Florida farmer & fruit grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055763/00047
 Material Information
Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower
Uniform Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower (Jacksonville, Fla. 1887)
Alternate title: Florida farmer and fruit grower
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill. ; 50 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: C.H. Jones & Brother
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: February 23, 1887
Publication Date: 1887-1889
Frequency: weekly
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1887)-v. 3, no. 3 (Jan. 16, 1889).
General Note: A.H. Curtiss, editor.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000454290
oclc - 11040152
notis - ACL6442
lccn - sn 95026760
System ID: UF00055763:00047
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch (Live Oak, Fla.)
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch and farmer and fruit grower

Full Text

VOL. 1---NO. 8.




Work away in this manner, until all
the perpendiculars are determined. If
the line are not more t an one-eighth of
a mile long, and sufficient intelligence
and pains have been used, the lines
will not diverge or converge more at the
ends than what may be easily corrected
at planting. The hill stakes are easiest
placed along a garden line stretched
taut between the line stakes. Diagram
(Fig. 1.) explains further.
Stake out the land in squares, as is
generally done. Then begin at, say, the
south end of the west outside row. Pull
up the first stake and move it at a right
angle one and a half feet to the west.
Go to the next stake in the same row,
pull it up and move it one and a half feet
to the east. Go .on farther and move
the next stake one and a half feet to the
west, and so on to the end of the row.
When one row is done, go back and

ORANGE CULTURE ABROAD. fromrn seed are later in coming into bear- FLORIDA'S NEW PALM. by one of them, we knew at once
ing, but are "more robust and live to a that it belonged to a very different spe-
V-Methods of Propagation. much greater age." To propagate the Dsy cies, and on further examination other
orange "either from shoots, cuttings or An Interresting Discovery Re- points of difference became apparent.
For the present chapter we have grafting, continues the race and at the cently Made on Elliott's Key. The berries rof the royal palm are
aimed to glean from the consular re- same time accelerates the fruitage." scarcely larger than buck-shot, while
ports whatever there is instructive or "The sweet orange does not thrive well Of the woody and herbaceous plants those of this palm are as large as
suggestive relative to the methods of when raised from shoots, and in order that are found in Florida many hundred marbles; moreover, they are borne most-
propagation and cultivation which are to obtain a good result it is necessary to species are found in no other State; yet ly in Iwos and threes, the thin smooth
practiced abroad. It appears that in the recur to tightly bandaging them so as to of these comparatively few are strictly pericarp enclosing one, two or three
West Indies, Mexico and South America favor the accumulation of juices, which Flordian, the greater number being spherical nuts.
the arts of the horticulturist are little contribute to the acceleration of the un- common to the West Indies. It isthere- The fruit a en was not fully matured,
contibue totheacceeraion f te un Im The fruit ,hen was not f ully matured,
practiced. The orange grows from the folding of the underground shoots." fore the more singular that a tree palm and mature fruit is essential to the ac-
seed and "bears fruit after its kind" "The slips of the sweet orange trees should be found on our Southern shore curate determination of a palm. Prof.
without the intervention of bud or scion, rarely strike root. Till the disease of which botanists have nowhere detected Sargent, in revisiting the Keys last No-
The groves are seldom tilled except the orange tree occurred some years back, in the West Indies. member, made further search for this
where planted with vegetables, the en- the propagation was generally effected The habitat or locality of our new palm tree, and found additional specimens,
croachments of wild trees and bushes by grafting the orange on a slip of lemon is so difficult of access that it is by no but the fruit was no larger than peas.
being kept in check by the use of the tree, but since then cultivators have only means surprising that it should have es- He thinks the tree flowers in September
machete. Of late years, however, the directed their attention to obtaining caped detection so long. Elliott's Key, and matures its fruit in June. The
rapidly increasing demand for the fruit vigorous plants from the seed, on which on which the tree grows, is the most trunk of the tree is about 20 feet high
for shipment has aroused an interest in are afterwards grafted cuttings." remote of the Reef Keys. It lies off the and about 6 inches in diameter. The
methods of production, and .has led As to stocks for grafting, this writer Southeastern coast of Florida, about general appearance of the tree is very
many to adopt the system of clean cul- holds that if trees of low growth be de- eight miles distant from the mainland, well represented in the accompanying
ture and of propagation by budding or sired, "the trunk should be raised from forming with the Arsenicker Keys the cut, the drawing for which was prepared
grafting, the seed of the sweet orange. Those Southern boundary of Biscayne Bay. after photographs secured on EJliQtt's
In the orange producing countries of raised from the seed of the bitter orange The island is about. seven miles long and Key.
the East these methods have been are more vigorous, more luxuriant, and not more than half a mile wide. As there are about; a thousand known
adopted with scarcely an exception, and of longer duration, besides which they Elliott's Key, like all the others, con- species of palms, and as it' is very diffi-
as experience has been their teacher we better resist the cold, for which reason sists of fragmentary coral rock, which cult to represent them in herbariums,
may profit by studying the results of they are prepared and chosen for the appears to have been piled up in huge their identification is now left to a spe-
their experience, trunks of trees of tall growth." drifts parallel with the shore of the cialist, Prof. Wendlandt, of Germany,
The prevailing practice throughout the From Italy, as well as Spain, it is re- mainland. At some period of the earth's who has great facilities for their study.
extensive coast region of the Mediter- ported that the formerly popular method history there must have been a commo- From the specimens which Prof. Sargent
ranean is to graft or bud the sweet or- of grafting the orange on lemon cut- tion of the waters sufficiently powerful has sent him, he cannot identify our
ange on seedling stocks of the sour or tings has been discontinued since the ap- to break up the outer reefs and drift the palm with any known species or even
bitter orange, or sweet lemon. "Graft" pearance of the gum disease, and that fragments inland to their present posi- genus. The name he has bestowed on
is the word most frequently used, but in now budded seedlings are used mainly, tion. Commencing at Key West and it-by which it will be.designated in bo-
some cases it is evidently used in a cornm- being found to resist the disease better extending 150 miles Northeast ward, tanical works-is, Chamaephcemnix Sar-
prehensive sense. The consular agent at on accountof their greater natural vigor. these coral drifts lock in the mainland, gentii. 'he first or generic name denotes
Sidon tells us that "only one variety Much may be done towards ensuring the rendering access to itor most of the a resemblance to the date palm; the spe-
(of orange, Viz., the Bisry,) grows di- future tree against the vicissitudes of distance, extremely difficult, even to cific name is the Latin genitive of the
roctly from the seed; the others are all weather and disease by providing it with boats drawing but a few inches of water, discoverer's name.-A. H. C.
grafted, which is considered a better a hardy stock or foundation. "Some On reaching Elliott's Key, however,
method than budding." experts," says Lowenstein, "hold that
In the Levant it eems to be a very plants raised from the seed of the Chi- The Date Palm,
popular practice to graft or bud the nese variety, although of slow growth, We expect ere long to present a valu-
sweet orange and sour lemon on sweet are of a more robust habit and withstand able paper by Mr. Theo. L. Mead, of Or-
lemon stocks. The consular agent at id weather more successfully." ange county, detailing the results of his
aifa Prites as follows:- (" W\e !A t.w" ntefd. maina, makeAk ninter- experience in groW g palms, bf
kinds of lemons, sweet and sour; the testing point in regard to the Tangerine a --Ermented "with moxRe
sour bear as seedlings, on .the sweet the orange. He says: "The grafting of the hundred species. We k ai wo several
orange is grafted. This manipulation of Tangerine orange upon the shaddock has emeabers of this ea fami r which
grafting on sweet lemon trees has lately a remarkable effect. It is attended by have proved ate hardy in that county
proved to be the most profitable, as the an increase in the size of the fruit and and it is-Wighly desirable that more at-
size of the fruit increases with the age quantity of the crop, whilst the flavor is tefWd-6inbe given to palm culture, as no
of the tree, while those grafted on sour greatly improved." 1orms of vegetation are so conducive to
lemon trees become smaller after fifteen It appears that the orange may be those tropical effects of scenery which
years." The consul at Beirut makes a propagated by every method which her- are peculiarly suitable and desirable in
similar statement. "The sour oranges, ticulturists have devised. In the Azores this latitude
says he, "are raised from seedlings, layering is extensively practiced, the Of the date palm we have seen in
while all the other kinds of oranges grow earth being carried to the branches in- former years several fine specimens in
better by grafting. Two kinds of lemon stead of the branches to the earth. A / northern Florida, and we remember to
are cultivated near Beirut-the sweet traveler writes from 'the island of St. have picked up half-grown fruit under
and sour lemons. The best results are Michael as follows : "The trees are in- the date avenue at old Dungeness, w hun
obtained from sour lemons when they creased in a-curious way, by a mode of is at the south eastern cornerof Georgia.
are grafted on sweet lemon trees, as the propagation much in use of late years. ,What effect the freeze of '86 bad on the
size of the fruit increases with the age of A branch of the diameter of four or five date trees we do not know. We would
the tree." inches is chosen, around which a circu- lhke to hear from some one who knows,
The consul-general to Turkey reports lar incision is cut. Around this straw how the date trees were affected by the
as follows: "Lemons are generally matting is wound in the shape of a fun- freeze, and also how they have behaved
propagated first from the seeds of the nel and filled with beaten earth, from in previous years with regard to fruit-
wild orange, as it has been found that the middle of May to the middleof June. i ng. The following extract from a stant-
the wild fruit tree bears the cold better. Roots soon begin to push," and by the dard work details some curious facts
When three years old the plants from following winter it is provided with suf- concerning this eastern food-tree, aand
these seeds are taken up and replanted ficient to supportit when detached from shows whythe most flourishing date tree'
in other places, and the year following the parent stem. The young plant thus may be unfruitfult sng
the lemon plants proper are grafted obtained often bears fruit at the end of This tree is veryinterestin oot
upon them. Five years afterwards they two or three years." ists, because it was the firstng hh dan-
begin to bear fruit, and at fifteen years This method, called "layering by ele- their a ttention to the sexes of plantssdrw
they reach maturity. When great care ovation is derived from the Chinese, is a dioecious tree, that is,the male flow-
is bestowed, inarching is practiced, but who practice many curious arts on the ers are on one plant, and the female, or
growers generally prefer to propagate by citrus tribe. Any one who wishes to try FLORIDA'S pNEWPALM. fruiting ones, on another. The male
grafting, while alwa s rearing a portion this process should select a branch about (Chamaephoenix argentai.) flowers are considerably larger thanmthe
of the trees from seedling s and from cut- two inches thick, reduce it in length to females, and the latter, instead of sta-
tings, especially the latter." anfive or six feet, remove an inch of bark the inside waters are found more navi- means, have in the center the rudiments
To a Floridian, it souns strange to near the base and bind up the wound as in gable, and as the outer waters become of the dates, about the size of small peas.
speak of propagating the orange from budding. Then, having provided a box much rougher-this being on the Atlan- The two distinct sexes of the date tree
cuttings, but it seems the to havebeenmuch composed of two sections, enclose the tic coast-persons who are on their way appear to have been known from the re-
practiced in the Mediterranean countries branch so that the barked spot will be in to Miami in small sail boats usually turn motest antiquity, as they are noticed by
Thand citronsu l at Tangier sayste the middle of the receptacle, which into Biscayne Bay through the deep but all the ancients who describe the tree.
and citrons "hare easily propagate d fn rom should be packed with rich earth. The very narrow and long channel called It is not a little remarkable that there is
cuttings, which the dealers dinorange bisected box may be bound together with Caesar's Creek. Thus it was that the a difference in the fluctification of the
trees use extensively for budding o a cord or wire, and supported by a cord writer ner landed on the outer shore wild date and the cultivated, though
tCadtir eort as followers ,t consul or prop. If the earth be kept well of this Key until in April, 1886, when both are precisely the same species.
ralt ode feors astiolos: "T gen- moistened, at the end of a year the box he found himself travelling by steamer Wild dates impregnate themselves, but
Lea oe t opy cuings* wi 1 be well filled with roots, when the m the capacity of botanical guide to the cultivated do not without the aasis-
arge finte twigs of ast summer's growth branch may be sawed off, the boxing re- Prof. C. S. Sargent, who was making a tance of art. Theophrastus and Pliny
aebrp ant, eitr in november or in moved and the young tree planted in botanical examination of this coast, mention this fact, and in every planta-
ettbuary. In western ndalusia, the the ground. This is a very tedious pro- It was about the 20th of April, as tion of dates one part of the labor of the
routing is igial deyirosen from the va- cess, and for practical use no one would nearly as we can remember, in the after- cultivator consists in collecting the flow-
anetof course no further operpodue resort to it who can obtain young stock noon of the day we left Cape Florida on ers of the male date, climbing to the too
ancessaryr In Valenciat hoeroeratond by budding, our return voyage, that our steamer of the females with them, and dispersing
adjacentndistricts, the cuttings are cho- a. came to anchor off Elliott's Key, about the pollen on the germs of the dates. So
sen in reference to other points (they are Whitewashing Fruit Trees. midway of the island. The wind and essential is this operation, that though
often taken from bthe lemon tree), and Jacob Hoopes, in the 1%ew York Tri- threir were on thimes co ust oh ,louds wer thhe sale pnttintes crop fa oif it
then grafting or budding is resorted to, bune, says "one of the most creditable lowering and nature seemed to be in a is not performed. These trees do not
the great or bud being of the variety it is practices of old-time orchardists,; now I most forbidding mood, as if angry atsucewllhrehema te-
desired orise. Theoperation is usualy ammsor to sy altost oubsolete, was tat our apprach to one of her long hidden tre falls beow t80 oung plantsmay

l o wi n g y ea r, a n d t e g ra ts ar i nsert ed^^^
limbs of fruit trees. It may prove un- Dropping into the steamer's whale dates sold in the fruit stores.
atf hegh of about ten centimeters sightly from an sethetic pointof view, but boat, with Prof. Sargent and Mr. Faxono.
(four inches) above ground. "Elsewhere the result is death to all manner of in- the draughtsman, with Lieutenant Hub-
he says. "The orange tree, when raised sects and their eggs hidden away under bard at the tiller and four stout sailors Prevention Of Mildew.

,roil, a ,cuuumg cn is t most usual the rough, -scaly bark, besides leaving in at the oars, we made haste to push awa Sulphuring as a prevention of mildew
mode) comes into bearing five years af- time a healthy smooth surface after the from the steamer's hull, and after a rough is nnot very generally employed in all
ter planting, though the acme of pro- rains have washed the greater part of pull of a mile or so, found ourselves at California vineyards, the rule being,
ductivity is not reached with most va- the lime away to act as a fertilizer to the the landing of Mr. Filer. Finding the generally, to apply it when the vinesnare
rieties before some ten or twelve years roots. Another old-time idea had its proprietor at home we secured his guid- in blossom. A Santa Cruz county vig-
more." good uses: Scraping the bark off of ance through the forest lying back of neron, however, writes that he findsvit
Consular Agent Lowenstein, whose rough,.diseased trees and.then scrubbing his pine apple fields. It was not till our profitable to sulphur twice each season,
elaborate treatise on orange culture in the surface with soap-suds made from return, however, that we found any- the first time when the young shoots are
Spain we shall epitomize for our next good home-made soft soap, with a little thing of special interest. only an inch or two long, and again
chapter, in speaking of methods of prop- flowers of sulphur. Above all, lot every Mr. Filer had described to us some when in bloom. He adds that it is use-
agation, makes the following observa- one owning a single tree or many, use palms which he said grew near the outer less to use an inferior article of sulphur
tons: "Propagation from the seed," he around the surface of the soil a good top shore, and to these he conducted us on on the score of economy, as one pound
says, "po petuates the species and gives dressing of some rich fertilizer. Bear in our return. At first sight we thought of the best is worth more than half a
origin to new descriptions,.,, afterwards mind our treesexhaust the plant foodfrom them to be young trees of the royal dozen pounds of a poor article.--Rural
im proved by cultivati on. Tr aee s r a d t h end oeds to b e r e nl a e. , ,, h lt,,n .. .. '. k ^ ,

FIG. 1.-Diagram showing how to lay off an
orchard in timbered land. .fT
,treat the next one t!le .and
alT. sst. If the future grove were i o
be plowed north and south only, the
staking woull now be through with.
But for plowing both ways the stakes
must again be moved, thus :
Go to the east end of the south out-
side row and again move the first stake
one and a half feet to the south. Go
farther and place the next stake one and
a half feet to the north. The next one
one and a half feet to the south again,
and so on until the row is finished. Then
treat the next and all other rows simi-
larly. Take care that the stakes be set
at right angles with those ahead, then
they will be in straight lines laterally,
and as in diagram (Fig. 2.) where the
distance from their original position at
the intersection of the dotted lines is
This manner of placing trees is, as far
as the writer knows, his own discovery.
He has never seen it put into practice,
but has abundant experience with trees
to be convinced of its efficacy. By this
means the hard work of running 'the
few furrows next the trees, either in
throwing dirt to or from them, is over
'with, as by running with the lines
in the diagram no trees are in the way
before the first furrows are lapped, and
afterwards you have a run of fifty or
sixty feet between every two trees, so
that, although you have to turn aside
just as many times as formerly, all the
hard, exciting work does not come at one
If thick gross covers the ground, this
can be turned under much better, as you

p n r r n t f rn

--'- --' '-I --- --. WW KJ%7 LVLJA4MVV'LL-

FIG. 2.-New method of laying off an orchard.
can hold the plow plumb all the time. A
fast walking horse will not then be such
a torment; a mule will cause less swear-
ing; oxen can be used with less danger to
trees; fewer roo's will be cut, and
the double and single "Acme" harrow
will be twice as effective. This method
is not patented. Try i !
STARKE, Fla., Feb. 7, 1887.

Amos Lawrence said, when asked for
advice : "Young men, base all your ac-
tions upon a principle of right; preserve
your integrity of character, and doing
this never count the cost."



Some Novel Methods of Staking
off for Trees.
BY H. E. L.
Drive a stake where you want the
first and the last tree in one of the out-
side rows. Suppose this line to run
north and south, and be the west one,
and that the north outside row is next
to be determined.I
Sharpen the top of the south stake
you drove and saw off square the tot of
the north one. Get a piece of board a
foot or more square. Stand by the
north stake, facing the east, and hold
the board before you like a tray. Lay
the northwest corner of the board upon
the stake, so that its edges project
slightly both ways, and fasten it -with a
nail. Next make it level. Stick into it,
perpendicularly, a stout pin just above
the centre of the stake. Sight from this
pin to the top cf the south stake, and in
this line fix, at the other end of the board,
another pin.
Take a carpenter's square and lay it on
the board, with legs pointing south and
east. Push it until it touches both pins
and its corner is against the north pin.
Now stick a third pin close to the leg
pointing east, at the east edge of the
oard. Sight along the lower parts of
the north and east pins and in this line,
at the proper distance away, drive a
stake for the tree on the northeast cor-
ner. The lines determined by these
three stakes are at right angles with*
*each other. For a new line, move the
board to the last stake and proceed as
before, with such alterations as will sug-
gest themselves to you when at the new
ST i r"'"IMP
It would so n* iibe of .-qtage to
have the place a 'vre fuL ce.rees de-
termined before the standing timber is
cut down. To -effect this, cut down
what may be necessary for staking out
one outside row. All stakes used for
this operation should be straight and of
uniform length and size. Those in this
outside row-which we will call the
"base line"-must be of proper distance
apart, stand plumb, in an even line, and
have their tops tapering. Let them be
three inches above ground. Then take
the square board above mentioned and
put three legs under it three and a half
feet long and spread apart below.
Set this improvised plane table over
on6 corner stake for the purpose of set-
ting out the first "perpendicular," as we
will call the rows which shall square
with the base line. To find its course,
proceed substantially as directed above
for the same end. But let the pin to be
stuck over the stake be replaced by a
fine wire run clean through the board,
the end under which should point
straight down to help you to get the
corner of the board just above the cen-
tre of the stake. Tack oNer the board a
few thicknesses of soft paper to keep
you from bending the pins.
You cannot see very far for timber in
the way, but drive a stake in front of
the obstacle and in line with the pins,
and another one in the same line, but
nearer to you by ten feet. Then move
to the next stake in the base line and
set out a similar perpendicular, and so
on until one is set out from every stake.
Then stand by any stake on the base
line and note a spot two to six feet from
it to right or left where you can see
pretty far ahead. Here drive another
stake in the base line.. Measure accu-
rately the distance between the two and
put it, and its direction from the regular
stake, down in your "field notes." Set
the board over it and start another line
alongside the perpendicular. Mark its
termination the same way and call it a
"parallel." The object of having two
lines is that when one is cut short by an
obstacle it can, by measuring from its
mate, be located and again continued
beyond the obstacle. Set out a parallel
to every perpendicular.
Now make of light, straight material,
a square, one leg of which shall be
eleven feet, the other seven feet long.
Go to a perpendicular-or its parallel,
whichever is the longest--and lay the
long leg of the square against the two
stakes so that its corner is against one
stake and its short leg points towards the
terminated parallel line. Consult your
field notes as to the distance between the
two; measure it off on the short leg and
there drive a stake. Now turn over the

square so that its corner will come
against the other stake, its short leg
pointing as before. Then on it measure
off the same distance arid there drive
another stake. "*
These stakes are now back on the
broken line, Which may-be prolonged by
sighting along them both ways. If you
now can see to the boundary, then stick
,one stake there, if it be perpendicular;
if a parallel, two, same way as before.

has been adopted by English speaking
people, it is said that the French call the
plant by its botanical name,Reseda. -A.
H. C.]



Add more manure and continue to beat
down until the bed is within an inch and
a half of the top of the boxing.
To determine the heat of the bed insert
a stick into it, or still better, a thermo-
meter. When its temperature is 75 or 80
degress break up the spawn to about the
size of a hen's egg. With a blunt stick
make holes two inches deep and six
inches apart and put in the spawn.
Cover over an,] beat down and fill the
bed up to the top with heavy soil. The
best soil is a heavy loam but any garden
soil might be used.
There should be no water used for six
weeks after the bed is made. By that
time the mushrooms should begin to
make their appearance. Then give the
bed a thorough soaking with tepid water.
It should never be watered with water
below 75 or 80 degress. The bed should
always be kept dark. A little litter over
the top after it is made is beneficial. The
temperature should never be below 60
or above 75 degrees.


borne on fine crimson hairs which fringe
the whorl of leaves. The weight of the
smallest insect accepting the plant's-
honeyed invitation, is sufficient to cause
the visited leaf to roll inward upon its
guest, where it makes one more can't get
away club, until Droserahas drawn from
it a fair equivalent for the feast, and un-
rolls, leaving not much of the victim.
Venus' Fly Trap is another southern
genus of the same family. Observa-
tions of recent times prove that these
plants actually asssmilate a carnivorous
diet, and thrive on juicy beef. The dis-
covery of this habit causes the botanist
to re-write so much of his definition of
a plant as limits it to inorganic or min-
eral food, and one more hard and fast
line" in our interpretation of nature,
yields to the wonderful patience of the
born investigator.
Close by the Drosera is a plant of the
kind known as flowerless-one of the
Club-moss family, named Lycopodium,
from an old time fancy that the hairy
branches of one of the family resembled
the wolf's foot. It lies upon the ground
and sends white, thread like roots into
the black mud. This plant is believed
to tell something of the vegetable world,
before it had true flower or seed. Gi-
gantic forms of it, nearly a hundred feet
in height, are found in the coal measures,
and make an important chapter in fossil
botany. It first api eared in humble
forms, like those of to-day. The spores
are very inflammable, which gives it a
use in pyrotechnics.
Another evergreen shrub of the heath
family, is covered with glossy leaves and
waxen urn-shaped flowers tipped with
carmine borrowed from the crimson
flower scales. The fine toothed cup ad-
heres to the ovary, and shows by the
berries forming that the plant is useful
as well at beautiful, and is not contempt-
ible even when it gratifies the palate. It
is the evergreen blueberry of the South,
Vaccinium myrsinites, of the same fam-
ily as the trailing arbutus, and the
stately Azalea Rhododendron. It is not
domesticated, but is at home on the bor-
ders with the pioneer of civilization.
One more flowering plant closes our
walk and our chronicle for the time.
It is the upland willow or turkey oak,
Quercus cinerea, common enough, but its
family has a long record from the time
when the cabbage palmetto ranged as far
north as Vancouver's Island, itself being
with the ceanothus within 12 of the
pole, a true native American, migrating
to Europe, but always better represented
at home. Prof. Curtiss, in his research
on the forest trees of Florida, names thir-
teen of its genus, and seventeen of i's
order, to be found here-a part, .40 of
all in the United States. It tests the
powers of the professional botanist to
trace the wanderings and variations of
the order of the Cupule or little cup.
The species in hand is biennial in fruit-
ing, and the oak blossoms will give us
no acorns until autumn of next year.
So long does it take to mature that fruit
despised by children, a bitter acorn.
If our walk has wearied the mind as
well as the body, it has taken us to the
beginning of agriculture, before Greek
S Goth &r Celt, had ahadgu ge or
a people,'"and it should' b impossible to
undervalue time spent in making ac-
quainta.nce with our wild flora, since
some knowledge of it is our only means
of comprehending the habits of domes-
ticated and useful plants.

S I h f td dd The Peach Tree Borer.
,d td WThe borer is very destructive to peach
-trees. Its presence is indicated by a
A PROFITABLE INVESTMENT. trashy looking gum, that exudes from
Sthe tree about the surface of the ground.
In summer these'insects deposit eggs in
HIStOry Of an Orange Grove the bark of the tree near the top of the
Planted Eighteen Years Ago. ground. The eggs are hatched in a short
time, and in the form of a white grub
The following interesting account of bore their way under the bark, often
the management of a Putnam county girdling and entirely destroying the
orange grove was prepared by the enter- tree. The destruction of the borers is
uprising editor of the Palatka News. Such not very difficult, as they confine them-
exact statements are instructive and se'ves to the bark. All trees must be
ought more frequently to be met with: carefully examined before they are set
In following up our purpose to lay be- out, as borers often get into them before
fore the readers of the Palatka News re- they are taken from the nursery. In
liable statistics as to Florida productions, early spring apply the coal tar wash,
we have made a full and careful exam- and rake up a small mound of earth
nation of the accounts of a grove situa- around the tree. As the eggs are al-
ted near Crescent City. The whole prop- ways deposited near the surface of the
erty is owned by two parties who have ground, in trees that are hilled up they
kept exact detail of every item. The fig- will be a considerable distance from the
ures used in the division of profit and root, when they can be easily found and
loss between the partners have been destroyed. Besides, the bark several
given us and we can vouch for the trust- inches above the ground is harder than
worthiness of the statement thus oh- that near the surface, and resists their
tained attacks more effectively. Let the mound
In 1869 Messrs. Burton and Harrison, remain until winter, then rake it away
late of Alabama, purchased thirty acres down to the roots, examine the tree for
of hammock on Dunn's Lake in Putnam borers and make another application
county for seven hundred and thirteen of the wash. Do not replace the dirt
dollars. The property was in the "back- till early spring, when the process is re-
woods"-all supplies were brought in a pleated. If any of our subscribers have
row boat from Palatka and the neigh- tried a different remedy, we would be
bors clubbed together so.as to send once pleased to hear from them.
a week for the bacon, hominy and cof # .,
fee absolutely necessary. In the spring of Fertilizing Fruit TPrees.
1870, 480 large stumps were transplanted iing
from the wild groves in the vicinity and Two things must be impressed on the
in 1871 the first buds were put in. These mind of the agriculturist before he can
had begun to show promise when the be successful either in growing fruit,
cold snap of December 23d, 1871, killed grain, cotton, or tobacco.
the growing buds and many of the First-The soil must be good naturally
stocks. Meantime there had been no or made rich by artificial means, or man
loafing and the work of clearing, begun may delve from youth to old age for a
in January, 1869, had rescued from the meagre subsistence.
forest several acres of rich land on which Second-The soil must be reasonably
Scorn and cotton, cabbage, potatoes, etc., dry naturally, or be made so by drain-
were planted each year, and the proceeds age; or manure, however abundantly
from the farm supported Maj. Burton applied, willaccomplish very little as an
and paid the wages of one hand. Ad- improver of the soil.
vances were made, but the crop repaid Before manure can benefit a fruit tree
-all, and for their profits the owners the soil must be dry either naturally or
waited patiently till the trees began to it must be surface or under-drained.
bear. Neither lime nor any manure will pro-
Except that the field was cleared, the duce their best results, if they do any
freeze of 1871 left the owners exactly good, where the soil is saturated with
where they had begun in 1869. But in water most of the year. If surface
1872 ti-ey replanted with budded trees diaming is resorted to, the drain must
from the nursery and filled the spaces be deep enough and near enough to the
again with corn and cotton. They now tree to draw the water from the roots
had a house and cows and pigs and a and below where the roots are expected
horse; the life was still hard but they to grow.
ate what they grew, or could buy from Having the ground properly drained
the proceeds of their crops. They came when it needs draining it will feel the
to Palatka occasionally, and sometimes effects of the manure and show it in the
they had jolly times with the neighbors growth of the trees, in the size, fairness,
at a dance or hunting frolic, but the and excellence of the fruit. Nearly all
work went bravely on. insects injurious to fruit forsake trees of
In 1876 the grove which had been a thrifty, luxuriant growth, and attack
planted in 1872 gave its first crop, which the dwarfed, neglected, and slow-grow-
was sold to E. C. Post, of Palatka, for Ing ones.
$28. In 1877 the crop was sold to C. R. A great mistake is often made in ma-
Griffing, of Crescent City, for $150, on nursing fruit trees, in placing the manure
the trees. The place was now called the close around the trunk. We hold the
Glen Cove Grove-the boom had taken apple to a child's hand or where he can
- on promising proportions-Crescent City reach out and take it, and not to his

Swas grow I-.fast and steamboats were shoulders. The terminal rootlets are the
plying bet wee he'*dr-and Paltka.t hands of the tres-or planfttheabsorbeots
n's ake had become Lake Crescent that take in the food for the nourish-
an- I k connecting it with the St. ment and growth of the tree are there.
Johns river now known as Deep The largeroots have no power to nourish
river. People be to come in from the tree, but they can send out little
every quarter, the to t was visible fibrilla or white rootlets with open
andhotels began to spring u Life was mouths that receive the food like little
easier and pleasanter, but work on pumps and convey it through the large
all the same. --_ .ts, and the trunk is that part of the
In 1878 the oranges from the grove structui- where the supplies r' needed.
were sold to Henry Lilienthal on the Hence, i applying manure, it should
trees for $360. In 1879 they brought be worked intodh6 soil, not so much
$1,200. In 1880 the fruit was divided, close to the trunk as to where the little
T. A. Capwell bought part and Cook & rootlets will be likely to be sent out after
Otterson the remainder; the whole the food, and to the extremities of the
brought $1,.740. In 1881 the grove pro- roots. The farther the rootlets can be
duced 810 boxes of choice fruit and this coaxed from the trunk to obtain supplies
sold for $1,900.46. In 1882 690 boxes of food-extend themselves-the more
were shipped, the remainder sold to luxuriant and fertile the trees become.
Beach & Miller; the whole brought Manure does the most good to a tree
$2,072.75. when placed in the circle of the terminal
roots, regulated very generally by the
In 1883- branches spreading above.
1,169 boxes were shipped to Within this circle and not too close to
Higley & Smith, g 33 42the trunk spread your manure, chamber-
and returned. ................ .$,538 42 slops, and soap-suds. Nearly every
Sixty-eight boxes were sold for 102 02 family has enough of these, when saved,
Twenty-eight boxes Tangerines 169 94 to enrich all the fruit trees, plants and
Total .... ........ .......... .$2.805 38 garden vegetables required in the fam-
In 1884- ily, and more.-Home and Farm.
2,264 boxes brought ............ $2,612 85 *
The Tangerines sold for ........ 520 95 Shrinkage in Drying.
In the winter of 1885-'86 nearly all The Rural Californian gives the
the fruit was more or less injured by the following useful reference table showing
freeze, so that less than one thousand the difference weight between green"
dollars was realized, and dried fruit and vegetables. This
The present crop is still on the trees, table is the result of a series of careful
but it is estimated at more than two experiments.
thousand boxes.
. Now for the other side. Up to the FRUITS, VEGETABLES, etc. JFRESH. DRIED.
present time there has been paid out Apples....................................... 2000 1tb 260 lb
since 1869 $50 for salt, $51 for commer- Apricots.................................... 2000 300 "
cial fertilizers and $64 for kainit. Beef...... .................................. 2000 400 "
The muck and compost given the trees 'eet -........... ............ ........ 0 0
bas been made on the place. No labor Cabbage.................................... 2000 180 "
*except that of one man has been em- Celery..................... ................. 2000 180 "

played save in picking oranges. For all Chicory ........................................ 20 600
ranberries ...... ......... ......... ..... 2"00 "9 170 '
this the proceeds of crops grown on the Cherries .................................... 2000 850 "
place have paid. For the original outlay Corn..: ...................................... 2000 soo
of capital and the work of the proprietors Currants..................................... 2000 300
they can show fourteen acres set in fine Hops .. .................................... 2000 600
trees, all healthy, beautifully located, Nectarines ..................... ........... 2000 220
and now convenient to transportation. Onions ................................... 2000 200
Four years ago twenty-eight thousand Peaches ....... 2000 20" "
Pears ....... ... .... 2000 260 "
dollars was refused for the old trees set Peas ...................................... 2000 200 "
out in 1872, occupying about six acres. Plums............... 2000 350
For the whole property forty thousand Potatoes ......... ...... ...... ..........:.. 2000 450
Prunes ............... ...... .................. 2000 600
would be a fair valuation Pum!,kin.................................... 2000 200 "
We will thus see that on thirty acres Rhubarb.................................... 2000 190
enough has been made by farming .to Squash ....................................... 2000 200 "
grow fourteen acres of orange trees. Tomatoes .................................... 2000 140 "
The fruit culturist has the grove, and its &
products we give below in tabular form Sending Flowers by Mail.
to 'show there is good reason for the Flowers to be sent by mail should be
strength of the "Florida boom:" cut in the morning before the sun has
PRODUCT. had much effect on them. The best
1876, value .............. ....$ 28 00 packing material is their own foliage, or
1877, ...................... 150 00 instead of that any good foliage. The
1878, ............. ...... 360 00 best package is a tin box or case. Place
1879, ... ................ 1,200 00 a bit of moist brown paper at the bottom,
1880, ............. .. 1,740 00 lay in the flowers so that they will
1881, ...................... 1,90 46 snugly fill the box, put another piece of
1882, ...................... 2,072 75 damp paper over all, and inclose with
1883, .................... 2,805 38 the cover. If oiled paper is at hand the
1884, .................... 3,133 80 box can be lined with it, and no damp
1885, .... (freeze) ....... 918 73 paper will then be needed. A paper
1886, .... (estimated) ..... 4,000 00 1 rapper about the box, securely tied,
Total ...................... $18,309 12 completes the package.


Needs of Sandy Land--Culture
of Celery, Onions, etc.
One of the greatest difficulties en-
countered by the Florida gardener in
Summer is to get small seeds to germin-
ate under the hot sun in the treacherous
sand. In the winter, on the other hand,
the trouble is to bring on germination in
the sand, which is now cold and lifeless,
little more responsive to the sun than
would be a lot of iron filings. The cold
damp embrace of this clammy sand is
death to seeds. It runs together in the
rain, settles like mortar, gripes the seed
in a cold, liver-like, semi-gelatinous
clasp, like the hug of an octopus. The
seed swellsand sours. It rots in the
ground. There seems to be a latent
acidity in the soil of the flatwoods,"
which the warmth of the sun and the
drying of the winds hold in suspension;
but when abundant moisture is present
this acidity becomes active (the ubiqui-
tous sorrel is the unmistakable evidence
of this soil acidity), and the seed is
spoiled, the germ is soured.
The sovereign remedy for this difficul-
ty of germination, both summer and
winter, is to be found in liberal fertiliz-
ing. A rich soil, rich in humus or veg-
etable mold, is less subject to the cap.
rices of weather, of sun and rain, than a
poor or mineral soil. In the North I
have often observed that a soil largely
composed of organic remains-in other
words, a strongly humic soil-does not
suffer so much from freezing; wheat
and other plants are not so likely to be
"winter-killed" on it. A mineral soil
packs like mortar under the rain; but a
humic soil remains comparatively light
and porous. Hence he who would grow
garden vegetables with success in winter
must have a rich soil, or make it rich.
One of my neighbors, Mr. E. G. Hill, is
one of the most successful gardeners of
my acquaintance; there is no day of the
365 when he cannot go into his garden
and gather something fresh for his table.
It is a small plat, only 100x150 feet, but
on this he spreads 800 pounds of fertil-
izer once a year, generally in September.
This might be considered a pretty liberal
application, but it is not when the orig-
inal poverty of the soil is considered, as
also the fact that the beds are practi-
cally in cultivation all the year round.
During a visit to this garden a few
days ago, one of the things Lwas most
pleased to see was the celery, and that,
too, in a state of satisfactory thrift. Mr.
H. finds that the large kinds are not well
adapted to this latitude, and he confines
himself to the Boston market variety.
He allows the seed to ripen and fall to
the ground all through the summer, the
plants thus coming up as volunteers.
This plan is adapted because the seeds
are more likely to germinate and make
a stand, when thus self-sown, than when
sown in order; and plants are obtained
earlier for autumn setting. He trans-
plants them in trenches about a foot
apart, the plants six inch; apa* They
are in-high-bedsTd9't-hate lii Yesre
not really such, but the plants stand
about on the level of the ground, with
ridges between. The blanching ad-
vances progressively as *-: plants grow
up, and they ariahdy for the table, or-
dinaryi february 1st or 10th.
The ordinary set-onions to which we
are accustomed in Ohio -do not succeed
so well in Florida. They make an ex
traordinary amount of roots, which take
hold of the soil with great strength, but
the bulbs are disproportionately small.
Indeed, unless the earth is kept well
drawn back from them, leaving them
quite above ground, they will form noth-
ing but scallions," with no appreciable
bulbous enlargement at all. This fact
makes the shallot a not undesirable
plant for a Florida winter garden. It is
easier to grow than the Bermuda onion,
as the seed of this must be perfectly
fresh t insure germination, and the
young plants have to be transplanted
and cultivated with great care for weeks.
In the end, however, the Bermuda
onion makes a strong growth; speci-
mens have been grown even on the poor
sand of this settlement reaching six
inches in diameter.
Experience this winter has demon-
strated that McLean's Little Gem peas
will withstand a temperature of 22,
once; but when this is followed shortly
by 20, it is too much, and they suc-
cumb. The Ever-Bearing peas went
down under the temperature of 22 and
rose no more. Peas seem to stand harder
frosts when young than they do when
just in blossom.

Mid-Winter Botanizing in
Land of Flowers.


As one blossoming plant after another
makes its debut from the "beauty sleep,"
which lasts in this latitude but a brief
month or two, a wish for a floral calendar
is not an idle one. Each fresh arrival
is worthy of being met on the threshold.
and of such attentions as only old fami-
lies may hope to receive. Henry Tho-
reau in his printed works bequeathed
much close observation of nature in her
wild ways, and he left also a private
diary of the habits of plants, which ad-
vised him of the day of the year when
he should find their first blossoms. He
was never disappointed nor surprised in
his search.
At this time sympathy with nature is
Wakened by the note of a migrant bird
or the first sight of a familiar flower,
and we may be the wiser if we follow
its lead. A walk in the pine woods to
day will yield a bouquet of fragile blooms,
that write their own history. The lance
and primrose-leaved white violets,-
Viola lanceolata and V. primulcefolia, are
always with us, and have now put on
richer color and fuller form-in faith
that the chills of winter are past. In
Violaprimulaefalia the pink of i s flower
stem is intensified in the finely serrate i
edge of the fleshy leaf. To paint all its
tints requires the full color of the rain-
bow, tho' no flower appears to the glance
more colorless than these pale darlings of
a southern winter. The large purple
hand-leaf violet, Viola palmata, is more
chary of repeating itself than are the
white ones. Single blooms stand out
against the charred soil of the pine
woods like the oriental amethyst on
sable velvet. A soft, creamy down veils
its throat, and it would grace the ball-
room or the cloister.
Its northern mate is the hooded violet,
Vioa-codulata. The _ird's-foot vio U
Viola pedata-of sunny' ban,1h -is .A .
fainter color and different form. The
violet family has been in cultivation for
two hundred years, but it is only within
the last seventy years that its range of
variability has been known. Viola tri-
color, found wild on river banks in Illi-
nois, crossed with other varieties of the
genus, is the parent of our richest gar-
den varieties, so plastic is its form and
Another plant not vanquished by kill-
ing frosts, one is sure to meet by the
way. It has small, brilliant, milk-white.
cruciform flowers bedded on a mat of
its light green downy leaves. It is of
the madder family, and a country cousin
of the Bouvardia and Cape Jessamine.
Its South American member-the
Cinclona, has a summer relative in
Florida, the Cephalanthus, a button bust,
which ranges as far north as the mountain
streams of New England. Our flower
of milky whiteness has no common
name, but immortahlizes in the English
tongue the name of Dr. Houston, an
English physician, who fotind it on the
coast of Mexico, and was the first to
bring it to the knowledge of Linnaeus.
He named it for its finder, Houstonia.
The shape of its leaves gird the specific
name, rotundifolia. Four months later
a species of the genus, Houstonia curu-
lea, will appear in sunny nooks far to
the north.
A small, shrubby evergreen, much
branching plant, everywhere in the pine
woods, is now putting out minute white
flowers in dense bunches at the tips of
the branches. The flowers are all in
white, even to the cup or calyx, and of
exquisite shape. Most eyes will see it
only as a mist of white and green. The
stems are thickly set with leaves, smaller
than the tiny flowers, and show a spiral
arrangement. Its generic name is an-
cient, but the meaning is unknown to-
day. Its specific or "christened" name
comes from its very small leaves; hence
you make its acquaintance as the Ceano-
thus mierophyllus. Its family-the Buck-
thorn-has no domestic member, so it
has no modern history.
Some species of this family in Califor-
nia grow into trees with showy flowers,
which are known as the California lilac.
These species, with the mazinita-one of
the Heath family-are rejected by the
sheep, which saves the mountain slopes
of California from being literally strip-
ped of every vestige of undergrowth.
Prof. Asa Gray, in conducting Sir Joseph
Hooker, of the Rew Gardens, to the
botanical centers of California, mourned
much that at no distant day the sheep
would reduce the rich flora of the State
to a dead level of ceanothus." What
the sheep accomplishes for that region
the fire does for Florida.
If the path passes the flat margin of a
lake, it will be found red with the stem-
less plant of the Drosera rotundifolia,
beset with dewdrops," as its Greek
name was made to signify. The common
name, Sundew, is appropriate, as the
transparent drops which gem the leaves
do not flee at the rising sun. They are
not dew, but a viscid secretion in glands


A. F.

February 4th, 1887.'

Raising Gladiolus in Water.
The French have practiced raising the
gladiolus in vases of water, after the
manner of hyacinths, and found it suc-
cessful. The bulbs are said to bloom in
less than half the time usually required
when raised in the open ground. There
is a difference in the way the several
varieties submit to this treatment; those
with red flowers or shades of red as the
foundation color develop a weaker root
system, and the roots are more liable to
decay, and their stems develop with
more difficulty than the varieties with
white flowers or a foundation of white.
The culture of the gladiolus in this man-
ner is said to admit of its production very
early in the season, as it can be started by
the middle of January; by starting the
bulbs at intervals through the winter and
spring pp to the time they can be plant-
ed in the open air, and again commenc-
ing the latter part of summer, a con-
tinuous supply of the flowers can be ob-
tained from early spring to the end of
autumn. It will be found, probably,
that the bulbs can be as successfully
bloomed in moist moss or sphagnum, as
hyacinths are sometimes treated, and
this course, under some circumstances,
will be preferable.-Vick's Magazine.
Editor Florida Farmer and !ruit-Grower:
Some of your readers may be pleased
to hear that I have successfully cultivat-
ed some English mignonette; which is
now in full bloom and scents all the ve-
randah. I sowed it in the fall, in a box
of good soil, placing it in the east ver-
andah, then changing to a west exposure
and as the weather became colder, to
the south.
It was very slow of growthifor some
months, and then took a sudden start
and developed rapidly in the early part,
of January into a fine, strong, hand-
some head of flowers, of which I feel
justly proud, most of my English an
nuals having failed in my garden.
[The mignonette and other species ol
Reseda are natives of the northern coast
of Africa, where they attain a more oi
less shrubby growth. It seems strange,
therefore, that they do not bear oui
summers better than they do. Knowing
that our neighbor, Mr. Sumter, had fin(
mignonette in bloom last spring, we re
quested him to favor the readers of th
count of his method of cultivating thi
plant, which he kindly consented to do
Mignonette is a French word, foi
which reason the letters gn are pro-
nounced like ny. Although this name

Of cabbages, there have been tried
here the Savoy, the Winningstadt and
the Wakefield. The Winningstadt has
the preference for a winter garden, on
account of its smaller size and earlier
maturity. The greatest enemy to the
cabbage when young is the cutworm. In
the case of a few plants in a grrden I
have saved them by pinning around
each stem a stiff piece of paper in a cyl-
inder. Where there are many plants
this would be impracticable, and they
would have to be searched for and killed
or collected in vessels by a number of
The cauliflower does well here, like-
wise the Irish potato, the lettuce, the
turnip, rutaboga, etc. The egg turnip
is much the best white variety I have
ever tried in Florida; it almost does away
with the rutaboga, which in Ohio we con-
sidered indispensable. While not quite so
rich as the rutaboga, it is, I think, al-
most as solid, and it is certainly sweeter
than it or any other turnip grown.
LAWTEY, Bradford Co., Fla.

Cultivation of Mushrooms.
Collect fresh horse stable manure from
day to day, keeping it protected from
rain, until there is enough to make a
bed of the required size. Turn it over
and thoroughly mix every three days
for about two weeks. Then with boards
make a boxing for the bed, which should
be not less than one foot high. Half fill
the bed with the manure -and with a
' mallet beat it down as firmly as possible.

will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented-by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will thisjournal be-
come the "organ" of any association or locality
it will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im.
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesda
of each week.


'One Year $2 0
Six Monthe 1 00
Three Months g0

Address subscriptions and other business com*
mnunications to

Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
Jacksonville, Fla.





rilllmw fil


Wooklol Jourqal.









This journal will have for its leading object
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and great
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations o
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special -aim of this iourna
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and all influences affecting such results;
also to suggest experiment, describe new or little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the first number and con-
tinuAg thro &,the season for

Tree Planting,
There will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than those. of tho citrus group-which have
proved most successful in this State. Each va-
riety will be described and

And there will be notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on

Forage- Plants,
And other subjects will be illustrated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to

Live Stock
And to the home production of forage and fertili
zers, two economies which are essential to sue
cessful farming.
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
of the

Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of the ma )
kets, and the departments of

Practice, etc.

For test* e q ir

E T7 A T ESTATES : Bl 3Kl -l:t.
Orange Groves, Town LotA in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte-
Harbor, foi Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and argue tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $35 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
$W Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.




zaiogue maneal, Upos-paa, xon re-
ts. Free to all customers.
Manatee, Florida.

Tropical and Subtropical.
Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs, Peaches, Grapes, Pears, Pecans, Oriental Plums and Persim-
mons, Limes, Lemons, Guavas, Bananas, Pineapples, Avocado Pears, Anona, Acacia, Nerium,
C aladium, Poinciana, Palms, etc.




R. N. ELLIS, C. E. A. E. MCCLURE, Architect.
cents. The extreme simplicity of their ELLIS E ACCLuRE r
civilization in houses, house furnishing ELLIS.& McCLURE,
clothing and food, makes living cheap A rcite & C l Pnr
and easy. This simplicity is taught in ArfloC n r
their religion and philosophy and is en- Plans for
forced by the example and authority of HOTELS PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
tho ->f~f~lo ~f id ~fiornonOT E "<'*-'LS, PUDBLICO &: PRIVATEU BUILD
the officials of the government. In INbS, SANITARY ENGINEERING,&c.
short, if their civilization gives the la- P.O. ox 784. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block,
borer little in wages it demands little in Bay Street.
return in the way of show and display. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
The storing and distribution of water Every cultivator m ine
and drainage of land, has done much to UIIStT'S "ct,.sour hai
bring agriculture to its present high containing. 76 pages;
state, to maintain the fertility of the SOUTHERN Freef oianpoiation-
soil, and the unexampled crop rate pre- AL A Address ROBER.7
vailing there.-Times-Democrat. ALMANA BUITJr., Phila.,s
PSed Frs oe
1W_.'9QQM1_ o

station for a sufficient amount to feed
the live stock A few years since the
entire crop of rice straw was either
burned or set adrift on the river. Of
late years nearly all of it is stacked and
fed to stock. Within the last decade
there has been a decided tendency to di-
versity on Southern plantations, where
only cotton and corn has been grown.
With the increase of live stock has
come the demand for cultivated grass-
es, and experiment has demonstrated
that the favorite grasses of the North
would grow luxuriantly on a very large
area in the South.
Dairies and creameries are being es-
tablished in every Southern Stale. Gen-
uine creamery cows' milk and yellow
country butter are becoming known in
almost every town and village. John-.
son grass, Bermuda and Lespedeza have
become recognized in the Southern hay
market, with timothy and red clover.
It has been a hard matter to convert
the cotton planter, but he is gradually
realizing the fact that grass, which he
has heretofore regarded as his greate-t
enemy, is, in reality, the most solid
foundation of agricultural prosperity.-

a soil is wet by the rain, each tiny frag
meant is surrounded by a thin film of wate
and the rest, if the soil is in a normal con
edition, filters through and flows away, a
tte fragments of the soil are very mucl
smaller than those of the coal. While th,
the film of water' that adheres to tho
particles is perhaps just as thick, i
follows that the amount of water re
stained by a given bulk of soil is vastly
greater than by an equal bulk of coal.
Suppose we put the coal into a light pai
instead of a basket, and then pour or
water. Of course the water fi Is the in
terstices between the fragments and th(
air is all driven out, except a few bubble,
that become entangled. This is precisely
what happens when heavy rain falls
upon a soil that has an impervious clay
subsoil. The space between the particles
become almost all filled with water,
and the air with tha oxygen it contains
is mostly driven out.
Botanists tell us that the root hairs
that supply the roots with water and its
nourishing substances in solution can
not live without oxygen ;if the oxygen is
shut away from roots therefore, the
roots will die. In dying they not only
injure the plant to which they belong,
but the matter of which they are formed
soon undergoes decomposition, and gen-
erates gases which are injurious to other
healthy root hairs in the neighborhood.
To be sure the rainwater as it falls upon
the soil is charged with oxygen, but in
passing downward a part of this is fil-
tered out. Another part unites with or-
ganic matter in the soil. So that after
the water remains in the soil for a time
it become deficient in the life-giving oxy-
gen; hence it is that when a soil is filled
with water the roots of lan i plants can-
not live in a healthy condition.
When, however, we provide an outlet
for this surplus water, it slowly flows
away, and in doing so the air forces
itself in from the top of the soil, and the
roots are abundantly supplied with oxy
gen. From time to time rains come,
and temporarily filling the cavities of the
soil, drive out the air within them that
has given up a part of its oxygen. As
this water passes off through the drain-
age fresh air enters again, and thus the
roots are kept supplied with oxygen.-
Prof. E. Goff. in Phil. Weekly Press.
Culture of Indian Corn.
On commencing the preparation of
land for the corn crop, the farmer should
ascertain what plows are best adap ed
to the different qualities of land intend-
ed to be cultivated. Some lands will re-
quire the turnplow with a scooter sub-
soiling after it. Other qualities ought
to be broke entirely by scooters or shov-
els. This refers entirely to porous or
sandy soils, where the soil is not more
than an inch or two in depth.
I would recommend level planting al-
ways, were it practicable, but there is a
a majority of land too wet and rolling to
admit of it. Where it cannot be planted
In the level, plant in a flat bed of six or
more furrows thrown up with a small
twister (breaking the centre with a large
shovel before the first list is made with
the twister). Break it thoroughly ac-
cording to quality of land. This should
be done as near planting time as possi-
bly; however, commence in time to do
it well..
When ready to plant start two plows,
one a scooter, and the other a shovel.
Let the plowman with the shovel start
at the opposite end to that of the one
with the scooter, opening a large furrow
five or six inches deep, with a loose and
porous bottom. Distribute the manure
in this furrow and drop corn according
t quality of land, (step on it to firm in
ground). I find that corn does best in all
qualities of land, three and six feet
apart. After the corn and fertilizers are
down, cover with a short block just
long enough to enter the top of the
shovel furrow. This will cover the corn
an inch or two in depth.
The usual time for planting is in Feb-
ruary, but upon test I find that corn
planted from the tenth of March to the
first of April, makes as heavy corn and
requires less work than that planted in
February. The reasons for this is that
early working is a loss of time, and if
the corn is hilled up in its young state it
will have to form other lateral roots
which will cause those below to perish;
consequently the young plant is checked
in its growth, and very frequently per-
ishes, especially in damp and cold
Prepared and planted as above, I side
the first time with a 15-inch buzzard-
wing sweep, right wing rather fiat, so as
not to create a heavy roll of dirt, which
retards the plowman very much by
causing him to stop and uncover. If
this plowing is done good it will not
leave any grass or weeds in the drills for
the herb Break out the middle with a
twister about a week or so after the first
siding. A horse should plow three or
three and a half acres per day.
This work if well done will stand three

or four weeks. It should then be
plowed just as at first, with the wings
more elevated, running very close to the
corn, leaving a perfectly level surface,
finishing out the mddlewith same size
of sweep. If you wish to plant peas at
this plowing, drop them in the water
furrow and the sweep will cover them
with the second or third furrow.
The next plowing is the last and final
working to be given the corn, and it
should not exceed an inch in depth. Side
the corn with a 28-inch wing sweep,
then the peas, and one furrow in the
middle will comp ete the work.
0 #
Southern Hay.
Corn fodder in the past has been the
dependence of the Southern planter for
rough forage. This was gathered during
the hottest weather, and it was hard,
disagreeable and unhealthful work.
After the war "fodder pulling" was to a
great extent neglected and Western hay
took its place in the plantatiofi manger.
It is only a few years since pea vines
have been recognized as stock food and
stored away in barns. The difficulty has
been in finding store room on the plan-

seasons, have no knowledge of principles
governing plant needs or plant life.
They touch no handle not, examine
not these soils, but pronounce judgment
upon them at distance beyond their
There is one efficient mode of con-
tradicting these slanders; words will not
do it, but actions can most effectually
do so. Put annually into each acre of
these sandy soi's, as is done to the acres
Sof the sands of Long Island, fifty tons of
Scomposted stable manure, and then keep
I a constantly growing crop upon the
Sacre, and after five years of such fertil-
Sizing and croppings, no more will be
heard of the "barren" sands of that gar-
den or field. Every acre that can be
made dry, can be made to produce more
for the sustenance of man and beast,
more of value in the markets than can
the acres of any other State, whether
the last be sandy or stiff clayey soils.
The work of redeeming the sandy soils
of the State from their low condition of
productiveness is less difficult and ex-
pensive than many may imagine. It is
not deemed advisable to undertake the
redemption of a large tract, to be planted
with corn or cotton, rather a small
piece for a garden or orchard should be
chosen. If the tract be first class pine
land, or high hammock, which requires
no drainage, it will only require a per-
fect clearing of all the trees,'stumps and
root- in the soil, to the depth of a foot.
When that shall be done it will be ready
for the plow, which must be run to the
depth of at least eight inches;it would also
be well to cover the ground with muck or
grass and leaves raked from the woods,
so that each furrow may receive at least
two inches of muck, or be filled with the
grass and leaves, upon which the next
furrow is turned. All roots that may be
struck by the plow should be care-
fully removed. The leaves and grass
thus buried will be perfectly rotted
within tree months after they have been
covered in, if the land be wet either
from siping springs, or from water
standing on its surface. In addition to
the clearing it should be ditched at least
two feet deep. Blind ditches make much
better drainage that open ones, and oc-
cupy no space on the surface of the soil.
The plowing and fertilizing need not
differ much from that upon the dry
If these preparations can be accom-
plished by the first of July, the land may
be planted with cow-peas, from which the
pods may be taken, and the vines buried
in the soil with the plow, thus bring-
ing the muck and vegetable matter first
buried to the surface, where it may be
mixed thoroughly with the soil by the
cultivttor or harrow. Ordinary soil may
now be fit for planting many of the
winter garden crops, especially Irish po-
tatoes. The ground may also be planted
in October with oa's, sown at the rate
of two bushels to the acre; or with a
bushel and a half of rye. Upon these,
as soon as they are two inches high,
should be sown broadcast threp hundPd
pounds of land plaster. These crops
may be used as winter pasture for stock,
allowed to head out and cut when green
for hay, or they may be allowed to ripen
their seeds, and cut for grain. In these
last cases, the straw should be used for
feeding stock, and bedding horses, and
all returned with the manure to the field
and buried in the soil
If the land is desired for an orchard of
pears, peaches, or oranges; the trees may
be set the first of January, with the oat
or rye crop, and the grain killed, over a
space two feet and a half from each
tree. The land thus prepared will be in
fine condition for the growth of the
young trees, and at the end of two years
they will be found to have made more
and better growth than if they haI been
set out immediately after the first plow-
ing, without any fertilization of the soil,
notwithstanding large quantities of
commercial fertilizers may have been
applied upon the surface around them.
For garden and tuck farming pur-
poses, the amount of vegetable matter
which may be applied to the soil can
scarcely be too great. Some idea of the
amount w which such land will require, may
be formed from the amount annually
supplied to the gardens of New Jersey,
Long Island and other sandy regions.
That amount is not less than fifty tons
annually given to each acre. A part of
the expense of this fifty tons may be
saved by turning int) the soil some
thriftlily growing crop, like cow-peas,
beggar weed, or castor beans, which
may be produced during the wet periods
of the year, when the ground shall not
be required for trucking or gardening
purposes. It is a disputed question
among agricultural economists, whether
stable manure can be profitably hauled
one mile, and spread over the field, when
the same land can be made to produce
five tons of green herbage, that may be
turned into the soil. That amount may
be readily secured in this State with
cow peas, oats, rye, beggar, or castor
beans, and even sweet potato vines will

produce from three to five Ions each year.
Any of these crops may be raised on the
same ]and that has been in use in Flor-
ida in early gardening and trucking;
and by simply turning under what may
be grown upon the poorest land and
worn out fields, such lands may be made
The Theory of Drainage.
If a sample of common soil is ex-
amined with a magnifying g'ass, it is
found to be composed of numerous frag-
ments of minerals of various kinds.
humus,muck, and often of undecomposed
vegetable or animal matter. These frag-
ments are very irregular in form and
size, and are in contact only at their
more prominent corners. They might
be compared to a mass of coal of various
sizes mixed together, the difference be-
ing that the fragments of coal are all
of one substance. Whereas, the soil
is composed of various subtances.
Now we know that if we pour
water over a basket of coal, a
thin layer of water adheres to each frag- '
ment, and the rest passes off through
the meshes of the basket. Just so when

|prf 4frm.


How to Fit it for the Reception
of Different Crops.
BY J. G. K.
When Florida was lifted from the
depths of the tertiary seas, there came
up on its surface a covering of sands and
shells, the silt from the mountains of
Alabama, and which now forms its
sandy poils. At the first it was destitute
of vegetation, and consisted of dunes of
drifting sands; but nature abhors a
barren surface of the globe, wherever
water falls; and Florida having a large
rainfall, on a-count of her form and
geographical position, one and another
of the lowest orders of vegetation sprang
into being, on its surface, increasing in
number and varieties during the vast
ages of the past, until the present in-
digenous vegetation has clad its surface.
These have given off their decaying
growths, forming a soil for the growth
of other plants.
Whether when man first found a foot-
hold here, whether the first inhabitants
commenced the work of burning up the
vegetable matter with which nature was
endeavoring to place organic matter in
the surface and form a soil, matters not at
present. The European settlers and their
descendants have not ceased since their
first arrival in the State to burn all sur-
face vestigesof decaying vegetation, and
to-day "barren" sands is the opprobrius
epithet used for the soils of Florida, with
too great a degree of truth.
The climate of Florida, year in and
year out, is unrivalled over all States
and territory es. But what is climate
without soil? A beautiful palace in a
desert of sands. It may give a shelter
for a day but man cannot make it a
habitation, and obtain his food from its
surroundings. The sandy soil of Florida
is destitute of the fertility arising from
a soil rich in vegetable matter; and to
become otherwise, to become fertile
according to the exigencies of the
climate, organic matter must be in-
corporated into it. How shall that be
done? To solve that question is to solve
the whole matter of making Florida not
only the first in climatic conditions, but
the first in vegetable productions.
Writers upon the soils of Florida, con-
sidering their gre.it diversity in all
portions of the State, have generally
divided them into first, second and third
rate pine lands, and high and low ham-
mocks and swamp lands. A careful
examination of these lands by chemical
process, and otherwise, would show
they were much nearer isomeric in their
constituent parts than the careless ob-
server might suppose. The dry, white
sandy land, on which scrubby bushes
and dwarf trees grow, in its main con-
stituents, is almost identeical with the
lands on which the yellow pines and
willow leafed oak grows in greatest per-
The difference consists almost ex-
clusively in the variations of the organic
matters in the soil; so too the hammock
lands on which the deciduous trees grow
rank differ from the pine lands only in
the quantity of organic matters in the
soil; and the flat and moist lands differ
from the dry principally in the amount
of water in the soil, held there by a more
impervious sub-soil, or a less perfect
drainage on the surface. On each and
all will be found the same large pro-
portion of sand, always mixed with finely
comminuted shells and corals.
The careless observer may be easily
deceived by the general appearance of
what is but a necessity from the geolog-
ical age of the surface of Florida. The
chemist in his laboratory, and the far
better chemist, nature's vegetation,
teach us that all these lands contain in
their soil, nearly every mineral element
necessary for the production of all
plants adapted to the climatic con-
ditions. Another lesson these analysers
will teach, is tlhat organic matter is
wanting in the soil of Florida in a great-
er or less degree; or if in any portion it al-
ready exists, it is required to be mixed
with the soil to the proper depth and to
be continuously renewed.
The sandy soils of Florida are in no-
wise less fertile than the soils of the
other regions, of which one hears not
only no comp'aint, but, on the contrary,
*those sandy lands are the chosen spots
for gardens, orchards and grain fields of
other States, because they are warmer,
better drained and more cheaply culti-
vated. When they are supplied with
vegetable matter, and the soils filled
with humus, from the yearly applica-
tions of tons of stable manures, and the
burying into the soil of other tons of
vegetation that have been grown on the
same lands, their yield is better for most

plants, than on the stiff clay lands of
the same regions. Who hears the sandy
soils of New Jersey, Long Island or the
River valleys of New England berated as
worthless? Yet the sands of Florida
contain the mineral elements of plant
food equally, if not more abundantly,
than 'those. They are equally well
drained, have a greater amount of rain-
fall more evenly distributed through-
out the year, and the climatic conditions
are incomparably preferable, with sea-
sons of growth and consequent number
and variety of crops, upon the same land
during each year.
The most charitable excuse for these
slanderers of Florida soils, is to attribute
them to disordered livers, chronic
grumbling and ignorance, coming from
those who seek in Florida that degree of
health they have lost in the very regions
which they contrast with Florida. Dis-
gusted with themselves, they see. all the
world through jaundiced eyes that can
magnify mole hills into mountains and
grains of sand into granitic boulders.
The ignorant ones see these sandy soils,
in that portion of the year when all the
other States are wrapped in sheets of
frost, and vegetation has nearly ceased
in Florida, and all the soils are uncov-
ered with green. They forget dates and

With Dr. Brush to make Koumis for
New York, and Dr. Fuller supplying a
similar delightful medicinal preparation
for Canada, the people both sides of
the line will soon learn to make a'proper
use of milk. How fine it is to have con-
veniently bottled an article which :s at
once meat and drink, medicine and
toddy, and yet nothing but pure milk
with some of the butter taken out of it.
It dodges prohibition laws like a charm.
-[American Dairyman.
One preventive for weevil in corn is to
mix the berries of the china tree with
the corn. It keeps perfect, even after
being shucked. For hog cholera, we
use soft or jelly soap. When the soap is
just done pour in a sufficient quantity of
water to make a fair soup. Feed with
scraps from the kitchen.

Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J. Boardman Smith's
pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
after June 1st. Write for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.

. S. L'EN


Chip Manure.

What is the value of chip manure,
and what crops does it most benefit? is
often asked.
As a manure chips are not ordinarily
valuable. This manure is recommended
by orchardis's as most excellent to scat-
ter over the ground where there are fruit
trees. Its worth as a manure is not
probably so valuable as for a mulch,
.protecting the ground from the hot sun
and also the roots of the trees. It not
only holds moisture, but when incorpo-
rated with clay or sticky soil loosens it
up and makes it much more mellowvv and
It is claimed that chip manure breeds
lice in profusion and that these lice in-
vade the plants the manure is used to
fertilize. This is doubtless true to a
large extent, and hence unless the ma-
nure is well rotted and reduced by decay
to the condition of wood mould-rich
surface dirt, such as is found in woods,
formed of well rotted leaves and wood-
unless in this condition we hesitate to
use much of it on delicate garden or
field plants.
We ad vise every one to save the chip
manure and apply freely to the orchard.
Where one makes compost heaps it
might be well to use chip manure, as it
would become well incorporated with
other manures and would make them
more valuable for the mechanical action
it would exert upon the soil, holding
moisture, and making the land more
mellow. From experience we would ad-
vise no one.to tse chip manure for fer-
tilizing water melons. Failure will be
the result, at least was so with the few
plants we experimented with.

Fari Japan.
Besides rice, barley, w heat, rye, mil-
let and some corn are grown. By far
the most important of these cereals is
rice, yet nothing can be further from the
truth than the popular idea that rice is
the exclusive food for that people. Rice
when hulled is pure starch, and that nu-
tritive element will not support animal
life. Wheat is raised as a wint er crop to
the amount of ,40,000,000 bushels annu-
ally. Wheat is generally hulled, boiled
and eaten the same as rice. Sometimes
it is ground, and when mixed with other
substances made into cake, but it is
never made into bread, as with us. In
fact, there was no word in the Japanese
language for bread. There i3 no process
known to Japanese cooking analagous to
yeast fermentation. There is not a flour
mill in the whole empire. Grains are
ground by small handmills, the exact
counterpart of those seen delineated on
the tombs and temples of the Egyptians,
then bolted in small boxes, by shaking
the flour through several sieves "or
screens, covered with cotton cloth.
Barley and rye are grown and used in
the same way as wheat. The barley
produced is 60,000,000 bushels annually.
Millet is an important food factor. It
grows in latitudes and at altitudes that
prevent rice growing, it yields abun-
dantly and is a nourishing food. It
yields from fifty to sixty bushels to the
acre, and is eaten whole after boiling, or
it is ground into flour.
Every:variety of vegetable is grown,
and these people have domesticated
many kinds of plants that are still known
to us only as weeds. There are at least
100 food plants, useful in domestic econ-
omy, which we could borrow from them
to advantage. These islanders have suc-
cessfully done what we have attempted
and failed to do. They produce all or near-
ly all the sugar they use. In Japan, sinc3
long before written records, the sorghum
cane has been grown, and granulated
sugar has been made from it. In 1881,
512,000,000 pounds were produced. Any
ragged coolie with a rusy pot can take
the juice of the sorghum cane and make
fine granulated "C" sugar.
Agricultural labor is low-priced. In
the interior of the country, beyond the
disturbing influences of foreign trade,
any number of men and women can be
hired to work in the fields for 12 to 15
cents a day, and the laborer boards him-
self. Young, strong women work by the
month for from $2 to $3, and find them-
selves. Men get a little more. By the
year men and women work for from $15
to $20 and are boarded. It seems incred-
ible that life can be sustained from such
earnings, but it must be borne in mind
that the purchasing power of money is
incomparably greater than here or in
Europe even. Rice is worth 1 cents a
pound, wheat 60 to 75 cents per hun-
dred, and barley is still cheaper. Tur-
nips, raddishes, beets, beans, peas, sweet
and Irish potatoes are very cheap.
As the laborer eats no meat, his food,
being composed entirely of vegetables,
costs much less than ours. A pound of
shoyu beans, containing 10 per cent. of
nitrogenous matter and 20 per cent. of
oily matter, fully as rich as a pound of
beef composed of the same nutritive ele-
ments, can be bought for one and a half






C. S. L'ENGiE & CO.,


Three quarters of a mile from St. Johns River
75 feet above the river.
20,000 Nursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
All at bargains. Write or call at
F. C. COCHRANE'S Book Store,
Palatka, Fla.


Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and generalnur-
sery stock adapted to Florida and te South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
Ameie9 Cq tl9omp mil-d nnt_ id_ nr.

Hernando County," Elorida,'='
Sixteen miles;west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Hack Line.


a Specialty. ceipt of 15 cen
Ten well-tested varieties ripenig from May
till last of October, with the exception of the
Honey and Peen-To varieties. The peaches I
offer have been obtainedby CAREFUL SELECTION
from a large number of varieties adapted to the
South with which I have been experimenting for
many years. I also offer our variety of Apricot,
the best of six which I have cultivated-
I guarantee every tree to be true to name and
to be of true Florida Stock. 13S \Il
For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
dress W. P. HORNE,
St. Mary, Florida. The largest
tings. Buy-na


grower of tb de*ars from Cut-
ustler- qnd avofdyBlight. Cata-
paper. Smithville, Gas..






W-E -PTT .T,0W .


Usually have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking

for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
Best of location, viz:

S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,

rculars and st ncils on application


Wholesale Commission Merchant,
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return,
made on day of sale.

Seffner, Hlllsborough Co., Fla.

Catalogue FREE.



SO U 'JL'- -I-.FLOlI=DA-

Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Officee: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.

Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, Scho .-, -q.y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already'planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,

Oriole, Florida.

Jacksonville, Florida.



Last year we got a considerable reduc-
tion in freight in this section on other
fruits. This was due to the Fruit Union
and shippers' combined effort to that
end. The only object of the California
Fruit-Growers' Association was to get the
requisite number of cars together, to
make up the prescribed train, and escape
the 5 per cent. that the California Fruit
Union wanted to impose upon shippers.
The California Union wanted to put
everything into one man's hands-Mr.
Porter. They would make a monopolist
of one man. Get low freights, and you
need no fruit organization. Then there
will be hundreds of buyers from the
East, backed by millions of coin. What
we want is better cars, quicker time
and lower rates of freight. He said he
would not ship fruit to the East on com-
Mr. Weinstock said unless there was a
proper distribution made of the Eastern
shipments at this end, Eastern markets
would be glutted in some localities, and
others would go bare.
Mr. Williams thought Mr. Platt had
struck the keynote. All we want is
plenty of buyers and cheap freight.
That will give us a market for all our
fruits, and that is what we most desire.
Mr. Weinstock said if we want our
fruit properly distributed we must have
a local agent in every town of any con-
siderable size east of the Rocky Moun-
tains. Last season, while California
grapes were rotting in Chicago, they
were selling for 50 cents a pound in
Philadelphia. Californ'a grapes have no
competitor in the Eastern markets. As
many California grapes are sold in Chi-
cago, at ten cents a pound, as there are
of all the other varieties combined, and
which are sold at three pounds for ten
Mr. Block said he was now sure that
Mr. Porter was the master of the Cali-
fornia Fruit Union, and not its servant.
He was confident from what he had
learned, that a secret arrangement or
contract existed between Porter & Co.
of Chicago and New York firms, which
was in direct violation of the contract
entered into with the Fruit Union by
Mr. Porter. Let us push aside all such
agents, or rather bosses. Let us unite
with the shippers and all pull together.
The interest of one is th3 interest of the
other. Let us not fight those whose in-
terests are our own and not put too much
faith in one-man rule.
Mr. Aiken said he was favorably im-
pressed with the resolution of Mr. Wein-
stock. It wns an able production, and
its author deserved the -hanks of the
fruitgrowers of the State, for his untir-
ing efforts to solve this most important
question. He hoped that all differences
between shippers and growers, and
sectional feelings, would be buried.
Mr. Block was opposed to the resolu-
tion that recommended an auction of
shipments in the East. He feared
that their returns would not be satis-
Mr. Av'en said all the Mediterranean
and Florida fruits for the Eastern mrk-
ets were sold by auction, and the grower
got all his fruit brought, except the auc-
tioneer's commission California's is the
only fruit sold in the East that is not
disposed of in this manner.
Mr. Blower thought it would work
well in Chicago, New York, Philadelphia
and Baltimore, but in Cleveland and
smaller cities it would not work so well.
The California growers had not suffi-
ciently educated themselves upon the
subject of Eastern methods as to be able
to take advantage of them.
Judge Blackwell explained the auction
system as proposed. He said a carload
would be put up. The first bid would
be the choice for sixty boxes; the next a
choice for another sixty boxes, out of
what was left, and so on. It is not a
new idea, it is not an experiment, and
is one in which the grower will get
at all times the full market value of his
The resolutions were then read, with
the various amendments and additions,
and adopted as a whole. They are as
Resolved, That the fruit-growers of
California, assembled in State Conven-
tion, do hereby call the attention of the
California railroad authorities to the
present serious condition of affairs in
the fruit industry, and express the hope
that the action of this Convention may
awaken a deeper interest on their part
in the crisis at hand. It is to be trusted
that they realize as fully as we do that
fruit-growing, so far as it lies in the
power of transportation companies,
should be made a profitable industry.
It is useless to look for much desirable
emigration so long as fruit culture,
which has now become one of our cluef
industries, does not, with the closest
attention, yield a living. Fruit carrying
should be looked upon by California
transportation companies as nails are
regarded by the hardware merchant,
calico by the dry goods trade, and flour

and sugar by the grocer. In other
words, fruit should be treated by the
railroads of this coast not as a fancy
article, to be made to bear a fancy tariff,
but as a leading staple, worthy to be
transported at the least possible cost.
Resolved, That a committee of ten
growers and shippers be appointed by
this Convention to lay a copy of these
resolutions before the railroad author-
ities and ask: First, that the present re-
strictions be so modified that ten carloads
or less shall constitute a $300-rate fruit
train. That the rate upon cars by pass-
enger trains be $400 per car, and that
the slow freight rate be $200 per car.
Second, that the rate to such Eastern
points as New York, Philadelphia and
Boston be made not to exceed $400 per
car. Third, that passenger time be
guaranteed; and, fourth, that a sufficient
number of cars suitable for the fruit-
carrying trade be provided. Be it
Resolved, That the fruit-groweis as-
sembled in State convention do hereby
recommend to the California Fruit Union
that at its next annual meeting, to take
place January 19th, 1887, the by laws of
that association be modified so as to em-
brace the following resolutions, namely:

A VERY KNOWING MAN. servers, and we cannot much longer re-
rowr VEY K G M-i main in that attitude.
eHis name is Shinn and Ah Sin is hisiWe must bestir ourselves without
neighbor. Bret Harte immortalized Mr. further delay and adopt measures to pro-
SHIERS. Sin and we propose to give Mr. Shinn, further delay and adopt measures to pro-
orER. Sin and wmore properly speakingive Mr. Shinn's tect the reputation and material inter-
ra Sts.or more properly speakg, Mr. Shny'sests of this State. We need not "fight
Pa StS. sin some small degree of notoriety. His the devil with fire" by resorting to the
name should be enrolled high amongst t v usrplsf e by hi
DFRUIT those of Florida's defamers. same unscrupulous methods by which
niFlus thoe of Florida's dealers. our competitor is gaining the confidence
he Farm, In addressing a recent convention of of the credulous; all we need to do is.to
aEconomyd California fruit-growers, Mr. Shinn scatter truth broadcast over the land
tural and 'satrtuhbodatoe h ad
published told one of the most audacious and put falsehood to flight. The Cali-
. falsehoods that the Rural Cal&- fornians know they have stolen a march
........8 2.00 fornian, was ever called upon on Florida and will be emboldened to
1.00 to record. He said, "We know that in p advantage by all means, fair
....... 7.50 press their advantage by all means, fair
r...... .00 Florida last year and about every 10 or or otherwise.
nths 6.U001 erte aeavr eeewneo t rie
.... .. 2.75 15 years, they have a very severe winter, The following from a California paper
sh in ad- with ice half an inch thick, or perhaps! gives us an insight into the methods
after the gvsu nisgtit h ehd
ie date on more, that destroys the trees almost en- pursued : "The tremen-
p s % tielyThatis pobaly bcaus duIn that are being pursued : "The tremen-
Iperscare tirely. That is probably becauseduringtdous immigration now pouring into
subsrlp- dous immigration now pouring into
eeeipt for the remainder of the year the climate is Southern California is due, in a very
tte I s notSotenClfriisdeinavy
payment, bo warm that the tree is too tender and large measure, to the work done by the
at once. not prepared to resist a frost." Southern California Immigration Asso-
n all sub- A r -h-SotenClfriIImgainAs-
t with in Ah, Mr. Sin !-Shinn, we mean-ex- ciation during the past three years. This
gna, s cuse us, but somehow we slip on the Association, supported by the banks and
name and name-you are altogether too knowing leading business men of the city of Los
guarantee Your knowledge, like Ah Sin's, is too Angeles, has sent out thousands of pages
Ltions can-'to Angeles, has sent out thousands of pages
a limited "peculiar," and you generalize too much. of pamphlets, newspapers and circulars,
action. However you came by this "web of fic- while many hundreds of letters have
by Check tion" you should not have sought to en- I been written by its officers. The splendid
RO., velope your whole audience with it. Citrus Fair held in Chicago last spring,
ville, Fal. Your singular statements were bad also turned the attention of thousands of
enough in the singular number without people in this direction."
Putting them in the plural. Elsewhere the same paper says, "It is
ing (11u8s- Now, Mr. Shinn, before you attempt decidedly the fashion now for the South-
2hapter V;-azain to tell a California audience what decidedly the fashion now for the South-
Palm (11- aain to te a California audience whatern California newspapers to print 1'lm-
shing Fruit they know about Florida, we entreat migration Editions.'" That is a good
you, in the sacred name of Truth, to put fashion and we favor its introduction
ment; the some little knowledge of the subject int into this State. California has set a good
rden; Cal- your own head; and as facts about Flor- many fashions which Florida would do
mushrooms; ida are evidently scarce in your own well to imitate. At any rate our pres-
ladiolus in State, we would suggest that you take a ent fashion of apathetic inaction must
little leisure and run over to this side of be set aside or presently we shall witness
rn ofDran- the continent for a few days. an ebb in our "tide of immigration."
he Hay; Just to pique your curiosity we will The emissariesof California have actu-
uestion of state that Switzerland and Greenland all ent ered this State and are working
What cali- are now included within the confines of a alorn
it New Or- Florida, and that in the hottest days of to induce our people to go to California.
gricultura Florda andthat the hottest days of They are writing letters to the newspa-
summer ice forms a foot thick, even soers in which every defect of our gate
I by Helen far south as Ocala and Orlando. We' .
.by Helen .... is magnified and every attraction ig-
ae Family think it probable that after a visit to' i 1f f.. a
..... .. ct Ci nored. In a leading journal of this State
Florida you might convince the Cali- ...
.ith Lame L o. we recently read a letter roundly abus-
yiin~ fe rn a s that the Land of Flowers is on ... ..n^r^...... ..
n; How to .. .. th. 1 0l ing the Rev. Jas. H White, of Mer-
a Poultry the ev00 of a second glacial epoch, and ritt's Island, for having drawn a com-
about to be converted by nature into a | b th w e fo
I ar etenthetwo Statesfavor-
justrated); big ice depot for their special benefit. able to Florda
The south .That would be good capital for a polit- We think the same pen wrote along
The Soutt ical campaign, and ought to be sufficient W ..to am Clotea
le Cotton, letter recentLy to a California paper,
the Jack- to carry you to Congress, where most I r .wt e o te
.. .... I which we read with a sentiment of utter

ts lu-i of you .. .. ... .... o bfoe. ,FUIROE, wh wil mak th best
S men of your stamp expect to go before disgust; and we doubt not that the same
they die. I
ETS. r pen has written scores oft her de11
Sin came into the t heworldeJsse a-gfgeri L D TUMA~ -r

?-wn. r0 prdc tt, foloin fro tha rep '"""'. .try etrterad- fwihw
Ivegeta-) from Califoria, but it is evident that ory letters, the reading of which we
from but it is evi t t i have been spared. If any writers of
s a ques- Satan's emiesaies are swarming there Sthi i i-Florida lete o
tFlorida now. Mr. Shinn is only one of many t i h an ,- l t
ach suc- who are defaming Florida and seeking dispose of we would urge them to send
t s- en C r Te ew es copy to the editor of the FARMER AND
M1Q1a16R- -t6 poison the public mind against her. t .,,
, t6 poi son the p bi c m d a her FRUIT-GROWER, who will make the best
solution. They scruple not at anything that will ieofthe
ible, art- build up California's reputation and re- *0i, e h ert
naught, sort to the most shameless exaggeration R TiM A i s
now as and falsehood. In proof of this we re- OiD iLEANS. s re
?wn re- produce the following from that reprc- T e prodst n
tentative journal, the Rural Californian: The pOtr oldest man we met at thed
lem is to We believe firmly in advertising, butw south Florida Exhibition and the one
tur fruit we protest against some of the reckless who had most causene to be proud, was
ng more advertising now being done about South- Gen W. H. Sebring, Florida's Commis-
heques- ern California. The New Year's edition sioner at the New Orleans Exposition.
rketing, of the San Francisco Alta California de- Midway of one of the principal aisles of
d which votes two pages to Southern California the bWiming, hQ had erected a small al-
present -ten columns of well paid advertise. tar beside which he stood like a high
ments and two columns of m;;aisadmg prst vindicating Florida's supremacy
Id be de- reading matter. Among a a items io n ornge production,
y impor- this remarkable two columnne is one to On the altat lay the grea gol medal
mun" me effect that We shipped 110,000,000 awarded to Florida at New Orleans for
artable pound. Of green fruit to market during the surpassing excellence of her citrus
of place 1885. which is just about ten times as fris. Florida havn scored 5,060

rpofanyts* andialfxorniabtion. pins
respective g uch as we actually sent away. Other Flor wah saliwniard the 2seep poen-s
We hope statements equally reckless are con- Fo wa areth wpsae
f a hun- tained in the same paper, and we are premium of $250 and this gold medal,
s, will be ashamed to see such falsehoods-need- which is valued at $80. The medal bears
that one taining ae side the following inscription :
r sringpo- les readesofth Awao n he prided b: th
articles people.n World's Industrial and Cotton Centen-
r of any **- nial Exposition.
regular WHAT CALIFORNIA IS DOING. On the satin lining of the case con-
that we -- training the medal, the following is
r subscri- The readers of the Times- Union have prite leter of gol :
pledges. been well informed during the past two World's Industrial and Cotton Centen-
y exam- months as to the tendencies of Southern nial Exposition.
other res- travel and immigration. They have Sweepstakes premium for
the pro- been shown that the capitalists of Cali- Best display of Citrus Fruits.

shall not fornia have been making a concerted Open to the world.
lasses to and gigantic effort to absorb the winter Premium, gold medaland $250.
New Orleans, 1884-5.
forward tourist travel and t6 divert to the Los Awarded
ut. Angeles region the immigration which Florida Fruit-Growers' Association.
had been flowing with increasing volume It has been so boldly asserted by the
into Florida. fruit-growers of California that they se-
>n in the By means of their grand exhibits of cured these awards that many persons
appeared citrus fruits at New Orleans and Chica- who had come from that State would
)th. The go, by flooding the country with gorge- not believe Gen. Sebring's statements
sentence, ous posters and advertisements in every until they had read this medal. Such
the State form, by roping in transportation corn- visible and tangible evidence as this
nk, how- panies and tourist agents, and by un- ought to aid Florida materially in vindi-
meaning scrupulous misrepresentations both of rating herself against California's un-
Sour own California and Florida, they have suc- scrupulous misrepresentations. Florida
example, ceeded in diverting a considerable por- need not resort to such devices for
we must tion of the travel which naturally tends strengthening her reputation. Let her
unnoticed towards Florida. "tell the truth and shame the devil."
the sen- The result of these efforts of the Cali- All that is needed is more light.
d. fornians has manifested itself in a sec- Florida Enlightening the World is the
Mr. Ger- ond (California fever, as it has been colossus to be unveiled next December.
Sof Kaffir termed. It is not exactly like the "gold Let its beacon light be held so high that
ire of this fever" of '49, but golden hopes and cred- the rays thereof will penetrate all the
oon. We ulity are the kindred symptoms. A dis- land and put the darkness of error to
of forage interested observer may say that what flight.
etc., will is Florida's loss is California's gain, but Meanwhile, I believe, that Florida
r. we of Florida are not disinterested ob- could in no way serve herself better than

by sending Gen. Sebring with that great
gold medal on a lecturing tour through
California. He is a man who is not
afraid to beard the lion in his den, a
man of indomitable energy and zeal, who
carries an audience by his very earnest-
ness. Let us send this stalwart Florid-
ian to Sacramento with orders to march
with that glittering medal straight
Southward to Los Angeles, proclaiming
Florida's "5,060 points" to the host of re-
turning tourists who will take their
Northward fight in March and April.
The idea was suggested by a casual re-
mark made by Gen. Sebring at Orlando.
and without any authority from him I
venture the opinion that he would un-
dertake such a mission in behalf of Flor-
ida's interest's.
I have proved through the Times-
Union's columns that the award of the
sweepstakes premium was secured to
Florida through the good generalship of
Commissioner Sebring. A scheme had
been on foot to divert from him all hon-
ors in the matter of awards and to throw
(them) into the hands of an asso-
ciation which had been drawn insidi-
ously under the influence of the S. F. &
W. railroad system in order to further
the interests of its Dispatch Line of
fruit transportation. This association
had been sapped of its vitality long be-
fore by this baneful influence, and had
almost ceased to exist, save in name;
therefore, the scheme we have alluded to
was really in the interest of the Dispatch
freight lines.
I will not dwell further on this subject
nor recount the methods by which the
commissioner, by his adroitness and his
desire to save. the State from disgraceful
defeat in her contest with California,
secured a sweeping victory and threw
the awards (nominally) into the hands of
this somewhat mythical association.
In recognition of this signal service
the old members of the Fruit Growers'
Association who were in attendance at
the Exlhibition at Orlando, assembled
last Tuesday nigt and passed a reso-
lution of thanks to Gen. W. H, Sebring
for his efforts in behalf of the association
in securing for it the highest awards for
Citrus fruits at the World's Industrial
and Cotton Centennial Exposition.
On the following night the same
gentlemen met with the Florida Nursery-
men's Association and jointly adopted a
resolution offered by Gen. Sebring to this
effect, that the fruit growers of Flor-
ida pledge their support to a Sub-Tropical
Exposition to be held at some point
in Florida, commencing in December,
1887, and continuing through the winter.
The same joint convention adopted a
resolution offered by Mr. A. L. Duncan,
of Dunedin, to the effect that a com-
mittee be appointed to represent to the
Legislature the importance of having a
State Chemist for the purpose of nimaking
analyses of commercial fertilizers to be
made public for the benefit of the State.


How Californians are Handling
the Fruit Market Question.
In a report of the proceedings of the
late convention of Caifor.i ruit grow-
ers we find a very interesting discussion
of the questions which are sorely agitat-
ing the fruit growers of this Statie. As
our California cousins seem to be making
better progress in this direction than we,
it is well to keep watch of their doings
and profit if possible by their example.
The following report is full of suggestion
and we ask for it a careful perusal:
A committee of ten was appointed to
wait upon the railroad company and ask
for better shipping facilil ies and cheaper
freights, as follows: Messrs. Weinstock,
Buck, Wilcox, Williams, Butler, Stabler,
Reed, Gregory, Anderson and Platt.
The question of fruit shipments was
then taken up.
A resolution was passed to the effect
that no one should be allowed to speak
more than five minutes at one time, nor
more than twice upon the same subject,
unless by unanimous consent.
The resolutions offered by H. Wein-
stock on Wednesday, and which were
published in full in the Record-Union of
Thursday, were then taken up and the
entire afternoon devoted to their consid-

eration. Mr. Weinstock explained them
and asked that some of the shippers
present be asked to address the Con-
P. E. Platt, of the firm of Strong &
Co., was called upon. He said the main
and only question to be solved is that of
transportation. Four years ago or-
anges were a glut on the market and
the Los Angeles crop sold here and in San
Francisco for from 50 cents to $1 a box.
A change came over the market two
years ago, when the railroad company
reduced freights on oranges East from
$400 to $200 a car. When the railroad
company sees that it is clearly their in-
terest to make a reduction, they make it.
They saw they could not get to handle
that freight without a reduction, and it
was made. There was an immediate
change, and in less than two months
there were buyers for all the crop. In
1882 they sold, picked and packed, at 50
cents a box. Last year they sold for $2
a box on the trees. Land in the Los
Angeles section advanced from $100 an
acre to $1,000. That advance in price of
fruit and value of land is largely, if not
wholly, due to the reduction in freights.

First, that all persons raising or shipping
fruits for Eastern markets be eligible to
Resolved, That such association,
through its management, appoint a com-
missioned agent in every Eastern city
that can use a carload or more of Cali-
fornia fruits a time, and that the man-
agement, by compiling such facts and
statistics as may be at their command,
arrange a table of distribution, subject
to such changes and modifications as the
market may from time to time demand;
and it shall become the duty of the
general Manager of such fruit to regulate
the distribution of all fruits strictly in ac-
cordance with such provisions.
Resolved, That said management also.
establish regulations to control the
quality, the weight and the manner of
packing all fruits offered for Eastern,
shipment, and that its inspectors reject
such fruits submitted for shipment as.
do not come up to the established re-
Resolved, That the Eastern agents be
instructed to sell all fruits which may be
consigned to them by the Exchange, by
auction, at public trade sales, and in no
other way, the auctioneers' charges to be
paid out of the commissions allowed
these agents.
Resolved, That it is the sense of this
Convention that all subscribers to the
stock of the California Fruit Union
should contract with the other subscrib-
ers that they will not sell any fruits for
Eastern shipment to any one except to
members of said Union (Eastern ship-
ment meaning east of Ogden), reserving
the privilege to sell any and all fruits.
for any other purpose.
Resolved, That members of the Exchange-
sh 11 be allowed the privilege of naming
points of destination for their fruits, and
the further privilege of naming their
own consignees; and it shall be the duty
of the general manager to faithfully ob-
serve such wishes, provided the space
allotted to such points of destination be,
not all taken; and provided such mem-
bers also instruct their consignees to sell
their fruit by public auction, and at the
same time and place at which the fruits
consigned to the agents of the Exchange
are sold; and, finally, be it
Resolved, That the management of
said Exchange shall make such rules as
will place all members on a level, and
will make it impossible for any member
or members to permanently monopolize
any special market, to the exclusion of
other members.

A. T. Steward, merchant prince of
New Yol-. said : "No abilities, however
splendid, can conmand success without,
intense labor and pel-evering applica-
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes orn all sutjcts pertaining to,
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal may be
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow,
penning, green manuring,
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass:
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, "orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet^,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,_
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,.
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and Short Staple-Plant-.
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,.
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,.
recent experiences, seed. culture manu--

Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting:
and culture, comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation.
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japanw
lum. Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va-,
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
Plants adapted to this climate, out-

The Floriba amer an Fruit
A. f. CURTIS8s, Editor


Office Cor. Bay and Lau

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FIRST PAGE-Hints on Orchard Plant
treated ; Orange Culture Abroad, c
Blackberry Culture; Florida's New
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Trees; Prevention of Mildew.
SZCoND PAG--A Profitable Invest]
Peach Tree Borer; Fertilizing Fri
Shrinkage in Drying; A Winter Ga
culating for Space; Cultivation of M
Studies of Wild Plants; Raising Gl
Winter; Sending Flowers by Mail.
THIRD PAG--Florida Sand; The Theor
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FOURTH PAGE--(Editortal); The Qu
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FIFTH PAGE-Our Home Circle (edited
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SIXTH PAGE-Veterinary; A Horse m
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Feed a Heifer; Kouinis; Locating
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SVENTR PAoG-Farm Miscellany (111
A Strange Testimony.
EIGHTH PtAGE--State News in Brief;
Florida Exposition; Reports of thi
Tobacco and Orange Markets and of
sonville Wholesale and Retail Marke
How to market our frui-tafi
', ble crops most advantageously, i
"tion which has been agitated in
fo several years, and with ea
ceedi~ year it becomes more
tous and'happroachesnonearera
We have been beguiled by plaus
ful promises which have come to
and the people find themselves
before, dependent on their o
HTAving learned that the prob
be worked out by themselves, o
and vegetable growers may bring
independent thought to bear on t
tions of transportation and ma
and some new idea may be evolve
will guide them to a solution of
We feel that much spane shou]

voted in our columns to this ver
tant subject, and we invite corn
tions from all, It would'be unfp
to our rieaders, however, and out
in this paper, to discuss the re
merits of commission houses.
that their interests, and those of
dred other business enterprises
well represented in our adverti
umns; but if we were to allow
advocating the claims to favor
particular business to appear as
reading matter, we would feel
were dealing unfairly with oui
bers and falsifying our original
We shall not be governed b
ple or precedent in this or ot
pects. Having the interests of
ducers steadily in view, we s
allow the interests of other c

divert us from the straight
course which we have marked o
We wish to make a correction
letter of Mr. Germond which
in the number of February 9
word not was omitted in the
"There is not a merchant in
who will not say," etc. We thi
ever, that the context made the
manifest. Sometimes words of
writing are misprinted, as, for
raphsodies for rhapsodies, but
let typographical errors pass'u
unless they seriously pervert
timent intended to be expressed
We would call attention to
mond's advertisement of seeds
corn. We shall present a pictu
promising forage plant very sc
hope this and other varieties
sorghums, the millets, teosinte,
be extensively planted this year

door culture, management of green--
Planting trees for ornament or utility,.
the burning over of forest lands, the
lumber and turpentine industries, the-
tanning industry, phenomena of plant.
life, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is-
desired respecting popular names and


V ~L

OL Bes-t -eX l t la esort
Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com-
ing to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
this Centre of the Lake Region. or further particulars address, an Fa
S. L. REED, Pittman, Fla.


C -, "ST 3D S


Bes Eijiippe- Office, n the South .





Railroad, Steamboat


Get our Prices before buying.
218 and 220 Washington Street,
(Established 1853.)


fully followed one cannot fail to be
pleased with the result.
Two cups sugar, with one-half cup
sweet cream boiled just five minutes,
then beat and during the beating add
the grated cocoanut, as much as liked,
and mold in a square pan which has
been greased with butter, cut in squares
or strips.
R., Chillicothe, Mo.-A handsome
holder for a brush broom is in the form
of a palette. The foundation is of stiff
cardboard, cut in the shape mentioned
and of dimension to correspond to the
size of the brush. This foundation is
smoothly covered on the front with
plush or velvet and on the back with
muslin to match. Any rich, warm color
may be used. Garnet is very handsome
for the purpose. A bow of wide satin
ribbon of the same color is fastened near
the top of the palette: A wide strip of
velvet, lined with any stiff material, is
put across the front of the palette and
each end sewed into the edge of the
palette. The lower edge of this strip or
band is also fastened for a short distance
from each end/ to the main portion of
the holder to prevent the brush from
slipping through too easily. The wide
band is embroidered in arrasene. This
holder is easy to make and a very nice
gift for either a lady or gentleman.
Any boy handy with tools, and having
a sister to help him, can make as fol-
which looks well in a bedroom furnished
with chintz curtains and chintz caned
chairs. Take a box without a lid; set
it up on one side against the wall, having
the opening outward. Choose one of
about the height and dimensions of an
ordinary washstand, and add to the con-
venience of the article by placing a shelf
across the inside. Then cover it with a
flounce of chintz, letting the flounce be
open down the centre in front so as to
be able to set a pitcher or slop-jar inside.
Next take a planed board, large enough
to extend about three inches beyond the
sides of the box; have a smooth strap six
or eight inches wide nailed on for a back
and either paint the whole white or
cover with marbled oilcloth; with this
laid on for a top the washstand will be




A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to Florida, including the
To be found in the State.
Also, several other choice varieties of Peaches. My stock of Kelsev's-Japan Plum Trees con-
sists of 5,000 or upward-all home grown, and buds taken from bearing trees on my place.
1,500 PICHOLINE OLIVE TREES (2 to 6 feet high); 50 000 ORANGE TREES (3 to 4 years
old). A full supply of LeConte, Kieffer and other Pear Trees, Japan Persimons, Figs, Quinces,
Apricots, Nectarines, Japan Medlars, Mulberries, English Walnuts, Pecans, Almonds, Japan
Chestnuts, Grapes, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc., etc. An examination of stock solicited.
Catalogues free on application to

Sfow ehis pingse"Who speaks first shall The Story of Picarro.
l omf f i~~~rk, have this piel" el rmtedywe ikdu
ff, " l ~ "Go thy ways, profane youth!" ex- Well, from the day when I picked up
.. .. 'Tm claimed one of the elders, that poor little bird that had fallen a
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor. "Pie is yours!" interrupted the naugh- victim to the sparrow hawk, and
ty young man, as he set it down and mourned over it as our little "Peek," and
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all hurriedly departed, then a few hours later, found that it was
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call; There is a moral to this story, and she not Peek at all, but some other unfor-
With words of good counsel for old friends and "who reads may run" to Our Cozy tunate, from that day, when in our re-
Who c o u eei h new, Corner, lest we too rise up, and break Joicings, we put some crumbs on the
Who come to us seeking the best way todo the silence with a pie or something window sill for him, the fun com-
All questions of general interest will else. menced.
be answered through these columns. Sisters why are you so backward in Picarro was like some other little folks
Personal inquiries will be answered by coming forward ? I have heard of, easily spoiled by indul-
Pesoail whnacopnqiriswleaseed bystm fr Speak up! you have, every one of you, gence.
maiwhen accompanied by stamp for some good things that you ought to After that first feeding, he came often.
reply.sriers are cordia invited to share with others. er than ever to the windows, tapping
Sus r vigorously at them all until he found
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex- --- --- that it was only from one particular
change views, experiences and recipes The Family Friend. window that his provender came, but
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an- FT UP WOOLENS. even then, though he visited it oftener
othe ..":;^n:- 3Xr ed than the others, he did not desert his o'd
Communications intended for publi- Now is the time to put away heavy haunts, but continued his one-sided con-
cation must be brief, clearly written, woolen clothing. It will not be wanted versations with the silent little bird he saw
and only on one side of the paper, again this season, looking back at him from the glass.
All matter relating to this department Shake each garment, and beat or The special window that soon came to
should be addressed to brush it well to make sure that no moths be called "Peek's window" has a very
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE, have found lodgment, then hang out in sharp slope on the outside sill to "turn
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower, the breeze for a little while; fold, and rain;" it turned little Picarro, too for
Montclair. Fla.lay here and there between the folds his slender feet kept shipping down, and
I little bits of'raw cotton or rags, satur- he had to flutter his wings to keep his
ated with turpentine, then pin up in old place at all, and that was not the worst
Our Cozy Gorner. sheets or newspapers. of it, either; his food would roll down on
In the fall you will find them unin- the ground, and unless he was very
jured, after their long seclusion, for no quick in following it, some prowling
SWINTER'S T.LE. moths will "enter in" where turpentine hen, straying out of bounds, was very
-- reigns, neither roaches, nor silver apt to snatch it up, in fact, these stray
BY HELEN HARCOi-RT* moths a.isacntpi Yat tns t
BY HELEN HARCOURT. m oths. M M W M tl F chickens soon became smart enough to
The meanchest of thays have come, Mrs. M. M. W., Montclair, Fla., sends watch around that window for fallen
O pelting r meanest of tr vine g alet, the following excellent recipe for crumbs.
Sseingaand ist POTATO CROQUETTES. So I went to work and made a shelf,
Andoseaszingfill-ho aout teaNrthPOTATO CROQUETTES.
oAnd lhients fone aout. th Nr ^ *"Peek's table," we called it; it was large
And buffets onie about turn One pound boiled potatoes, one-half enough for him to hop all over it with-
And wvickedly fie loves to turn
Umbrellas wrong-side out. tablespoonful milk, one ounce butter, out any more sipping down, for it was
one grain cayenne pepper, season to smooth and level, and there was a nice
IeAndlartSben ath one'sfovercoat' taste with black pepper and salt, beat in little ledge around it, which served the
A dark-lihued signal of distress two eggs. double purpose of keeping his dinner
Wherever a man may go. Role potatoes through a wire seive; from falling off; and of serving Peek for
Jack Frost comes racing down the street warm butter and milk together, a perch.
To pinch a fellow's nose, Igeer, a per.
Ahd pulls and twists and tweaks, until add potatoes, pepper and sa't, drop in the And it was odd how much comfort
It's like a red, red rose. yolks of the eggs, and stir till very light, he seemed to take in his table from the
There is no comfort in the house, Roll the nixtures into balls, then very first, that is, after he had eyed it
There is no fun at all; drop into the white of the eggs (beaten), all over in a very knowing solemn way,
Boreasfindseach crevice out. then roll in bread crumbs, fry in boiling from the safe distance of the grape ar-
And sweeps through room and hall. lard. bor that ran up outside the window.
Our faces roasttng 'fore the fire,
Our feet as cold as ice, These are extra nice! Try them. It was something new, that innovation
With shivers creeping down our backs, APPLE BREAD. at his window, and to be viewed with
'Tis anything but nice! Dilute half pint nice-sweet apple sauce suspicion; but after the wise little head
The roads are ankle deep in slush. with half int milk add to it n and a had turnedd on one side, and then on the
AMd every lane and street wi hl pint mik, ad to it one and a other, and nothing worse than a flat
Is covered o'erfrom side to side half pints flour, two teaspoons of pow- surface with crumbs sprinkled over it
With shiny, slip'ry sleet; der, a little salt; mix quickly, and bake appeared, down he dropprinkled ovperhe it d
And what with wind and hail and rain, forty minutes. appeared, down he dropped, and perched
And driving, blinding snow, on the ledge.
'Tis "Hobsonrs Choicwe have withal, ORANGE SALAD. Then he examined it again, and final-
Oh whither shall we go? Take one dozen oranges, peel and cut ly jumped boldly on the table, picked
Yes, melancholy days have come, in slices, lay a layer of them in a glass up his crumbs, then hopped back and
ThMoars inedoithe rnful sounds, dish, sprinkle over each layer, so as to forth all over it, then tapped "much
Of sneezing far -nd near. cover, prepared cocoanut, and squeeze obliged," at the window pane, and then
Rehold in me "A Wint;'s Tale"! the juice of three oranges on top. danced back to his ledge.
'TiS written on my nose, And how he sang to us, as he sat there
-And illustrated in my eye, SAVORY CUSTARD. looking in at us, sitting close to the
Sore weeping with its woes, ,1
There p r i Beat three oggs into one and a half grass!
ThereIsno omrnote1 se, gills of cream, season to taste with pep- g11t little head twitched this way and
I have it now, es-chew, es-chew! per, salt, cayenne, chopped brsley that, his little body puffed itself out like l
I know what I'm about! sweet herbs, and eschalot; add to these a puff ball (he feltbig, I suppose, to own
-No itore I'll shiver, shake and sneeze, some chopped ham and tongite. Pour a table all to himself), and as for his tail, i
And cou both night and day; Icups, and steam t verily believe if it had not been
'I'll take a 9ticeket for the South it inoteaniall round cups, and steam ten screwed in very tight, he would have
And flee to Florida! minuteS. screwed i very tight, he would have
BANANA CUSTARD. jerked it of!
SBANANA CUSTARD. From that day on, Peek spent a great
On the War Path. Make a white custard as follows: Two deal of his time on his table; and now '
After roaches Now is the time to tablespoonfuls of corn starch, wetted that there was such a nice place to set 9
After yourw-aNowis pthe time t with enough cold.water to dissolve it; out his meals, they began to be more
put on your war-paint, dig up the tom- one cup granulated sugar, one-third of a varied; sometimes bread crumbs gave
ahawk, and declare war on the whole cup of butter; stir together in a pudding place to scrambled egg, and how he did
tribe of roaches, gr eatAnd mold or earthen dish, and pour on enjoy it!
Now is the time One little fellow enough boiling water to make thick cus- We knew, before we began to feed our
removed to anoherand broader sphere tard; beat the whites of three eggs to little pet at all, that mocking birds could
just at thistime means several hundred snow; stir into the custard, and set in not eat anything that was hard; we al-
less a few months hence; severalun-the oven to bake for fifteen minutes, or ways took care that the bread-crumbs
dreds?" We might well say thousands, for the same length of time in a pot of were softened, sometimes in milk, some-
and yet be guilty of no exaggeration. boiling water; set aside until perfectly times in water, and again, we soaked
They are hatching out now here, there cold; then remove the slight crust that them in soft-boiled egg, which latter, by
and everywhere esiy destyog andi will have formed on top; have ready the the way, was another thing, for which
Sdish in which you are to serve your cus- our Peek soon showed a g eat fondness;
Some people use "rough on rats" and tard, and some fresh, ripe bananas, cheese, if soft, was another weakness of
"sure-pop;" these are good, but the for- minced finly; mix with the custard, and his, and after he had had a taste of
mer especially is a poison, hence danger- pour into the dish, and add a meringue these nice things, eggs and cheese and
ous where there are children or pet amni- made of the beaten whites of three eggs cake, do you know he actually turned
mals about the house. and half a teacupful of pulverized pink up h's nose at the plain crumbs that had
The best remedy of all, among many sugar, once so delighted him ?
that we have tried, is borax; not borax, TRANSPARENT MARMALADE Yes, he did, and that shows how very
alone, as we have seen recommended, T human even a little bird can be; he got ]
but about equal parts of powdered borax Cut very pale oranges into quarters; spoiled just as you and I might do. e
and sugar, either brown or white, set take one pulp, put in basin and pick out But by and by Piccaro-what do you l
this mixture about in dark corners, on seeds and take off the peels. Put the think he did, and without even asking s
shelves, in closets, in bureau drawers, or peels in a little salt water and let stand permission either ?
wherever else roaches "most do congre- over night; then boil them in a good The trouble was that he had' been so
gate," and you will soon find that the quantity till tender. Cut into very thin spoiled that he thought he owned the
number of marauders, big and little, is slices and put them into the pulp. To window and house and everybody in it,
diminishing, and then, if you look each pound marmalade put one and a and so-what he did I will tell you next
around you will find something more, half pounds white powdered sugar, and time.
quantities of 'cold corpuses," strewn boil for twenty minutes. If not clear --- i
about in the wildest abandon, and transparent in that time, boil for Here are some recipe that will tlease
If you leave them there, especially the a few minutes longer. Keep stirring oure orge sole ipknow, and thipee l
large ones, hosts of the "corpuses "rela- gent-ly all the time, taking care not to folks too; somehow, home-made candies
tions will come to the funeral, their break the slices. When cold put into always seem nicer than lose that are
aunts all they need to induce them to jelly or sweetmeat glasses, tie down bought, and besides, you have seen they -
give up waking their nephews and tightly with brandy paper, and over that are good and pure when you make them
neices, however, is a slight dusting of in- a wet bladder. yourselves. So I intend from time to
sect powder; they will instantly scatter, PEANUT CAKE. time to tell our Young Folks how to I
and all with whom it comes m contact
will die. One-half cup butter, one and one-half make them, and between you and me,
iscups milk, two and oe-half cups flour little cousins, I haven't a doubt in the
This pyrethrum powder is also another items of four eggs, one-half teaspoon world that the Old Folks wiL be peeping
p^^werful .weapon^ wherewith^^ fightthe cream tartar, one-quarter teaspoon soda;over your shoulder, sniffing the sweet- l

ruacne; a putt uo i tuu,,t ur me eec- before uttin into ov sn scented air, and -sampling your goods."
tive little gn that comes for that pur- just before putt intoroven srinke Take care of the recipes, and you will
pose will effectually dispose of a roachur overpisthetop one cup peanuts broken in- have a fine collection by and by.
that cannot be reached by any other. o peces
means; it does not kill them instantly, "C. B. K.," in Munyon's Illustrated CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.
but if you could keep watch on one that World, housekeepers' department, says One and one-half cups grated choco-
has been dusted with the powder, you lamps will not smoke if you boil the late, four of brown sugar, one and one-
would find it, in half an hour or less, ly- new wicks in vinegar ready for use. The half cold water, piece of butter size of C
ing prone on its back. same writer suggests that a tablespoon- an egg, tablespoon of sharp vinegar,
The tops of the round wooden match ful of kerosene oil in hot water is the, flavor with two tablespoons vanilla just
boxes so plentiful in every home, make best thing for washing windows. Dip a before removing from fire. Do not stir,
admirable dishes for holding the mixed cloth in, wring it dry and rub over the but shake the vessel gently while cook-
borax and sugar, and if the baby does glass. Then wipe off immediately with ing; boil on the top of a stove, over a
get hold of one of them, it will simply another soft dry cloth, brisk fire until it becomes brittle when
"make a face" and no harm will come USEFUL HINTS. tried in water, pour in a well buttered
of it. and flavored dripping pan and check off
SPEAK UP! Stoves blackened when entirely co'd in squares while soft.
will keep the clean look a very great
Once upon a time there was a naughty deal longer than when they are polished CHOCOLATE CREAMS.
youth, when the stove is warm. Zinc can be Two cups white sugar, one-half cup
Nothing unusual! No, we know that, brightened by rubbing it with kerosene sweet cream-milk will answer but cream
more's the pity, but this was a particular oil, but it is much better to have it is nicer, one and one-half teaspoons
youth (he became a famous poet later painted, as this will save much labor, vanilla, boil just five'minutes fr m the
on), and he did a particular thing, he After you have swept your carpets quite time it begins to boil, remove from the
went to a Friends ,meeting house during clean, you may brighten them with a stove and beat until creamy; have a pan
service, flannel cloth wrung from beef's gall and with corn starch in it, in which make
He knew that there would be long in- water. White paint may be cleaned as holes with a large thimble and drop in
tervals of silence, but he did not like well as windows by using whiting and it the cream to cool; have water boiling p
them, and so he prepared accordingly water, while grained woodwork should in the tea kettle, and a cake of chocolate B
and carried a nice pie to meeting with be wiped with a flannel cloth wrung out broken in the bowl, set the bowl over the G
him.' of cold tea. Wash pantry shelves with kettle where it will soon melt, then A
In the midst of the silence he suddenly hot alum and water to rid them of ants roll the drops in it and put on a plate
rose to his feet, and shouted at the top of and other troublesome insects, to harden. If the directions are care-


f *" .

Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thusday
and Saturday, at 3 p. m.

The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
the coastwise service. For further information, apply to
S Fernandina, Fla, Jacksonville, Fla., S. W. cor. Bay and Hogan.
THEO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, WM. P CLYDE & CO.,
35 Broadway, N. Y. General Agents, 35 Broadway, N. Y.

What Mr. Beyer says "laept
*ccept my
best thanks for the splendid seeds received from your firm.
.It would be a rather lengthy list if I should name all, but
&will'say that amongst38 first, and 3 second premiums
awarded me at our fairs in Northern Indiana and
SouthernMichigan, 28 first premiums were for vege-
Stables raised from your seeds. What firm can beat
this?" AUGUST BEYER, So. Bend, Ind.
SSeed of this quality I am now ready to sell to every one
Swho tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FREE my
Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1887. Old customers
need not write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild
potato. JAS. J. H. GREGORY, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mass,

P. O. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.



Sixty days after the first publication of this
notice application will be made to the Legis-
lature of Florida, for the passage of a charter
of the "Florida Fruit Exchange," whereby
the capital stock may be increased to a sum
'ter than Fifty Thousand Dollars; the par
value of shares to be reduced from OireHtun-
dred Dollars to Ten Dollars per share; to al-
low the corporation to purchase and convey
such real and personal property as may be
deeme necessary to its usefulness, includ-
ing vE-g transportation; to Jease 4cr
erect budngs for storage of produce, and
advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
such materials as may be useful to fruit grow-
ers and gardeners, and generally to transact
such business as may for the interest of mem-
bers and others connected with fruit growing
and kindred pursuits, and for such other
powers and privileges as may be deemed
necessary and proper.
Board of Directors,
Florida Fruit Exchange.
Jacksonville, Fla.., February 16,1887.


Will yield from 25 to 50 bushels grain per
Plant from March 1st to May 15th; quantity
seed per acre, 2 to 3 pounds.
Price 50 cts. per pound; 5 pounds, $2.00; 15
pounds or one peck, $5.01, 16 cts. per pouni
extra if ordered by mail. All orders prompt-
y filled. Strictly pure seed grown by my-
self at this place last season.
Keuka, Florida.
Canada Hard-Wood Unleached
Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ous weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more
tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
barrels. Price and analysis free on application.
Box 437, Napanee, Ontario, Canado.


- -Ormond.

Prompt Returns Rendered. Stencelson ap- Ormond Land Agency,
plication. Omn -n gny

wg Agent for GEORGE W. BAKER'S A&
DRotted Bone Manure, "V
Price $25 per ton free on board in Jacksonville
Bone Flour, for cattle and poultry, $4O.00
Ground Bone Manure, 1st quality. 35.00
2d 32.00
Ammonlated Phosphate, 32.00
Budded Orange Trees and Texas Um-
brella Trees, from 25 cents to $1.00 each.

East Coast of Alusia Counity,

f Unsurpassed byt an other section for the production of Fruit, and Vegetables.
you are coming to 'orida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will
most assuredly be pleased with this Centre of the Lake Region.
For further particulars address H : ,M l63'g:)3D7



size 40x100 A W, on Lake Kingsley,Clay Co., onl y $. A
OToVfeet in K caMwF choice 5-acre tract for an ORANGE
GROVE costs but $50.
Highli rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-
ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. O. Order or
Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title FLI A
perfect, from the












Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column.-

To purchase Grade Jersey From one,
half to seven-eights, sired by registered bull
sora with calves and some to calf shortly,
prices $30 to $40. Apply to
References given if desired.



Buds not placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones. I

We make a specialty of the
(the earliest variety known),
and can show trees of the latter that [stood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and



Leave St. Augu.*e....................10 45 a m 2 45 p m
Arrive Tocoi U 30 a m n 30 p m
Leave Toco U45 amm S45Bpm
Arrive St. Augustine ........... w......12 30 p m 4 30 p m


tion that she is represented to be-preg.-
nancy-is very severe. The food that
you must give her must be such as to
insure ample develop nent of bone and
muscle. It must also be in sufficient
quantity and quality to meet the abso-
lute necessities of the unborn calf, and
to insure the steady growth and devel-
opment of every vital part of the animal
With a heifer so young, not yet two
years old, the character of rations, es-
pecially the different proportions of al-
buminoids, and of carbo-hydrates in the
food, would differ very greatly from
what would be the case if the animal
had her full growth. It is certain that
the heifer must be well fed, or else the
calf will be born a weakly, puny thing,
or the future growth and development
of the heifer will be largely sacrificed, or
We should say a good ration would
consist of average early cut hay chopped
fine and moistened. Then take one part
of corn meal to four parts of bran, add
to this a small quantity of cotton seed
cooked. We would not advise feeding
raw seed if you can avoid it. The cooked
seed are more digestible and more pala-
table and the nutrient properties more
likely to be appropriated in larger pro-
portions than if fed raw. The raw seed
have a hull that is tough and hard to
digest. This hard hull will more or less
irritate the stomach. It is especially
important in th's special case of a young
heifer, where the tax upon her system is
so unusually heavy,that the food should
be of such a character as to tax the di-
gestive organs as little as possible.
The object of cutting the hay is, first,
that it is more easily masticated; second,
by cutting other food can be easily mixed
with it; third, the cutting of the hay in-
sures the bran and meal adhering readily
to the hay; if such was not the case, the
coarser food would go to the first stom-
ach or paunch, whi'e the finer portions
would be liable to divide and seek the
fourth or last stomach, and thus very
much of the nutrient properties of the
finer food would be lost.
In feeding cotton seed, the coarseness
of the food would necessarily insure it
going to the paunch. All food that goes
to the paunch or first stomach (not
properly a stomach in the true sense), is,
during the leisure time of the cow, taken
back into the mouth, and, wad by wad,
rechewed. After thus being remasticated
it passes into the second stomach and
from thence into the other two.
It is very important to have the food
fed in such a form that as much of its
nutrient properties as possible may be
secured by the animal, whether you
are feeding for growth and bodily de-
velopments, or for fat, or for milk and
We are perfectly aware that our ad-
vice to feed cotton seed, even in limited
quantities, is offensive to the views of
even so expert a professional as Prof. E.
-AV-Stewaft. In all his answer- bo-cor-
respondents, he advises against feeding
cotton seed in any form, raw or cooked.
This advice would doubtless be largely
modified by him, were he a resident of
the South and could understand more
clearly the ease with which thoroughly
cooked cotton seed were digested by our
cattle and their food values appropriated
to such good use, and without any evil
results whatever attending their feeding.
Cotton seed is the richest and cheapest
food we have for cattle. Indeed they
are too rich to be fed alone with good re-
sults. It is not a well balanced ration,
for the albuminoids are far in excess of
the carbo liydrates to insure anything
like a well balanced proportion between
the two. Feed alone, the great excess
of albuminoids disagree with the animal
and tax her digestive organs. Only a
small portion of this albuminoid mate-
rial being actually needed by the animal
system, and only so much being capable
of being appropriated by her for use, the
balance is actually lost, going off to en-
rich the manure pile. There is then no
use in wasting valuable food, and es-
pecially when this kind of unwise feed-
ing of a very injudicious ration injures
the animal fed.
Early cut hay is best to feed if you
have it, because it is more palatable, and
more digestible. The hay has a large
excess of carbo-hydrates-this goes to
keep up animal heat and fat. The bran
is a fairly good proportioned ration of
itself. Both cotton seed and bran will
insure all required by the bones and
It would not do to feed too much corn
meal, because its tendency is to impart
too much heat, and put too much fat on
the animal. Bran is slightly laxative on
the bowels, but the cotton seed contains
oil enough to insure the bowels to be
You will understand that cows ad-
vanced in pregnancy are more liable to
constipation than otherwise. There is

generally a tendency in this direction.
If you had pea vines or clover hay to
replace the average hay, you would not
have to feed so much bran or cotton
seed, as this character of hay is so rich
in albuminoids. While we could not
attempt to proportion your ration for
you in exact quantity, we should, how-
ever, recommend: 1st, hay cut up fine;
2d, one part of corn meal to four of bran.
Add a small quantity of cooked cotton
seed, all well mixed together and the
hay dampened so that the bran and meal
would adhere to the hay. The seed will
be damp already, and much of the bran
and meal will adhere to them, which is
Commence to feed your corn sparingly
at first, and increase the quantity very
gradually. NEVER OVER FEED. Study
to feed (not at the beginning, but after
you get under good headway), just as
much only as the animal will eat up
clean; if she leaves any she is over fed,
and the ration should be slightly de-
creased. Feed only twice per day. The
intervals between the two feedings,
from morning till night and from night
till morning, are necessary for her to
remasticate her food, and to digest prop-
erly what she has eaten. If fed in the
middle of the day also, the stomach is

North are snowed up in tight houses, our
poultry are running about over the
fields and stubble, enjoying the salu-
brious climate and out-door exercise,
and laying eggs, two to one against the
North. We can mature broilers and get
them into northern markets before an
egg is put to incubation there, and thus
command the highest prices, the first of
the season. So then locate your farm in
the South (Florida is far enough) and
enjoy the above benefits.
Hatching by Incubators.
The following from a Florida exchange
may be of interest to those interested in
artificial hatching:
"That the raising of poultry in this
State can be made very profitable is be
lived by all who have taken the trouble
to look into the matter. There is a con-
tinual demand for both chickens and
eggs which is not being satisfactorily
met. At all seasons of the year poultry
commands a good price, and eggs are
generally scarce and at all times bring
prices which cannot fail to be remunera-
tive to those who sell. One of the great
needs of Florida is a better supply of
poultry and eggs, so that our citizens can
procure these essential requisites to every
day life in abundance and at less cost.
We are pleased to observe that this long
felt want is likely soon to be supplied by
the introduction of incubators. It is be-
lieved by those who are familiar with the
subject that by a proper effort on the
part of the people, Flor da can speedily
be brought into the front ranks of poul-
try raising States. The North American
Poultry Association, recently in session
at Pensacola, after transacting the regu-
lar business, the subject of hatching
chickens artificially by incubators, was
thoroughly discussed, and the following
facts substantially established, and reso-
lutions adopted:
1st. That chickens cannot be hatched
in winter for early markets successfully
without the use of incubators.
2d. That by the use of incubators,
chickens may be hatched at any time,
and in as great numbers as may oe de-
3d. That by the use of an incubator,
200 chickens can be raised to market
size in a loom 15 feet square, and that
incubator chickens from eight to ten
weeks old will, in February, March,
April and May, sell at from 30 to 75
cents a pound.
4th. That any lady or gentleman, al-
though quite infirm, can attendto an in-
cubator, and with only the room afforded
by a town lot, can clear from four to six
hundred dollars a year.
5th. That a good incubator can be
made at home by any person of ordinary
genius, and that our secretary shall
have printed at once, directions and il-
lustrations for making a good, cheap in-
6th. That any person in the State,
who will write to the Secretary, enclos-
hing stamps for return postage, will re-
ceive free, full and complete illustrated
directions for making an incubator that
will hold 200 eggs, and will hatch 80 per
cent. of them. You can make the incu-
bator yourself at a cost of from four to
six dollars; so make your incubator
now and try it before hatching time.
7th. That the Secretary shall at any
time give all possible information and
assistance to those starting in the poul-
try business.
At the next meeting the subject, how,
when and where to market poultry most
profitably, will be considered, and a re-
port again sent to the press of the State.
Pensacola, Fla.
Bees on Amelia Island.
BY H. C. D.
Ten years experience in the apiary, six
in New Hampshire, the balance in Flor-
ida, tend but to make more apparent to
me the advantages possessed by this State
for the production of honey. In Nov.,
1882, I moved from New Hampshire to
Amelia Island, bringing with me a small
swarm of bees, a swarm that could not
possibly winter north, consisting of
about a quart of bees on three combs.
containing some five pounds of honey
By the 15th of May following, the in-
crease from that small swarm filled four
ten-frame hives below, and were rapidly
filling something like 200 sections in
hives above.
To sum up the past four honey seasons
in Florida, 1883, was very good, '84 was
better, the best I ever knew North or
South, My bees that year averaged
above 100 pounds of section honey per
swarm. '85 was good until about July
1st, when the honey gathering came to
a standstill and the bees did little more
than earn their board up to July '86, at
which time they began bringing in
many and heavy loads of honey, keeping
it up until late in the fall So that thus
far the very poorest seasons, the bees
have paid well for all time, labor, and
expense in the care of them; and the
best seasons they have been a regular

Contrast thq above with my last sea-
son in New Hampshire. At the opening
of spring, 1883, I had 51 fair swarms,
took the best of care of them, made
preparations early for a large crop of
honey, buying quantities of comb foun-
dation, hive material, sections, etc. And
for result, October 1st, not one new
swarm, no honey, and bees dwindled
down to 31 swarms. I sold 28 of the
best of them to a neighbor, taking his
note in payment, and I understood that
only two swarms lived through the
winter and the note remains unpaid.
Bees do not die off winters here, as they
do North, but live over and increase in
swarms at a discouraging rate, in spite
of their enemies-the mosquito hawk,
toads, moth worms, which latter are ten
times more disastrous than they are at
the North; but the worst of all are the
large red ants, such as live in rotten
wood and scout around at night. Let a
lot of these attack a swarm of bees, and
it is war to the death with chances
about even on either side; but these ene-
mies of bees are of no more account to
to the careful and painstaking apiarist,

than are weeds in the garden of the suc-
cessful gardener.
In this sunny land, the hives should
not stand in the open sunshine, but un-
der shady trees trimmed high, so that
neither branches nor leaves impede the
flight of this industrious little insect.
Set the hives on skeleton benches about
ten inches from the ground, with cover
and bottom board projecting over the
hive and kept well whitewashed. The
best hive is what is known as the "sim-
plicity." Merely a box, rabbeted for
the frames, with a loose top and bottom.
A shoe box costing fifteen cents will
make two of them, made large enough
to hold ten Langstroth frames. The
frames can be bought very cheaply, so
can the sections, comb, fan, bee-veils,
smokers, extractor, uncapping knife, &c.

sure to be over-loaded-more food than
she can remasticate and properly digest.
If the heifer's bag, just a little while
before calving, becomes hard, and shows
symptoms of inflammation, you must
milk her a little once a day to relieve
the pressure on the bag. It is not often,
however, that this is required of a heifer.
It is something almost unheard of-a
heifer with first calf having milk fever
or bag spoiling. You might let up a
little on your feed about ten days before
the heifer was expected to calve. After
the calf is dropped, be sure to feed
moderately for a week or more, and then
gradually increase the amount of feed.
This must be very gradual. But keep
on increasing, and only stop when you
find out that the food is not eaten up
perfectly clean. A cow should 'never
have more food than she will eat up
clean. We want you and others to re-
member this. It is important. The
question of animal feeding is a compli-
cated one, and one that calls for a high
order of scientific knowledge, as well as
practical skill, in order to achieve the
best possible results to the breeder and
feeder. It is a question upon which a
very considerable amount of thought,
investigation and practice will be re-
quired of each individual stockman if
he would economize food to the lowest
minimum cost, and at the same time
have his stock reach the highest perfec-
tion that human mind and skill can at-
tain. We all need more info'-mation on
the chemical values of stock foods, and
how to intelligently proportion each in-
dividual food, one with another, so as
to form the best proportioned ration at
our command, to suit the circumstances
and peculiar condition of the various
breeds of live-stock having reference to
individual animals of different ages and
for different purposes of use.

Bees do not consume most honey
during extreme cold weather, but dur-
ing intervals of milder temperature.
Colonies which have a vacant space
below the combs, will winter better than
those whose combs extend down to the
bottom board.
There is a decided difference among
bees as to industry in comb building and
honey gathering, even where the loca-
tion, weather and management are the
A box 6 inches high and 15 inches
square in the clear, will contain 20
pounds of honey in the comb.- Ameri-
can Bee Journal.
Calculating for Space.
If the length of a field be multiplied
by its breadth and the product divided
by 43,560, the number of square feet in
an acre, and the result divided by 3, the
quotient will show how many strawber-
ry plants can be set in the field, the
rows being 3 feet apart, and the plants
one foot from each other.
The number of plants at this distance
apart that are required for one acre may
be found by dividing 43,560 by 3.

This is a preparation from mare's milk
by the Tartar tribes of the Russian em
pire, and by all the nomad tribes of
northern Asia. This substance has of
late years acquired considerable celebrity
as a medicinal agent in the cure of con-
sumption, and generally for use as a food
easily assimilated by weak stomachs, in
that respect resembling buttermilk, but
with the advantage of keeping for long
periods. I do not remember to have seen
a description of the means of its manu-
facture in any popular form, and think-
ing the readers of the FARMER Wight
feel an interest in its manufacture, have
given the following from the Brianica
"Koumis is made by diluting mare's
milk with about one-sixth part of its
quality of water, and adding as a for-
ment about one-eighth part of sour milk
or of old Koumis. This mixture is placed
in a wooden vessel which is covered over
with a thick cloth, and so left for about
twenty four hours in a moderately warmn
situation. During that time a-h t i
coagulum rises to the surface, which(is
thoroughly reincorporated by churning.
After standing for another day, the
whole mass is again thoroughly churned
and mixed, and in this state it forms
new Koumis, having an agreeable sub-
acid taste. This liquor is mostly stored
and preserved by the Tartars in skin bot-
tles, in which the fermentation continues
developing its alcoholic qualities and
mellowing and improving its taste. Gen-
uine Tartar Koumis has the following
composition: Alcohol 3.21, lactic acid
0.19, sugar 2.10 albuminoids 1.86, fat
1.78, salts 0.509, carbonic acid 0.177, and
water 93 46. Koumis thus prepared may
be preserved in bottles and cans closely
corked, for long periods, and drank with
the meals by persons who are fond of
Koumis may be manufactured from
cow's milk, by adding water as with
mare's milk, a tablespoonful of sugar to
each quart, with ferment, when the set-
ting and churnings are the same as for
genuine Koumis.

Locating a Poultry Farm.
The poultry farm should always be near
a town or city having transportation
handy, as it secures the best advantages.
Eggs produced daily the year round, and
which are prized for being fresh, should
be raised as near the market as possible,
then the highest rate may be obtained,
the special aim being to supply the de-
mand for better eggs than those which
are packed and sent a great distance.
The journey is more or less injurious
when shipped from a long distance, and
after it eggs will keep but a little while,
unless packed in the way eggs for hatch-
ing are5 which is too expensive for mar-
ket use. As the team must be sent every
day or two to collect waste bits from the
meat market, eggs can be sent when
only a day or two old, with no extra
Then the expense of delivery is small.
Mr. H. H. Stoddard in his work on
" Egg Farm says: "Under our plan,
eggs are delivered directly to consumers,
families being visited once a week. The
egg route has its advantages over the
milk route, that it need not be traversed
so often, only a sixth of the whole being
traveled daily." We think Mr. Stod-
dard's plan a good one, and parties going
into this business should adopt some
such plan. He goes on to say: Con-
sumers readily appreciate eggs, butter or
other produce that comes from a regular
and responsible source."
Where a lot of eggs are mixed with a
lot from other farms, its individuality is
lost. If good it may be helping to sell
the poor article of somebody else, and
the producer doos not reap the benefit of
his pains, in increased costume. No pro-
duce can be supplied to city dwellers to
better mutual advantage to seller and
buyer, than new laid eggs delivered di-
rect, the dubious ones now in the mar-
ket causing much loss and vexation.
Poultry farms at the West have the
benefit of cheap land and grain, but in
the South we think there is a much
greater profit to be realized on account of
the climate, where the season is earlier
and land is cheap. When poultry in the

Send for Catalogue..

P. 0O

Winter Park Fla.

St Augustine and Palatka
St. Augustine & Palatka Ry.

Reduction in Time! Reduction in Rate!
Commencing Monday, Nov. 29th, trains will
run as follows:

Leave St. Augustine 8 00 am 12 30 pm
Arrive Polatkia 9 05 am -1 40 p m
Leave Palatka 10 15 a m 4 30 p m
Arrive St. Augustine.................ll 30 a m 6 00 pM
Leave St. Augustine..................... 8 00 a m 3 15 p m
Arrive Palatka 9 05 a m 4 25 p m
Leave Palatka 9 03 am 4 50 p m
Arrive St. Augustine..................10 40 a m 6 06 p m
At Palatka connects with Florida Southern R'y'
Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West R'y., and St. John
River steamers to and from all points in South Flor-
ida. The Monarch Parlor Observatory Oar "Ymir"
will in on this line by December the 10th.

Leave St. Augustine.....................S 30 p m .........
Arrive Tocoi 6 15 p m .............
Leave Tocoi 6 45 p m ...............
Arrive St. Augustine....................7 30 p m .............
Connects at Tocol with Fast Mail Steamers from
Jacksonville to all points in South Florida.

Connects at Tocol with the fast and popular steamer,
John Sylvester, of the Post Line, to and from Jackson-
ville. giving 2 hours and 15 minutes at St. Augustano
aud return to Jacksonville same day, making thi a de-
sirable route for Tourists. Trains run into St. Auguo-
tine within three mitutes walk of the Plaza.

Gen. Freight & Pass. Agt

Gen. Supt.



Western Railway.

All Trains of this Road are run by Central Standard
Passenger Trains will leave ind arrive daily, a follow
West Indfa Fxt M&ll.
Leave Tampa via S. F. R. R 0f pi
Sanford J. T.AK. W 10 so
Jacksonville 7 00 a m
Arrive Jacksonville 12 90 noon
i Waycross 9 10 a W
Savannah 11 55 a
Charleston 4 50 V m
Richmond 6 49 a B
Washington 11 00 a s
Baltimore 12 18 p
Philadelphia 2 47 p m
New York 30o I
Pullman Buffet Cars Tampa to Washington, and New
York to Tampa.
New Orleana Express,
Leave Jacksonville 7 00 a
Arrive Jacksonville 7 35 pm
Leave Callahan 7 33 a i
Arrive Waycross 9 10 a i
Thomasville 1 22 p a
Bainbridge 3 35 p m
Chattahoochee 4 04 p m
S Pensacola via L. & N. R. R..................lo 10 p m
i Mobile via L. & N. R. R 2 15 a rk
at New Orleans via L. & N. R. R .......... 7 10 a
Albany 3 42 p a
Macon via Central R. R 8 '24 p a
Atlanta via Central R. R 12 15 a m
Chattanooga via W. & A. R. R.............. 5 55 a m
Nashville via N. C. & St. L. R. R..........11 45 a m
Louisville via L. & N. R. RB................... 6 50 p a
SJesup 10 20 a m
Macon via E. T., V. & G. R. R............... 4 0 p =
Atlanta I ............... 7 25 p n
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
New Orleans via Pensacola and Mobile.and to and from
Thomasville, and Louisville via Atlanta and Na&b-
ville, and Cincinnati to Jacksonville via Jesup.

A. C. Line Express.
Leave Jacksonville 2 06 p
Arrive Jacksonville 12 00 noon
Leave Callahan 2 47 p B
Chattahoochee 11 So am
Thomasville 1 45 p =
Arrive Waycross 4 40 p a
Brunswick via B. & W. R. R................. 8 28 p
Jesup 6 16 p D
Macon via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R.............11 20 p =
Atlanta via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R............ 2 25 a
SChattanooga via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R.... 8 20 a a
Cincinnati via Cin. So. R'f................... 42 p
Savannah 7 58 p Hi
S Charleston 1 25 a M
Wilmington 8 30 a
Weldon 2 15 p i
S Richmond 6 00 pm
Washington n 00 p
Baltimore 12 35 a v
S Philadelphia 3 45 a B
New York '. .......... 6 50 a l
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville an#
New York, also Jacksonville to Cincinnati via Jesup.
East Florida Exnress.
Leave Jacksonville 5 00 p m
Arrive Jacksonville 8 55 a
Leave Callahan......... 5 4V p w
Waycross 7 58 p i
Gainesville 3 55 p is
Lake City 3 20 p u
Live Oak 7 20 p m
Thomasville 11 30 p n
Arrive Albany -1 55 a is
Montgomery via Centranl R. R.............. 7 30 a E
Mobile via L. & N. R. R 2 10 p
New Orleans via L. & N. R. R .............. 7. 30 p w
Nashville via L. & N. R. R............... 7 05 p a
i Louisville via L. & N. R. R... ............... 2 12 a rm
Cincinnati via L. & N. R. R .................. 6 30 a i
St. Louis via L. & N. R. R.................... 7 40 a ni
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
Louisville via Thbomasville, Albany, Montgomery and
Nashville, and to and from Bartow and Montgomery
via Gatnesville.
Savannah Express
Leave Jacksonvilte a15 p I&
Arrive Jacksonville 15 a m
Leave Callahan 9 05 p U
ArriveCallahan ............. 5 1 a M
Leave gaineVille a55 p i
Arrive' ,inesvftls .......... 10 05 atm
Leave l Ake City 3 20 pm
Arriv ['ake City 10 15 a in-
Leave live Oak 7 20 p ut
Arriv Live Oak 6 40 a &
Thomasville 7 15 am
Albany 11 40 a is
Montgomery via Central R. R............. 7 09 im
SNashville via L. & N. R. R................... 6 55 a in
Louisville via L. & N. R. R.................. I 57 p s
Cincinnati via L. & N. R. RB................. 6 35 p i
S St. Louis via L. & N. R. R 8 00 p to
Waycross .................. 11 20 p m
Brunswick via B. & W. R. R................ 6 40 a m
S Albany via B. & W. R. R..................... 4 45' a m
Macon via Central R. R 9 04 a m
Atlanta via Central R. R 1 05 p m
S Chattanooga via W. & A. R. R............. 7 07 p m
Jesup 1 00 a a
Brunswick via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R....... 6 00 a m
Macon via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R ............ 7 30 a to
Atlanta via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R ......... 11 30 a i
Chattanooga via E. T,. V. & Ga. R. R.... 6 15 p i
Cincinnati via Gin. So. R'y................... 6 40 a i
Savannah 610 a m
Charleston 12 55 p ri
Wilmington 8 30 p rt
Richmond 10 45 a to
Washington 3 40 p i
Baltimore 4 54 p is
Philadelphia 7 17 p i
New York 9 20 pr
Pull man Buffet Cars and Mann Boudoir Buffet are
Via across, Albany and Macon; ndd via Waycrvi ,
Jesup and Macon; between Jacksonville and Cincinnatia
Also through Passenger Coaches between JacksmnviIlle
gnd Chattanooga.
Pul lman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
l ashville via Thomasville and Montgomery.
Pu linan Buffet Cars between Jacksonville and Wash.
through Tickets sold to all points bV Rail and steam-
ship connections, and B ngage Checked Through. A I,
Bleeping Car Berths and Sections secured at.Company'
Office, in Astor's Building ,82 Bay street, and at Passen-
ger Station, and on board People's Line Steamers I1. H.
Plant and Chattachoochee and LeBary-Baya Li>a
steamer City of Jacksonville.
General Passenger AgenL
B. G. FLEMING, Superintendent.


A Mare with Lame Shoulder.
YELLOW BLUFF, FLA., Feb. 9th, 1887.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fr1uit-Grower:
I bought a mare a week ago with
slight symptoms of lameness in the left
shoulder. Idrove her to Yellow Bluff,
three miles, with a light load. Next
morning she showed a considerable lame-
ness. I plowed with her some and she
got very lame. She now shows symp-
toms of pain, lies down flat on her side
most of the day; when she walks, steps
on the point of her toe as if her f og was
sore, but her foot is all right. Her
shoulder seems to be sunk a little, and
the point sets out from the chest. But
she never sets out her foot as if her
shoulder was sprained.
Men that claim to know say she has the
big shoulder, a disease that I know noth-
ing about. I lived in California thirty
years; there nothing is known of big
head or big shoulder. As I am a sub-
scriber to the FARMER AND FRUIT GROW-
ER, please let me know through your
valuable paper the remedy, if there is
ny. D. Y.
Answer.-It is impossible to prescribe
intelligently without the cause of lame-
ness being more definitely located. If
the horse is suffering that amount of pain
from any injury you will find some part
inflamed. Please make more careful ex-
amination and write us again. Will
state, however, that Atrophy (Sweeney)
of the upper part of shoulder always
occurs from lameness in the front leg.
Am not of the opinion that the horse has
the big head, as that usually makes its
appearance in the Oscalsis (soft bones of
the head) before it affects the other bones.
I think the enlarged appearance of the
shoulder Is the result of the position the
horse stands in to favor the part that is
affected. Examine the frog and back
tendons of leg carefully. If it is big
head we can do it no good, as the disease
is incurable. The disease Ostcoparasis
(big head) is unknown in California and
other Northwestern States, but is quite
prevalent in most of the country South
of the Cumberland Mountains, and no
well defined cause of its existence is yet
known to Veterinary science. We are
equally at a loss to know its origin or its
cure. D. 0. L.

Bee Briefs.

BY J. G. K.

Impaction of the Osman.
SAN MATEO, FLA., Feb. 13th, 1887.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower :
I have a grade Jersey cow that is sick.
Symptoms as follows: Loss of appe-
y pp ,in l'-hi, inclined-to stn-
a little hump-backed. Eyes bright and
clear, and one seeing her head only would
suspect nothing was the matter with her.
She is not with calf, and gives a little
milk. She will eat a few oats occasion-
ally, will eat some few carrots, a little
green food, now and then a very little
bran. She seems to be in fair strength,
and can walk well enough, get up and
lie down well. What is the matter
think you with her ? Poor is no name
for her. The neighbors say she has
the salt sickness. What shall I do for
her? E. C. T.
Answer.-This is a frequent trouble
with the rodentia family when there is a
scarcity of nutritious coarse food. The
cow eat$ dead grass and twigs that-con-
tain no nutrition, and consequently they
pass from the first to the second stom-
ach without being thrown back in the
mouth and remasticated. The cow will
not ruminate (chew the cud) unless the
substance in the first stomach contains
some nourishment and is pleasant to the
taste. The consequence is the coarse,
unmasticated substance passes to the
Osman (third stomach) and being indi-
gestible becomes lodged there, and the
process of digestion is retarded.
Give the cow small quantities of good
timothy or clover hay, fresh green grass,
and do not let her run at large where
she can get brush or other improper
food. Feed ground corn and oats, or
bran, with teaspoonful of salt once a
day, and give half a pound epson salts
dissolved in a half gallon of water once
a day for three days. Twenty grains of
quinine may a'so be given daily to keep
up strength. D. 0. L.


General Management Before
and After Calving.
The following advice by the editor of
the Southern Live Stock Journal-a
publication which no cattle owner
should be without-is worthy of the ut-
most confidence, and we recommend it
to the consideration of all owners of
choice milch cattle:
A subscriber at Monticello, Ark., pur-
chased a fine grade Jersey heifer last
summer, from a well known and reliable
breeder of this place. He says: "I
would be glad if you would give me
some idea how to treat her before calv-
ing and after. What is the best food for
her, and how much to give, and how
often to feed, etc.? If you prefer you
can answer through Journal."
We can answer you in a general way
only. We confess we are not competent
to give you rations prepared so as to
have every feed absolutely correct and
exact as to each individual chemical nu-
triment that enters into the combina-
SProf. E. W. Stewart, author of "Feed-
ing Animals," is the only writer we
know of thoroughly competent to. ar-
range rations to suit any kind of stock,
and to meet any emergency. He is a
student, a scientist, a chemist, an expert
in his specialty.
Your heifer being immature in growth,
the strain upon her system in the condi-



OB and after Sunday, November 14th, N, tralm wi
arrive and leave as follows, *daly, taly
except Sunday". daily excet Monday.
Leave isanford for Tampa and way stationa...* 4 41p a
Arrive at Tampa s I p i
Returning leave Tamps at...........--... ..* 0 p
Arrive at anford *, *d *

Leave Sanford for Tampa and way statie-._10 M0 a a
Arrive at Tampa at 3 40 p a
Returning lease Tampa at an
Arrive at Sanxardat mnM
Leave Bartow Junction ........11 15 m 7 p15 pM
Arrive Bartow 1 05 am a tl 8 15pza
Leave Bartow 9 40 a m I 50 1o0p m
SrrlveBartowJunction .... .0 40a m 140 $OP

Operated by the South Florida Rallrea
Leave Bartow for Penberton Ferry
and way stations *s715a m 1pa
Arrive at Pemberton Ferry at...... 9o40am 2 pm
Returning, leave Pemberton Ferry 7 40 a msm 40 p m
Arrive at Bartow at seamRm 6 vim
Leave Sanford for Lake Charm
and way stations...................tl10 4 a m and f 4 60 p M
Ariveg Lake Charm 12 15 p m and 20 an
Returning, leaves ILke Charmt 6 30 a m and 12 45 p ag
Arrives Sanford 8 00 am and 1V p=

connects at anmard with ntb afo d Indem Xt
Railroad, with the Peopleie Line and De Bary Bays
Merchant Line of steamers and J., T. and IL W. Rail-
way for Jacksonville and all intermediate points; and
with steamers for Indian River and upper St. Johns,
At Kissimmee with steamers for Forts Myers and
asenger and points on Ktismmee river. At Tamps
with steamer "Margaret" for Palms ola, Braidentown.
Palmetto, Manatee, and points on Hlllsboroug h and
Tampa Bays; and with the new and elegant steamel
"Macotte' 1i Key West and Havana. C onnects at
Pemberton Ferry with Florida Southern Railway for all
points North, Uart and West. Throng tickets solid of
all regular station. to poimts North BAu and W -


Trains leartng S nfrd at 10:" a. m. coonect at San-
ford with the fast mail steamers of the Peoples' and Do
Bary-Baya Merchants' Line from Jacksonville and
points North. Train leaving Sanford at 4:40 p. m con-
nects daily at Sanford with fast through mail trains on
the J.. T. and K. W. Ry.; and at Tampa on Tueeday.
Thursday and Saturday with steamers of Plant Steam
thip Coinpany for Key West and Havana.
Trains leaving Tampa at 8:00 p. m. conn'r at Tamps
on Sunday, Tuesday and Friday with steamers frown
Key West and Havana, and at Sanford with the fS
ail train for J.alonville and points Nortn.
quarul Freisrht and Ticket AgenL


Trains 1, 2, s., 4, 5 and 6 run daily.

TIME CARD IN EFFECT FEB. 7, 1887, 12 01 a. m.
No. 20.
All Trains Bun by 90th Meridian Time (Central).
Shortest and Quickest Route to New Orleans and tMe
Southwest. Direct Connections to Points West
and Northwest.
"a" means A. M. time. "p" mesux P. M. time.
Read up. Read down
No. 10. No. 2. No. 1. No. 9
11 45a 7 30 p ArJacksonville............Lv 800a 3 00p
10 30 a 6 50 p Ar Baldwin ................ Lv 8 41 a 350p
8 18 a 5 19 p Ar Lake City..................Ar 10 10 a 5 58 p
) 12a 4 27 p Ar Live Oak..................Ar 10 58 a 7 05p
6 01 a 3 26 p Ar Madison ................... Ar 12 01p 8 37r
5 15a 250p ArMonticello ...............Ar 1 35p 1035p
3 10a 1 05 p Ar Tallahassee..............Ar 2 27 p 11 25 p
1 40 a 12 08 p Ar Quincv......................Ar 322p 1 40a
12 01 a 11 25 a Ar River Junction........Ar 4 05p 3 30a
s1 00p 10 20 a ArMarianna................. Ar 5 07p 4 25a
8 00p 8 15 a Lv DeFuniak Springs....Ar 7 05 p 8 00 a
: 00 p 5 15 a LvPensacola ................. Ar 10 10p 11 50a
12 15p 3 00 a Lv Flomaton ................. Ar 11 59 p 3 18p
1 00 a Lv Mobile ..................... Ar 2 25a -
8 00 p Lv New Orleans ............ Ar 7 20 a -
7 20 a 7 50 p Lv Montgomery..............Ar 7 15a 7 08 p
7 55 p 7 27 a Lv Nashville................. Ar 6 40p 7 20 a
12 45 p 12 45 a Lv Evansville ............... Ar 1 10a 2 35 p
2 3.5 p 12 36 a Lv Louisville ................Ar 2 25 a 2 20 p
8 15 a 8 20 p Lv Cincinnati ...............Ar 6 35a 635p
7 0 10a 720 p LavSt. Louis.................. Ar 7 40a 8 05 p
8 o0p 8 40 p Lv Chicago....................Ar 10 30 a 8 00p
Sleeping Cars on No. 1 and 2 between Jacksonville and
New Orleans. F. R. and N. Sleeping Cars Jacksonville
to DeFuniak on No. 9 and 10, No. 1, 2, 9 and 10 daily.
Shortest and Quickest Route to Gainesville, Ocala,
Leesburg, and all points in South Florida.
Read up. Read down.
No. 4. Mo. 8. No. 7. No. 3.
4 0o p 11 25 a Ar Fernandina............. Lv 1 10a 445p
2 47 p 7 45 a Ar Callahan ................. Ar 12 22a 645p
I 47p 6 00 a Lv Baldwin ..................Ar 1 20 p 1 0 15 p
S40p 6 30 a Ar Jacksonville........... Lv12 35a 8 3 p
1 55 p 5 30 a Lv Baldwinu................. Lv 1 35 p 10 00 p
I OOp 4 03 a LvLawtey.....................Ar 2 15 p 11 05 p
12 45 a 3 35p Lv Starke Ar 2 30 p 11 27 p
ou 30a 10 00p Lv Gainesville..............Ar 4 o0 p 6 45 a
7 10 a 3 10 a Lv Cedar Key ............... Ar 7 15 p 1 45 p
1 1 31 p 1 45 a Lv Hawthorn ............... Ar 3 24 p 12 58 a
11 04 a 12 55 a Lv Citra Orange Lake..-Ar 2 55p 1 43a
1022a -- Lv Silver Spiing ...........Ar 436p --
lu 10p 11 38 a Lv Ocala Ar 4 50p 2 45 a
10 00 p 9 08 a Lv Wildwood ...............Ar 5 53 p 4 15 a
5 OOp -- LvPanasoukee...............Ar -- 9 40 a
3 20 p -- Lv St. Catherine ............ Ar -- 11 00 a
9 13 p 8 40 a Lv Leesburg .................. Ar 6 17 p 4 53 a
8 30p 8 15 a Lv Tavares .................... Ar 6 45 p 5 30 a
7 37 p 7 23 a LvAppopke..................Ar 6 37p 7 21 a
7 10p 6 55 a LvOrlando .................. Ar 7 06p 7.54 a
Through Pullman Sleeping Cars, Nos. 3 and 4 between
Jacksonville and Orlando without change. Nos. 7 and
8 daily. No& 3 and 4 daily except Sunday.
Read up. Read down.
No. 11. No. 5. No. 6. No. 12.
4 45 p 8 46 a Ar Jacksonville ............Lv 5 00 p 00 ag
3 00 p 7 2) a Lv Fernandina...............Ar 6 20p 10 43a
At Callahan with Savannah, Florida and Weutern
Railroad for Savannah, Macon, Atlanta, Charleston,
Washington, Baltimore, New York, Cincinnati, St.
Louis, Chicago, and all points North, Wast and North-
At Silver Springs, with Ocklawahsa River Steamers.
At St. Catherine, with Florida Southern Railroad, for
Brooksville, Bartow and Tampa.
At Orlando, with South Florida Railroad for Sanford,
Lakeland and Tampa.
At Cedar Key with Steamer Governor Safford Monday
and Thursday for Manatee and Tampa.
sails from Fernandina Sunday and Wednesday; from
Jacksonville Friday, for Charleston and New York.
Steamer Express leaving Jacksonville 8.05 A. M.,
Wednesday and Saturday, connect with the elegant
Steamer St. Nicholas. Inside Route for Brunswick,
Darien, Savannah, connecting with steamers for Balti-
more, Philaaelphia, New York and Boston.
Steamers Express leaving Jacksonville daly 8:05 a. m.,
City of Brunswick connects with steamer for Brunswick
and through trains of the E. T. and Q. and B. and W.
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Gen. Traveling Agent.
General Passenger and Ticket Agent
F. B. P.Y,
D. E. MAXWELL. Gen. Sep t A

Leave Citra 7 00 a m
Arrive Citra 8 00 p m
Arrive Micanopy 6 15 p m
Leave Micanopy 8 55 a m
Connection at Rochelle with all trains.
At Palatka, with Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West
R'y. and St. Augustine and Palatka Railway, and fast
river steamers for St. Augustine, Green Cove Springs,
Jacksonville and all points North, East and West.
Also, withe new Twin-Screw Iron Steamship "City of
Palatka," and Steamship City of Montello, for Charles-
ton, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, :c.
Mail trains make close connection both ways via J. T.
K. W. R'y. at Jacksonville with Atlantic Coast Lin%
Fast Mail.
At Gainesville, with through Pullman sleepers over
Savannah, Florida & Western R'y. for New Orleans.
Pensacola, Savannah, Albany, Montgomery, Louisville;
St. Louis, and all points West.
At Ocala with Florida Railway and Navigation Co.,
ard S. S. O.h&rG. R. R.
At Astor with St. Johns river steamers for Jackson-
Ville, Sanford and Way Landings.
.it Leesburg with the St. Johns and Lake Eustin
division of the Florida Souther n Railway, and boats on
Lakes Harris, Eustis and Griffin for all points on
At Tampa with steamships Mascotte and Whitney
every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday for Key Wed
tnd Havana. "
At Pemberton's with South Florida Railroad for
akeland, Tampa, Richland, Kissimmee, Bartow, Or-
rondo, Sanford and Iade City.
At "Irab'uewith steamer Alice Howard for Punta
ttassa and Fort Myers.
General Manager. G. P. A.
A. 6. COWAX, Gen'L Tray. Agent



Daily Except Sunday.
In Effect January 15, l18.
Leave Jacksonville via J., T. & K. W.........-.M 130 A
Arrive Palatka 01 P
Leave Palatka via J., T. & K. W (Ferry).......... 2 20
Arrive Rolleston 2'5P
Leave Rolleston via St. J. & H. R,RB............. 8 00 P
Arrive Ormond 4 sop
Arrive Holly Hill 4 451
Arrive Daytona 500
Lv Daytona viaSt. J. &H. B.R......... 7 00am 2M m
ET Holly Hll 7 15am 2 40S a
LvOrmond 780am 250 m
Lv Rolleston via Ferry .....................10 30 a m 4 00
Lv Palatka via J. T. & K.. 3 ......3..1 8S a m 6
Ar Jacksonville 1 p40pm 730 PI
Making close connections for all points North and
special inducements to immigrants and excundem
Through rate s of ftght gvn to a pointjon th
East Coat, and low as by any other line.
Make direct connection al Daytona with
stmr for Blake, Port orange, ew Smyrna. Timf
ville. Rockledge and with coaches tor Volusa d
Tickets at any ofthe J. T. and X. W. OMO; oratl,
W. bbt,74.,WestBayL ap Cz
Traf Mansae.

itiew Yngian experimenter nnasra
feeding apples to milch cows invariably
lessens the flow of milk.
In planting a new orchard some grow-
ers plant peach trees between the apple
trees. The peach grows and bears quickly,
yielding largely before the apple trees
need the space.
Meat for the use of a small family can
be smoked by suspending the hams from
bars laid across a large barrel open at
both ends and set above a smoldering fire.
Corn cobs make a good smoke, and bay
leaves and juniper berries give an aro-
matic flavor. Cover the barrel while
smoking. So says The Iowa Register.
The Louisiana orange crop proves to be
less than one-tenth of an average crop.
Never let a clipped horse stand two
minutes without a rug.
Rotation of crops is the surest and saf-
est plan in farming, and when one or two
years of pasture are included in the rota-
tion, the benefits will be still greater.
The public lands of the United States
are fast melting away before the incr As-
ing tide of home seekers from foreign
. shores and crowded eastern states.




Daily Time Table in Effect February 7,1887.
Leave St. Augustn................. .. 8 00 a m
Jacksonville 9 00 a m
Palatka 10 30 a m
SInterlachen 11 24 am
Hawthorn 11 55 a m
Gainesville ..11 3So am
Rochelle 12 33 pm
Arrive Ocala. 2 02 p m
South Lake Weir 3 1 p m
Leesburg 3 55 p m
Pemberton's... ............ 5 15 p m
,, Brooksville 6 25 pm
,, Dade Cit 6 10 pm
Lakeland 7 30 pm
SKissimmee, So. Fla. R. R 8 35 p m
STampa, So. Fla. R. R 8 50 p m
Arrive Bartow 8 10 pm
Leave Bartow 8 30 p m
Arrive Fort Meade 9 03 pm
Arcadia 10 45 p m
SFort Ogden 11 17 pi
,, Trabue 12 00 p i
Punta Gorda

tarm iisel!n .


A Desirable Cow Stable for Farmners of
Small Means-An Unpatented Auto-
matic Gate That Works Well-How to
Treat Shying Horses.
The subject of self working gates is an
important one, especially where economy
Is a necessity; for patented articles are, as
a rule, expensive luxuries, and it is not
often that a really good thing is not
patented. Space is therefore gladly given
to a description and skech of an unpat-
ented automatic gate, furnished by Mr.
William Newton, of Otsego county, N.
Y., in response to a request in Farm
and Fireside. The description is really
rendered unnecessary by the sketch, which
makes the arrangement plain to all who
may study it.


Anything more exquisitely beautiful
than Mrs. Westhaven would be difficult
to imagine. I met her with her husband
and sister, two months before the murder
trial in which we were afterward con-
cerned, at a famous health resort in Cali-
fornia. She was a woman of three-and-
twenty, perhaps, tall, graceful, and of
ideal coloring. She sat opposite me at
the table d'hote, and when she first lifted
her eyes to mine I started uncontrollably.
They were wonderful eyes, dark, tender,
with a certain childish appeal in them
which stirred all the chivalry in a man's
nature in response. Unimpressionable,
soured old bachelor that I was, I found
myself on the instant vowing to protect
this beautiful creature, who was exceed-
ingly well cared for, apparently, and had
no need of my protection whatever.
Mr. Westhaven was the most discon-
tented looking man I ever saw. Thin,
dark, restless, and with a nervous irri-
tability of manner which never varied ex-
cept when addressing his wife's sister,
Miss Carlyon, to whom he showed the
most affectionate consideration.
Miss Carlyon, for whose health Mr.
and Mrs. Westhaven were traveling, was
a delicate, fragile creature, and except
for a sameness of contour of the faces
there was nothing to betray the relation-
ship between the two women.
We had been nearly a month in the
hotel together before I became acquainted
with Westhaven. His manner was most
cordial, and he told me that he had asked
for this introduction, saying that I was
not unknown to him by reputation, and
speaking in the kindest way of the suc-
cess I had achieved in certain electrical
experiments. He also confided to me
his own deep interest in studies of a like
Mrs. Westhaven met me with great
kindness, and Miss Carlyon raised her
head from the cushions of her chair and
gave me a tiny hand like a bird's claw,
which was lost in my grasp. She was a
weird, uncanny little creature, with glit-
tering eyes full of a restless, suspicious
questioning, a marvelously white skin,
and a thin, cruel mo- h. An unpleasant
face altogether, tho h with some claims
to prettiness, and one *rom which I gladly
turned to gaze upon that of her beauti-
ful sister.
I have a passionate admiration of beauty
in women, and Mrs. Westhaven's beauty
was flawless and extended over her en-
tire personality, to har delicate finger
tips, to her arched, exquisite feet, her
graceful, perfect pose, her swaying car-
Mr. Westhaven was a charming host-
a traveler, cultured, and treating of
many things with a brilliant, glancing
satire which showed tl at he was a close,
if not a kind, student of human nature.
Miss Carlyon was evid(Utly in sympathy
with him upon most st objects, and would
often carry out his idea gracefully from
the point where he left it. She was intel-
ligent, well read- and -iifty. -
After my first evening with this singular
family group I went t upon the piazza
to indulge in a spec ilative smoke. I
think I am not a curiore person. I have
prided myself all my lipupon an indiffer-
ence to the affairs and interests of otb :
people, but there was about this family,
In spite of gentle breeding and ease of
manner, an atmosphere of mystery which
provoked, if not investigation, at least
speculation. I determined to see more of
Westhaven gave me every opportunity.
He sought me upon all occasions, and
evinced a fondness for my society and a
respect for my opinions which could not
but flatter me from so young and so bril-
liant a man His culture was remark-
able and his information widely extended.
He had been a close student all his life,
he said, until now. About his present
interests he was strangely reticent, and
of his family he never spoke, save in a
most casual way. I rarely saw him in
the afternoons; whatever his occupation
or study, it engrossed him then, and hav-
ing grown sufficiently intimate with him
to warrant my going informally and un-
announced to his rooms, I found that in
the afternoon I was rarely admitted.
| Mrs. Westhaven walked and drove out,
constantly attracting attention and ad-
miration wherever she was seen. She
had a certain individuality of style, which
I believed grew from her perfect uncon-
sciousness of her beauty and the conspic-
uous position she occupied in public.
Once I spoke of her wonderful loveliness
to her husband. He received my enthu-
siastic observations in moody silence, and
the expression of discontent deepened on
his handsome face.
I had, of course, long before this come
to the conclusion that Westhaven was
unhappily married, and I more than half
suspected that he had awakened to a ter-
rible certainty that he had married the
wrong Miss Carlyon. This thought I
tried to close my eyes upon as an un-
worthy suspicion against the man who
showed me a consideration that I have

rarely met with in life, which was cer-
tainly unusual from a mere acquaint-
I persisted not without many discour-
agements,*in my determination to know
Mrs. Westhaven better, and my success
was at last crowned by a most disap-
Spointing discovery. She had what I at
first believed to be an aversion to conver-
sation. I never heard her say anything,
even in the way of a reply, which con-
I tained an unnecessary word, and if she
ever volunteered a remark it must have
been in the privacy of her own chamber.
Yet she was neither diffident nor ill-tem-
pered. On the contrary, her expression
was pleased and pleasing, and her pretty
smile was always upon her lips.
I fancied she might have a peculiar
bent of mind and endeavored to discover
it. I ended by satisfying myself beyond
a doubt that she possessed no mind at
all. She was simply an exquisite and
empty casket-a beautiful mindless, soul-
less thing-a creature without sensibli-
ties, or even the capacity of receiving im-
pressions. The emotions of living cr"a-


Taking effect January 27th, 1887.
No. 2 No. 4 No. 2
Jacksonville .... -am 23pm 30 p m
Aj-rve Pablo Beach...... 10 15 a m 3 15 p m 6 15 p w
No. No .o. 3 No. T
Leave Pablo Beach...... 7 am 123 pm 430pa
Arrive Jacksonville-:... 8320 am 1250pm 520Qpa


Arrive Eustis 9 55am
Leave Eustis 10 05 a m
,, Mt. Homer 10 20 a m
,, Tavares 10 44 a m'"
Arrive Lane Park 11 0 a M

ILtve Lane Park 2 10 p m
Arrive Tavares 2 20 p m
Leave Tavares........* 3 00 p m
Mt. Homer 3 10 p m
9f Eustis 3 45 p m
S Fort Mason 3 55 p m
Umatilla 4 15 p m
w Glenakle 4 25 pm
SAltoona 4 45 pm
SPittman 5 00 pm
Ravenswood .................... 5 05 p m
Summit 5 15 pm
SSellars Lake 30 pm
Cummings .................... 5 40 p m
Brvanvilfe 5 50 p m
Arrive Astor...... 610pm


ruires, the passive lovelinfiess of inanimate
objects, the fragrance of flowers, the
charm of music, the wonderful, ever
changing interest of the whole created
world passed before her unseeing eyes,
fell upon her unlistening ears, left her
calm, untouched with that changeless
unmeaning smile forever curving her
beautiful mouth.
When I made this discovery I knew
that Westhaven's life was a burden to
him. For a man of his delicate, sensi-
tive, perceptive faculty and deep, almost
tender, appreciation of the finer phases of
existence, the society of a woman like
this meant perpetual torment. One thing
puzzled me greatly. In spite of his in-
difference to her personality he guarded
her health as if she had been an idolized
child. He followed her about with a
light wrap in case of a draught, and hav-
ing adjusted it carefully, would leave her
in absolute silence. I rendered him this
justice then, at last. She had nothing
on earth but her abundant vitality. He
would protect that as the only service
left him to offer her.
One night we all sat upon the veranda.
Miss Carlyon's chair had been brought
out and she lay silently in it looking very
small and pale among the red cushions,
and with a grave, saddened shadow upon
her face, which was unusual to its ordin-
ary sharp expressiveness. Westhaven
leaned on the back of her chair. I sat
near Mrs. Westhaven and looked at her.
She was dressed in some sort of dead
white gown which clung softly to her
lovely figure and was relieved by heavy
gold clasps. The moon fell upon her
intensifying her loveliness, though I fan-
cied she looked rather more delicate than
usual. Her eyes, beautiful, dark, ignor-
ant, pathetic as the eyes of Italian chil-
dren, were fixed dreamily upon the scene
before her-her hands, long, white, idle
looking hands, lay upon her dress. I al-
most held my breath in the presence of
her beauty, and felt a pang of regret
when I reflected upon the void it covered.
The band played softly, somewhere in
the distance. No one spoke. Then a
woman's voice rose on the air, a low, pas-
ionate voice that sang, with a great sob
in the depths, some minor native melody.
The peace of the night was broken only
by this wailing song. It rose to throb-
bing intensity and sank again almost to
silence. It was weird, unearthly,
strangely beautiful. It thrilled my very
soul and when it ceased, suddenly as it
had begun, it left me trembling. Miss
Carlyon shivered visibly, and Westhaven
bent instantly over her taking both her
hands in his own and then drawing her
shawl closely about her. The silence
seemed to hold a fatal significance. It
grew unbearable. I leaned forward and
spoke to Mrs. Westhaven. I said:
"What a beautiful voice and what a
beautiful song."
She smiled quietly, and I thought she
had not heard me. I repeated my remark
somewhat stiffly, and she replied, still
"I did not notice it."
Westhaven drew himself up sharply
and Miss Carlyon's chair, upon which he
had leaned, rolled forward with a dis-
greeable squeaking sound. She laughed
e- itecutting laugh.
: "The charm is broken," she said, "let
Us go in."
I bade them good night, feeling un-
comfortable. Westhaven gave me his
hand, and we stood there for a moment
looking at each other and I felt a great
sympathy for him, for I realized his un-
SLittle by little my prejudice against
Miss Carlyon was allayed. I use this
word advisedly, for I think it was never
quite lulled to rest. She was wonder-
fully like Westhaven. It was absolutely
the same nature, differently clothed.
And, to do her justice, her views were as
wide, her thoughts were as liberal, as
far reaching as a man's, and she had a
passionate energy of feeling and purpose
which occasionally rose up and struggled
in her feeble little body and left her shak-
ing. I could scarcely explain her feeling
for WestChaven. If it was love it was
love of a most unfeminine nature. Calm
and without caprice, unexacting, and, in
a. certain sense, deferential, she showed
with him neither the impatience nor the
mocking spirit which ruled her mood
with others, and accepted his utter devo-
tion to her gently and gratefully. It was
a great pity he had not married her, I re-
Miss Carlyon was certainly improving.
She told me quietly one day that the Lon-
don pyhsicians had given her but a few
months to live. "They tried everything,
even electricity," she said, laughing.
"They do not in the least know what is
the matter with me," she continued, in
her little, sharp way. "No one does but
myself, and I will tell you. I am the
Nervous Exhaustionist of the society
novel who has drained life and intends
to die after an improved method of her
"But you are not succeeding," I re-

plied, with some warmth, for there was
something terrible to me in the way this
young girl calmly spoke of dying. "You
are not succeeding in the least. You
will find that your method will outwit
you and work a result of which you have
never dreamed."
She turned very pale and looked at me
in a frightened sort of a way. When she
spoke again it was nervously, excitedly
and of quite a different topi:. She
seemed relieved, too, when Wetshaven
came into the room, and left us immedi-
"I have some books from the east in a
box there on the table; you must look
them over," he began, and then he drifted
into the semi-scientific chatter-I can
give it no more dignified title-in which
we so often indulged. We laughed a
good deal over the erratic, insane theories
which the late advances in electricity had
sent, like so many electric shocks, over
the world, and Westhaven drew me out
at some length on the subject of elec-
trical magnetism as applied to individuals.
He looked about for his cigar case and
went out of the room to find it. After wait-
ing a few minutes for his return I walked
over to the table to have a glance at the
new books. 2There were two boxes upon
it, one nearly concealed by a pile of
papers, and this one I opened. Beneathl

a layer of paper I found several coils of
insulated wire and portions of amagneto-
electric battery. Westhaven entered the
room and I called to him:
"I am in the wrong box."
He uttered a hoarse cry and sprang
toward me, suddenly checking himself
and endeavoring to master what ap-
peared to me an unaccountable agita-
tion. His emotion was too apparent for
either of us to completely ignore it and
I felt compelled to turn away and pre-
tend to be engrossed in the contents of
the other box until he could recover him-
self. Selecting a magazine, I went away
immediately, considerably amazed at my
stupid mistake, yet more puzzled over
the agitation it had caused him. So sim-
ple a discovery as that of finding in the
possession of a man who openly avowed
his interest in electrical studies an instru-
ment constantly in vogue among electric
cans was not in itself sufficient utterly to
confuse the possessor. But then West-
haven was a queer fellow. He possibly
did not wish me to know that he experi-
mented; or perhaps he was inventing
something. And I east the whole affair
off my mind with a laugh.
The next day neither Mrs. Westhaven
nor Miss Carlyon was at breakfast.
Miss Carlyon was not well, Westhaven
said, and to this I attributed his moody
silence and strange, excited manner. He
did not appear through the day, and, con
trary to my custom, I went to his rooms
in the afternoon to inquire for the in-
valid. I found the door open and was
entering the parlor when a voice from
the inner room fell upon my ear. West-
haven was speaking harshly and rapidly:
"Come! It is time Come! I sayl'
A woman's voice, Mrs. Westhaven's
I fancied, moaned and protested faintly.
Another-imperative command from West-
haven, followed by a curse, then the
sound of some heavy body dragged a lit-
tle way across the room, a door shut
sharply and all was still. I turned and
hurried from the room, conscious that I
had already stayed too long, thankful
that my presence had not been suspected
by the inmates. I went directly to my
own room to read, and tried to dismiss
the circumstance from my thoughts.
Westhaven's harsh voice and the pitiful
moan which answered it had impressed
me strongly. I was most unwilling to
believe him capable of physical cruelty to
his wife, yet how otherwise to explain
satisfactorily the sounds I had heard?

Oil and Cotton Seed Meal.
Oil and cotton seed meal are now so low
that there are many places where they are
the cheapest foods for stock. They are not
adapted to feeding any stock exclusively,
as their nutriment is too concentrated. A
very little oil meal costing at wholesale a
trifle more than a cent a pound will make
a good ration of any kind of well cured
straw, which away from market is often
considered to be worth little or nothing.
If by the use of concentrated foods with it
the surplus straw, now mostly wasted,
could be fed to stock, this alone would
effect a revolution in farming and do much
to put it on a profitable footing.

Pot Culture of Lancifolium Lilies.
Few persons seem aware that the
varieties of lily, called lancifolium, are
admirably adapted for pot culture in the
house or on piazzas; while the truth is,
that with such cultivation they are far
finer than when grown in the open border.
For the decoration of terraces, porches,
windows, conservatories, churches and the
like, lilies grown in pots are invaluable;
for, treated in this way, the plant and
blossoms attain a magnificent size and
form and are most beautiful objects, as
may be concluded from the cut given.
From a dozen to thirty blooms on a
stem and six to twelve stems in a pot may
be obtained, according to Vick, who is ex-
cellent authority in all such matters, if
good bulbs are used, good care given and
the following mode of procedure observed:
Take of well decayed sods, which should
be from medium loam and as fibrous as
possible, three parts; good fibre peat, one
part; or, if peat is not at hand, leaf mold
well decomposed, and one part thoroughly
rotted cow manure. If those who have
not access to all these soils live near the
woods and can, by first pushing slightly
to one side the top and least decayed sur-
face leaves, obtain some good, light, top
soil and leaf mold it will answer almost
equally as well. If a little sandy so much
the better; if not, a little sand may be
added to give it the porosity which light
or medium fibrous loam naturally has. If
none but heavy loam can be obtained, use
less of it and more leaf mold and sand, or
decayed hops from a brewery may be sub-
stituted form leaf mold. In any case, do
not forget to add a fifth part of well de-
composed cow or hotbed manure.

t _

The pots must be well drained with
broken potsherds or the like, then a'
double handful of the roughest of the soil'
which, by the way, should be well broken
up and mixed but not sifted, should be
added. Then fill the pot about half full
with compost. Put in the bulb with a
little sand under it, press it down firmly
and fill the pot to within an inch and a
half of the rim, water sufficiently to'
settle the soil and set in the shade till
shoots appear. Give just enough water
to keep the soil moist until the bulbs
start, then more will be required. When
the flower buds start, weak liquid manure
may take the place of water. For a six
inch pot one strong bulb will be sufficient.

Turkeys Easily Managed.
"Turkeys are very easily managed,"
says Henry Stewart. "The flock may be
driven about quite easily, and if dealt
with gently and quietly, they are the most
docile of all poultry. I have seen flocks of
them driven to market in Kentucky, mnu-
bering several hundreds, one man on a
mule following, with two boys and a dog
to help. It is in this way that the enor-.
mous number of these birds, 400,000 it is
said, are gathered in Bourbon county in
that state for the New York market every
season, bringing in a handsome sum to the
ladies who make a special business of
rearing them, and are very successful
at it.
The Modern Chick's Soliloquy.
Backward, turn backward, oh, time in your flight;
Make me an egg again, smooth, clean and white--
I'm homesick and lonely, and life's but a dream,
I'm a poor chicken born in a hatching machine.
Compelled in this cold world to roam--
No mother to shelter, no place to call home,
No mother to teach me to scratch or to cluck,
I can hardly tell whether I'm chicken or duck.

Pacts Farmers Want to Know.
AN E l d i t fidAht

Leave Punta Gorda.
,, Trebue 3 30 am
Fot < )gden 4 10 am
., Arcadia. 4 42 am
,, Foirt Ieleade ..... 6 25 am
Bartow. 7 15 am
STampa, So. Fla. R. R 8 00 p m
Sissimmee, So. Fla. R. R. 6 15 am
Lakeland 9 00 pm
,, Dad e City 9 00 am
SBrooksville 8 45 a m
Peniberton's 9 50 a m
Lane Park 9 30 am
STavares 9 40 am
Eustis. 10 05 a m
SFort Mason................... 10 15 am
Arrive Leesburg 11 05 am
Leave Leeaburg. 11 15 a m
,, South Lake Weir 11 53 am
Ocala.. 1 12 pm
Arrive Rochelle 2 40 p m
,, GaineRville 3 25pm
Hawthorn 3 25 p m
Interlachen 4 03 p m
,, Palatka 5 00 pm
SJacksonville 7 40 p m
St. Augustine 6 05 p m

Letve St. Augustine 12 30 p m
Jacksonville 12 30 p m
Palatka 2 05 pim
J. T. & K. W. R'y. Junction................... 2 15 pm.
,, Interlachen 2 51 p m
,, Hawthorn 3 25 pm
Rochelle -............ 355 s pm
., Ocala 5 30 pm
South Lake Weir 6 42 pm
Arrive Leesburg 7 25 p m
Leave Leesburg 7 30 pm'
Fort Mason 8 15 pm
Eustis 8 25 pm
,, Tavares 8 45 pm
Arrive Lane Park 8 55 pm

It will be seen that the gate opens either
way. The latch is the old fashioned mod-
ern spring, and is tripped by wires which
pass through pulleys on the heel post of
the gate and thence to the crank posts.
The opening is done by cranks, which
turn small pulleys, around each of which
a small rope (preferably a tarred rope) is
passed, the rope also passing around a
similar pulley fixed to the heel post of the
gate. In order to give sufficient friction
it may be necessary to pass the rope twice
around the pulleys.

Shying Horses.
A horse shies, as a rule, because he sees
something which he does not understand.
It may be some new or unusual object
that the horse sees, or it may be an imper-
fect view of one. Even a familiar object
brought to view suddenly and unexpect-
edly will cause a horse to shy or jump,
just as an unexpected object or sound
causes nervous people to start. Harsh
treatment of horses only aggravates mat-
ters and increases the habit.
The more the horse is scolded and
whipped the more nervous he becomes, and
every time he passes the place where the
fright and whipping occurred he will recol-
lect the unpleasant affair and prick up his
ears, fidget and get ready for another jump.
Never strike or scold a sensitive, nervous
--o-- animal that is startled. Give him ample
_nBM -whi.U-Lto recover hi-s scattered`
senses; speak to him calmly and kindly
and make him feel that you are his pro-
tector, not his tyrant. When he has dis-
covered for himself that all is right there
will be an end to all further trouble.

Some of the New Apples.
Chester county and Pyle's Red Winter
apples are from eastern Pennsylvania and
are promising varieties. Bower's Non-
pariel is from the Shenandoah valley and
is large and fine in appearance. Beauty
of the World and Guilford Red are from
North Carolina. Black Twig is" from
Tennessee, a supposed seedling of Wine-
sap, as good a keeper and superior in size
of fruit and habit of tree. Stuart's Golden
is from central Ohio, not a very large ap-
ple, but of choice quality, keeping until
April and May; tree a profuse bearer. It
originated Mi an old seedling orchard, near
a stump; and the children, now gray
haired men and women, called it the
Stump apple. Fink, another Ohio apple,
valuable for fine cider and for long keep-
ing, should be better known. Salome,
from northern Illinois, promises to be val-
uable for very cold regions; northern
Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, etc. Shia-
wassee Beauty, a Michigan seedling of
Fameuse, without any of its faults, is
proving itself valuable in the north,
though it does not keep all winter. Law-
yer, Huntsman's Favorite and Gen. Lyon,
from Missouri, are worthy of trial. Berg-
ner seems inclined to twig-blight, as does
also the fine variety from Arkansas,
Stevenson Pippin.

A Well Arranged Cow Stable.
An arrangement for a cow stable is de-
scribed by a correspondent of The Rural
New Yorker, who reports it as not only
simple but entirely satisfactory in its
As maybe seen in the accompanying
cut, the feed boxes (AA) are nailed to the
outside of the
cover. Thiscover
or front can be let .A lip
down by means of
hinges (BB) when
grain is to be fed
and raised again "-- ""
for feeding hay.
The boxes are
made by nailing
four square
boards together.
The bottom of the
manger is shown #
at C, with the
stanchions at E. ,FLOOR PLAN FOR STABLE.
The cows stand with their front
feet on D, which is a gravel floor
two feet four inches wide. The founda-
tion is of cobblestone with nearly a
foot of gravel on top, well pounded
down. F is a double floor; inch boards
are laid double so as to break joints. It
is water tight. The boards are laid on
2x4 scantlings bedded in the gravel. This
platform has a slope of three inches. The
manure gutter (G)is water tight, nailed
together with 20-penny nails, H is a
gravel walk next to barn. When the
teed box is raised it is fastened by a catch
held to the studding..

Leave Leesburg .. 6 10 am
,, South Lake Weir 6 48 am
Ocala.. 8 00 am
Gainsville 8 35 am
Kodhelle 9830 am
Hawthtrrn 9 59 a m
Inteilachen 10 28 a m
Arrive J. T. & K. W. R'y. Junction................... 110 a m
Palatka 11 20 a m
,. Jacksonville 1 30 p m

LTave Pemberton's 10 00 am
ArriveBrooksville 1045 am
Ledve Brooksville 4 20 p m
Arrive Pemberton's 5 00 pm
Leave Palatka 10 30 am 2 05 pm
Arrive Gainesville 1 00 p m 4 45 p m
Leave Gainesville 8935am $305pm
Arrive Palatka 11 20 am 5 00 p m
Leave Astor 7 20 a m
1, Bryanville 7 35 am
I Cummings 7 45 a m
Sellars Lake 7 55 a m
Summit 8 10 am
SRavenswood 8 20 am
Pittman 8 30 a m
,, Altoona 8 50 am
SGlendale 9 00 am
SUmatilla ......... 9 If a m
Forrt MasQon -**QJ^oj









* 9 12 8
7 18 3
8 9 11
11 7 10
7 12 10
8 13 7
9 10 9
9 8 11
12 5 11
11 8 9
13 10 5
11 13 4
11 12 6
11 11 6
12 10 6

./ j

79 33 54
.79 38 59
81 37 59
82 32 55
83 36 60
75 37 56
74 32 56
79 35 54
81 42 60
78 34 58
79 38 62
83 40 64
79 37 62
73 32 54
73 24 54






State News in Brief.
The each crop around Waldo promi-
ses to be unusually large.
Peen-To peaches in the neighborhood
of Altamonte are looking well, and
promise a large crop.
The Plant City Courier says Smith
Dorrien, of Kissimmee, has 70,000 cab-
bage plants set out.
Tomatoes are being brought to Key
West from the Windward Keys in large
quantities. Over 1,500 crates were ship-
ped last week to New York.
Julius Caesar, the aged colored hunts-
man of Tampa, whose exploit in killing
a monster wild cat was recently recorded,
killed last week a gray fox that meas-
ured three feet three inches in length
from tip to tip.
One gentleman in the vicinity of Wal-
do, who already has a peach orchard of
1,500 trees, is now setting out 2,000 more
trees. Just before the freeze of last
year he set out quite a number of trees,
which bore fru't largely last season.
Profs. Dall, of Smithonian Institute,
and Wilcox, of the Academy of Sci-
ences, of Philadelphia, passed through
Tampa Monday, on their way to Lake
Okeechobee region in quest of natural
history specimens of various kinds, but
more especially of fossil shells and min-
eralogical specimens.
Tbe Hernando Tournament Associa-
tion will hold a grand tournament at
Brookiville on March 2d, when fifty
knights in costume will contest for the
nine prizes offered. The railroads will
give reduced rates to all who wish to
attend. A grand day is expected, and
the festivities will wind up with a ball in
the evening.
The catch of fish on the river, as re-
ported by the Sanford Fish Company,
amounts to about four barrels daily,
nearly all shad. The success of the
fishermen has been steadily increasing,
and will probably reach its highest limit
by the beginning of March. The season
lasts until April. The season is up to the
average.-Sanford Journal.
Gainesville has had a wonderful revi-
val of religion, over 400 uniting with the
churches of the city. The Gainesville
Record states; "Most of the United
States, county and town officers have
joined the church. One bartender has
joined and the owner of a saloon has
said that he intends to get rid of his
stock of liquors and join the church.
Whisky in our town is doomed."
Mr. D. D. Wyman, of Archer, last sea-
son experimented in tobacco culture
with such f ivorable results that he will
plant ten acres this season. His plants
are already growing in the seed bed. and
the land, which is all hammock, is being
prepared. Mr. Wyman is confident of
success, and he believes, with hosts of
others, that the tobacco industry will be
a great thing for Alachua county.
The resuscitation of tobacco-growing
in Gadsden will, in ten years, make this

Daily Times-U*,+

(Published every day in the year,)
and enlarged toan


As a newspaper the TIMES-UNION now stands
without a rival in Florida, and the peer of any
the South. Having the exclusive right to the
Associated Press Despatches, its own correspon-
dent in Washington, and special correspondents
throughout the State, its State and general news
is complete, comprehensive, accurate, and trust-
worthy. No Floridian who wishes to keep
breast of w h at is going on in his own State and
in the world at large can afford to be without it.
Terms [in advance) $10 per year; $5 for six
months; $2.50 for three months; $Ipermonth.
Sunday issue), by mail, six months, $4; one year,
$8. The Sunday TIMES-UNION by mail, one
year, $2.

+ Tho Weekly Timges.*

The FLORIDA WEEKLY TIMES, the weekly edi-
tion of the TIMES-UNION) is admitted to be the
best dollar newspaper in the South and one of
the best family journals in the country. It is a
great 56-column paper, eight pages, filled to th@A%
brim with State and General News, Market and
Weather reports, etc. Its Agricuwttt Depart-
meot, edited by Judge KNAPP, agent t the Na-
tional Bureau of Agriculture, is written with
special reference to Florida's climate, soil and
productions, and alone worth ten time s its
subscri tion price Also, a large colored "mm q/
Florida to all yearly subscribers free. Terms
in advance), $1 a year; 50 cents fox six months.
Remittances !should be made by draft, money
order,*or postal note, or registered, letter.
C. H. JONE & BRO., Publishers,

Mv Rulu as vilvAlluv w zurInIMIA &V -Y


Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.

"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
this year.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
this fertilizer.
Ft. Mason, Fla.

Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
looking finely.
a *
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are- those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in a few days another


Satsuma, St. Michael's Blood, Markhaur's
Premium, Double Imperial, Native Sour.
The lemons exhibited by Mr. Phelps
were of the following varieties: Villa
Franca, Belair Premium, Genoa, Sicily,
Without attempting to enumerate
Orange county's exhibit, let us turn our
attention to Sumter county, which had
already held an exhibition of her own
at Leesburg. Here we found Major O.
P. Rooks, who was awarded 17 premi-
ums for his exhibits at New Orleans, and
who did much toward securing Florida's
gold medal. Major Rooks was assisted
by Messrs. O. Albright, F. W. Spicer, A.
J. Phares, R. K. Coburn, Rev. J. F.
Richmond, and others. Mr. Albright
had a magnificent collection of the pro-
ducts of newly reclaimed saw-grass
lands, and he promised to write an ac-
count of his methods, which will be a
valuable addition to Mr. Green's series on
saw-grass lands.
=-Among Sumter's fruits, were shad-
docks measuring 30 inches in circum-
ference, and a peculiar orange resemb-
ling a Navel originated by L, M. Hitch-
cock, of Leesburg. It is heavy, juicy,
seedless and nearly as sour as a lemon.
Mr. Hitchcock claims that it becomes
sweet in June and July. There was also
Drake's Star orange, marked with longi-
tudinal ribs, grown by Mr. Drake, of Lake
Harris, also yellow Cattley guavas, both
ripe and green, a large pineapple, and
other fruits and vegetables too numer-
ous to mention. There were also fine
samples of domestic wines, jellies,
pickles, syrups, sugar, etc.
In the centre of all, rose a tall pyramid
covered with oranges, and in front was a
handsome aquarium. The exhibit of
packed oranges was particularly fine,
the sizing, packing and wrapping being
seemingly perfect. I
We must here pause in our account of
this grand exhibition, as we cannot now
give to it the space it demands. In the
next number we will give some account
of the exhibits of other counties.
A. H. C.


This is Just What the Times-
Union is Doing.
(From the Rochester, N. Y. Herald.)
Eastern newspaper offices and Eastern
business men are, about the first of the
year, flooded with "trade editions" of
enterprising Western newspapers-great
sheets of sixteen, twenty-four, and even
thirty-two pages, filled with statistical
and descriptive matter about the busi-
ness of the city in particular where the
paper is printed, and generally of the
State in which the city is located. The
Times- Union, of Jacksonville, Florida,
has caught up the idea and produced a
finely printed and valuable number; and
if the Board of Trade of that place would
also follow the enterprising example of
the West, it would buy ten thousand or
more qf the papers and send them "where
they would d__the most_go _.The
Times-Union is doing a wonderful
amount of work for Florida, and it
seems to be a little too aggressive for the
too-easy going people there, but in an-
other year they will begin to reap the
benefits, and then they will not be sorry
that they were waked up.
--------- *_* -0
Agricultural Reform.
Writing from Terry, Miss., Dec. 14,
a correspondent of the Picayune says:
It is most generally conceded that in
this section it will soon be king fruits
and vegetables and not king cotton.
The estimates, which are very accurate
for this year, are about 8,000 bearing
fruit trees, 75 acres of land and $15,182
for the fruit and vegetable business, and
2,500 bales of cotton, 12,500 acres of
land and $87,500; this gives for fruits
and vegetables about $202.40 per acre
and for cotton about $7 per acre. There
is nothing the matter with our country,
only we are trying to make money on
too much the wrong thing. Receipts of
cotton are not so far in arrears of last
year as expected.
Small farms pay better, as a general
rule, than large ones. Instead of plant-
ing forty acres in cotton, plant ten, and
expend half the amount it would cost to
cultivate the extra thirty acres, in fer-
tilizer for your ten acre patch, and you
will make more cotton, at about one-
third the expense than your forty acres
would have made you.
Blackberry Culture.
An Ohio correspondent asks for in-
struction upon the cultivation of the
blackberry in the field. In reply we
would say that m field cultivation the
blackberry is set in rows about eight feet
apart and three to four feet apart in the
rows. If they are properly planted the
new shoots from the roots will begin to
show themselves in a very few weeks.

Two or three of these only are allowed
to grow the first > ear, and the ground
ought to be kept free from weeds and
frequently stirred. It is recommended
to pinch off the terminal shoots of each
plant when it has grown to a height of
about three feet. That causes the plant
to throw out side shoots and form a
bushy top. There will be no fruit the
first year, but the second year the pre-
vious year's growth of wood will bear
fruit and then die. Therefore as soon
as the fruit is gathered, the wood which
bore it should be cut away, that the new
growth of wood may have plenty of
room. If the system of pinching off the
terminal shoot of the plant, as above re-
commended, is not followed, the stalk
will' grow tall and slim. Some permit
this. But if it is permitted the stalk
Should have some support or it may be
Blown over. The system recommended,
however, is the one by which the most
fruit can be obtained. In the cultiva-
tion of the blackberry, we must always
Remember that it is a rank feeder. The
ground must therefore be very rich, and
Sno crop will give a better return for th(
t application of good manure.-Western
, Rural.

Ensilage for the South. cargo of the same potatoes, which we
Perhaps there is no other part of the will sell at the following prices:
Praps tere is no other part of the Chili Red ..... peare $..
Union, where the preservation of green EaliRoe ........ per barrel $3.50.
fodder, by means of the silo, can be Early Rose. ............. ..$3.00.
made more useful than in sections of the Beauty of Hebron..........$3.00.
South. Haying comes very early and Every barrel guaranteed as represented,
in the very worst season of the year for Remit with order, and we will ship the
rains, viz.: the early summer, making i potatoes promptly.
the curing of clover and grass exceed- CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
ingly troublesome. The past season it Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
rained almost without intermission dur-
ing the most part of May and all of
June, and to put up several acres of k // et e aTls
heavy clover and grass involved serious
. With a silo it would have been no SACKSONVILLE MARKETS.
trouble at all; the grass cut during the

few hours of sunshine could have been
put into the silo, and the work of having
would have been done with. With the
extreme facility for growing such an
abundance of fodder as may be found in
the South-clover, grass of various
kinds, cow peas, millet, corn, and one
following another through a long sea-
son, the silo seems to be the very thing
that is wanted. The cow-pea, so valued
in the Southern States as a fodder plant,
promises to be of ,the greatest value as
ensilage.-American Agriculturist.

will make the concrete. He hopes to
have the building completed next year.
-Titusville Star.
Notes from Gadsden County.
The Time-Union's special correspon-
dent at Mt. Pleasant, under date of Feb-
ruary 14, writes as follows:
"The Times-Union, ever wide-awake
and vigilant for Florida's welfare, has
rarely given utterance to a wiser sug-
gestion, or one fraught with greater pos-
sibilities, than that in regard to a sub-
tropical exposition in Jacksonville next
winter. Such an exposition, wisely
planned and put into proper hands to
execute, would enlist the active co-
operation of every public-spirited man
and woman in the State. It would be
the best possible way to solve the "miss-
ing tourist" problem; it would result
in a happy meeting and greeting of our
own people, and a commingling with
those of the Norh and West; it would
be worth a million dollars to Jackson-
ville and many times that amount as an
advertisement of the State. It is a mat-
ter of regret, however, that the sugges-
tion has passed comparatively unno-
Some good sized patches for tobacco
culture are being carefully prepared
around here, and if half the seed that
has been sown does well, there will be
no scarcity of plants.
Several days ago I received a packet
of tobacco seed from Colonel W. D.
Chipley, and accompanying it was a
circular letter from General John S.
Williams, of Mount Sterling, Ky., set-
ting forth the value of sorghum as a
forage plant, and suggesting its cultiva-
tion for that purpose in Florida. 1 am a
native of Kentucky, and used to be
familiar with a number of saccharine
varieties of sorghum, but in my obser-
vation none of them were regarded as
good for forage plants; in fact, the stalk
was considered positively injurious to
stock, on occount of the hard, cutting
nature of its exterior. I believe, how-
ever, that if run through a good feed-
cutter, the fodder and heads would make
excellent feed for all kinds of stock.
The stalk could be used for making syr-
up. Utilized in that way, sorghum
would certainly be a valuable addition
to Florida crops.
I know that it will do well here, for I
tried it on a small scale two years ago.
I planted about 400 hills of what I used
to know as Chinese red top sorghum.
I planted it the 31st of March in checks
about three feet each way and thinned
to three stalks in a hill. It was in a
patch of sea island cotton, and received
the same cultivation as the cotton. The
growth was rapid and the stalks large,
maturing the third week in July. As it
was merely an experiment I only saved
the heads and a few top blades of fod-
der, which was eaten readily by cattle,
hogs andl chickens.

The South Florida Exposition.

The great success of the exposition
ijt hold A- Orl.ndo is snmomethin to be

was very large. We auction 1,000 Floridas on
Wednesday, and hope to find the fruit of
good quality and sound.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
CINCINNATI, February 21.-Bright oranges
$2.50@3; russetts $1.50@2.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
BALTIMORE, February 21.-The demand
still continues good. Quotations are the same
as last reported.es
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
PHILADELPHIA, February 21. The mar-
ket is firm. Fancys 6@3.25; good bright
$2.50@2.75; russetts, small fruit and extra
large, $L0@2.
Commission Merchants' Quotations.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
NEW YORK, February 21.-The receipts of
oranges bi the Savannah steamer wererforty-
three hundred boxes, mostly inferior fruit.
Fancy grade are held at firm prices. Choice
beans sold at $5"a crate; peas $4; beets $2; cab-
bage 53@3.50; strawberries selling $1.50@2.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
CHICAGO, February 21.-The market is im-
proving. Fancy bright oranges are selling
for $3@3.50; russetts $2@2.25. The weather is
NEW YORK, February 21.- The Western
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the
Havana leaf is in active demand. New
York Pennsylvania and Western sell at from
$4 to $15 per 100 pounds. Havana, 60 cents to
$1.05 per pound. Sumatra, $1.20 to $1.60 per
ST. LOUIS, February21.-The demand for
leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
LOUISVILLE, February 1.-There is a
good demand, especially for the better grades
of which there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND, February 21.-The market is
improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The better grades of stemming leaf
sell rapidly at from 9 to 13 cents per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
to 20 cents.
DANVILLE February 21.-Business is im-
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
BALTIMORE, February 21.-The market is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to $15 per
100 pounds.

Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.

JACKSONVILLE, February 19,1887.
MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed, $8 20; D. S.
long clear sides $8 20; D. S. bellies $815;
smoked short ribs 8 87%; smoked bellies 8 75;
S C. hams, uncassed fancy, 123/; S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, 9%c; S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvassed, 8c; California or pic-
nic hams, 8yc. Lard-riflned tierces 7c;
Mess beef-barrels $1050, half barrels $5 75; mess
pork $14 75. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7l@7V;
dressed hogs 8%c; sheep:9c; pork sausage 8c;
loins 9%c; long bologna 7c; head cheese 6%c;
Frankfort sausage 10 c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
BUTTERINE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
16c; Dairy 15.
CHEESE-Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
GRAIN-Corn-The market is steady.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
60c@... per bushel; car load lots 58c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57c per bushel;
car load lots 54@56c per bushel. Oats are bet-
ter demand, firmer at the following figures:
mixed, in job lots, 41c, car load lots 40c; white
oats are 3 to 4c higher all round, Bran steady
and higher, $19 50@21 per ton, job lots.
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice,
small boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $16 75
to $17 50 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL-$2 90 to $3 00 per
FLOUR-Firmer and higher; best patents
$5 60@6 CO0; good family $5 10- common $4 25.
GROUND FEED-Per ton $24.
HIDES-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@13cy2; and country dry salted 11@
llc; 'butchers dry salted 9@9Yc. Skins-Deer
flint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c;
fox 10@20c, Beeswax, per pound, 18c; wool
free from burs 22@25c; burry, 10@15c; goat
skins 10@25c apiece.
COFFEE-Green Rio 16@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 30@33c; Mocas, roasted, 30@38c;
Red, roasted, 23@25c.
COTTON SEED MEAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal $2150@22 50 per ton.
TOBACCO STEMS-Market quiet but firm @
$13 00 per ton.
LIME-Eastern, job lots, $100 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime $115. Cement-American $2 00,
English $4 75 per barrel.I
RICE-The quotations vary, according to
quantity from 3>@6>c per pound.
SALT-Liverpool, per sack, $100; per car
load, 85@90c.
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc.
CHEESE-Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 33c; mixed 25c; half-
grown 20 to 25c.
"EGGs-Duval County 15 per dozen with a
mited demand and good supply.
IRxSH POTATOES-Northern potatoes $2 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 60; Chili Reds $2 75.
ONIONS-New York, $325; Yellow Denver
$3 50 per barrel; White Onions, $375 per bar-
Florida cabbage 9 to 10c. Imported from
Germany 13c,
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per
NORTHERN TURNIPS-Good supply at $2 25
per barrel.
GREEN PEAS-Per box $2 25.
Foreign and Domestic Fruits. -
PRUNES-French, 1Oc.
PINE A.PPLES-Per barrel $6.
LEMONS-Messinas, $4 00 per box.
APPLES-New York $4 00 to $4 50 per barrel.
FIGs-In layers 13c; in linen bags 9c.
DATES-Persian-Boxes 9c; Frails 7c.
GRAPES-10C per pound, with poor demand.
They are of very fine quality. Malagas, $5 50
per keg.
ORANGEsm-Florida-Per barrel 00; per
box $2 75 to $4 25.
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $2 00
per bunch.
NUTS-Almonds 20c; Brazils 121/c; Filberts
(Sicily) 12c; English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c;
Marbots, 1 c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts 5%c@6c;
Cocoanuts 52c.
RAISINS-ondon layers, $3 20 per box.
CRANBERRIES-$3-50 per crate; '$10 00 per
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
City Market.
Carrots wholesale at $2 50 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents to 75
cents per hundred, and retail 5 cents per
Florida Cabbage wholesale for 9 to 10 cents
each, and retail at 15 cents.
Quail wholesale, at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 to $3 00 per box,
and retail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at $1 00 per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 50 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 25 to 30 cents per
dozen heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 50 to $2 75 per bar-
rel and retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 70 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in poor demand. Dual county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 15 cents
per dozen, and retail at 30 cents.
Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 8
to 9 cents per head. They retail at from 15 to
20 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale $2.25
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart, or
two quarts for 15 cents.
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from S0
to 35 cents each; retaiI 40 to 50 ceuts each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-chickens, retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, $1.00 to
$1.75 each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cants,
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 60 to 75 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart

The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
change, are sent to the TIMES-UNION by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
NEW YORK, February 21.-This fine open
weather aids sales of oranges materially and
our market is stronger. To-day a heavy
Mediterranean cargo was auctioned, the
oranges showing an advance, and the attend-
ance from points within 200 miles from here

An investment in knowledge always
pays the best interest.
Sincerity does without talking; insin-
cerity talks without doing.
The gloomiest mountain never casts a
shadow on both sides at once.
None are so fond of secrets as those
who do not mean to keep them.
CHAPPED HANDS.-Nitrate of lead,
fifteen grains ; glycerine, one ounce.
Apply freely three times a day.
The Bible says : "Seest thou a man
diligent in business, he shall stand be-
fore kings ; yea, he shall not stand be-
fore mean men."
Inquiries relating to ailments of do-
mestic animals will be referred to an
experienced veterinary surgeon, Dr. D.
O. Lyon, of Jacksonville.
Eyes, yet they see not-potatoes. Ears,
yet they hear not-corn. Mouths, yet
they speak not-rivers Hands, yet they
feel not-clocks. Brains, yet they think
A bath should never be taken imme-
diately after a meal. The best times for
bathing are before dinner and before
going to bed at night.
Avoid cosmetics and hair dyes. Nearly
all of the commercial fertilizers contain
mineral poisons. The best cosmetic is
fresh air: and gray hairs are honorable.
Fashions which attempt to change con-
stitutional features are criminal as they
are futile.
The pecan is destined to become a
valuable crop in Florida. The tree,
everything favorable, will bear in from
four to five years, and the yield per acre
is placed at from $400 to $500. The
pecan will grow where the hickory nut
will, and does not require a great
amount of nursing. We have eaten the
Louisiana pecan fresh from the parent
-trough and a -more delicious nut never
grew.-De Leon Springs Courier.
. Tin canned goods, when opened,
should be immediately transferred to
glass or earthenware receptacles. Recent
investigations show that cases of poison-
ing from eating canned goods have
arisen from the acid of the canned food
attacking the solder of the tins, and
sometimes from decomposition accele-
rated by an electrical action between
the solder and the iron of the tin. Never
leave canned fruits, meat or fish in
opened tin cans.

The following table, compiled from the records
of the Jacksonville Signa Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and direction of wind for
the month of February, as observed at the Jack-
sonvllle station during the past 15 years:


General Business and Real Estate Agency of

If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly improving section,
or if you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on two-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
Ninety days -to-loreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
further Information and send for list of prop-
erty for Sale.
Tampa, Florida.
REFERENCES-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
ville ; First National Bank, Tampa, and Hon.
John T. Lesley, Tampa


a rich county. TMe tobacco grown here
has been pronounced by experts the best
domestic tobacco grown in the United
States. Havana seed has been distribu-
ted to a thousand different persons, with-
in the last thirty days, by the clerk
of the circuit court and the mercantile
firm of William Munro. There are three
cigar factories now in operation in
Quincy. ,.
Work on the extension of the White
Railroad from Daytona to New Smyrna
has begun. The line has been surveyed
through to New Smyrna, and a force of
hands are at work cutting out the right
of way between Daytona and Port Or-
ange. The work of grading will soon
be finished. It is also reported that in
the near future. a bridge will be built
across the St. Johns river near Rolleston,
and a connection made at Palatka with
the Jacksonville, Tampa aud Key West
Ry. When this is done the gauge of the
road will be changed.
Over four hundred fine sticks of cedar
are now on our wharf. They were cut
near New Smyrna, rafted up the Hali-
fax river to Daytona, and thence trans-
ferred by the White road to the St.
Johns. They will be sent to Berlin,
Prussia, and the wood used for pencils.
Florida now contains all the cedar avail-
able for this purpose, and the late visit
of Faber, the great pencil man, was
caused by his anxiety to secure a new
supply of material. Mr. Faber ex-
pressed himself as entirely satisfied with
the quality of the wood shown him.-
SPalatka News
A contract has been made with Neafie
& Levy, Philadelphia, for the construc-
tion of a stern-wheel light-draught steam-
boat to draw only fifteen inches of water,
for use in Florida streams. She will be
the lightest draught vessel ever built in
the United States. The new craft will
be 85 feet in length, 20 feet beam, with
two high-pressure engines, cylinders 9
inches in diameter and a 3-foot stroke.
The hull will be of wood. It is intended
that the vessel shall work her way up
into the shoal waters in the interior of
Florida to Kissimmee, where she will be
used in the interest of the Disston land
One of the most important events for
the town of Titusville was consumma-
ted this week, through the energy and
management of our indefatigable real
estate dealer, Colonel Milton Grover. It
was the sale of the Titus House prop-
-erty, consisting of the hotel and about
three acres of land to a Trenton, N. J.,
capitalist, D. S. Hutchinson. In an inter-
view with the gentleman we learned
that it was his, intention to put up a
large house, facing the river, and lay ou
a fifty-foot street from Washington ave-
nue to the hotel, selling off the lots for
business purposes. The hotel will be
45x160 feet, three stories high, and wil
contain sixty sleeping rooms on the two
upper floors. It w ill be made of con
create, and Mr. R. estimates that when
completed and furnished it will cost be
tween $40,000 and $50,000. He will pu
a crusher on the ground soon, and corm
mence crushing the coquina rock, which

proud, of. Seeing what may be accom-
plished and what has been accomplished
in this State, we may take renewed
courage and place greater confidence in
thd future. We have se of Florida's products brought together by
the exertion of a very few counties.
Four counties filled ten thousand feet of
exhibition space full to repletion. Let
our forty counties be animated by the
same spirit next winter, and put forth
the same exertion, and Florida's Sub-
Tropical Exposition of next winter will
be the grandest ever seen.
The South Florida Exhibition was
well managed. It was well systemat-
ized. Order is the first law of nature
and so it should be with an exhibit of
nature's products. Such a heterogen-
ous conglomeration of bed quilts and or-
anges, cabbages and jewelry, rattle-
snakes, dry goods, pickles and coffins
we presume was never seen before and
never will be again.
At the South Florida Exposition the
management was about as good as could
be. We would have remanded all work
of an artistic character to a separate
building. All of the Orange county ex-
hibits of this character were in a distinct
building and presented a beautiful ap-
pearance, there being no object in sight
which did not harmonize with the gen-
eral effect. The exhibits of art made by
other counties were placed with their
other exhibits in the main building, and
their good effect was in great measure
lost by the unharmonious surroundings.
Manufactures were assigned to a
third building, and such space as they
could not fill was given up to merchants
for a display of their wares, for better
arrange ment than at the State Fair
where he main building was little more
than an epitome of Bay street.
The main building -of the South Flor-
ida Exhibition was devoted almost ex-
clusively to products of the orchard and
farm. Orange county, with a little
assistance from Polk, Dade and Monroe
counties, filled half of the space with a
profusion of fresh and luxuriant winter
products will calculated to suggest a
land of plenty, and to make a northerner
shudder at thought of the snow-driftshe
has left behind. The most notice-
able of Orange county's exhibit is the ex-
tremely fine collection of citrus fruits of
Rev. Lyman Phelps. This well-known
orange grower exhibited 33 of the 44 va-
Srieties of orange cultivated by him, and 5
of the 20 varieties of lemon he has ex-
perimented with, .besides grape fruit,
I pomegranate, etc.
S The following is a list of Mr. Phelps'
t 33 varieties, the first 5 being his first
- choice, and the first 10 being his choice:
SJaffa, Majorca, Riverside Navel, Malta
SBlood, Malta Oval, Early Oblong, Homo-
l sassa, Mediterranean Sweet, Mandarin,
Gary's Mediterranean Sweet, Portugal,
- Dummitt, Sour Seville, Parson's Navel,
i Jenny Lind, Nonpareil, Malta St. Mich-
- ael, Magnum Bonum,' DuRoi, White,
t St. Michael, DeBary's Best, Egg, Wolfs-
- kill Favorite, Dr. Starke's Best, Sweet
h Seville, Onoro, Mandarin, Tangerine,

Sfumerk Company will pay 25 cents per
pound for Yellow Jasmine Blossoms, delivered
at 5 East Bay street Parties who can pick
Flowers for the above Company will please cor-
respond with them.