much. Will anything else pay better?
Do not fail to use disinfectants freely
in cellars, especially where vegetables are
stored. Copperas water is a good disin-
fectant. Flower of sulphur, burned on a
shovel in a cellar, destroys fungus
growth,
A great drawback in poultry raising is
thd crowding of fifty fowls into a space
suitable for half that number.
A general practical rule in planting
garden seeds is that they should not be
covered more than four times their diam.
eter in depth.
If hens lay soft shelled eggs give them
plenty of gravel and oyster shells or
crushed bones.
Leaves mixed with half their bulk of
fresh barn yard manure and turned over
a few times previous to using, are em-
ployed by some gardeners to furnish a uni-
form heat in the hot bed.
Professor Henry urges farmers to give
more oats to young stock, colts as well as
calves. There is no food, says he, that so
corrects acidity of the stomach and keeps
the whole system in order when fed in
moderation. If you have any doubts
about sitting hens being free from lice,
dust them on the nest with pyrethrum
powder.


**" - -_= -\L i.1
" -- = -~!; ;'. .. _
... ... . .


SITTING BOX.


It may be made of two soap boxes, if
other material is not at hand. The side
of the top box should be taken off and a
lid made of it, using strips of leather for
hinges. To afford ventilation, either bore
a few large holes on each side, near the
top, or cut a small slit with a fine saw on
each side near the top. The two boxes
can readily be joined by pieces of leather,
as shown in the illustration. The lower
box should be nearly filled with earth and
pressed down, so as to make a broad nest,
which is to be covered with a little straw
or hay. This box can be used either in-
doors or out..
Cultivation of Corn.
Director Lazenby, in a bulletin issued
from the Ohio experiment station, says
that the results of the station experiments
for the past two years prove beyond a
doubt that the yield of corn is frequently
lessened by the too frequent and improper
use of the cultivator, but rightly used its
value is almost beyond computation. In
the capacity of a root pruner it often
works serious harm, and deep cultivation
of growing corn should only be practiced
within certain limits and performed with
care and judgment. It is probable that
root pruning is only salutary where there
is an abundance of moisture in the soil.
-In times of drought he believes no practice
can work greater injury, and that with
corn, as with many other crops, deep cult-
ure should come before planting rather
than after. The after cultivation should
be more and more shallow as the corn in-
creases in size.
Clover Hay for Sheep.
When sheep have clover hay, says as
high authority as F. D. Curtis, they will


S AN INEXPENSIVE GATE.
The lower one is to work in a hole in
(he end of a short post raised so that soil
Will not readily get in, and the upper oneo
works in a hole made in an oak piece at-
'tached to the top of the gate post. Gates
S" this kind can be made and hun wit
)ut little more expense than bars, and will


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 23, 1887.


dgmilg Hladinq.


Sarm yistanany.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A GATE
WITHOUT HINGES.

commercial Fertilizers Advised in Po-
tato Culture-A New Annual of Climb-
ing Habit and Rapid Growth-A Box
For a Sitting Hen.
One of the novelties in flowers sent out
-this season, is an annual of climbing
habit, bearing the name Mina Lobata.
Its introduction to the trade is due to a
German seed house, while Vick has the
honor of presenting in the February issue
of his monthly, a fine picture of a flower-
ing stem of this novelty; the latter is here
reproduced for the benefit of our readers.


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Slaridiwnt.
-Ad # *



State News in Brief.
New Smyrna is tojbe the terminus of
three railroads.
Marion county's crop of watermelons
will soon be ready for market.
The Florida Midland, it is reported, has
been bought by the South Florida.
Dr. J. J. Harris, editor of the Sanford
Journal, has been appointed postmaster
at Sanford.
According to Mr. Webb's directory for
Pensacola just compiled, the population
of that city is 14,220.
Captain I. F. Smith, of Ocala, has dis-
posed of four thousand sour stock seed-
ling orange trees to go to California.
The peach crop of Levy county will
be the largest raised for years. And the
county raises the finest peaches grown
south of Delaware.
A party of gentlemen interested in the
East Coast Canal aie at TiTusville, look-
ing out the route for the canal between
Jupiter and Lake Worth.
A spur from Ocklawaha station to the
Lake Weir Chautauqua grounds is now
being talked of. If built, the Florida
Southern will do the work.
Dr. Wyley, near Titusville, has acres
of Irish potatoes two feet high, and ex-
pects to ship 800 barrels of cabbage
from three and a half acres, within a
few days.
Capturing a 100 pound turtle with a
hook and line is quite an unusual
achievement, but this was accomplished
a day or two since by a visitor at St.
Augustine.
Manatee people rejoice in the assur-
ance that the railroad to that village
will be under construction within sixty
days, arrangements having been com-
pleted to that effect.
E. T. Field, of New Jersey, who has
been looking after his immense cocoa-
nut plantation between Lake Worth and
Biscayne, has returned to his Northern
home.
There is said to be a market demand
for 50,000 bushels of castor beans at
from $1.50 to $2.50 per bushel. These
beans grow and yield most prolifically
a this State.
The people in the western portion of
Alachua are anxious to be stricken off
from the remainder of the county, in
order that they may form a new county,
and the question is being very much ag-
itated by them.
A company has been formed, known
as the Banana and Indian River Inlet
Company, whose purpose it, is to con-
struct a canal connecting the Atlantic
Ocean with those two rivers at the foot
of Merritt's Island.
Mr. Lewis, the pioneer strawberry
grower of Panasoffkee, has shipped in
the neighborhood of a thousand quarts
of strawberries this season. Price re-
ceived from same ranges from $4 a quart
at the opening down to $1.
The Florida Railway and Navigation
Company have the rail on their line laid
as far south as IDde City, and the rail
contractor will lay a mile a day, which
will complete the road to Plant City by
the first of next month.
LeConte pear culture will receive an-
other boost in Florida, after this season,
the cold snap of a few days ago having
frozen the blooms on the trees and de-
stroyed the crop of fruit in Northern
Georgia and Alabama. It is as yet not
known how far south the pears were af-
fected by the freeze.
The new management of the Apopka
and Atlantic Railroad have decided to
- make a change in the plans of the enter-
/ prise and in the name. The road will
hereafter be known as the Alabama,
Florida and Atlantic, and the name is an
explanation of the proposed enlarged
scope of the road. Active operations are
to begin at an early date.
Geronimo, Mangus and Natchez are en-
gaged in the civilizing work of grubbing
out ti-ti and making gardens at Pickens.
The rumor is current that the Indians
at Pickens are to be restored to their
families and given an island reservation
where they will be gure prevent
escape.-Pensacola Advance-Gazette.
Large quantities of home raised corn
are being brought into town and sold,
the farmers realizing seventy-five cents
per bushel for it. Some of our sister
counties, where the land does not pro-


duce the staff of life, can find a surplus
of several thousand bushels in Levy
county that our farmers would like to
dispose of for the cash.-Levy County
Times.
Fort Ogden has a barber shop, harness
shop, shoe shop, livery stable, blacksmith
shop, cabinet shop, whisky shop, two
drug stores, two large merchandise
stores and one wholesale store, two saw
mills, one law office, three real estate
agencies; a first-class news and one
printing office, a photograph gallery,
two churches, a school and two good
hotels.
Are we to have no oranges next sea-
son? Not nearly all the trees have
bloomed yet. It looks as if they forgot
it. The weather has been so fine fr
growing purposes that they have not had
time to think of blossoms. This is a se-
rious oversight onrr their part, and we
fear it is general, as the papers say such
is the case in different localities.-Fort
Meade Pioneer.
Dr. N. Hart, who lives some three
miles from Brooksville, has a curiosity
growing in the shape of a Melitensis or-
ange tree. It is only sixteen inches high,
and has fully one hundred blooms on it.
Dr. Hart has two or three of this vari-
ety, which he obtained from the Agri-
cultural Department at Washington, but
only the one mentioned has any blooms
en it.
A meeting of the citizens of Melrose
was held recently, at which resolutions
were adopted, favoring the formation of
another county from portions of Clay,


Seed Irish Potatoes.


POWDER

Absolutely Pure.
This powder never varies. A marvel of
purity, strength and wholesomeness. More
economical than the ordinary kinds, and
cannot be sold in competition with the
multitude of low test, short weight alum or
phosphate powders. Sold only in cans,
ROYAL BAKING POW DER CO., 106 Wall St..
New York.


I


J. W. SMITH,
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.


96


Bradford, Putnam and Alachua. Notice
was ordered to be published that an ap-
plication would be made to the Legisla-
ture at its next session, to apportion so
much of these counties as lies within
certain enumerated boundaries.
Active work has been commenced on
the St. Johns River, Lake Weir and Gulf
Railroad, in securing the right-of-way
and other preliminaries. It is semi-au-
thoritatively stated that this line will
run from Lake George, on the St. Johns,
via Kerr City, Grahamville, Lake Weir,
and thence to Anclote, in Hillsborough
county, on the Gulf. Prominent New
York capitalists are behind the enter-
prise with plenty of cash.
The sailors of the Dagmar are super-
stitious to the last degree. After the
young Swede fell from theforetop-gallant
mast to his death on deck, the sailors
have noted with a tremor the blood
stains, and a violent death at sea is
enough to remove all desire to continue
a voyage. As a result of this supersti-
tious feeling, six of the crew deserted
Saturday in a body, and the captain had
them arrested and placed in custody,
where, if they refuse to ship, they will
lie in prison until the bark sails.-Pensa-
cola Advance Gazette.
Messrs. Houston and Roberts have had
their boat inspected and a regular daily
steam mail on Indian River has been in-
augurated with every probability of
being a permanent thing, starting from
Melbourne in the morning, arriving at
Titusville about noon and making Mel-
bourne at night again, carrying passen-
gers and mail, The service will be ap-
preciated, and it is with satisfaction
that all the residents on the river greet
the day when mail is no longer subject
to the fickle winds which blow appar-
ently more to suit themselves than any-
one else.
An accident, in which two flat cars,
loaded with lumber, and two box cars,
loaded with cedar for the Eagle Pencil
Company, were destroyed, occurred oon
the Florida Railway aid Navigation
Railroad, eight miles sou'h of Bronson
Tuesday afternoon about 4 o'clock. It
appears that a bridge over a culvert at
that place had caught fire from a forest
fire, and that the smoke was so dense
that the engineer of a not th bound freight
did not detect that part of the trestle
work was in flames until the engine was
upon it. The engine and tender passed
over safely, but the bridge gave way and
the cars mentioned were wrecked and
burned with their contents.
The first shipment of freight made
from a foreign port to Tampa under the
new provision making this place a port
of entry, arrived via the steamship
Whitney on Sunday night. Boats from
foreign ports may now go direct to Tampa
without stopping at Key West as hereto-
fore. The advantage that this will be
to not only our city but to the whole of
South Florida cannot be overestimated.
Yacht owners will not be put to the
trouble in future as they have been in
the past when they come into Tampa,
as did Mr. Arthur C. Bateman, of New
York, who, without knowing that the
law compelled all vessels en route to
Tampa to put in at Key West for in-
spection, came on to this place. His
yacht,-the Meteor, was put under the
charge of an inspector from this port,
who took it back to Key West, where a
fine of $400 was imposed on it. This
will undoubtedly be refunded, but the
annoyance and loss of time amounted
to much more than the fine. In future
we will be troubled with nothing of this
kind, which will serve to make our al-
ready popular bay even more so with
yachtmen who make annual winter
cruises in Southern waters.-Tampa Tri-
bune.
*

Reminiscences of Dr. Perrine.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
I have read with interest A. H. C.'s
article on "Florida's New Palm," and
wish to suggest that it is probably one of
the many trees and plants introduced
into Florida by my father, the late Dr.
Henry Perrine.
A. M. DuBoise, who was the keeper of
the light-house on Key Biscayne, was
one of his agents. He planted on the
Indian Hunting Grounds and on the ad-
jacent Keys. It *was also my father's
habit to take a boat and skirt along the
Keys and mainland (whenever a flag of
truce was flying), during the two years
of our residence on Indian Key, land
whenever practicable and there plant
seeds, leaving them to nature's care and
an occasional visit from himself.


One of the agricultural papers of this
State speaks of trees and plants found
upon lower Metacombe, that were not
found elsewhere, and for some unknown
reason had not increased in numbers."
Undoubtedly these were survivors from
may father's nursery on that island.
It is nearly fifty years since he fell a
victim to the Seminoles, a martyr to
science and his love of country, and it is
but right that the name of Dr. Henry
Perrine should live in Florida's annals as
one of the first to discover and bring to
light its wonderful resources.
HESTER PERRINE WALKER.
FERNANDINA, Fla.,
March 12th, 1887.

[It is not at all probable that Dr. Per-
rine introduced any plant which was
unknown to Griseback and other botan-
ical explorers of the Antilles and Gulf
shores. Besides, Dr. Perrine only sought
for useful plants, and we cannot think
of any purpose for which our new palm
could be used.
The Indian Key massacre is among the
most tragic events in the annals of Flor-
ida, and we would like much to present
to our readers an authentic narrative of
the circumstances. It would be a fitting
accomripaniment to Miss Brevards' ex-
tremely interesting narrative of events
of the Seminole war.-A. H. C.]
i ---
Egg stains can be removed by rubbing
with common table salt.
S Leather chair-seats may be revived by
f rubbing them with well-beaten white of
, egg.


every hammock that can be transplanted
and made to ornament the house plots
of our homes. The palms of course
come first and nothing can be more
beautiful. There are palms in a ham
mock that in a European conservatory
would be worth hundreds of dollars.
Should we underrate them because they
cost nothing but the labor of digging ?
How are small cedars, also, and many
shapely trees with the names of which
we are not familiar, and then comes the
question of utilizing the vines. Their
value may be more imaginary than real,
but perseverence may yield some fruit-.
*The wild grape is often gathered for
preserving and wine making, and some
of the hammock grapes may by cultiva-
tion yield Lew varieties adapted to our
climate.
There is sill another use for the ham-
mock, entirely practical, and therefore
commendable to thoie who only look at
any object through its money value.
The hammock is the home of the hard
woods of our State. To tell what they
are would need an arboreal investiga-
tion the writer is not competent to make,
but we know they are there in great va-
riety and of great internal beauty. We
know, also, that the love for interior
house decoration is growing, not only in
Florida but through the entire country.
Choice woods are sought for with which
to ceil apartments in place of the hard,
cold and inelastic plaster. What better
use could capital be put to than to start
saw mills for the business? We have
seen many cedar and other trees, too
small for any apparent purpose of any
magnitude, which would yeo cut up into
narrow ceiling planks, and present the
grain just as perfectly as a full grown
tree. We present these few thoughts
with some diffidence, hoping that they
will be better- presented by others here-
after.
BAY VIEw, Fla., March 9.
*
The Riviera of America.
A correspondent of the Times- Union,
in writing of the Duke of Sutherland's
recent visit to Sarasota, says:
That little Gulf town appears to be
rapidly becoming the objective point of
distinguished foreign travel, and when
the projected railroad from Plant City
to Sarasota bay is completed it will prob-
ably become one of the leading resorts of
the State.
English people are prompt to follow in
the footsteps of their fashionable leaders,
of which the nobleman referred to is
one of the foremost, both as the owner
of the most extensive dukedom in Great
Britain, and as the bosom friend of the
Prince of Wales. That friend, in fact,
whose bead the Shah of Persia, in a mo
ment of confidential advice to his brother
potentate, advised the Prince to cut off,
because he was "too powerful."
The Duke's visit would at any time
ensure the town a special interest in the
eyes of the upper ten thousand of Brit-
ish society, but occurring at a period
when the favorite winter resorts of
Europe are devastated by a most disas-
trous series of earthquakes, the interest
is certain to be accentuated and to take
a practical form in the ensuing winter.
That section of country which em-
braces the Manatee river and the coast
extending southward to, and inclusive
of, Charlotte Harbor, seems destined to
become the Riviera of America. It is
the almost oriental setting of a perfect
cluster of beautiful residential spots of
which Sarasota is the central gem.
In addition to its own peculiar and
untranslatable advantages it possesses
all the charm of climate and beauty of
surrounding which have made the Eu-
ropean Riviera so famous, while it is
free from congestive dangers arising
from icy mistral winds shooting down
the gorges of snow clad mountains into
warm unsheltered valleys, and free also
from the terrors of seismic or volcanic
disturbance.
America is now fully equipped in
winter resorts, and it is time that she
should cease prating aoout the beauties
of Nice and Mentone; should cease, too,
leaving it to foreigners to discover and
publish her own unequalled attractions.

MARCH WEATHER.

The following table, compiled from the records
of the Jack onville Signal Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, presents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and dissection of wind for
the month of March, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:


The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
NOVA SCOTIA
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebr,)n and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed were the finest we have ever seen
here.
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose.. ............... $3.00.
Beauty of Hebron....... ..$3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
potatoes promptly.
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.

Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.


THE HAMMOCKS OF FLORIDA.

Their Poetic Suggestions and
Utilitarian Resources.
BY J. K. H.
We hear through many papers and
from a multitude of people, of the fertil
ity of the hammocks of Florida. We
know of groves that are in full bearing
in six years from the seed, and there is
nothing tha' can be grown anywhere in
this State that will not grow there in
greater perfection with a vastly increased
yield.
The poetry of the hammock has not
yet been written, and at that I am some-
what surprised. There is nothing more
intensely tropical than a hammock; it is
nature run wild; it is an agglomeration
of the useful and fantastical. A man
may be as completely lost in one as he
would be in an untrodden Northern wild-
erness. It has its lurking places for the
wild cat, its refuge for countless herds of
swine. There are bogs that are impassa-
ble, and gopher holes at every step.
The botanist, the herbalist and the
lover of trees may here find a feast, for
the hammock collects to itself a little of
every plant that grows on our soil. It is
said that there are a thousand varieties
of palms, and we doubt not they can all
be found in our hammocks. The cab-
bage palm grows to a great height, and
we have cut leaves of other varieties
measuring seven feet across, with a stem
of equal length. The pine is not plenti-
ful, but occasionally a specimen towers
aloft as though it would challenge the
supremacy of all others.
The magnolia is frequently found, with
its great, fragrant blossoms, that dwarf
the efforts of every other flowering plant
to perfume the vagrant winds. The
dogwood and bay are plentiful, and there
are clumps of cedar that charm the eye,
and as Powers could see the statue in
the uncut marble, so we imagine we see
a million of pencils in the trunk which
has not yet felt the blow of an axe.
The oak, with its pendant moss, is un-
doubtedly the most attractive tree in our
forests, and nowhere outside the ham-
mock can the live oak be found in such
perfection. To us it is a melancholy tree.
It bears upon it the impress of time. We
are pricked by the centuries, and com-
mon years seem as nothing to it. A de-
caying live oak, one out of which the
life has been sucked by the parasite moss,
suggests the certainty that the world it-
self must come to end, and if such a
giant stoops its head to mortality, what,
then, are we, that pale before the winter
winds, and are cut down as a flower of
the field? We have often heard the owl
in the oak in the edge of the evening,
and he seemed to be sounding the knell
of some departing soul-te-whit! te-whit!
te-whool-and we have been glad to turn
our feet homeward.
All the oaks, of course, have a promi-
nent place in the hammock, and over l
and around all is the vine, the mosV, -
rious feature, to us, of the entire/ham-
mock. It forms a complete network; it
drops from the tallest branches, Vand
sways in the wind like the streamers from
a yacht. It forms traps for the feet, also,
and it is difficult to walk through a ham-
mock on account of them. We cannot
answer the question, How came the vine
on the trees ? The root is often found in
the ground many feet from the trunk of
a tree, while its chief hold is on a branch
thirty or more feet above the ground.
Have these vines all grown up with the
trees? If so, it shows a provision of na-
ture, an adaptation of means to ends of
a most wonderful character.
But leaving the poetic part of the
hammock, we would dwell a momenton
the use to which it may be put. Florida
is utilitarian throughout. The first ob-
ject of a poor man is to make a living,
and of a rich man to make his invest-
ment pay. Your paper and others are
full of suggestions tending to these two
ends, and if fortunes were to be picked
out of the agricultural paper advertise-
ments there would be no poverty in the
State. The one use that a hammock is
put to is to furnish ashes for the ground.
We think of the soil and not of what is
now upon it. We sacrifice sentiment
to cabbages and the oak to the orange
grove.
Now we are not sure that anything
better can be done, but we are willing
to maintain that the hammock is full of
suggestions, it contains ample food for
thought,and thought matured may yield
a harvest some day if not now. "Straws
show which way the wind blows," and
an old friend of ours has done a little


.something in beautifying our home by
cutting the stems of the palme'to leave
which he uses as sticks for protecting"
and supporting the plants and flowers
around the house. Nature has painted
them a living green, and they are just
the right size. If too long .they can be
cut into two or more pieces.
But the handling of these palmetto
sticks reminds us that but comparatively
little has been done towards utilizing
the fibrous part of the palmetto, that so
far has been the curse and not the bless-
ing of Florida. We occ isionally hear of
paper being made of this plant, and it
is said that there is a manufactory of
brushes at Sanford, and we also hear
that there is tannin in the palmetto
root, equal to that extracted from the
best oak bark, yet up to this time there
has been no great movement to solve
the question whether there is not im-
mense fortunes hidden away in the
fibrous plants of Florida. The demand
for paper stock has been so great as to
lead to the use of straw, the begasse of
the sugar cane, and the pulp made from
various kinds of wood, while here are
millions of pounds of an article that is
apparently superior to either of them.
Nature has done her best to point out
the utility of the palmetto. In the ham-
mock the threads wave in the breeze,
and the roots are enveloped in a cloth of
nature's own weaving, showing that
there is a vegetable fibre there of un-
equalled strength and tenacity. We
own to a little mortification in the ne-
glect by the world of this promising
field of-industry.
Again, there are a hundred plants in


Market Agea rl.
At'KiO^VIJLh5h] MABKH I A h.

Wholesale,
JACKSONVILLE, March Z, 1887.
Provisions.
MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed $8 87Y D. S.
long clear sides $8.75; D. S. bellies 1 87 y;
saoked short ribs 9 62%; smoked bellies 9 75;
S C. hams, uncassed fancy, 13%; S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, 1(/4c; S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvassed, 9c; California or pic-
nic hams, 9%yc. Lard-rifined tierces 7/4c;
Mess beef-barrels$1050, half barrels $575; mess
pork $15 75. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7%y@7L;
dressed hogs 8tc; sheep:9c; pork sausage 9c;
loins 10c; longbologna 7c; head cheese 6yc;
Frankfort sausage 10%c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
BUTTEINE--reamery 20c; Extra Dairy
l6c; Dairy 15.
CHEESE--Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
pound.
GRAIN-Corn-The market quiet but firm
the following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
5%c@... per bushel; car load lots 56c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57c per bushel;e
car load lots 53c per bushel. Oats quiet
and firm at the following figures: mixed,
in job lots, 41c, car load lots 40c; white
oats are 3e higher all round, Bran steady
and lower, $19 00@20 per ton, job lots.
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice,
small boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $16 75
to $17 50 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL--2 90 to $3 00, per
barrel.
SFLOUR-Dull and lower, best patents 85 60;
good family $5 10; common $4 25.
GROUND FEED-Per ton 24.
COFFEE--Green Rio 16@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 30@33c; Mocas, roasted, 3038c;
Red, roasted, 28@25c.
COTTON SEED MEAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal $21 50@22 50 per ton.
TOBACCO STEMa-Market quiet but firm @
$13 00 per ton.
LIME-Eastern, job lots, $100 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime $115. Cement-American $2 00,
English $4 75 per barrel.
RicE-The quotations vary, according to
quantity from 3%@6%c per pound.
SALT-Liverpool, per sack, $100; per ear
load, 85@90c.
country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc.
CHEES--Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 35c; mixed 30c; half-
grown 24c.
"EGGS-Duval County 22 per dozen with a
limited demand and good supply.
IRISH POTATOES--Northern potatoes $2 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 60; Chili Reds $2 75.
ONiONS-New York, $325; Yellow Denver
$3 50 per barrel; White Onions, $3 75 per bar-
rel. '
Florida cabbage, $1 50 per barrel. Imported
from Germany 10c.
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per
barrel.
NEW BEETS-Florida, er crate $2 25.
CAULIFLOWERS-Per barrel, $3 00, and $125
per crate.
CELERY-Florida, per dozen, 60c.
LETTUCE--Per dozen, 25c.
TOMATOES-Florida, per crate, $3 50.
NORTHERN TURNIPS-Good supply at $2 25
per barrel.
GREEN PEAS-Per box $125.
HIDES-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@13cy; and country dry salted 11@
llc; butchers dry salted 9@9%c. Skins-Deer
flint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c;
fox 10@20c, Beeswax per pound, 18c; wool
free from burs 22@25c; burry, 10@15c; goat
skins 10@25 c apiece.
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PRUNES-French, 10c.
PINE APPLES-Per barrel $6.
LEMONS-Messinas, $4 25 per box.
APPLES-New York $4 50 to $4 75 per barrel.
FIGS-In layers 13c; in linen bags 6c.
DATES-Persian-Boxes 9c; Frails 7c.
GRAPES-Malagas, $5 00 per keg.
ORANGES-Florida-Per barrel $4 00; per
box $2 75 to $4 25.
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $2 00
per bunch.
NUTS-Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts
(Sicily) 12e; English walnuts, Grenobles, 16c;
Marbots, 15c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts 6c;
Cocoanuts 5c.
RAISINS-London layers, $2 75 per box.
CRANBERRIES-4$2 7- per crate; $1000 per
barrel.
Retail.
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
City Market.
Carrotl wholesale at $3 00 per barrel, and
retail a0 cents per peck.
Green .Onions wholesale at 60 cents per
hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
FloridE Cabbage wholesale $2 00 per barrel
and retai1at 5 to 10 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 per box, and re-
tail at two and three for 5 cents.
apanage wholesales at 75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 15@20 cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 75 per barrel and
retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 18 to 20 cents
per dozen, and retail at 25 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
each.
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at$2 40 to
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are. worth wholesale $250
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts lor 15 cents.
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
oer dozen bunches of seven radishes each.


They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 35


to 40 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry, per poulnd-chickens, retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, 41.00 te
$1.75 each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 19 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 conts;
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 50 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart

OUR SPECIAL MARKETS
Latest Quotations of Florida Fruits
And Vegetables.
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
change, are sent to the TIMES-UNION by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
eNEW YORK, March 21.-The orange mar-
ket Is stiff, and all choice fruit arriving lt
quickly snapped up by our fancy dealers.
Lighter lots arriving by the Savannah
steamers. Only 1,200 boxes oranges on one
here to-day.
SGOBEL & DAY.


Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
BALTIMORE, March 21.-Demand for or-
anges fair, prices fame as last reported.
I-IX & WILKINS.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
CINCINNATI,. March 21,-Bright oranges
83@3.50, russets $2.25@2.75. Market firm and
demand good.
LOWHEAD, DALE & CO.
Commission Merchants' Auotations.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
NEW YORK, March 21.-But few straw-
berries to-day, and prices advanced to from
40 to 45c. Immediate shipments via express
would strike a favorable market. Savannah
peas sold to-day at $5, Florida peas $S2@3.50
er crate, cucumbers $6@8, tomatoes $3@6,
beets $2, egg plants $18@20 per barrel, cabbage
$3@4. But few strictly fancy rangers com-
ing-all such selling readily at $4.50 per box,
russets $2@2.50.
G. S. PALMER.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
PHILADELPHIA, March 21.-Market is
quiet. Fancy $3.50@4, fair $2.50@3, russets $20
2.o50, large on half. B. D&
A. B. DETWILER & SON.

LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, March 21.-The Western
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the
Havana leaf is in active demand. New
SYork Pennsylvania and Western sell at from
$4 to $15 per 100 pounds. Havana, 60 cents to
$1.05 er pound. Sumatra, $1.20 to n1.60 per
pound.
ST. LOUIS, March 21,-The demand for
leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
LOUISVILLE, March 21.-There is a
good demand, especially for the better grades
of which there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND, March 21.-The -market is
Improving with favorable weather for ,ship-
ping. The better grades of stemming leaf
sell rapidly at from to 13 cents per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
to 20 cents.
DANVILLE, March 21.-Business is im-
proving rapidly and prices have an upwasd
tendency. There is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
generally.
BALTIMORE, March 21.-The market is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to $15 per
100 pounds.
AMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
T FLORIDA.
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
W. N. CONOLEY.

If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly -improving section,
or if you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on two-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.,
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
further information and send for-list-of prop-
erty for Sale.W
W.N. CONOLEY,
Tampa, Florida.'
REFERENCES-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
ville; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
John T. Lesley, Tampa,


+ The Weekly* Tirj8es.

The FLORIDA WEEKLY TIMES, the weekly edi-
tion of the TIMES-UNION) is admitted to be the
best dollar newspaper in the South and one of
the best family journals min the country. It is a
great 56-column paper, eight pages, filled to the
brim with State and General News, Market and
Weather reports, etc. Its Agriculturrl Depart-
ment, edited by Judge KNAPP, agent of the Na-
tional Bureau of Agriculture, is written with
pbcial reference to Florida's climate, soil and
productions, and alone worth ten times its
subscription price Also, a large colored map of
Florida to all yearly subscribers free. Terms
(in advance), $1 a year; 50 cents foi six months.
Remittances should be made by draft, monek
order, or postal note, or registered letter.
C. H. JONES & BRO., Publishers
,JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


"
41

*a

7.32
5.29
2.13
1.80
5.41
2.53
2.37
1.35
1..69
2.89
.89
3.84
2.63
5.66
6.74


9 4-
%0




is
R


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NE
NE
sW
SW
NTE

SW
sw
6w
SW
NE
NE


TEMP. WEATHER.


+>_
.11


42 59
35 59
37 66
40 64
31 60
36 61
39 65
44 64
43 68
31 60
47 66
40 60
42 66
38 58
37 60


10
3 ^
13 8
14 11
9 17
8 15
14 13
18 12
7 14
14 13
12 17
16 9
14 13
13 14
14 11
10 13
3 16


3 b
oa

10
6
5
8
4
4
4
3
6
4


YEARS.


1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1875
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1834
1885
1886


82
82
87
85
82
81
86
86
86
80
88
79
81
79
84


4
6
8
12


tj


Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
looking finely.
WILLIAMS, CLARK & CO.
--------- 0--
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with 'other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
this year.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by expe-ience what we say regarding
this fertilizer.
WOFFoRD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 23, 1887.