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UFPKY NEH LSTA



Florida farmer & fruit grower
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055763/00028
 Material Information
Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower
Uniform Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower (Jacksonville, Fla. 1887)
Alternate title: Florida farmer and fruit grower
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill. ; 50 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: C.H. Jones & Brother
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: July 13, 1887
Publication Date: 1887-1889
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1887)-v. 3, no. 3 (Jan. 16, 1889).
General Note: A.H. Curtiss, editor.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000454290
oclc - 11040152
notis - ACL6442
lccn - sn 95026760
System ID: UF00055763:00028
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch (Live Oak, Fla.)
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch and farmer and fruit grower

Full Text

































HORTICULTURAL EXPERIMENT. The Kelsey Plum in Favor. A FLORIDA HAY FARM.
-- In bounection with Mr. Burr's inter-
Budding and Root-Grafting the eating article, e quote the following re- One Hundred and Four Acres in
Kelsey Plum, Etc. r ties: Johnson Grass.
Eddor Florida Fbru,,Frand FYr-. ,.ti. -. The Kelsey Japan plum, so generally Editr Fr'lo-.a f'irier a't/ Proi-G. ri-, i
I have noticed some recent statements introduced last year,'has made a very I hate your favor, dated 18th inst., te-
regarding the Kelsey plum, so widely at satisfactory growth. Where budded to questing details of muiy experience with
variance with my own experience here native plum stocks they have done even growing the grasses, "especially John-
as to be a matter-of surprise. better than the original roots. Reliable son grass." Complying therewith as re-
It was stated that the peach stock is parties who have grown this fruit in guards the latter, it may not be amiss to
generally preferred in propagating the Florida report that it ripens between explain that I came to Florida with tile
Kelsye plum, as the Chickasaw plum August 16 and September It. Has a one sole intention of raising hay. but, al-
stock does not grow fast enough to small stone. Three to five of these though I have for the. past two years
keep pace with the Kelsey. bud Wtorked plums will weigh a pound. They are given my almost undivided attention to
on it. However true this may be for firm, and ship well. They are extra Its- studying and experimenting with
other localities, more naturally adapted ciou< when ripe. When evaporated they grasses which, in my judgment, prom-
perhaps to peach growth, it certainly is exceed any prune o1 commerce. Buds ised, in this section, comp, nsating re-
nut, true of this section. bea when one and two years old, and suits in hay crops, I respectfully submit
I procured Kelseys on peach stocks never fail to have a heavy crop. A food that my residence within the Stare is as
(June budsi in the spring of ,i5. Tle as well as a luxury. They can be vyet of such comparatively short dura-
first year's growth-was good. The se- planted between young orange trees and tion, with consequent attainment of pos-
ond year they were injurcml by the Jan- will pav a good profit before the oranges itie data incomplete, I dicslainm the
uarv freeze and made little headway, hear. Several of our citizn- s have -pioprietV of being quoted as an author-
Thi year they have nude-, so tat eight or already planted them, and uany more ity upon the subject.
ten inches of growth with a few fruit set. will do so.-Micanopy G.izette. Alrso, I would state that the article re-
in the late summer and fall of t.SrI MW. G. G. Gibbs, ,of Tallahassee Nurs- feared to as copied from the Floridian, is
began l.'uddug the Kelsey on oneand two series left one of these plums at '.he Flor a mixed statement, of accomplished
year old G(hickasaw stocks, and these idian office this week. Last July ha facts and an outline of plans which- I
Sbuds now have.full, compact beads from budded it on a peach stock, and now the hope to bring to a happy consummation
seven to elren feet higai, notwithstand- tiee is loaded with plums as large as the in t the neAr future, recorded as facts-ac-
ing the fact of their having been ru- ordinary pea.ch. Mr. GibLes is satisfied complished. With tohie preliminary re-
peatedly pinched and cut bick to insure this fruit will do well in Middle Florida.- mark'-. I will state that twe following is
stocky growth. Floridian. substantiallythe meth od pursued in pre-
All my trees were cut back so closely -- -.an ig- paring the land to grow grasies:
last fall and winter for lbids and graft', I. pa1r5, when the lands (designated as
that only a few bloomed, and one tree Horne's Method. with Peaches. a1dy loahen underlaid wib clay corn-
(one -eai old at time of blooming set The following is a communication prising the -'Florida Hay Farm" were
fruit, which is now as green in color as from our esteemed correspondent, Mr. purchased, the fields at present in grass
the leave on the tree. and measures W. P. Hornet. f Glen St. Mary, to tile were occupied in great part with crops
seven and a half inches in circum- Baker County Scat: of corn and cotton, while upon all
ferEnce, while the fruit on the peach At your request I will give you my "cleared" space grew a more or less
stoc k measures one inch less. and has a plan of setting out a peach orchard, and heavy growth of beggar weed, crab
yellow tinge. ... ol-. about the cost per acie. Tle lands in grass, rag wed, etc. With indifferent
The Kelsey buds have slightly -out- and around Macclenny hare had nearly, .cultivation the corn crop was found to
-- grown-tibeickasaw-stocks,b.utii no all-the large, timber cut off:. therefore, average thirteen bushels per sore. -
-case doetrW.ver rowthsiook-as't hough the lands.ar very ..easi ly cleared. Ten As soon as t'e crops coul.-beiremoved-
S irvould be sufficient to be harmful. In acres of land here can he-cleared ..Lnd -immediate steps were tadketi ut to
r '-.f1ntv-. ye-t'fiiin-.my .x-aerim ss .fenced, [--think,l for .t teen doLaxs" pek 'clean-and. jtulz,,4 Jad.,F
to..peaches. woiekb these' .aeare, Iftbe stuonp are taken up, t he to sowing gras seed.- The stumi.hsow-
S't- Et6 rt rhe ofcumotie rff r-re.st wiltbe, sthy .five' dollars per acre. ever, a large'percentage of which waere
rapidly as they grow older. .. ra few years' experience in the concealed from .view by a thin covering
It must be borne in mind that the s0-r. Aach-business, I think the best plan for of soil, were found to be so: numerous. :
'Ch-ickasaw plum is found here in great titig out an orchard is this: Have the the intention of sowing -grass seed-that.
variety, the fruit varying in size, flavor rows run east and west, in ordet to get fall had to be abandoned and a large.
and time of ripening, and there is also the'sunshine; plant the trees fifteen to force of laborers .engaged and put to
a great difference in the habit of growth eighteen feet one way, and have the work extracting stumps. These con-
of the trees. Some of them are very rows at least thirty feet apart the other. sisted In the main of the following var-
vigorous. while others are of such slow By so doing, it gives a good space be- eties: oak-, hickory, pine, gum, reagno-
growth I fwoubl.c.be. afraid to u se them. tween the trees to plant other crops, lia and sassafras. Anticipating having
The variety I prefer for this purpose has You can raise all kinds of vegetables, considerable work to do in that direc-
no local name, and ripens in the latter corn or cotton, and in cultivating these tion, I had ordered a stump puller with 6! "
part of June and July, a very pretty yel- crop you cultivate the trees at a very lifting capacity of 35,600-pounds. but as
low fruit, with light red cheek, about small expense. Besides. I find when the four men only'were required. to operate':
three-quarters of an inch in diameter, treeshave a good distance they do-much the lame, ih6 other bands were set to
having a bitter acidic taste. s. better. The trees set out fifteen by w6rk digging and 'cutting 'out, the rule
Under favorable circumstances this thirty feet, give about one hundred to followed in the latter case being "to a
variety will make stocks in one season's the acre. cI depth of not less than three feet from a-
growth irom the seed measuring, from For a te a ten acre orchard I would plant level ground surface." With the stump'
a half to three-quarters of an inch in di- one thousand trees. The cost to pur- puller the stumps were taken out entire
ameter. Itisgood forsoreeyestosee ho- chase a good variety of early and late particularly as regarded tap-roots, the.. -
the Kelsey plum grows on these stocks, trees, and set them out properly, would latter,jin some instances' exceeding' A-
I have recently been looking around be two hundred and fifty dollars; clear- twelve feet in length. In the spring'of '+
here to see how the Kelseys on peach ing and fencing the same, say one hun- 1886 about. fifty acres had been thor-'h
stocks were doing with other parties, dred and fifty, which makes four hun- oughly cleaned 'out, the stumpA and rutil
and found tliht in one irestarice they, ded dollars. I do not think a person bish gathered into heaps and burned; the
were doing even wOrse-than mine, while" 'could invest four hundred dollars tm any resultant ashes being blown and strewn -
in another case, where they bad been other business .in Florida that-.will pay upon the land.
excessively fertilized with potash, the as well as peaches. Now, let's see. The After a thorough.plowing and harrow-
trees were larger than mine, and had trees commence to bear some the second- ing, from 200 to 300 pounds of genuine
set more fruit, some of which is now year. but we won't count that. The third German kainit per acre was broadca-ted
ripe, and the balance coloring up. This year, say they will bear a peck to the upon the- land, allowed to dissolve by
fruit is undersized, being, I should tree (though I have trees now with two subsequent rains and sink into the soil.
judge. about six to seven inches in cir- bushels on them-second yearn. Say which then being again plowed and har-
cumference. The potash probably that peck is worth fifty cents. That is rowed, was planted to cow peas, thiee
caused this premature ripening. These fifty dol'. is per acre. Fourth year they feet.apart in the row. and cultivated with
same trees bore fruit, last year. but I did will beat' -e bushel, say two dollars. a horse hoe in order to keep down andti
not ascertain the.time of maturity. The After thi. le trees will bear more and kill out weeds. The peas, upon matur-
growth of these trees has also been ex- more every year, and if there is any care ing, were plowed under and left a i-rea-
tremelv unsatisfactory. They hare made at all taken with them they will live and sonable time to decompose. Two-horse
-, very little gain the last two seasons. bear for twenty years in this county. plows and a Moline gangiplow, followed
I ha-'e been experimenting for several We will say that after the trees get five in part with a subsoil plow to break and
years wi:h the Peen-to peach worked on years old they bear two bushels per loosen the soil to good depth, completed .
these Chickasaw stocks, and just as I tree. Being a flue early variety they the work to this point. .
was congratulating myself on the suc- will sell any where at two dollars per The land was now harrowed several '
cessful solution of the borer question, bushel: that is, four dollars per tree. times with a Scotch hinge harrow and
my hopes were dashed by the death of One thousand trees will make four top dressed with from '200 t) 300 pounds
the greater portion of the trees. Out of thousand dollars the fifth year after cotton t.eed meal per acre, which a 16-
about thirty two and three year old planting. Besides this, we can make at inch revolving disk harrow run cross-
trees, of magnificent proportions at'this least one hundred dollars per acre in wise over the field served to thoroughly .
time last year, barely half a "dozen are vegetables; also, raise sweet potatoes mix with the surface soil. The ground
now living. The truit prod'"-ed by after vegetables are off. The more we wasamoothed do" n by attaching a heavy
these trees was reruarka,:ly fir some plant and fertilize the land the better brush to the disk harrow from behind,
ot it measuring nine inches i; -rcum- the trees the process as a whole producing a: fine
ference, but this may have I,eeL4. ue to The above calculations are about one- mellow seed bed, and a level .surface.
the high' cultivation and ferL zatioid third less than the trees I have. bearing upon which to sow the grass seed. .
given the trees. now. For instance. I have some .trees With a broadcast- seed sower.--extra
In these experiments the plum stocks three and four years from the seed, that cleaned seed was sown at the rate of.
were tilled out by slitting the bark occa- have from two to three bushels of thirty-three. pounds per acre,- lightly' -.:
sionally with a knife, and by t-his means peaches, on, which I am selling at. four brushed,in, and rolled with a large see- ;,-
the overgrowth of the bud was ardided'. dollars per bushel here at home. So my tional iron roller. ,. .- 'bi
**To err is human," but taking all the estimate is very low. The prevailing dry weagier, of tile past -st'
facts into "consideration, I am constrain- .. spring inflicted coisidei'.rale-t damage as
ed to think there is. in this section at I.n P- tP. i.. Upon the young grass, and :thead-,ent of- n
least, a lack if assimilation between the Indian Clover at Pinellas. the annual-weed growth precludedr.-the, a
peach and plum. which will always pre- From MIr. D. G-. Watt, of Finellas, we possibility of obtainingacuttinig.forhay, an
vent the successful working of either on have received' a handsome specimen of although'the entire fields now sown.oto ,w
the other. De.stmodium triflorumn gathered by him grasses, aggreg ting 104 acres, are being.-'u,
This season I have rocot-grafted some in the middle of May. .It showed both mow6i the second time with two-hor,,e- t
Kelseys on thile Clhickasaw., and find they ripe and green seeds, ibdicating,.as we moving machines. These cuttings,, or
grow off well. The overgrowchbtheorists supposed,'-that. its sending time is nimo.wvigs, I- purpose to.continue uptil
could rit filEd .fault withi4ese'trees. throughout May-pro6ably fromm 'the .early in August. next, thereby forcing
If there afe-focalifies-where the Kel- middle of April till ihe middle of June. the grasses to root quickly, while :
seys do well on- peach stocks. I should Mr. Watt writes that there is good deal terminating weeds and preventing any k
Think root-grafting on the peach would of it on hii place, especially between of the latter going toseed. Should noth- ,t.h
be far preferable to budding. the road and tence. t-.' A c. ing of an (intoward' chai-actet"' occur in R
R.-H BurR. '- the meant me, il'rsexpected tba-t a first 'i
BOMELN IUSEIBRIEia I T The-beat tool on the farm-ist the'bh r-. cutting of gb'-clean 'nimarketable' hvi .u
.Barto*w. Polk,-Co.Fla..fJuly 1. 1887. -row. and its use should be more generVl'

I think so well -,f the Johnson grasslgiass near Augusta. Ga., Mr. N. B.
iSorghali hiialapi-ise that I propose to' Moore has derived an annual income
largely increase planted area. Experi- of -from seven thousand -to ten .thou-
mental pitches of.tihe same, side by side sand dollars. His land is allU'viail..
wit-.halfalfa, have fully confirmed my That of Mr. Davis' 'is superior to
good opinion of it and I do not hesitate the pine lands. but Johnson grass
to ascribe it a place far in advance of al- makes a good groWth on poor
falta, both as regards nuuri tousness and land. Our native sorgilum prefer poor
prospective value as a- Southern forage land. The "maiden cane," which grows
plant. Reliable analysis places its feed- so luxuriantly on the poorest worn
ing value at l$1.21 per ton. as compared lands, is supposed to be a sorghum',
to the-best timothy at $14. It is peren- though its identity, in the absence of
nial, di cult to eradicate, and when bloom, can-ot be established.
once well set, its long cane like roots To show the productiveness of this
will have reached deeply for moisture, graes-ahove and below ground-we
making' it comparatively indifferent to quote the following from Dr. Plires'
drought. Book of Grasses-
Too much care cannot be observed in In the Rural Carolinian for 1874. Mr.
preparing land for grasses, nur subse- John J. Delchampes furnishes the fol-
quent sowing of grass seed, and these lowing facts and figures: -
truths apply with greater force to tropi- "I herewith make out a resume of the
cal and sub-tropical clinimes than else- several cuttings of Jolin-on grass made
where. Granted the beginning expen- by me last year. Thle cuttings were
sive, effect follows cause, and proper made from one square yard of land at-
management, coupled with patienceand curately measured, and it was a fair av-
perseverance, will briog its reward in erage of the entire plot in grass:
due ratio. Other lands, which are being ,,. :.
prepared to sow to glasses, now plantjd- FirEr.:uttLh.. Mav 1rtih: weghl of lry
as far as circumstances permit to cow r .. ... .... ....... --......-- .......... -
peas. will be heavily fertilized. while L: i -.. Juneltra .--gh.'dry -
upon those lands already in grass I pro- T irr.'i -uting-rtd t:[ii: wiir. ,:rf .try
pose to top dress liberally w ith suitable ay '-!lt ... .. ".............. ..... i
fertilizers during the coming winter. 'h-v" a iy I3.hI tri nyl by .u ,.... ...
Iu regard to other grasses with which Fir-: el'.'(triih, .r'it b ,1r,,:n, i bii u"r -
I a-a experimenting suffiBient time has r. ice I'.le' u nt :..... w1 o
not yet elapsed for thorough testing, nor F ct.' c .i ,Ar st; r 'gil 1 ,
to a degree to warrant mention at the .. ........... -
present tim JH N B. DAVIDS. 'I"tl . .......:.... :. ....... 4
FLORIDA HAY FARMu, "Reckoning the acre at 4,840 square
Tallabassee, Fla.,. June 24, 19;t7. yards, for cctvepiernce, the result is ovei,
-- *-- ifteen tOns of dry hay per acre, twelve
THE JOHNSON GRASS. days' growth being lost by an accident,


Facts and Figures Concerning
a Valuable Hay Crop. --
This is a sto4tL grasS, quite differefit-luf.
e jal feaiaie fr iii i -. ,ii t


:QC~n, M11167 iuajzp;KaMr corn, et.- I(
W miri mize aa rs;soft
s ur- or five feet high, and bears soft

S- -,^ V


I



w ,,, .J ," ', S"
.-. ..


tn e Joused .i:-ss.
a i o Ro.rpt, h -.i s:e.:
t'o n seed tops at the summit of the
and on branches" filing from the
iWaths., We. first mnt with this gi'ass
tear Columbia', (., and it is said that
(overnor.of-thht State was' the first "to
,tioduce iP.''into this- 'cuntry-that
sin,l185,i Some years later an Ala-
ajaa planter named Johnson introduced
|to that State, whence it came to be
S.wa as Johnson grass.
ebhave seen it growing spontaneously.
0srious parts of Florida, but not cul-
5~ed in fields. Mr. Davis experiment
a..ery i'~able one, and we are glad
t-he ''aUescribed his method so.
ut Itly. Like Mr. Dansby, he does
,' xpe the soil to do much for.him
1hfi'"he des a good deal focr.the soil
rF'i a hunridred-aire field of 'Johnson


and tue season not a tarorable one. -
S:'l(lugthL ioot's from the same square
yard. of ,gi-ourfd"i in Jauary, .and '. th
weight was 2 lbs.,O oz.;, equal. to 0.4,
tons' pet acre-. Hogs devour 'thbe roots
as, eagerly. ..as.ehy..doQweet.,potaQeg j


SveryWood reisuI from ontiec're ato'lf"
It may be well to add that on thd squire
yard of ground from which I dug the
roots the grass is as thick now as on-any
other part o(.thp plot.", .
Two ppunds'and a'half 61f dry hay per
square yard shows Mr. Delchaampes'first
cutting to have given him 1'P,0i00 pounds.
Well may another writer exclaim: -If
you want grass-a grass-ithe grass-and
have rich land, this is just the thing to
fill the bill.'
If a farmer, wants his land for other
crops, he should not plant this grass.
But if h'e wants a grass field to continue
indefinitely, arid to yield heavy crops
year after year without resetting, this is'
t:he best thing he can plant. '
With the ground rich and in good
condition and warm, a bushel of good
seed broadcast in April will take posses-
sion and keep down other plants. With-
out thed6'coriditions, the seed should be
sown in drills sufficiently far apart to
admit of cultivation once or twice. Or
if roots be used. the pieces should be
placed one or two feet apart in the rows,
and the latter two feet apart, so as to
allow cultivation. In either case, the
plants will soon have and hold posses-
sion. The seed may be sown also in" Au-
gust or September.
*
A Word of Caution.
The only' objection urged against.
Johnson grass is that when once estah-
lish,-d in a locality it is difficult to eradi-
cate it or to prevent it from spreading.
The following communication to thie
Waxahatchie Mirror is the strongest pre-
sentation against it that we have seen:
About a moilth ago there was a call
through. your paper for information
about Johnson gait.' In the interest of
our farmers, I will slate that. I have
some knowledge of the growth and the
effects of this giass, derived both from
experience and olbs-eLsation. Some two
er three years ago it got started on my
farm by sowing millet seed in-which it.
was mixed. I-have worked faithfully to
get rid ofjt. going down as much as two
feet. Still it comes. I propose to get,
Id oif it if possible, for. I have seen' its
effects. in the State of Arkansas. ,
." Captain Morton., an:acquaintance of
mine living forty miles.below.-Pine Bluff,
sowed .ten acres of land on the lower end
of.his plantation, on.Arkansas river,,in
millbt. .In this millet seed there-was
some Johnson grass seed. In three years
this' Johnson grass had extended from
one end 6f -his plantation to the other, a
distance of .two miles. Sixteen years
after that I was in Arkansas and went i
down by rail from Little Rock to Pine i
Bluff, and forty miles still further down s
the river I found Cockrell plantation.
near Pine Bluff, and one of the finest.in
the State. given up to this Johnson grass.
I was reliably informed that this grass s
was'shrewa .over the ;rit-er plantations i
from Napoleon, at -the mouth, to Little
Rock, distance of 135miles. This-vast n
scope of agricultural land -was literally :i
ruined by this grass. I .was' informed t
that,the-State of Arkansas -had taken d
action,to prohibit the transportation,of t
thit grass on the cars.. t


PRICE $2 A YEAR.


Orange Culture in Sicily. -
This beautiful island has been con-
rerted into a topical garden, with al-
most every known variety of fruitgrow-
ing to perfection. Of course, there are -
many of these adapted to cultivation .-
which are not cultivated. The oranges
and lemons, proving mole profitable.-
have supplanted them, and lemons. Being
given preference. have nearly' tupereeded
orange culture in Sicily. As the plant-
ing, cultivation, manuring, etc., are the
same. however, my remarks will apply :
to one as well as the other.
The most of the orangesexported from -
Messina are grown on the Italian side of -
ihe narrow stiait that divides.theisland -
from the mainland, as I have already
stated. The difference betwe-,n the trees
varies inu diffe-ent-groves-eight bIy ten,
twelve by sixteen, and eighteen by ltwn-
ty feet apart. Every two years the trees -
are fertilized with aunimaj manure, not-
wiihstanding the apparent inexhaustible
-feitility of the soil. It i-,ionsidereda
single crop of lemtonsor oran2's here re-
moves a large per cent. of the organic
andniineral elements of the soil, which.
must be restored by am tificial means.
iThe soil is calcateclusaud eandy aro)iud
Messina, but -along the sea-,hore -it is
generally -alluvial. On the. mountain
slopes, terracing and the cost of tran-
porting -thl manure- on d:nk-kevs add
largely- to could 'u btdoain any figures on the cost
of ian'd. pla-tinp and i t Nmatiori bit
from my ow-i supposition. it amounts to
'double the cost in Florida. and on the
niouutains treble.
Competition at one time became s
great that oveiprodu: tionu-inally ensued,
and the prices became so 'low that sime -
-years the- crops did not' bear sbipment.- -
Messrs.- Cal lier & Bro, my -bahners.- in
fdrm me that ,frbit- has.,dec lined very -
.rdpidiy.the"pasifew years on ac-cointf -':


-^^^te&^fe^^a^fi^^^^^alo~ilaudiffi^^- fi i-J -


comingto bearingTh sul-is that: "-"
the groves once so prodctive'r. have.-r '- .
ceased to be remunerative, while their -
cultivation is being sadly-neglected, and -
miany are e'en abandoned. Myvobserva--. -
tions bave.to some extent confirmed this -
gloomy picture in Sicily. .
*


Manufacture of Bear Grass.
Edutir Florida Fabrmo aand Pruit-Grouerr.
.Much has been written of late years
about the fibrous plants indigenous.-to
our climate" I feel some' hesitation
about baring my name so often in pub-
lic journals, but I wish to tell you how
"bear grass" was utilized during the
war. The leaves'were soaked,. cleaned
and the fibre bleached to a beautiful
cream color. It was carefully-combed,'
and theh woven into cloth like cane.
floor matting, only the warps were not
more than half an inch apart. It was
used as a substitute for cushions by-the
ladies, and answered the purpose very
nicely.
The remembrance of this use of it has
suggested to me the possibility of-con-
verting it into matting, it it can be
cleaned by proper machinery. Perhaps
palmetto might make a less expensive
article, as the fibres are so much longer.
I do not know whether it is co tt-and
stronger than the bear grass or ..'i W-.
as you know, have the large p.lm&%&I.
on our sea coast, none that I have' 'ev-"
seen growing in the interior. If possi-
ble I wil get some of the manufactured
bear grass cloth for the Sub-Tronical Ex-
position. F. B. CaiPMaN.

Fall Oats.
The latter part of last August I sowed
about six acres of oats, and by the time
the green grass in the pasture began to
fail, the oats'had a'very heavy top. and.
I-commenced grazing my cows upon it
from one to two hours a day, and the
flow of milk. increa'seddq'ual, tb grazing
on 'good spring.grass.
LThat lasted until Ihe last of December,
when I commenced feeding hay, made
by cunttirig oats quite green, and fed in
connection with cotton seed. There was
no difference in the flow of milk, and
hut a very slight difference in the or'qualjty.of.the, butter, and it-*.,!-r
idly in'the Austiq, market at f&M'eAs
per pound, when country -.butfer was
quoted at eighteen cents.
A change to sheaf oats, or rijie. oats,' -
and cotton seed for a few days, caused :.
quite a decline in tho flow of milk. als6 .
in the color of the butter. But return-
ing to the feed of- green oats and bay
soon restored the, flow':of milk and the
col6r to the butter'. -
It is the only febd that I have tried for
milch cows that I could ever use cotton
seed in connection .with without injur-
ng the butter.,., --', -- .
The oats should' be 'mowed in the
morning, raked into loose winnows in
he evening of thesanme-day,-, remain so
rwenby-four hours, in-'uihall piles, for a
lay, then, if-itc is- good-drying,-weather,
the:haywill be ready to *put-under.shel-
ter.-Cor: Farm.and Ranch, "


J1


VOL. 1---NO.28. M'


-wet
., ---' -": /*-'.-y;--;
" -, -* ._ --.t .'?" L;-"=



., '' .S _'


-yr. -


JACKSONVILLE. FLA., WEDNESDAY. JULY 13, 1887.


-74


Ll'. _- 1:1 1, Mdolf-dm


" e an ctl -it1 1 1









FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWElR, JULY 13, 1887.


t. A'.Al ., ^ U above will do pretty well for the pres- well, and the smell of meat perhaps led
wrr iaru nunwd l/ Went, I will not tell the other now, as to the condition of the berries."
.-.a f fd "*" some of your readers might think it was It may be mentioned in. addition that
.....-.. another 'Gfisl story." in the Durling cars the atmosphere from
DISEASES OF THE GRAPE. W. P. HORNER. the ice has access to the berries, while in
___ --- the Armour car it has not. The one has
Means of Preventing Mildew STRAWBERRY GROWING. a moist cold, the other dry.
It is also hazardous to ship berries by
and Black Rot. express without ice, especially late iii
Mix sulphate of copper and lime in the III.-Review of the Past Sea- April and in May, when there has been
following proportions: 13 to 17 pounds SOn's Operations. a heavyv rain or the weathers warm and
of sulphate of copper dissolved in 22 gal- BY S. POWERS. muggy. A great deal depends on the
Ions of cold water. Then slake 33pounds r stage of ripeness at which they are
of quicklime in 6 gallons As there is no work now particularly and on the handling o th in
When the sulphate of copper is cdm- pressing in the strawberry plantations. it general. They should not be picked
pletely dissolved and the lime has is a good time to review what has been when wet w ith dew or rain, unless they
formed a homogeneous mixture, pour done the past season ar.e spread thin on tables anl thoroughly
the lotion into the copper solution, stir- Estimates of the total acreage of the dred without exposure to the sun.
ring the mixture in themeanwhile. State vary a considerable. have je- Still, it is very important to pick them
If the sulphate of copper is pure, a ceivedthree-from asmany different ex. while they ar, cold and im after the
clear blue precipitate whih settle to the perts who had good facilities for acquire night's cooling. It is not less important
bottomofthevessel,willbeobtained while ing information, all of them loeing en- topick them before they are '-fully Iripe;
gaged largely in buying and shippIna -"-y while of.a light red color, or one-
the operation is carried on. This sub- p. .. s o...,- .,-.-
stance hould he stirred up at the time These estimates run from 701) to lii) third or even one-half green ,not.
of using, so as to put it in suspension, acres. I am inclined to accept the turned).
Very minute drops upon the surface of Ishould be gd to be able to give
the leaves will prevent the disae for berries grown for shipment, and brief statement of the amount of straw-
kne eaeswnypevnE the uisease
known as downy mildew. ease takes no account of gardens. The best brief shipped f the at traw-
knw a dw mildew informed of these three experts esti- berries shipped from the State the pas1
Tis!ma-y-ybe .applied -by any good mates that the acreage next year will be season', but statistics are not obtainable.
sprinkling apparatus, or even by a twice as large as this. It must suffice to present here a few
broom; but this latter is rather too slow s is he strawberry planta- figures as to the shipments from this
a process, except for a few vines. It s isnatural tc e stregr staton a w t
ought, therefore, to be applied as soon tions are set close to the great lines of station:
as the leaves begin fairly to develop, transportation, and,, beginning at Jack STRAWBERRY SHIPMENTS FROM LAWTEY,
and again two or t sonville as a starting point, they radiate1887
an aamw r ree times as they de- son_ e_ 18.87._ i .. .. -
velop. on two principal lines down the penin- Bushels. Quarts.
At the International Congress of sula, the St. Johns river and the F. R. & By refrigerators (to Durling) 2,826 90,482
France and Italy on parasi N Central and Western Florida do (to other houses), 568 18,016
the vine, held at Florence, Italy, in 1886, not appear to have engaged much yet in By express 379 12128,
To Jacksonville vn~.............. ..... 67 ,144
it was concluded, among other things, the growing of this fruit. A friend who To Jacksonville........... 672 144,
that mixed liquids containing sulphate was in Tallahasee in the .height of the Total ........ 8885 222,720
season informed me there were no.
of copper have so far given the best r- strawberries in the markets of the capi- Shipments began in the last week of
suits; that it inessary tohap ithe tal. February, and the greater part of them
remedy before blossoming; that it must In a n ordinary, old-fashioned Florida ended May 9, though straggling consign-
soonbe as the disease aearst and repeated winter there is very little difference in ments went out in various directions
s f tn as ees appears'ad repeated the time of ripening of the berries along (chiefly to Florida and Georgia cities) for
as often as necessary. the peninsula from latitude 80 degrees two weeks longer. It would have been
DOWNY MILDEW, down to 28 degrees, that is, in any con- better for the growers if all Northern
Boil three pounds each of the flower of siderable quantities, large enough for shipments had ceased a week earlier
sulphur and lime in six gallons of water commercial purposes. The winds which than they did. Many of the last crates
until reduced to two. gallons. When blow to andti fro between the Gulf and were a loss, or even brought their
settled, pour off the liqfiid and bottle, the Atlantic practically equalize the sea- owners in debt for transportation
One pint of this clear solution in twelve son in the peninsular proper. But in charges.
gallons of water gives the proper exceptional years like the two just pass- The writer of this article made a sue-,
strength for use. Apply with a porta- ed, continual climatic influences, to-wit: cessiul shipment to Philadelphia, by ex-'
ble pump with hose and cyclone nozzle the nearly spent forces of the Montana press, without ice, April 30, two crates
attached. Or apply literally the flower blizzards, prevail in the northern coun- selling at 20 cents a quart, and one at 15.
of sulphur. .ties sufficiently to throw their first ship- It is necessary to state, however, that
The time of application is early sum- ments worth mentioning a week- or ten the spring of 1887 was exceptionally fa-t
mer, at the first appearance of mildew, days behind those of the south, vorable for express shipments, the
and is most effective on a warm, bright Last winter the first berries received weather being cool and dry to a late
day after the dew has gone. It is safest in Jacksonville came from Auburndale, date.
to apply when the shoots are four inches in Polk county, and Panasoffkee, in It should be borne in mind that the
long, and especially at the blossoming; Sumter county, and these arrived in the figures in the above table do not repre-
also, some days before the turning of the last days of January, very nearly simul- sent more than half the actual yield of
berries, and at this time as may be neces- taneous. Very few berries left the State berries, for when the Northern ship-
S sary on the appearance of the berries, in January. An occasional batch was ments ceased the vines were in the full
BLACK ROT sent North by express. I have trust- tids of bearing. To illustrate this I will
Gather ndrakeoehr h n worthy information that one of these give the weekly shipments from my
Sate and rake -together allthe fallen "shipments" received in the express of- own field (not quite two acres) for the
be res-and m This ngs frobemt to be vnes fipe in Philadelphia consisted of oniie season:
andurnu he .- Thss-et obd
in the autumn. Wash the vinesin early quart A pint of ripe berries was picked Week ending Bushels.
spring, before the buds have begun to on an unprotected plantation in Lawtey, March 5........................ 8
swell, with a strong solution of the sul- Fnebruarv 6, but the first shipment was 2 .. ..................... 28
pate of iron. This will help. But the not madeuntil in the last week of Feb- 19.......................
-."runty. 26, ..... ..;- ..................... .1 .
most effective remedy yet discovered i, iti compare heearliestconsign- April 2. '.. .
ao ctu..ra nt .... With this compare theearliestconsign- 26 .............. '..... .. ".
_ a b- i -.n r1utL et, ictd l Saiu Franciscb, which 2" 9........ .. ..........
when about half grown. Roofing the arriv e in..
trellises with boards or cotton cloth an- ta fr o din .........
S swer a g-td purpo. The infected berries nd, r and sold for $ a ....... ................. ...o
should be picked off e eiy lay until the 30 ............................
rot disappears, anfd should in turn be In Dade City, of thiis State, and in May 7 ..................... ... 26
burnedo.rbured. The.most.effect.Tvpk.k Riverside, California, families here and
ingought to be practiced every year, fo there ate a few handfuls of ripe berries Total.... .....................1,810
theimetherot begainsa untilyar it from in January. January shipments, even
the timethe-rot begins until it ceases I February ship ments, are a very different There was a severe frost on the morn-
and oughtto be so thoroughn that no dis t h g ing of March 18, which froze a good
eased, giap are left (n thea vines or nStrawberries were carried out of the many berries solid, especially where th'e
ground. By-gathering and raking to- State by the cars of the Southern Refrig- plants were small and did not protect the
gather all fallen berries and trimmings orator Co.; by those of C. S. During, of fruit with foliage. This accounts for the
every fall and burning and burying New York,'and by refrigerator boxes falling off in the middle of the above ta-
them, and by thoroughly picking and down by various Northern o is- ble.
"u nt-- -:- o r bu ry ing the de fectiy berri s en t dow n by va rio us N northern e:on tm iq- b le. .. "
burning or burying the defecriv. bere ion 'houses to their correspondents, or It is very difficult to state what the
as, th rot appear, and b ding these owned by houses. associations and Indi- exact acreage of Lawley was thi. year.
things by concerted action among grape vi,,duals in this Stnt-. and operated for Many plantations were a partial or total
grower; in an infected district, it is be- their own especial patrons or their .di failure, owing to late planting and se-
lieved the disease wilb eradicated. But'o ovn t a~ ~nin n e
liteved theiemte willbe radicated. But vidual crops. and by the cars of the Ar. vere drought the autumn preceding.
the ork- mustbe d onethroBughly and mour Co.. of Chicago. Besides these Au approximate stiihuate would be about'
with conc.erted aetlin --rrom Bulletin .
S11, B,'tanical Division S Depar" nhues of car,r. there was a cun ;iderable t5 acres. In the spring of 1% WVnim.
..No l u i ..t. pt- amount of the crop forwarded by express Fiher shipped iom lS,l.10) vines toot
meant of Agriculture. l"'6. in "*open, ventilated" ciates. thc.ugh all quite one acre.,. 1,531 qua-ts, or 51
--- .#- the crates used. whether in refrigerator buhe!s. The above yield, 3,R35 bushels,
White Blackberries. cars or by express, were open and veuti: from 75 acres would give almost exactly
Erdytr _E-ri, F,,,,,-r a,..i rt-r -r lated, for that matter, the. same return per acre.
IEinyr interesting pae The heated controversy betwen the The residue of the berries was utilizedl
I s:-e in your most interesting paper of partisans of ventilation'aud refrigera- for wine, vinegar, caniiug, etc., but this
June 'ot. mention made oft Mr. S.P. t ionu, ani the coloring uf statement, re- will require a separate article in the se-
Buie, o it olumbiacointy, having aound suiting from it, prevent the growers ries.
sore white blackberries;, and a state- from learuina exactly the i-onditicin in h reprq~r hc h ere
ment by the Lakit rpite th ro e-i excl ontn in The price per qu.irt which the berries
they had never heard osuch a thing which their berries arrie North in most netted the growers ilis year is tle most
tey had never hardofuch a thing cases. Butwehavea few fictsestablished difficult branch of the subject to treat
Iforten found, when a b,. such beyond dispute. and the prices at which satistactorily. Tlhcre are a great many
Ie ten youd wPe n a nlvich ber- -.express betries" and "refrigerator growers, and a great mniany avelages, as
tart neighbor r of myv father diug up stock" sold respectively, help to solve they handled their cops well or the con.
some ofa teplanot andset them out in t.e problem, trarv. Some uette,:i no more than 11
hims grd, clanti vad them a ra, se What. condition berries arrived Notth cents a quart; sonme as high as .-2 cents.
hes garden, cultivated theat and raised in, shippedin the cais of the Southern The three preceding years tbere were 0so
the ery finest berries that eier paBsed Refrigerator Co., I am not informed, few ,rowers that the business was con-
my palate. I -elieve that i Mr. Be, or For a considerable part of the season a fined within limits easily asceriainable.
some one else, will do the same with Durling car and an Armour car stood In the spring o,f 1814, when there was
such wi dt if eresthe oil make a good constantly on the siding at Liwtey., re- practically only onue glower. he netted
seing omautn woufd taIt sde praical u- ceiling berries, which were sent off three 2 cents. The nest .vyear thle average -was
hev cnwuld tmake a s ui a t times a week. In the BDurling car the about 30 cents. In eG8. about 22 cents.
riety he could make a smal fortune out temperature stood at about 42 degrees: This is exciLuISiveof the cost of growing
of It. te :I
o-f, i. .. Ro .-' in the Armour car, about 44 degrees. the berries, mulching, fertilizing, pick-
B.V a., June 2. Aee;. Berries in the Durling cars were trans- ing. etc., but includes transportation
'tai.,Jun, Jneferred at Savannah torefrigerators on. charges. and commissions.
-"*--- the steamers, and were al'out four days Freight tp N.,w YXork, by refrigerator.
A Profitable Peach. on the journey from Florida to New l.e1 cents a quart crates and cups fur-
Editor Fl-rida Farmer cnd Frhit-Gro.we,': York. They reached that city in al] nished.: by express, 6i cents i'slhippri:
I have kept a correct account of aIll tihe kinds of condition, as reported by the finds his wn crates and cups.
peaches gathered and sold from four of consignee, from "'wotthiess" to "*ele- A few of the lairgei. plantations are as
Home's Hybrid Hon'y peach trees. Igan." It is only fair to say, however, follows: Lewis & McCullv. 100,i00
shipped thirty-three one-third bushel that the greater part of them went plants; V. J. Shipman, 70000; E. L.
cre from foutree v years .old. through in good condition. StalTord, 63 000; J. Noble, 65,000i; B.
Tcer ere sefo fo thees Fiv Exyhanre, In the Armour'ears the reverse was Kaufman. 50,000: W. Fisher, 50U,00; S.
The rresentto the FruitExchange, the case. Only one instance is known to Powers" 30,000; R. H. Smith, 26,000; A.
aud Thl's01d in .Jacksonville, between thetewrtrweea.'nimutechdSt. ,0).=-
15to and d of June, just after thet r
Hone- and Peen-to were'all gone: Cincinnati in good order, while those LiwrEY, Bradford ,.
sent to Chicago, Boston and Phiiadel- -,.
They sold for .......... $59.25 phia all arrived 'worthless. The shipping
Freight and commissions 8.56 agent sought to place the blame for this Dead limbs do harm in two ways.
--- on the railroad companies; in that they They receive moisture from the living
Net proceeds ...... '$50.69 failed to re-ice the cars on the way. A parts of the tree by keeping the pores
Besides, I gave one crate to a friend letterto myself from a trust worthy cor- or vessels open between the two; and
and my family eat a good many. This respondent in Cincinnati does not seem they prevent the closing upot the healthy
peach comes in when all others are out, to sustain this view. 1 quote" *t s - portions by the common process of
and is twice thegsize of the Honey, and, The cars all arrived with ice in the heating, which would at once begin to
I think, a much better peach. While it clambers, and were sold, but ihe beniies take place if all the dead portions were
is very. sweet it also has a slightly acid were all covered with a white mass, but cut away by pi uning.-Southern Culti-
flavor which the Honey has not. still were sold; butras soon as taken out vator.
It is a very prolific bearer and has of car turned black and soft. We kept *
never, failed to .bear a large crop, and theberries incars until sold, or we never Every plow, harrow, rake, mower or
comes in just in the right time to bring would have realized one-half what we leaper, to say nothing of more costly ag-
-' a big price.. Mr.' Editor, I could-tell -a did. The first car *as all right ricultural machinery and implements,
big story about this peach-what .Isold and came in tip top order. We should have a good dry place of storage
.. a dozen crates for last _year-but, as .the think that the cars were not cleaned out provided for them.


=


218 -


-SWEET POTATOES, plete adaptation to the wants of this lat-
itude. Other agricultural papers con-
Some Important Points Aboitt tain only an occasional article of inter-
Sestr to the farmers of South Florida, who
Planting and Harvesting. care little for dairy news or general
BY D. R PIL5BRY. farming in thle North, but the articles in
The season is now passed for planting 'the FARMER AND FUT-GRoWuR areg
draws. If it has to be done, better trin g 'l "'. very good, and I wish You the uc-
them out in the bed -so th wll b cess you deserve for furnishing Florida
..y__i.- be a nera a r, aper that just "fills the bill."'"
stocky, and let them growlong.then arm a aper that just fills the bill-*
plant as vines; and, by the wav, when Mr. C. H. Goodrich, of Orange Park,
plitnting draws, 611fill the rows fufl, either writes: "I must say that the FARMER
by planting three or four iu a place, or- AND FRItT-GROWER i; decidedly the best
b'v planting much closer than common, publication ot the kind in the State. I
this because a draw rualies but -o or take them all anid can compare their
three potatoes, merits." ...
In planting vines Ibe sure to wilt them. Mr. Cliail',a s W. Stevens, of O.rjnge
and that is best done by leaving them in county, writes: "'Your paper far ex-
tihe shade an hour or so. It planted cceds'the hopes of the most sanguine
perfectly green many,, especially of thle in its good work. It fills a want
co:'arser-vined %arieties. will be cut in long felt in this part for a good ag-
two by the push stick. ricultural paper. Success to you."
Another point of imnp,-,rtance is, d, not Pro,.f. S. N. Witner. of the Agricul-
use too long vines. Twelve to fifteen tuial College of Florida, write; as-fol-
inches is sufficient. If too long., s, that Iws;" 1 can -ay in all sincerity, it has
a considerable length is exposed, t lie sun. exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
may burn off all the 1-aves; thle naked Already it is without a peer in all the
stem will then push from the end only; South."
better only be long enough to, be certain .. ,.,. .. ,
of a bud or two above thle surface. Mr. Thomas Meehan, the distingisbed
As to waiting for rain, it is generally horticulturist and proprietor of thep er-
'best todo so. A sweet potato is like almost, mantown nurseriesin ba letter dated
'any otherplant. If stunted at planting March 5th, writes: "I1 am very much
so.that it takes a f'eebl ihold of tie soil, eased with the FARMER AND FRUIT-
and is a long time getting, established, it ROWER, and shall read i. t regu.larly.
never does get strength and vigor, which you know is a high compliment
The Providence fs one of the best or an editor to pay to an exchange.
The Providence is one of &h beat" "
sorts. Its good qualities are, it Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro-
yields well, keeps well, is of good fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
shape, tastes well, and what is of lege of Misiis'ippi. says in the Southern
no small importance, makes a short, Live Stork .Joiiial: "'His [the editor's]
stocky vine, which is not Inclined to valuable paper already appearing in the
run over all its neighbors, and take root first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
everywhere. -Ordinarily, thereis no need tion'an:l prediction. They may he fully
of meddling -with the vines to prevent relied upon for conscientious correc-
rooting; as to clipping them, if there is ness of statement and scieutific accuttr-
a rank growth, as is often the case on acy of detail."
land too much cow-penned, the vines Hon. J. Win. Ewan, writing from
may. be clipped advantageously to them- Miami, Dade county, says : "Certainly
selves and to the cows, to which they you are doing a good work in establish-
are a treat. ing an enlightened"'and scientific system
While they may in South Florida be of agriculture, which heretofore has
dug any time in fall or winter, it is best been seriously neglected. Your paper is
to dig them the last of November or first inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
of December, and bank. Do not put in ment. and progressive iu principle, and
bins or barrels,, or in any building, unless surely must succeed."
you are prepared to fill in perfectly dry Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
sandy Make a bed a few inches higher writes : "I am in love with your paper,
than the surrounding surface, pile the but am taking so many now that until
potatoes, when dry, in as steep a cone or some subscription runs out I can't take
ridge as may be, and cover with threo more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
or four inches of broom sedge, laid all your paper soon."
one way, with tops downward asot r E.W.Amsdenof Ormond-on-the-
If so be you are so far civilized as ntlOs
to have the aforesaid wild growth, corn Haltfax wites as follows: "I am tak-
or millet, if dry, are good.' Pine straw "iS ten papers on agricultural subjects.
is often used, and it is surprising how and if asked to surrender the FARMER
difficult it is to wet through five or six AND FRUIT-GROWEr, I would tell them
inches of pine straw when ridged. Wet to takethe othernine, but leave me
and frost must be excluded, aud enough that. May peace and plenty and years
material must be used to accomplh of grae be given -vyou to continue the
that. No sand or boards are needed, ;goodwork.
unless it be to keep the covering in Mr. J.V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
place. Eith r will do no harm, if, yen-: eminent success in truck gardening, as
tilation is :secured and only sufficient well as his able writings on farm topics,
*covering is used. entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
Potatoes banked thus on the north himself as follows : -The first number
4Ls t.of a building, or in shade, will comenico to.he FARMER AND FRUIT-GRoWsR was
rout even as late as July perfectly bright, duly received And is the best thing in its
SIt is good to throw ou the pile, as you way I have seen. It is jut ltb, paper
I are building it, di sand, not necessarily needed, andf you keep it uptothepres-
enough to fill all spaces, and a dusting ant standard of excellence must become
ot air-slaked lime will help to keep all popular with the people.. I can't see
sweet and bright. where you have left any roo6m for im-
S. provement." '
An old nurseryman says: To prevent Mr. L. H. Armstrong. of St. Nicholas,
the ravages of the curculio, spray your Duval county, writes under date of
'plum. trees with water in which pine tar April '6th: "TUE FLORIDA F.ARmR AND
has been liberally stirred. FRmr GROWER has far surpassed expec-
S' stations. It sheds light on many obscure
HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED. page-s in the book of Florida's'possibili-
ties in fruit, forage, live stock and in the
A Few of Many Expressions Of developm.ut of her vast store of hidden
S Approval. resources."
Mr. G. M. Whet'ton, of Mikesville Mr. Irving Keck, ofethe Bowling Green
Lan ." .I a a mprovement_ pa.
Columbia county, whites under date oft Li n TIp e nt Cm paa ny ..2d
3une v1: sieenaclose $2 folr the FARitER ari undrate ofM 2d:s. we
AND FR S-rat, of F Polltradetinkt, l tin THE FARMER AND FRi-ir ,,GOWER
e ee F hTGOisI rand geto the best to be had for farmers in Flor-
some.Moressublscril.,rrs for Your.paper.' ida We ahwavs'get new ideas from it."
have seen two or three copltes of t, anf -
think it is the best -paper of the'kind I The agent of Morgah- Bazaar, Starke,
have ever seen, and the only One suited Bradford, county, who is a newsdealer
t%: our countyy" and subscription agentt; writes as fol-
Mr. F. S. Sprague. of Federal Point, lows : "Tar FaRMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
expresses his opinion as follow's: have is the paper in ani agricultural point of
ie.I would not be without it,'and
taken agricultural and hortic-ultural pa- view i wounter tout i, ad
pei s for years, and unhesitatingly pro- bonesmly advise all workers of the oil to
nounce the FL,.jRDA FARMER AND FRITT- subscribe for it.
GROWER tar sup-rior to them all. You One'of the prominent citizens of At-
ne(ed not entertain fears for its success. anta, Ga .. writing to the publishers of
Its muerits wil "'iu its way. Please send the F. F. & F.-G., says: "Your last ven-
me an extra copy to send to a friend in tuore, the FLORIDA FA.RMER AND FERCIT-
Mlichigan, who will probably wit-h to (ROWER. is a tenarkable one for tihe
subscribe." beauty of its mechanical execution and
Capt. R. E. Rose-. president of the St. the cris.p, fresh and appropriate charac-
Cloud Agricultural and Imp-rovement ter of its editorial and selected matter.
Co., writes from Kissimmee, under Professor ('uitiss evidently knows how
date of June 10th, as follows: -The to work, and 'knowledge is power'only
FARMER continuess to improve, atd, as I when there is indomitableenergy behind
credited, is becoming thie standard a.- it. But I need not preach to C. H. Jones
bicultural iourual of the South. on this topic, as his pushing of the
MI. i C. ohae a bose a 1 Times-Union to success over or through
1Mi.F. C. Cchbiane, a bookseller and mountains of opposition and difficulties
stationerof Palatka, writes, under date insurniuntable to a man of less daring
of June 1: "-Your FLORIDA FARMER AND and persistent qualities, clearly proves."
FRUIT GROWER is a perfect success. It
is far ahead of anything of the kind in Mr. Percival Brewer, of Monmouth,
tle State, and every one interested in Ill., writes, under date of April 9th: "I
horricultureor agriculture should not be think your paper the best agriculLtuial
i,-without it." paper published in the South."'. : ,
Mlrs. A. H. H., of Winnemisset, Fla ., elon. J. C. Pelot, of Manatee, writes as
writes as follows: mWe are new comers follows: c iI look upon your paper as
and have much to learn, and your paper one of the most valuable additions to
isbjust what we have wished for ever ou agricultural interests. It is ably
since we a-rived here. 'Our Cosy Cor- edited, p-actical, directs attention to
ncr' contains just what every 'woman in matter's of primary importance in the
Florida ought to read, words of encour- development of our various industries,
agement and comfort to the homesick, and carries with ita spirit of energy and
sveary, struggling sister-hood. God enterprise that must addr-ess itself to ev-
bleass'H. H.' May c-he live to write ery searcher after information."
many worisB of cheer. Her recipes. too, Rev. T. IT, Moore, of Marion'-county,
are so well suited to Florida. As our writes: 'I believe your paper will do a
resources in the country are limited, good work in disseminating new ideas in
they till a large want. regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
One of our subscribers at New Suiyr- raising, etc." .
na writes us, uuder date of June 4th: "I Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
niust say that I admire the FARMER AND "Judging from what I.have seen of the
FRUITOGROWER very much indeed, and FAMER AND FRUIT-.GROwEr, ,it is the
intend to he a permanent subscriber so best agricultural paper published in the
-Impg as it is conducted in the very valu- South. I predict immense success for it."
able- manner in which it is how being Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei-
done." chant, of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
'' Mr. It. A. Ward, postmaster at Mala- received the first issue of .your agricul-
bar, writes: "'I am delighted, with the tural paper, and being delighted with its
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROwER, fid- rec- tone, we wish you to insert our card for
omnmend it to all on account of,, iti corn- six months.'!


"T 1-3: E:


FLORIDA



Farnier
-AND-




F1'liitmGifO~e,
--A.- './


WeeOgtI JouII((aI,

DEVOTED TO THE

Farmer ,/,i^;

*.Garden,

SOrchard
AND

HO SIEROLD' EDOJOJEIT




A. H. CURTISS,
EDITOR.
This journal wiill hare for !tc let;lingo=b-,;e?
the promotion oil ,u-, n'i idu'treau' Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources. .
A--iunmarrthai tlh- a-gio tthiLral ai rartonus o
a large p.-.rt,'.n Florida .'Ire r16 Tyet but u.per-.
fectly understood, a pecil .anm ,'f ts ionrual
will be to describe the bcst rsulRts wim'h hare
been accomplished, with the e-xact nimethod em-
ployed, and all riutni:.- aflcting such results;
a 1:, to U- igge-'l exe-runeint. ,'learibe new or Little
known *Yro.p-, 'rte. ie'.:.. and ]'ec:,'rde the progress
tif ahrirlrure in neigl'l'-,riug State-.
Com.) neirtncg with the drr nuimuiber and con-
tLtniitin tLriUg)i HIte eaef,-n f.I .


Tree Planting,
There. will ie a ,rie c.r-' ariielea on O-u-itr--other
than, th, e o) tfho c't, ;p.'.ip,--wh_;,bh have.
proved rost ,u'fce-fa i mL tl State Easl'va..
iet.7 ni t dci 'il;d ad N" -

Illustrated,
Alnd tbeic wiv ibe hai- e -.from persons wvho uarvs
na- e.q.cren,-:e in is ctrivIr1ion. Th. r n.a 'i be
tolluiac y a & inJal eee' -or-

Forage Plants,
And 0ihelr sibjets will be ullnril-ted to:' a Lmited
'-'teat.
SMuch attention a ,U ie 'lr-voted to

Live Stock
And t th h:e boul prudetiono I'f forage and fe.rli'.
zers, rto C(>u':'cones valic-h are e6senrtal to auc-
ces1r l Larnion -
Questions relative to ailments 'of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
.of the ". -

Turf, Field and Farm.
A ndue amount of space will be devoted to
households eono:.myR and to report; o the mar-
kers, and the department. ot
Truck-Gardening, "


Floriculture,,
Poultry,.-
Veterinary
Practice, etc.
w ill be con It ributed to by persons who have made
pec;altiies 'r tbho.e brauclie .. : -1 .
All portions of the State will receive a due .
amount of attention, auil their Literests will be
repreeutaed by ible correspondent. i.
Uuder no crcunimstances will thisjournal be-
come the ""organ" of any azociatioun or locality.
It wili rart oUt uLtra'ammlled and wLl repre-
eeni all set-cion aud intereEts with absolute im-
partialiy.


Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday :
of each week. :


PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
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SPECIMEN COPIES FREE. :

Addrewa subscriptions and other bsinesseom.iC
inanications to

C. H. JONES & BRO.,
PUBLISHERS. 9
Commanicattons for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
Jacksonville, Fla.


- -- -i


q





FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JULY 13, 1887.


219


es",rt jS [of each year put from :3,500 to $5,000 in We have seen that its surface is very with shed attached wherein to place lisri,,i, i 11Y 1iP1ll V, an -. -
'ff ,fS fnr bank. This is not chance; it is certainty. uneven, and that it is very impermeable, barrels, or it can be placed in a closet in Mlssllslpll VVa fll loly I I Yrus, Bees an d -Queens.
And there is nothing in me except hard because its pores are tilled with humuru, the dwelling. The smaller compart-
SUCCSSFU Lwork, attention and a little common and it is hardened by the weight upon ment is filled with dry muck or ashes or J. FLETCHER HURLEYI Propr, Orders will be booked now ior delivery dur-
A SUCCESSFUL FARMER. sense. If fifty young clrks were to' it and the expanding of ihetap rootsand dry clayipulverizedi. Sand is useless. rp r Ig April, May or June"'f my superior race
go to Stewart county to-day and farm' often of lateral roots. Rain water sinks When used the upper cover is raised,, GRENADA, MISSISSIPPI, o pure
How a Young .eor.inj. ust as I do, each one would reach the: down and is intercepted by the hardpan. exposing the seat. After use the lowerB P -ri ., W.,r rl TLI'LU nr-n- ---- ou .
How a Young Georgian Won same result. It is noexperiment. It. is It cannot make its way through it but eqver is raised. uncovering both com- Breeds Prize Winning S U u
Wealth from the Soil. the most certain of certain things." very slowly. Weie its uiace smooth apartments. A small quantity of the d ry es "-
The following is one of. the Atlanta And away the young farmer went and sloping, the water would run aloiig eai t is then sprinkled on the contents Plyuough Rocks. Wyandolnes, Brown Queens by rmal a special
Contitutio's one terviews with farmers with a gang of friends who had called it and soon pass off. As it is, it settles of the hod. A quiart is more than suf- Leghorns and Bronze Turkeys.
Mr. Robert d is a yo warmer for him. hy may not he prove to be i the basins. ticient. This operation is repeated until GOOD FOWLS FOR SALE AT ALL TIMES. i ,i mue a tirl o.der
thin, browned, all fibre. slow, but easy a type? Why may- not there follow in (To be Cdmtinued.)- the hod is full, when, .,f course, it musL For OrDWes or other iATormaticnS address
Sd his footsteps a race of young farmers be emptied into one of the barrels in the EGGS IN -E N.
-h .iS et So en sturdy and ;Elf reliant, with smooth HAY FARMING. shed.- If you empty it on the ground Won all the Leading Prizes at the H. C. HART, -
-t brows, clear eyes and strong arms? Why ":.ur saitra e ma North v.. 91_
.farmer. -both "i n Ic. mr".". North 'alississippi Poulfr.y Sbow at -oFa
"The earth is a gold mine," he says, un-may they not come to the re of ur The Growing Industry of the aW reat b th defet. -mo s f er Valley. reb. 9 to 12, .SS7




ton. The story of his work is significant nteni ner n ftrm han ai. h f "ias Ahe o cor neighbo oing titate of Mississippi. that as m ton ur Sles ofr thl, csehtsF nr F. -- O .E
andt..may belmprovong sohee Itisi 0 ..Ti.. hbl ..... w. ,^ been 8aid (nourpaper on st a willh ile d e t ...e. .. G "=r= "=e= p T = <
aM father sai tome about ses *and -t;oi'-n--hi-a bale- to hearted" and given confidence to those ot" I think if t were geneally adop-NEW YO-. .. .iRKsrae ...... FLORI"A F "-E"
a nt ft i 'huae st b$1 0 ee theat foufo r twe ad a hotyeon-the farm.'" T ohraisnw g someeing besides coru and es and thousands of dollars. I amca : u-- TRI -W EKL SERVICE BE TWEEN -.. -R- WE
etho b- y te Fth ankty now, han't this broad-. 'ingnreader ntf -ouit paper and think it isnc tt ad he b R Suppl
S artgh, adt, s tr ast miting ofPr nearer R oo solrd the ablem than thoIe tegreat ant Ienertiod I0hay farming in the will not interfere wit- its stSfaCt. enSd .,or Catalogu-m'rarEe and Price Lke, fro-Pe; orrdr
was rt oa nd slo ew u m ht ng o fO .. i hSouth, arnd moren e alo h Working. T ef o c for leMa r r t le 1amnti th i p T t "
and. "Intensive farming," -says he e, "is the On neisiboirnig State o f Mnsissipp. that as More or less of t. .e ahes orD r

gottotowned m oisetora and policy of the future. There fewmlesbelowRodney, Miss., in is earth will be pulled, the oxLAENE E ESLI--
saved her bi,. ranm apouw myself, cry under which the South ca cr- i su ect him, and he took great pleak.s- to cune side and tassel, an i THE. G. EGER, Tr Ma onve,a r.a an oga.
"ian tath re si t me abou s hearted" FLORIe DA pedn to AaSa uNo



leading the way for my hands. At Its Position, Composn-that on, i-is 'a urein explaining every detail about the out I think if it were g enrally Bradopawav NNE Gner- NE YORK &.-o '
nthe acre or full corn cribs, a big con- ;'Who have embarked in the experiment Ie, it would ave a vast amount of siek- "- '







no I lt he forge an d td post eap and a home on the akn oa Th fa eis coin osed ness and thousands f dollars. I am a T.-WEELY SER CE BETWEEN. ..

never laft my farm a day, and slept BY H. E.,LAGEKRGEN. "once aUparttof the FItlandUestateof t such distance that. the ut stalks iay be OIRO)E o buat---O. "- -bchoice e-are .Irael for an ORAlGE
only six hours a ni ght." What is hardpan? This is a question late ottonDavid Hunt, a model farmer in his pledarund tem anm e shape of a i Hghrolin Pe Lan, ubou m a od .-

"That m "st have brought success." seldom asked. Everybody is satisfied day and one of the most successful stac hey ma be fastened 1 tying | | .. .'. -' e r ar de.
dead,Of courseand I t did, asit would have with knowing, or believing, that it is and enterprsngmenof any a eor coun he doing a "good work NEth toP an YORK, FERNANDINt.a A D|e LIL
brought t in any otherbusiness. In two poisonous to plant life. It is the orange try wl not injure them in s po- .on, an.
years I had paid my debt andt ad money grower's horror, but theland agent's de- The Southside hbay farm consists of 900 in- DeUOAE r Pida -ehae omaa TIeO IO.At L LrA.--i -:D RO'VelPr Ay.T=r d
Sin .ank. I have made in actual mo ny light;for, by represents all landsbut acres of land under cultiva and tion, and a led into the barn. These corn stalks,
over $40,000. This is my poorest year, those in his chargneas underlaid with large area of timber land cut up with a straw cutter, make very P-o. Bo II s..csonie. Florida. 39 4. Bay s.
and yet I will clear over $8,500: I would hardpan, he often gains a customer. This letter has nothing to do with any water o e for ho-ses and cattle 'd uu .v
not give any man $5 to guarantee me The suspicion of hardpan has led many part of it, however, except the hay farm. ai togle not f h1ood as hay It will, an11 m 17 T f d
was eco$8,000 a year on mytenmule farmfor a man to sell his young grove on which Three hundred acres rif the 900 are in. hFRoI e JAC SOr LLE-.HEROKEE W InieF Hm e T.
the next ten years. Farming is the he has spengtmore than double the money grasses, the separate fields being fenced Fn rEPmerDo aveNA a-few acres, sown SEE eery AIND p.
he goes at it right." caused-orchardists to adopt the absurd a are the followinS varieties of OrFss. der in case thne supplyno hay should not
anworeot. We went to- Eu"" ra I uneven w ea e oos y Texas ble grass, winner vetchF alfalfa, by manulFthe loeeverd eldbehe- WEENESDA

First, I raisemy own provisions. piling on to tem o much todiMrt tThhey winFreightr ayd Passerass, red nd white lccdy manured and plowed very deep, they in
have 1,000 bushels of corn. ,l0 bushels again crt\ "hardpan. -clover and lesbiideza and Japan clover -ows eg thre feet apart, and the corn eairNi service. F'r..n Lke ( n... tand or, te,:,t ath Fl.:.ria Ralr,.:l -,.
ofoats, 800bushelsof peas an 40 gal- Year' ago. while draining a cypress Of these, the covers (red and white)farm a cu red from one acre of land. tChe e L.ARENCE WAGNER, Ni-,r n..t ,cm-n;nt bet nty-ve and h n h s.
savens of syrup bill. ow r sale. plw myse muchlfpond on Lake Kingsley, Imade my fist Bermuda, winter B ay andRcrab grass M acre. o, too, pearl millet, common sor- l A i urh,e -'ho. .. .,. n:lGER, tre, bk.rv, saw mdl anger, rel. LYDre areO alre Opa..,e
leadiof my own meat, ad would raise it all, acquaintance with hardpan. The ditch natives, the others the results of experi- p gs um andn mlo maize, will afford at3. n ...r:wge ,..ve.. ,.-o,,.iwe uI.i., i..,ts for winter homes, e,,r iale he-p. Ten3 mii-y N'nd
except that my ,'limate is too warm to Was carried for a long distance t] ro-,gh .mental cultivate .- least threecuttngs a season, the plant :..r "reoran.e ir"r:e;,":,e. A healnTet ahenKlt in a healthy sta"ie
cureitin. I never saw a man whodid landof varying level E-ardpan was en- Mr Hunt has succeeded best with Ber- g ut .en -t high, the pro- on or Address.
- not raise his own corn who made money countered wherever thee ditch was mote muda for the purposes of makin--hay- tcess of guriig h-eig easy and the quan- J. W. GROVES) or CLARKSON ROBERTON.
on cotton. Never saw a corn raiser tlu tgn inches dep,and of depth of He" h stalks should hae reat eey o t peracre vev large -Southern Cul- Oriole, Fl-ria L a. Clay Co.only 0.
Swho wasn't a prosperous farmer. You frm four inches to two feet below the grasses is brown sedge or old field grass vator. .. ,Jacks onville, F rda
nevrcan often figure out that you can buy BY H. surface. Some R once a part of the land had an uF- but that this can be eradicated by culti- GROVE costs bu re
- ,_.c,.orn cheaper than you can raise It, but commonly heavy coat of wire grass, ovation and fertilization CottonBSeednHulls. arSTI e
onthat six hours aon paper. Whatorn raise hardpaners prosThisis wth rt question eav and tough tha T ad The wiin sister vetch is a Inew thin l n e ,m
per-the others fail My cotton crop is succesfuliv used it for road making on the always a muash surplught I make my srubland." Here th hardpan wasatisf ied day, and one ofitwilpr the most successful omposton. The average of aanalyses 1 mm M rchant
other crops carry the farm. immediately beneath thieving, top and et winter nste that wage rcan in s nine per cent. o phophoic id.









**Next to raising my own corn count penetrated bv grass roots for some dis- t..du. e o tide o; r-.thr ...od. hile the ,* mostly available, and 23 per cent. of sol- N.. 313 NORTH WATER STREET. PHILADELPHIA.
personal attention to my business. Isow tance down. lifAt other p aces a.taer of other ray. ar ith ter ubie potash. At in30 to a ton cottonu-, HEN FR.ITS AND VEGErABLES. Cusignments Sol.:,ied Reurn
.: every bushel of oats myself, because I whote or **"quick saad wtc between the led. He has brought hi erpoermena- buIl ashe:-alreoneoftthechepea-soulrce-, .- -d -. a. : -.
never found a band that could do it top soil eand the hardpan. Th 's de- The e a othsamin eto ay farmntwher consists on of potah for fetilizing purposes -- -
Sright. This fall I worked eleven hours a vegetation was mostly saw palmetto etopav him; and he isselling histha at 'Commu nting 6n the above the South- .. O. 0. B L--i O'3NTr, V. .
ida wth a three-peck basket o y L r black, k ruenes The hard-aa ldts wbhih encorafes dim "d e i ern Live Stock aournagef s eys: atc -t u- w .a a w c ua a k e
and plowyet till the enards of my fingers were and could e cut wth a pade Lwer farmins a customer. This onletter has nothing become are too aabe as stock feed. BRTOW LORIDA. -











bleeding. In making i viyrup I get along down it got darker and darker, and cnistom dr to bu what thm e nd from The scientists will ten you they pras- oratO rores Tooin i- L.in trre. i -- e
- with four hour" sleep in twenty- could someiimesscarcely be pierced with hther neighbors, whho have it forsale"i- sea little or no value as stock food. and Harbor, or Sale. 'Uimproved Lansain.malad large 'r^ac L rGorda and Cbarlortte
four, and the result is perfect srup. anadz. ofstead hardofpan has led many part of itNo besides thetouegh shuck, as Poof. E. a ort acre tracofood, high rollPieLand, near RR dp a t
,000 asuperntendevery detail of my ten-mle farming, A verman to heavy rain felyou and agrofterwards Three hundred acres l he 900 artewarte in.call the hu, is too idigest- r^ b rmoer nd ,
as this. Every back-strapot my harness the hardpan thrown out of the moneytch assdeided the sat Bermuda makelds thbeing fenced .bl. r e dr.
has a bag of moss sewed underthe looked consderough ably him whaler than before, hvth wire an d cyp ftok n ir i The testimony of those wh feed cot- .
the os a rt ht mus a n wa nu te as n1 a a e s se d husa ly th ef e that























g.as it would ro. Iron wire wouldn't, t rchardistso doubtoadopt thrown sand, as I ern h .fol lsowt in r tio norIrkt. purchased largely b. the dairymen f TTI T' n
foritwohld rust. So ever pad is sewed had been told, and with thees aid of a nMr HuntstBryinganexperimre wth New Orleans and other Southern cities, s UllL To HNDING.
with copper wire. I never ad a scad wah basin and a bucketful f cleanxas blue grass, winter vetch, alfalfa, and fed and pvishlyowed to vemilk deepow. The
backor aI raisece o broken skin on a mule watir I, from a pulverized lump of olwinteri-ni ,h **r gr.i f..r." -iobl-m rould not continue for years to eed f.
havsince I've been farming hardpan, soon separated the coloring nt, aep alh where tea nr s swon. a the f they were not valuane. -nd o h Rar 3
**Next to personal supervision is econ- matter from the sand, leaving the cfttpr (dre at .o little co, t and wn such a we. s -tr a n h a uji .
omr. Nothing 8 i wasted on m ftarm. I g -ure white. The dwirt water I had abufrdanee He makes ensl ad cf he anow noet-that the process ofi separation i tel. Lirge a' a e .
have 120 tons of home-made manure poured in La tub. AKingsley,r a while the Bea rud, winter Ray and'crab grass a kernel fromull eats up e .llaud i, <
composed now and one d on of corn- sediment precipitated, and the water t he othermah thean results of exper- le oftens it, cooks it-making it more aeuant in a healthy S ,te
posted manure is worth three tons of was carefully' drawn otff The remains at .easily masticatedandenceoredgst- L
guano. Not a blade ot grass is burned were found to be glistening black muck, H..... o.. known in Cahlo -W^or dnd '.ble. .
on my place. That, with the refuse of having an oing feel, .and o fine that a Nrth. He tellshe will lad e Nver heard of any bad effects follow- .
my sugar ais ane even, is toured under good mcroscoput eed faled to separate the anre farmer them ditch was ote muda fora the purposes to ow to the feeding ot the hulls.- p or

and en,.ihes the ground. It ls small individual panicles. It had no taste make th'i-- e-silage, and unless the pro. -- ------- " i' -? 3 "- "
thong that maIle or ruisawn former now, altho ug the water tha thad ieee it ess ipt, candof a as to cutt n mas chine Th tn Hrg. FOi. le, F ria. eon
Who neas'tghbo as uprospetrous farmer. You frei n cslgtlo sour like that rnd ih t, tw I d ,e grasses is brown sedge or d field grass












plow lines a yuar: mie last me wo or o amuck hole of the pond see why it will not, be adopted geer- The one hose fa mer has a life-long -
thrnee ears. Every night I oil every The bardpan is tound at dierent r ally v ambition to gain a reputation for wear- .-- o USTICE
wagon on my place, using cotton oil, depths, from the very surface to fifteen **-- ing a ditty, abirt. '- + O ". ='+ =r'" -
Once a month I have every axle cleaned teet or more below it. It rests, as faras A SANITARY MATTER He will alarm the neighborhood by z S 4 S
*ind the old oil rubbed off. Tise saves m I know, always on t'e clay. Thedateper lad The ier eth is a new getting up two hours before day, tl he
waoths. My o thrsck and My ops are il own t is found the darker and harder on--- sit around aud notgo to work til afterand Mr. Hnt says that lie
protected in the same way. The poorest it generally is. This is probably due to "A Simple and Effectual Form of sun-up. .,
aouse on my place is the house I live the weightanof the earth above. wAll pine in time t He will complain of hard times, then alys Cs g

in."' lands with clay not very near the suifa,:e Earth Closet. tear his pants climbing a fencewere
-How about your labor?" is underlaid with thts stratum, and by Eli't,," Flotil, Fona,'.rntul ri,',it-Growr. gate ought to be. o _
**Bether than slaves. I pay them $9 a far the best pine soils I have ever seen In your intue of June 15 is an article He will pay $3 for a new bridle, then 3 N W I PI D.
month, half in cash every Saturdan are hose where it co otes up to the very which is good as far as it goes. When let a he lalf chew it all to pieces before. P iLA eLP9 S.Rt
night, one.ration, and allfoy each hnd top. If the earth above it should be re- it is admitted that the style of privy now Sunday. I e n V o a e.
a half acre for potatoes and an acre for moved the hardpan would by no means in vogue is.a nuisance, would it s ot be He ill gp t all his neighbors to helz in p
corn. an give them every Saturday at'- present smooth, levelurfac. It would well to substitute something eirely dif- getting a cowoutof thebog, the let h- er
ternoon. They work because they kow look soewget at like a spot of land from ferent, some ing that is economic 'as ha i for veatt of att, nation. -
I know it when they shitk. They began which the stumps had been tak nout wells sanitary? ... Stock will get, in aud destroy his'crop $ 3o ^*^g ! g"
stealing from me. e-peck basklept on the ground ad the holes i rprferly led o left I found lately in Sencourppell's him tode 'at a place in his fence that he as
every night for theeweeks. I bagged open. Inear we examine a new ditch in new Houses adescript.ion of an earth closet, been putting off repairing for six s ty -
three of the thieves, and now I ager safe. land, we ind this stratum sometimes so simple and cheap that b made one months.
When theding.y are well I make them wok, appralo ng down i the top. and then dip and ad itwo ks like a charm The isno He will sprain histack lifting some- Orange roes Ton L '
and.when they are sick I give them red- then rise again. Whenever it is near offensive odor about it, aud no costly frhing to show how strong be is. P L .=, c
icinefrom my own hand. In short, they the surac, the lay is aStewart called by, and disinfectants used, only thoroughly He guarantelltalk all day Sunda o what or money reund.
know I watch them and they wfarmink." vic, Ae versa. It no doubt follows terwarcon- dried iki died swamp muck being he knows about farming, the ride t e
You find E life a apply o arnes?" guration of wn out of the ditch decided. Eamonth, at least a barely of around the neighborhood Monday unt- :
** The freest, happiest, most inde- How thconsi hardpan is formed is not the mot desirable fertilizer may be is Theg testimony of those wed potatoes.cot-
pendentolife in lie world. t I have not difficult to explain, whiten we know that ved for next year's use. This closet He will go in eis shirt tleeves ot a t
bee sic aday in eledo fen years. When it consists of sand aud muck. like the is cbnstiucted after the fol'owisu g man- cold day to show how much he can are
I nie down I w leep. I ask no cuan a't. top soil. We all know that clay nea", Ier: stand, then return home tat uigt and pc hse l tre bo the cairtes n .
odds. My bro d ncres are there, and the surface is valuable to !aud chietv, be- The body is a plain pine box.' It is occupy two-thirds of the fire-place till s E : -..:
they are exa rust.levs. The best bank cause it beenolds the fertilizers-in ofthe not over fourteen inches ghexer; its dewith bed time. a i o i- m .w ThD
a farmer can have is lis own land. Ev- words, it -arrests ma buckerial particles from front to back is eighteen inches; He will ridicule the mechanism of a
ery.dollar he puts there is safe, and will which would otherwise, by rain water, length, "about thirty inches It is l cotton planter, and then'go ut and i
pay him interest and principal. Many be carried ,down out, of reachd lump of r ol tidedin'o two comparmet one 188 mah his thum nailing a board on he
farmers sell their cottonseed. That is roots. dpan, soikewise-has it during ages inches. the other, 1 i. inches The p fence, h.ave.he a d i-t d .


or, with a:id. phosphate and stable ashes and charcoal, carried down the bottom. The top has two covers. The come back with fifty cents' worth of.
manure, it makes the .best fertilizer, same.w.ay. If we, in a new ditch, e- lower cover is hingd to the paper edge coffee, a upper of pins, a dollar's worth
The farmer is the ofe independent manur a e quicksand above the ardan ile of the back, extending across both corn- of chewiernelg tobacco and his belly full ofand
compi-sted now and one tIn of com- sediment pre"-pi t w te e v Ine, cutt he pert- oftens it, cooks it-making it mtore '































guano. nnot a bland e tnnd Mr Roodis burented were found at atou dbe glistening black in th the [ ible. .
on. to say,. -"why.'a -young fellow -vill spots on- their way--downwards.- .-A'usual pattern. The .upper cuver- .is -,,He -is economical; economy is his < *5, *" S; " 0 s *-. ': -
stay In the ciy and clerk at a sm.ll sal- t hausnd yeats.ago this sand was coarser hinged to) he lower one, and may be foa t e.. He ill save ten centsworth ofollw- W
army, with no future, when farmer' life .thannow ich made the nterstices raised North. indepenls uentl l gladly ale grease and ruin the spindles of a '
isopen to m. No man could have had larger.. This,.of course, facilitated the The material and work will cost all the 0 wagon -
..a much worse start than 1 did. Now, descent of the humus. I ', way from two to three dollars. The re- He won't subscribe for a newspaper, : .
inspiteofma uets, Wether or anthree setiig s ow, when we knowing hat hardpn is ceivg vand the eessel is galvanized iron and will .but will borow one from his friend NNlV
..elsei,--can live a -free 'itan's life, with and how.it originated, the next uestin cost frm '5 cenwil s to .1. It can be and forget to return it.-mTexas Stock-on .
th pene year exercise, ght I oil evernd i ow adan is found r.vgtat different placed in an ambition to gain a reputationos. r
wagcn on my place, uiing cotton vil. deuth, fron the very surface tc fifteen ing a ditty Snrt. .
wagon.s. My 6t.--ck and cio-o a -e ,!l down it is found the darker' and -aide'r sit around and not go to work til-I after
protected in the same *ay. The poorest it genially is. Thisis probably die to S '








FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. JULY 13, 1,887.


The Florida Farmer a Fruit Grower,

A. Sf. CURTISS, Editor.


C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.


Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.


THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
Industrial interests of Fltorida. It is published
every Wednesday.
Terms of Subscription.


T-or one year $ 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address..................... 7.50
With dally TIMES-UNION, one year...... 11.00
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CORRESPONDENCE solllted on all sun.
lects prlalning to the topics deal w.th in
thlb paper Writers may af x sch signature'
to tkeir art,.les i. ,her may > iool e, but L tLI[
rurrb ish, t ,cdto with tbhilr i-fuli name and
address not ioi publication but asa guaarniise
orgbod' laitbh Rejeicted eommunileatloun carn-
not he ret racd
ADVERTISEMTEN- In-sirte.i to a .hmited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
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Lett-r, i o orl.r oT01'
0-. H. JONES & BRO.,
S Jacksonville. Fal


TABLE OF CONTENTS.

FJiRST-PAGEz-Horticultural Experiments; The
SKelsey Plum in Favor; Horme's' Method with
Peaches; A Florida Hay *Farm; A Word of
Caution; The olhnsbh Grass; Orange Culture
in Sicily; Manufactuie of Bear Grass.
S SECOND PAGE-Diseases of the Grape; White
Blackberries; A Profitable Peachj Strawberry
Growing; Horticultural Brevities; Sweet P o-
tatoes; Jute Culture in Texas. -
TmraD P.AE-A. Sic,:e.e'ui Farnier; HElrdi'n:
'Hay Frrniaig; A Sanitarv- Matter; Farni
Economy; Cotton Seed Hulls.-
FouRTH PAGE (Editorial)-Seed Distribution; To
Contributors; Favors Acknowledged; An-
swers to Inquiries; In Union There is Strength;
Farmers' Alliances.
FixFTH PiGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle;-Cosy Corner; The Family Friend;
Our Yourig F:ike' C'm.-cr -
SIa P.ic-E-V-terir.i7 Advice; Bells for
Cti" .tl-; T.-i T,-ll a H.:.r5'i Age; Live Stock
-' : N..I--. Agora G.3ati; Weaning Pigs; To Keep
'thePigs Growing;.Chicken Mites; Milk and
Fish fori Fowls; To Frighten Haivks; The Hum
of Industry.:. .
S,'-f.%-.r Pa-i'-Farnu 11,.-eilnmy (llustr-ated);
e.rial -t,.rr, F.:.r H.:,nr'. Sake, I-s Fr iJ.:.n- ,
ElGHTa PAGE-Fl '.ri'i Newi in Brief, Fartt er,'
c i-inb; thie Fien.:hb n Fiori.L; Fairrier J...hn'-
U-.ok; Ho:w Ruir i Pr-.:.du.-,ed, Tie One-H.i:.re
n Farmer; July Weather: Newv Y.-rk .aAd .J:,-1..
u. ivuille Markeu.

SSEED DISTRIBUTION ... -

S We have received a large number of
::: applications for the grass seods-.bffered
- ---' sore time ago, all of which will receive
.- due attention. WVe intndl to send tlietu
.- all out by the middle of July. The teo-
siinte seed was exh-,usted last month.
We did not keep a record. but kuow they
were sent-to -at- least fifty applicantsi.
The next number will contain a report
on the Florida wheat. :
S::TO CONTRIBUTORS.; .
... .- TO CONTRIBUTORS ... ,. ,


A corresp.-,ndent makes a complaint
that the FARMER AND FRUIT-GR,)OWER is
not of convenientsize for filing, and that
it does not contain enough of the ex-
plicit. detailed irsi-tructions which new
comers need for their guidance.
The first objection will I.e removed
with the beginningof the second volume,
if not sc-oner. A form will be adopted
similar to that of the A.It'rirai Airkit!-,
turist ,r Contiry Gvnelemi.,i. so that a.
year's number may be bound in book
form.


In regard to the second criticism, we
do not admit its validity. An agricul-
turui paper is not a manual of farming
or gardening or horticulture, 1-ut simply
embodies the observations. experiment;
.qn,- mi~r.nn,; rd i L i Ui dii i LU.. I .... I. ..


be performed. Let the writer be sure
first that he understandsahis subject, and
then proceed to unfold ii as he would to
a "raw immigrant." The bearings of
soil and latitude should be taken into
consideration, for methods which suc-
-Teed under certain conditions mitht re-
sult in utter, failure under other .condi-
ti n. ,- ,. .


tions.
FAVORS ACKNOWLEDGED,


We have received from Rev. Lyman
Phelps a fifty-pound watermelon grown
in his famous grove near Sanford. The
variety is called "The Boss," and the ac-
cotnpanying letter states that it is "not
a large one, as it was grown among the
bearing orange trees."
We are tempted to go to Sanford to
see what Mr. Phelps calls a large melon.
Maybe he has some-out in the field-
that have to be lifted with a derrick. The
products of his land speak well for his
favorite Forrester fertilizers. Mr. Phelps'
unsurpassable oranges have been referred
to in previous numbers. We have some
of his Malta Ovals, picked on the 28th of
June, which are nearly as juicy as in
winter.
From Geo. L. Taber, of Glen St. Mary
Nurseries, we have a couple of the fa-
mous Kelsey plums, the first specimens
of this remarkable fruit we have seen.
These specimens are immature, and we
cannot judge as to flavor, but in other
respects they rather exceed our expecta-
tions. This fruit is more heart shaped
than any other we know.
We think Mr, Taber fully deserves to
be .entitled the Father of Kelsey Plum
Culture in Florida. We move that that
title be bestowed on him, and hope Bro.
M. will second the- motion. We shall
not go further without Bro. M.'s
support, for we know he went back
on the original Father of, Peach Cul-
ture, or at least put up another can-
didate and got the thing so muddled that
not one in ten can tell who the father
of peach culture is, or whether peach
culture has or ever had any father at all.
SANSWERS-TO INQUIRIES

ARE GOATS PROFITABLE?
D. -R. P. wishes information on four
subjects:
1. "Are goats profitable?- If so, in
what way?"
Wb have repeatedly recommended
the keeping of goats,: and several
have expressed a- desire to make a
trial of them. We expect before
long to hear of some one in Flor-
ida who has gOats to6 sell. and. shall
publish his address. We have just been
talking with Geneial Sebring, of Levy
county, and: learn from him that goats
are kept in considerable number in that
section of the State, mainly for the sake
Of their meat. Several persons keep
from P1i"0 toIi ,0. It appears by a para-
graph in the last issue that parties. in
Marion county have stocked farm with
401) head of goats, and find them so prof-
itable ihat they intend to increase the;
number to l,,.,).
SThe kids- are killed when six or seven
months old, and weigh when dr'esed
about twenty pounds. In. skinning, the
hair should not )be allowed to touch the
flesh, as i's contact imparts a disagreea-
ble flav.-or. The nrtat tastes much like
lamb, but isdaiker and firmer. As to
the milk, it is well known to be richer
and more nutritious than cows' milk,
aundi to be prized for invalids and ci'l-
dren. General Sebring tells us that it
ueeds to be boiled before using., in order
to rid it of a certain n objectionable flavor.
When goats are regularly milked and
properly cared for they ought to give a
quart a day. It pays to feed them a lit-
tle corn. vegetables. etc.. but they will
suh[-ist on -what otheranimnials refirse. On
another page will be found some further
particulars in regard to goats.


II11 opinions oIaU L U'.iI l l Ua l livat'UrE.
Some jownnals attempt monthly calen- IUPROVENSHEEP.
dare of work. but afterthe fiastyear that -2.. "'What improved breeds of sheep
becomes a mere ropetitioin. However, have been ftoundi to do well in Florida?"
we shall introduce this feature soon, We wert told that a few Cotswolds
probably wilh theadvent oft August, and bad been imported into Manatee county.
it may be of some use to isoiated indirid- but beyond this we have no information.
uals. But new comers should not be Neither have we learned that the Angora
too proud to ask advice of their neigh- goat was ever tried In this State. The
bors as to methods and seasons ot plant- introduction of Angora bucks, and of
ing. rams of improved breeds, is rery desira-
This complainant's special complaint ble. An agricultural authority states
was that he could not learn hb'- celery that goats kept with sheep are a great
should be managed in thisclimate, either protection against dogs. Two goats -ith
from our paper or from his neighbors, fifty or seventy-five sheep arec said to be
but it so happened that our issue of even effectual in repelling canine intruders.
.late with his letter contained full di- Flint says: "When the sheep h,,ve no
reactions in regard to celery. He should "such protection, and a dog enters the
provide himself with Whitner's Garden- Yeld at night, the sheep will run wildly
ingin Florida and Oemler's Truck Fai m- about, bleating piteously, but whien
ing at the South, eitherofrwhich may be goats are used to guard them, they form
obtained by sending l$1.50) to Horace in a compact body behind the goats, aud
Drew, of Jacksonville, or almost any seem to be fearless and rather enjoy the
other bookseller, fun."
A class of contributors wbi'rch we so- IUC'EWHEATr.
licit especially, are such as give detailed 3. -"Does buv-kwheat succeed in '.Flor-
instruictions for the culture of special ida? It" so, when should it be Eown."
crops, describing each detail of manage- Buckwheat is regarded as as Northern
ment amnd the season at which it should crop, yet it succeeds tolerably well in
_-' -.i .- -='2--'- "


the piedmont region of the South. We
never saw it growing or, heard of its cul-
tivation in this State. We wouldrecom-
mend a trial of it, sowing i on different
qualities of. land at the rate of half a
bushel to the acre, as late as will permit
of its maturing before frost. Probably
the first of September would he early
enough. More or les.s seed is needed, ac-
cording as the plant branches much dr
little, and that is governed by soil and
season. On good land at the North,
buckwheat produces forty bushels or
more per acre. As it is a crop of quick
growth, it will be best to give it a dress-
ing of allies or commercial fertilizer.
Potash it most needs, and& next to that
nitrogen and phosphoric acid. This crop


is one of the best to turn under for green
fertilizer, and may be utilized in this
way if it does not seed well.
4. "What is the cause of and curefor
knotty lemons?"
SWe do not know. Does anyone know?
We pause for, areply. 9
TRUCK FARMING. -
Subscriber, of Greensboro, Ga., writes:
"Will you please inform me from whal.
parts of Florida.are watermelons aud
tomatoes shipped exten-sively'"
The region South of Thomasville afi
Valdosta is most favorable to the water-
melon crop. Most of the melons that
are shipped out of the State are grown
in Jefferson and Madiso n counties, Mon-
ticello being the chief centre. But water-
melons grow well in all parts of the State.
Tomatoes for shipment are grown mostly
in the central and southern counties,
From the coast and keys of Monroe and
Dade counties, they areshipped in Janu-
ary, February and March, while in April
and May they are shipped from Orange,
Volusia, Marion, Sumter, Levy, Alachua
and other counties. We understand that
the chief shipping points last spring (bet
sides Key West) were Leesburg, Eustis,
Gainesville, Archer, Arredondo, Starke,
- Bronson, Ocala, Hawthorne, Wildwood
and Micanopy. I
LAWN GRASSES.,
J. D. T., of Keuka;, writes: "Please
tell me what kind of grass is best in
Florida for a lawn, and where I can ob-
tain seed or-roots. I have been cultivating
Bermuda by way of hiding the sand. It
is quite a success, and makes a fine place
for the children to romp, but it keeps
me all the time digging it away from my
flowers and vegetables."
If you object to Bermuda, we would
recommend you to send next fall or
winter for some Texas blue grass, to Mr.
W. P. Home, of Glen St. Mary, and for
somie Lespedeza, to Mr. T. K; Godbey, or.
Waldo. Send to the latter for some of
what we have called turf grass, if you
have moist land that you wish in s6d,
St. Augustine grass will rapidly cover
moist lands also. Smut grass is our fa-
'vorite'for dryi .lands, but. must be kept.
down by cutting or grazing during sum-
mer. A calf will keep it in fine-order.
It is very hardy, and can be started any
time when the ground is moist. See ar-
ticle on grasses in last number.


DISEASES OF THE GRAPE.
L. H.. A., Ocean Grove,. N. J.: Under
the alive caption, on seeonl page, we
think you will find the information you.
desire. Thanks for your good .wishes
and also f,fr your critic-isms, which are
well put. .
A HAND-'"ME VINE.


The vine of whilh J.dY. D. sends a
specimen, is the I'ilis.cid,., one of three
native grapes winch are well worthy of
cultivation as ornamenital vines, though
the-ir berries are not edible. Vitis ar-
btonrta abounds on the wooded borders >-f
creeks and marrlhes. It has compound
leaves, like those of bthe China tree .in
form, though much smaller, and hand-
s.-.me clusters of black berries. In culti-
vation it frtuit.q prfucely during several
months, and it can .be u-ed very effect-
ively on trellises.. Vitis .acida is found
only on the southern coast of Florida
.tlhence Soutlhward,. but might be culti-
vated in the interior. Its leaves are ev-
ergreen, and are composed of three
fleshy, sliarp-tout hied leaflets. I. iicisa
is similar to:, the last, and grows on the
weat coast of Floiida. I'. sicyoird., of
the soutlieiu coast, and V. iidif'es', (of
the Chattahooclichee region, are the two
other members of this group, and have
roundish, coarse leaves. These and the
Virginia creeper have been variously as-
signed by different botanists to three
genera, namely, I'iiS, Amiiplopsis and
Cissis. .
The so,-ial and kindly feelings of our
neighbllis do as much towar:l securing
success to, the farmer as to men of any
business, and the farmer wvhbo does nothii-
ing to secure the k'ndly regard of the
community has hard up hill work to
make a success of his business.
Anotlisr requisite to successful farming
is to know-one's business, and then to
keep up with the times by being familiar
with the markets and thie methods of
culture-knowing what to raiseand how
to raise it.


220-


q


IN UNION THERE IS STRENGTH., club. On another page will be tcund
"--" ----'~ .- -" letters from the secretaries of two clubs
As regards Southern agriculture. the of recent organization. We wish to
most gratifying sign of the times is the come into communication with all Flor-
increasing disposition among farmers to ida clubs, and shall be willing to divide
combine for their mutual protection space with them on this page. We wish
against the rapacityof the money kings, to see ail the farmers and fiuit gr.:,wers
whose rule means ruiu to the masses, in Florida organized, clubbed together,
The wealth of the country is flowing marching shoulder to shoulder, under a
with alarming rapidity into the c:,ffers banner inscribed with the motto. Eco."
of a fewv, who employ the aits ot thle O:>Y AND HO:'ME PRODUCTION."
roller and gambler, escaping justice by 0
a system of bilbery. Men who are as FARMERS' ALLIANCES.
:heartless and conscienceless as beats of -
prey, are devouring the substan:e of Sonimeof the Advantages Arising
toiling millions, and by tle tricks rof fom Organization.
gamblers, are acquiring, wealth such, The f..towing letter it Home and
perhaps,, as Cresus never possessed. Farm, from a Tex-s member of the
Millionaires are combining and becom- Farmers' Alliance, desc-ribes a method of
ing what the French may term milliard- dealing with merchants which has been
aires, into companies which manipulate practiced in some localities in Florida
with mu,.-h satisfaction:
thousand millions of dollars. These The many complaints in Nour valued
combinations are termed "trusts." paper of exorbitant prices f.r farm
There is the Standai'd Oil Trust, the supplies induce us to furnislh a brief
American Oil Trusti, the American Cat- statement of our experience in this re-
mote corner. We uced to obey the un-
tle Trust, the Rubber Trust.. The resnable demands cof organized specu-
effect of such combinations is to kill lation, and] thie most energetic ardong
out legitimate competition, ruin small us were not able to becleirof moi-tgages
.manufactuiefs orproducers, drive Out and loadsof debt. Recently we have
a or produces, de ot formed obuiselves into alliiances. If we
hand labor by systematized mechanical should write up the difference in pi i:es
methods, reduce the prices of raw ma- of supplies your readers- would n..t be-
terials and advance the prices of many lieve us. Oir counitryV is completely 're--
olutionizel. Fifty dollars "ill I.;u~- n
staple articles of consumption. All this mucasTLiindred wolsa vear auo.
much as a hundred waouMd a yeai' am':.
tends to impoverish the masses, to dis- The farmers of a coimuuity unit.
couragefarmers, and to creatediscontent The-secret work ,of an alliance is vety
and turbulence among the poor of cities. short and simple. We-allow the utmost
andthrbulenemot o nof theponeyelimit of individuality, always so arrang-
The motto of the moneyed combina- ing as to work in harmony with each
tions or trusts is, "in union there is other. As soon as we have members
strength," and that must be the farmers' enough to exert a controlling influence
motto. The working people of the cit- over a section of country, we begin work
by receiving bids .froin the- mncrchants
ies have embodied it in their system of for oir trade.i We sometimes mhavenoc-
trades unions, but they cannot be half so casion for a little patience in this matter.
independent of the money power as their Merchants doubt if ignorant, dispirited
brethren of the rural regions can be. farmers can be e-ffciently and perma-
The farmers, especially of the South, do and waiting, that we are a unfit, they i
not realize how independent they can be, not slow to make overtures'; so thfiat it
but they are moving in the right direc- does not take long to secure us a man
tion. What they need is more enlight- willing and able to furnish a few hun-
dred of our families.
ennfnt, so that they may realize the On our part, we agree to give him
dangers that threaten them and the need our whole trade, and he furnishes us at a
of organization, fixed per cent. Our merchant here sup-
The., farmes of F a ae d g plies all merchandise, notions, and drugs
The farmers of Florida are doing little, at ten per cent. profit. We buy a'dime's
more than to help build up the wealth worth at wholesale prices. Our pur-
Sof New York, Savannah and a score of chases are made by the car-load, and
usually a heavy discount is'allowed, so
other cities. The city factors are the usually a heavy discount is allowed so
that our farmers byni much cheaper than
farmers' best friends and most obedient they could at the factories and machine
servants, according to their circulars, shops. "Take, for instance, a lot of
but. their bills of sale tell a very differ- Avery's plows just received, whi.:h are
sold here to the farmers -by the single
ent story. They ask only ten per cent., plow about twenty-five per cent. cheaper
but they take fifty. They cannot live in than they can. be bought at Avery's
a brown-stone front on the ten per cent., shops. The same is true of most sup-
but they can on fifty, and the country- plies. .
ma needs no own stone Fears are expressed for the stability of
man needs no brown stone front- these arrangements, and whthether mer
scarcely anything besides air and.water chants will-continue to' deal fairly vith
-r&dally, they need the fifty-per cent. Us.- Will they not,-by and by, demand
most, and are oin to ave for- themselves the benefits of these
Smost,and are going to have it .And wholesale rates? Perhaps sometimes
the railroad kings could not live-in be- they will, ut we shall not e ound to
.. i- "they will, !)ut we shall not be bound to
coining style on a daily income less than allow the demand.-
the average farmer's annual income, We seldom trade with any house-
without having first selected front among
and so they charge for the use of their ourselves one or more clerk, who must
roads-which in reality the people have watch the interest of the alliance. Next
,given them--two or three times what we appoint a committee of our members,
such services are worth, who have. the right at any time to enter
the house and examine all invoices,
Let us see what the system of man- books, papers and goods of .every de-
agement is 'in the orange district. The scription, and see that every, part of the
railroads (or steamships) bring to the agreement is complied with tothe letter.
It would be difficult, therefore, for our
grove, owner his horses, feed for .the merchants to practice deception,,even if
same, fertilizers, implements, and the they had a disposition to do so, and few
crates for his fruit. The railroads carry will bdfound who have any such dispo-
his fruit to the Northernmarkets, where sition. In fact, the merchant findshis
i fari'ites "in thad Noite" andrs, 'here business so increa-ed that his gains'are
it arives "in bad ojeie and is t re--much greater than-by the .'grab and-
packed." and then thie railroads bring hold' system of the past. If his trade
bac,:k the equivalent of the .proceeds of amounted to .fifty dollars a day, at
sale in bacon, 'grits, canned meats, vegE- thirty per cent. gain, it. will now proba-
band fruits, and a thousand it.r bly be five hundred a-day at-ten per
tables and fruits,. and a touandi v ent. He sees at once hich is the
articles. No wonder the producers corn- more profitable.to him.
plain of hard times. A system more Much of our business here must be
radically false and ruinous to produces done on credit, and] this requires an ad-
ditional per cent equal to the interest
could not be imagined. We have ear on the money invested Inteest in our
pf persons'living for others," and we State is eight to ten per cent. For the
are pretty sure that large portion of thbe present this amount must be added to
people of Florida are living for the the p1,rice of the goods sold on credit:
But.when the perfect, safety of a; busi-
tradlers and capitalists of other States. ness conducted upon'ourprinciple is bet-
We are expressing an. opinion which ter understood, money will be 'oaned at
is daily growing stronger. Popular sen- a much less per cent, for such an enter-
timent is changing, and this will work prise.r m t
reform. Araia ha i our ag-. Merchants must learn that when, by
reform. A radical chau&e in our agri- usury and extortion, they have eaten up
cultural policy must be brought about, a country and ruined its farmers, they
or this State and the whole Suili will hare destroyed the foundation on which
be inipovetished, mortgaged and sold they thiemslves stood. It is not only
,a oth moneykn, mor Waed e sg s o that-farmers become discouraged and
out to0 the money kings. We ,see signs abate their efforts when they see that
of arising of the people, to meet the mercantile grecd, like the abyss, can
emergency. Those giant organizations, neret be tilled. They are driven further
the Patrons of Husbandr and the Far- --they liarn to conceal what they may
-r- m possess. The merchant is left in'straits
mers' Alliance, are rapidly extending or ruined. So, the roller is rolled.
iheir influence over the Southern States. But man will sometimes learn that
These woirk by local and State organiza- man is his brother. There will be a truce
tons, whkyIbecomecentdeaoftenlighten- to slavery. When country is built up
ios, which o cenreoenlighte- upon our .principles there may be fewer
meant and of practical advancement and merchants, doctors and lawyers in it,
reform. Their influence may be exerted but they will be better employed. Many
irin nanv directions. They are essentially a small town in our State has already
C0-oe'tiv .oganiatlnsworingsent twenty, thirty or fifty of its mer-
opetative -organizations, working charts and lawyers to the neighboring
within themselves and with.each other farms. Men who were accustomed to
for the common good. It -is a combina- lounge in idleness behind useless coun-
tion of producers, working to protect ters are added to the list of producers.
their intrests gait th p. oand are in a fair way to become respected
their interests against 'tie oppression of eitizeos.
money kings and the exto,-tion of middle I shall leave to the future to speak of
men. the influence of the alliances upon our
The FARUEER AND FRUIT-GROWER has chuiches and schools. An institution
armers' .among the farmers which helps the help-
-advocated the formation of farmers s e by extending necesary credit, on
clubs from the outset, and wil' continue living terms, discouraging all debt, abel-
to.advocate such organizations under isliing exorbitant prices by placing in
whatever name they may assume. Be l-the hands of the people themselves the
foate ln er hope toe pubis thsue. coe-o power to determine the rates they shall
foe ongwe hope to publish the code of pay is the dawning of a new era. Let
by-laws which should govern a farmers' none be discouraged. Organize."


How Rain is Produced.
Did it ever occur to the reader that
there i- just as much water in the air
above bim on. a clear, bright day as
on a cloudy or rainy one? Rain does
not comn.? from somewhere else, or if
it is wafted over you by the wind front
elsewhere, the water that was over
you is simply wafted on to some other
place. What ik said above explains
this. Water is absorbed in the air
above us, at a certain temperature,
and it becomes insensible. Cool hat
air by a wind draft of cooler atmos-
phere. ,i by electrical or chemical
inflit-rice.s. and he th. momentt the air be-
comes cooler it giv-s up some oft the
watery pnricle.s that were insensible or
invisible -.t the higher temperature.
These small pai tiles ihus given out,
unite and wh,-n enough of them coal-
esce. obstruct the light and show as
clouds When enough li of them unite to
be too heavy to float 1i the air. thbiy be-
gin to descend: pair after pair of them
come together until a rain drop is form-
ed. One of these minute rain drc.p is
made up of millions ot infinitely ema'l
watery particles.
Air passing orer the .cold tops of
m,:untains is cooled down so that it
gives up a g.-ood deal of the concealed
water vapor, and hence little rain fails
in the region along the lee side ot such
mountains. This is why so little rain
falls .iu Colorado and in other places
noith an:l south of tuant State. The pr'-
rdilinug winds blow from tle west, and
the cool tops of the Rocky Mo.uutains
lower their temperature and thus take
out the moisture that would :,therwi '
fall in rain.-American Inventor. -

Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of thie FLR-Rn>.' FARMER,
.Nt' FR'Ir-GR-oWER are rep)e<:tfully in-.
vited t' v:otntiibute to its columns articles
aul notes, "n all subjits pertaining to
the farm. garden, orchard and house-
boll jffaf's. The range of toics which
will be diseused in this journal may be
gathered from the sutbjined talile, which
may v'it-e r to sucgesi what might other-
wise escape attention : :
FARM )LANAG'IEMENT.
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new. land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
irrigation, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring.
DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
Horses, .mules, cattle, :ogsh beep,;
goats.'poultry-Breeds, feed. dLueaseeai,-e
treatment.. .
SPECIAL FERTtR-iZER. :
CoLtton seed. cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground hoine, acid-
per.-phosphate, gypsum, time. kainit,
ashes, marl. muck, leaf mould, co:,m-
post. -
S FORAGE CROPS.
Bermuda gras;.s, crab grass. Para grass
Guinea grass. Terreli grass. orchard
grass, red-top g rass, Johnin gra a, Tex a
blue grass,, p-ea i millet. German millet,
millo maize. kaiffir corn. teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn. cow peas. ,iesmodi-
urni, Mexican '.lover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
melilotus.
STAPLE CROPS. ..
Corn, oats, rye, wheat, ,ice-Varieties, -
yield per acre. soil and -eason, dfficul-
ties en,"ouutered, general treatment, .
Cofton-L,)ig and I. lhcirt .StapleL-Plant^ .
inge and- culture, marketing. manage-
ment of seed, products from the seed.
Sugar cane a ,.] S, oi/ ,i u-Varietiea,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture, manu-
facture. .- .
FRUITS.- .
Wift3's F'ruisa-Compai kon of varie-
ties, hardiness and pioduc-tireneis, meth-
ods of propagation,, methods of planting
and culture, comparative effects of fer-
tilize-rs. marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit, wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, native. plum, mul.
berry, quince, apricot, guava, banana.
pineapple sapodilla, 'mango, avocada
pear, cocoanut, 'pecan, English walnut,
almond, :pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackbenrry, raspberry-Va-
rieties, effects of soil, weather, ctc;
methods of culture.
NATr- TREES AND HERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over of fo:test lands, t.he
lumber and turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plaut
life, weeds and noxious plants. "
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information ia
desired respecting popular names and
uses. *.
MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS.
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
-the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
*tion for farmers,.-homnestead laws, trans-
portation, marketing produce, experit-
mental farms, agricultural education,
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-.
cipes for cooking, home decorations
household economy, mineral, and earths,
climatology, hints on the care off'chil- "
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
ments, etc.
In treating of the above andl related'
subjects, practical experience is much to
be preferred to theoretical knowl- .
edge; yet there are topics needing dis- :
cussion which have to be treated of ,
from a somewhat theoretical stand-
ooint. -
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor are based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as-pos-
sible.
All communications for the editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWE '






FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER,. JULY 1-3, 1887.


l nr am it* H competent help for our housekeepers
0nr Clif y/g/Oef, that we have decided to try to fill the
Sf____ _____ gap, if possible; but first we want to
HELEN -^.^ Editor. know how many gaps are willing to be
HELEN HARCOIIRT. Editor, filled. We have already been notified
of several, but we know that there are
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all many more. Speak out quickly, sisters,
Who wish to be friendly and make us a'call; that we may be able to go tO work intel-
With words of good counsel for old friends and tat we a e able to o t wor ntel
new, ligently and systematically.
Who come to us seeking the best way to do. The "native material," although all
All questions of general interest will be wool on top, certainly does fit in the
answered through these columns. kitchen like a round plug in a' square
Personal inquiries will be answered by mail hole, nor does it wear a good Idack.
when accompanied by stamp for reply. As to when the society will send out
Subscribers are cordially invited to take a
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views, girls for Florida homes, that is a question
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit, that must be referred to the near future
"Help ye one another." for reply-at present, deponent sayt
Communications intended for publication for reply-at present, deponentt sayeth
must be brief, clearly written, and only on not" for an unanswerable reason; How
one side of the paper, can we tell what we do not know? How
All matter relating to this department can we make definite arrangements un-
should be addressed to tilnore of our sisters have "spoken up
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE, f
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower, in meeting?" We dare not risk having
Montclair, Fla. children brought to this far-away State,
at no small expense to the society that
OUP Cosy COPrnr. shelters them, until we are sure that as
L P many homes will be waiting them
A SIMPLE PLATE' RACK. without fail.
From a sister in-Brevard county comes All applications will be placed on file.
a hint that will proye6 a blessing to those We shall at once make preliminary ar-
*who wish to save the monotouous task rangements, but shall not perfect them
ef ..wiping dishes. -Eishes .carefully until fully assured on this vital point.
washed in hot water and plentyjsf soap. We do not, however, consider it likely
then dipped into nice, clean rinsewater, that any Northern home will be willing
would not need Wiping at all- if they to send its charges here until fall, the
could only be thoroughly and' quickly\ -general idea being that the Florida sum-
drained, and this is just what our vel- :mer is dangerous, whereas, the truth, as
come cr.rrespondent tells shobAn to do, we who live here know it, is that our
quoting from her own experience, summer is healthy, and much more
The letter and the accompanying il- pleasant and breezy than any the North
lustration will make her simple device can show.
clear and easy to fellow: :- A point we must insist upon is this,
Mio,'o, Brevard Co., Fla. that those who apply for. girls will be
Dr CoiliiM Heem ready to take them when they do arrive.
We will give them opportunity for such
I cannot let another mail pass without assurance shortly before our last definite
answ-ering to the appeal' Atlanta- arrangements are completed, and shall
at ri'." -Help ,Ea O.th. then expect them to heed the obligations
tribute my mite, knowing it will help assured.
tth,'se who trym it Woultatamorewere , -__ ,.
l ie who.tryit- [Would.that morewere We have good reason for this clause,
lik e m in dd. .i:1.- h e le.n .. When- our arrangements were made
prOVing on our old plate rack until I last fall to bring boys to fill Florida



-ele .0 'pi :i ll, mkin- a^MW lt. bu UIbLo~ys,- than thereu
have one now just to suit me .h o ..
Thse are the dimensions: Solid ends mes, the number brought corres-
o boaris eight< Ih -"._i_ ,. tapering to ponded to the number of applicants for
"fi ache' e ot the sttio, a.n teint themi s the latter having engaged to be





ae is r sed aor clthes ,tlnes, anru wn~ y t irug F. .. .. Bideor .. oeo
f i "e ...l.at t a he o and ic ient-in person or by deputy in Jdacksonville to
one inches high, set upright, wi the stripseeive them on arrival.
one inch square and two and a nhalf ee No less tha tve "o"f es apli ct
... in -atth tpniiddle, and N l nstan fnve of' these applicants
long mortinced s a e top, da failed tokeep teir obligations, and if it





*l~ tar pn]gn rto -r .o-o to. saow other .. .. Ou oe ceby
just 1 [ Iough from the bottom to ad- had not been that there were moreper-
m~t,', tr e l'p tins bengmoeasi, pe, .,
h th" drips tin in easiy spe I son on the spot, not former applicants,
under. Of course two strips n will e -.n _- t
needed at each point, ix in all, making anxiou. to take the boys, than there
-- t andwere lairs 0t be .;a five boys would
tree open shelves, whicl are best. filled "- takenfivboyswo
have been left on the society's hands,






inbr aiigac ros rhfsnik som ope the serlc *\le \\ y' hands, G~. (-
a y.. nilin o then ome oen after their expenses here had been in-
minsh wire, g alvanized. d
Parallel holes must be bored through curre.
-".- A ... .. pue s of, mese noys, note mieter be--I
each one of these strips, three 'inches A po of these b n l b
-apart, and stout galvanized" wire, such low.-
as isused for clothe, line-s, run through Frtom M.H.,, Bridlgeport. Fla.. one of
them, letinabout half an 'inch in the b. best known and most enterprising
bottom strips, and perfecting three or ctizens, weave the following which t
four inches above the top, wich answers gIires s true and unalloyed pleasure to
tor draining eaps, saucers, nd small ar- reproduce, all the more as it must tend
to show others of O.r Home Circle boys
ticles. ,' w
Und-,rneath place two tin 'trays to whatthey may do if *they will. ,
IIn this one ,home for-the hoameless's
catch the drips. They can easily be-
taknr"an -vaheevey d. we feel repaid for all our' exertions in
taki-n ooadt a ihA ev' e rv ]ay. I...
mt. .. .. .,... .^hbrtnging these tuture cttizens into our
The dishes are to be washed in hot Stateb "'Bi-gthell...tur tizen.;niuNOW"
water, then rinsed and slipped between ;. "By t i shalll know
the rwits. rhe f frontt and bark- m,f the them: .
-" ,k ) z rtt~le-Who %% anitis G l t,-* at-
rack are a'ike. -" Vow-aarticle. "W.io adntsepll at-
I have supplied three of m. sisters. acted my attention, and in repo w
with one -ach, who have had lots of say I want one We have one of the


.one cupful of raisins, one cupful cur-
rants, piece of citron cut thin, spices to
taste, with second one-third, and bake as
a fruit cake. To the remainder, add
flour enough to roll, cut and fry as crul-
lers.
BREAD PANCAKES.
M. P., Washington county, Ill., writes:
"I send my recipe, which is a good one,
for making pancakes with bread crumbs:
Soak the bread crumbs, then drain them;
to two cupfuls of bread crumbs add one
cupful of flour or cornmeal, one egg, and
mL.k enough to make a thin batter. If
the milk is sweet, add a teaspoonful of
yeast powder; if sour, half a teaspoonful
of 'soda dissolved in a tablespoonful of
warm water.
PEACH JELLY.
Make a thin syrup with ten ounces of
sugar and half a pint of water. Then
take ten or twelve ripe peaches, pare
them, cut them in halves and take out
the stones, bruising the kernels of half
of them. Now put the halved peaches,
together with the bruised kernels, into
the syrup, and allow them to simmer for
fifteen minutes, adding for flavor the
zest of two lemons and the juice of three.
Then strain the jelly through a jelly bag,
add ten ounces of dissolved gelatine, and
pour it into a mould, which should be
placed on the ice until thejelly becomes
stiff enough to turn out. The peaches
themselves may be utilized as a com-
p o te. I '
BAKED CAULIFLOWER.
Select ahead of cauliflower with its
green leaves attached, and see to it that
there are no dark spots on the head or
stems. Pick off the leaves (which are
edible), soak the head in cold water,
slightly salted, for one hour (top down-
ward) and drain. Put it in a deep sauce-
pan, cover with salted, boiling water,
and simmer fifteen minutes. Remove
the scum, or it will discolor the head.
Drain and divide the branches, put them
in a baking tin; add boiled milk enough
to prevent burning, an ounce of butter,
and salt and white pepper for seasoning.
Sift over it a layer of cracker crumbs,
and bake for ten minutes.
PEACH CAKE.
Bake three sponge cakes in jelly-cake
tins, and cut your peaches in thin slices,
sprinkling them over one of the' cakes,
and put "sngar over them. Prepare
whipped cream with a teaspoonful of
sea-moss farina dissolved in a half cup
of milk, or a little more, and add to the
cream after it is sweetened and flavored
with vanilla. Cover the peaches and
then place over the -cream, and then
cake and more peaches and cream, fin-
ishing with cream.,
CAKEE (OF FIMS,
similar to those mentioned in the Bible,
are made by slowly stewing peeled ripe
figs to a smooth pulp in a porcelain kettle,
adding a little sugar and flavoring, aud
stirring the mass constantly while cook-
ing. WVhen thoroughly 'lone and re-
duced to a smooth, thick pulp. free from
lumps, pour slowly iutoshallow pans. or
fancifully shaped moulds, and dry
i:iowlv in sl'rv- .r evaporatior. When
fully dry, wrap each cake in paper, and
store away in a dry place.. These cakes
may be l3rokpn ur. and.l tew-d for the


d'ishs to ash, and after one trial, the oys sent down through your endeavors tab-e e like dried figs or dtes.
,.t~ O iasH luil.~r.vi~, v atf n ." table, or eaten lke dried figs oi- dates.
w-ndered how they ever did without last fall, and.he is making a man and a
,them. citizen that will be a cre Jit to the State F- P-IG JAM. ,
A carpenter made me one and del;v- He is developing into a good nursery- Peel when entirely ripe, and boil a few
ered it forr $1. e5. man of his own accord, and I shall give moments until quite soft: strain through
Grtlassesi audsihverhave to be dried as him a piece of land. to make a home a colander or coarse sieve, add one-hall
ulpsosandsi"er"aveto e diedas their weight in white sugar and boil ta
usual, but it is a great saving of time upon. their weight in white sugar and boil to
and dliii towels .I shall be.pleased to know when you the desired consistency. Flavor with
Tie rack stands on the kitchen table, are' to have the gwls, come down." lemon, pine-apple or anything preferred.
and the dnp tins slide under like draw- See reply to.similar query by Mrs. This is a very delicate and delicious
crE ,E.. -. sweetmeat, and could be made a profit-
I will write how I make mosquito bars H. Von L.. Eariton, Fla.. applies for able article of commerce.
if any of the readers of the FA.MER AN ne of the company of boys promised us FIG JELLY.
FRanr-Gaowra would like to) know. ta e coming fall. Take fully rip figs, peel carefully, pu
MRS. W. J;N Answered by mail June :01th, andlap- itoak fur li-p'sgeerefulyettl
B. all means, letusbare It location fled into a porcelain--preserving kettle and
-Msubject. bu .J.N. [ieo-f' add wqtei enough to cover the fruit.
By all means, let us have iv;. It .is -a prcano =ICC-L"-- "^ "" ""; B[ abote tentyg torlotes, the strait.
"flimsy" subject., to be sure, Sut an im- oil about twenty minutes. then strain,
portant one for all that, a d if Sister N. The Family Friend, add sugar, say half a pound to each pint
has made improvements in this hine, as of fig juice, and boil again from ten to
in that she has just told us of, Our W. W" lOOLEN FABI3.c., SHRINK. o iue, n il i e n
twenty minutes. until it jellies.
Home Circle will I be glad to share the The fibres of wool and certain kinds of Fit p l
good. without having any of the trouble, hairs are toothed or jagged at the edges, .F PIE.
That inhuman nature, you know. the teeth or imbrications pointing up- A delicate dessert. For each pie chop
Our Circle has certainly been rather ward-that is, from the root to the point, half a pound of figs. dried or fresh, very
-hackward in coming forward," but When subjected, therefore, to compres- fine. and cook them utip with one cup of
those who have stepped in line have sion or frictioar, these fibres, being free cold water ior part cider or brandy and
done valuable service, and we owe them to move only in one-dhrection by reason the rest water:i; when the figs are soft
thanks, of the asperities of surface, have a great and smooth, let cool, and add tihe yolk of
Ail the same, we are cousin or some- tendency to unite and lock together, an egg and sugar to taste; put into the
thing to Oliver Twist, and cry out for This explains the peculiar capability crust and bake. Make a meringue of
-More!" possessed by. wool- or felting, and also the whites of the eggs beaten stiff, with
S. the shrinking of fabrics of wool. la thie two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar
The Davis Fund. latter case, the excessive rubbing to beaten in it: flavor with vanilla. As
To this charitable object 'A Friend'' which they are subjected causes a mat- soon as the crust is done draw the pie to
contributes $1, saying: --I would be tingor.binding together of the ultimate the oven door don't take it out'i, spread
glad to send more. but am not able." 6hres. which causes shrinkage; and this this on top and let it set tor a minute or
Reading between the lines, we know is intensified by changing the goods two. not longer.
that, one who "was not able" to do more from hot to cold water, which is usually Fi) PUDDING.
could not have done this much without practiced, as thIe contractionof tihefibres Three-quarters of a pound of gated
som-e'self-denial, hence, ne regard that which this.causes.is itself', a felting pro- bread, half poundof figs, six ouncessuet,
$1 -as of more worth thafi a $10 bill tcess.- For washibng-.wbolen-ailicle sit is six ounces brown sugar, one teacupful
would have been from many others, recommended to place them in warm of milk, and grate a little nutmeg: chop
Verily Isay unto you, that this poor water, never ib cold: and if changed figs and suet together, then mi' in ihe
widow hath cast more in than all trey fromonewater todanother, they should go sugar. bread ani milk, and lastly one
which' have cast intp the treasury." from hot to hotter. They .should be egg well beaten. Boil or steam in a
Acknowledged by"mail July 4lth. cleansed with as little and as gentle flic- mould four hours. Serve hot with sweet
"tion as possible. The fibres of cotton sauce.'
and linen are straight and smooth, and -- ..--
Answers to Correspondents. possess none of the surface roughness Our Young Folks' Corner.
C. A. F., New York, N. Y.: Inquiries that characterize the structure of wool,
.nswe(ed by mail of the 4th July. hence Ihey do not-shrink'in washing. ITS STANDINO OFFER.
-Mrs. E. S.,.-Brooksville, Fla., writes: 'SPICED PLUMS. A. nlcepictuire book eath month to the boy
In answer to your qdery, 'Who Wants ,, orgLriwwhbo sendsusne largest listoi subserib-
iirln s'allo o me to ary, Wo HWants Tie in-a thin muslin bag one.table-rers for-"THEr FLORIDA FARMER AND FRVitr-
a" your. encouriag-in words am v spoonful of cloves, the same quantity of GOowEa" during that month
V.au 'your. encomaging words, 1 am allspine in thepskini and samall rtr''in." Abeautfullv 'bound copr of the famouss
i.ady and anxious to receive'into my p ia a a porto children's ainaz neSt. NICh.oia., to the boy
ousebold a young person of say four- of cinnamon.in the stick;: put this, with orgirl whe seuds us the largest number do
meui to'3i, eevars of rodchaafour one pint ofvinegar and three pounds of subtsirlborduring six months.
....... racerr" sua in a porcelain saucepan to bil; Wtrite us letters descrlpt-1vofpilases, things
'dwidimg to profitby the training she aftr boiling ,ii ; ordotugs; wri tiisaon.ouesldithe page; give
OiUld receive from me. So much of the "o n g -
itive material n this hide i a found over six pounds of plums; for three Auc- -Thebest letter reelved wil be published
ant.ng.in the ambition to dojustice to cesive mornings drain th6 vinegar off .acti week. .
en trhe most moderate expectation, that the ruit boil and pour -yer ehot. h Then N
heartiLy':%.ielcome the infusion of dif- P.4-'p'_ and all -over the fre. give HO.TU'iAKEa PAPER-BOAT.
rent elements in the shape of theclass them a good boi, d, remove I-expect some'tof-m, cousinn il laugh
girls, ,su,,chas'y,-,, propose,-, oLspe,_nottie ther andliquor. '- -sp.ctsome.-mcuIa- f wil laugh
-git .rlsu.' -a. ta.,.-.eo,:o fi -s.-."- -qo a t,-at idea- -A paper--boatl Who ever
'mesor.. "- i- ---, .. -THREEe..EIS--OFC&KE'FROM. ONEREClPE.; heard of auch-a thing?'" -
:.t'sbal lbe- glad .to leaif'n whenn t.l6: a-.'The'houAeteeperw_"i'.i I'imtJaiti dta -to 'Whyv-,lots". of' people -hav6 beard of
-y ..expectsto sendout. a.utfmbei.of timeaniL materialswrillfind the follow- them,'-and usdd them, just likethidgen-
ils, iud.whliat further-steps'ma.r be ing recipe'a moAst' exg-ulthbrit (5ne Ylieman who telis how he made his. He
pessaryin order to secure one :oh pound, flour,-one :epouid .ugatr tthree- told it, several years ago to the young
qm nes. ans:we.-.- by, ma. i., l: y .- 4 quarters poutidbutterten eggs, mix aa readers, o f St. Nicholas Magazine. but it
nquines; ansewered- by, m-a il9Jly.14tb.: toBpond.cak~e;; div.d. _inth.ltree pa.tshri j'0st as true;and as useful as it was
tis,'just-from,:our, ownkn.awledge take one-third; flavor-with -lemon, or to then .oo
I exp1erence'o&f: his, '-'fotr- 'Wore i taste; and b-ake .asa pound 'cake Mix I -hope some of my little cousins will

)'.',_::...".-. ..: :-. -.;? ^ --.---. -_-:^ .,^ ^ ".. -. -. ._. : ..
l a-- "" ." --- .
a--'". :a.-_: a.-.- u = 'e o..-o m--
is~t '


get their fathers or big brothers to hel.
them make one of these boats, for they
are perfectly safe, if made wide and prdt
ty flat on the bottom, and are so nice t(
lift up and carry in a wagon from om
lake to another.
Now, this is what a gentleman witvh
made one forThbfinself has to nay about it
"During one of my summer vacations
among the lakes of Central New York I
resolved to make. if possible, a :papei
boat, which should be easy to row or
paddle; light enough to be carried short
distances with comparative ease, and yet
at the same time safe and even durable;
if managed with reasonable care.
"It was to be twelve feet long. I first
made a frame work on which to stretch
the paper.
"For this latter purpose I bought about
eighteen yards of very strong wrapping
paper. It was of a light cream color,
smooth on the surface and very tough,
but neither stiff nor very thick, and be-
ing made in long rolls, it bould be ob-
tained of almost any length desired. It
was only about a yard wide, so that it
required ,two breadths to reach around
the frame in the widest part. I cut
enough off the roll to cover the frame,
and soaked it' for a few minutes in
water. I then turned the frame upside
down and fasten--d tne edgres of the two
strips of paper to it by lapping them
carefully o1 th ti under ide of the bottom
bo9id and ticking them to it. s) that tile
paper hung ,cvwu loosely .n all sides. It
was then tritimed, lapped and doubled
over as smoothly as possible at the ends
of the frame, and heldin place by means
of small clamps. Along the edges it was
drawn tight, trimmed and doubled down
over the gunwale, where it was firmly
held by slipping strips of ash just inside
of the gunwales. The shrinkage caused
by the drying, stretched the paper thus
fastened tightly over the frame work.
As soon as thoroughly dry it was var-
nished inside and out with asphaltum
varnish, thinned with turpentine, and as
soon as that had soaked in a second coat
of the same varnish was applied, but
with less turpentine; and, finally, the
laps or joints of the paper were covered
with piece's of muslin stuck on with the
unthinned -%a'nisli. The loose strips of
ash -were now removed, and another
layer of paper was put on and fastened
along the edge of the boat by replacing
the strips as before. When the paper
was dry and the whole outside of the
boat varnished several times, until it
presented a smooth, shining surface, I
covered the whole boat with unbleached
muslin, sewed at the ends and. tacked
along the gunwales. It was then tight-
ened by shrinking, and finally received
three coats of a mixture of varnish and
paint. I then, took some split rattan,
and after wetting it, wound it firmly
around both gunwales and inside strip,
passing it through small holes punched
in the paper just below the gunwale,
until the inside and outside strips were
bound together in one strong gunwale.
S"A double.-bladed paddle was at
first used to propel it, and answered
the purpose, but was found to be
awkward, the boat being rather too
wide. It was afterward: rigged nith
wooden, and tinally with iron iow-locks
and light oarsA.'. I also put in a movable
seat. With these improvements it is so
satisfactory that I harv since made no
changes. For carrying the boat I'also
used a sort orf yoke, which brings all the
weight upon thie shoulders, and in that
way lightens the labor.
"During tihe two years that I have
used my boat, I have often landed it
through heavy breakers on a very stony
shore, besides running it against a fair
number of submermged snags and
stones, sometimes with considerable
force, but owing to its lightness and
toughness it never received the slightest
injury. I have been out in it in ,yery
heavy seas,-.,and ave found it much',
easier to manage at such times than a
heavier boat, In rowing parallel to high
waves it is at to ship a little water oc-
casionally, unless carefully managed,
but all small. 'boats with lowv sides expe-
rience this difficulty.
"The approximate cost of the mate-
rials used in the construction of the
:anoe was as follows-
Five quarts varnish, $1.91; eighteen
rards paper, $1..20; eight yards cloth. 72
cents; bottom boards, 6u) cents; gun-
vales, 50) cents; cross boards. *5 cents;
paint, 510 cents: split rattan, 25 cents;
nails. screws, wire. etc., 25 cents. To-
tal. ,$6.17."
BOW TO USE A GR[NDs,TONE.
This is something that every one of
our boy cousins should know no)w while
hey are young, so as to forrm the habit
if taking proper ar'e of so important a
'iece of "farm furniture," for it is true,
is Mr. Stewaig says, that very few, even
of grown up men, know how to take
'are of, ,a e,_aindstone, and no one can
have nice, aliprp tools unless he has a
good stone to grind then on. Dull tools,
whether knives, hoes, spades or axes,
make not. ouly poor work, but hard
roik. 11.
Not only that, but dull, rusty tools are
hle sui:e sign of a poor workman, and I
hope none of 'my cousins will glow up to
me that, for it is not manly.
This is what Mr. Ste'wart says:
"A grindstone is one of the worst used
implements on the farm or in the work-
hop. Few take the trouble to think
.bout their work, and consequently the
;reat majority of people fail to get the
nost and best use from their tools. The
ew who do think will agree with us
ehen we say that a grindstone is both
>adly used and badly chosen. It is too
mall. too thick, it is not .evenly and
ruly set and centred, it is not properly
peeded, and is turned either too fast and
nadelo throw the'water around, ot too
low, and so fails to do its work well-it
s not well taken caire-of and it is badly
used. A grindstone, to do good service,
should be at least three feet in diameter
.nd twoand'ohe.half to'tlire inches in
luckness; ba ihga bevel on each side of
he face for grinding on. It should' be
luite free frombhard spots of iron pyrites,
which are injurious to tools, although
these may be taken out with a sharp-


pointed punch.. If it is not centred truly
it will work out of'sbhape, and soon re-
quire truing up. It should run as fast as
possible, as it does work both better and
more quickly. To prevent it from
throwing water, a piece of bagging
should be fastened to a staple fixed
across the frame on each end, but not so
close as to grind it out; this will catch
the excess of water, and yet keep the
stone wet enough and clean it. The
stone should be kept in the shade and
never in water, which softens it-and
makes one side wear faster than the
other. The water box should have a
hole In it to let out the water and keep
the stone dry -when not in use. In
grinding, it should mostly turn from
the tool, and if used otherwise great care
should be taken by the one who holds
the tool not to gouge the stone.-Henry
Stewart, in American Agriculturist.


AN EIGHT'-' PAGE PAPER.. -


SiIi not placed 'on'small stocks, but on extra


large and fine ones.

We, make a specialty of the


--E1tRLY SPANISH BANS k ---
(the'earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and. ,
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees or. the latter that stood.'the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE RUTJIT UPON THEM.


Send for Catalogue.
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P.. Win ter Park Fla


Grape Vines
Suited to the Soil and Climate of

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Grown and for Sale at -

SAN L{J-AND ANDAL{SI
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Near TALLAHASSEE, Fla.;,
E. DUBOIS, Manager.
Sed f,)i Cat logt-.: and order arly. Send, also,
-6For Pri Liz. ..

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firt i,.i-. ti Fl,:1rmia orabge growers-the
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SW.ihiier' Park, Orange C'omiiry, Fla

BUDS OF THE MAGGIE PEACH
Furini-hed at fl per ildr-red, -, lpe'r l. oun.r,
five huinar-ed 'A On,< tli-,isand rIales.
S. A d~lre *.% ,.... : ...] .' :
.. P. C, M WIC F K,
I 'o Waldo, Fla


IVI LA~tED.
A tenant ,) iminlercianis the reamiang rind
bLpnieni ,- garden triuhk ani frimt, to, utirmate
a Il'age fi 'arr' andtier!rnwe gm'ores on shares. Bemt
i.' liinirvck lan' arod-an annual riroduct of
about i'),il" orange, A man with two-"r three
ooy's lairg- eeoiigh and not anraid to work can
iear,:ri a rare change tiy It ppli'aii:n t. the un-
del'ricned, at MWnate.:-,'Fla.
R-ierenees requu-ed J. H. VISER.


FaDcy Poultry ald Buntina Dogs,
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl. a.
-S1 PEEL 13.--
AI-o Thch.iughbred YoumgSetiLersand HoMind..
Addli e VILLA ZaNZA POULTRY YARDe,
Manatee, Fla.


K, N. LLIS,C. K. A. K. MeCOLRE, Architeclt.
ELLIS & McCLURE,

Architects & Civil Enilneers,
Plaus for
HOTELS, PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
INiS, SANITARY ENGrINEERING, &o.
P 0. ox 7,S. Rooams7 and 6 Palmetto Block
Bay Street.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA.


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THE ORANGE GROVE.
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MAN1A7IKC County in groves, farms, ranches of
any size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
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bound; he Is bahere to stay and "There Is millions
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Address, THE GROVE. LIVERPOOL, FLA.


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tre pri.e fi" the paper." It,


VEGETABLE QUOTATIONS

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-222



Inquiries coneraing diseases of domestic
animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them
hrou gh this column. .. "


Veterinary Advice.
I have a jack'since laht winter, that has
something like scratches .on his legs. I
can cure it up, but at times he will gnaw
his legs until they are raw in places, and
now it seems to be attacking his body.
He is in thin order and does not eat
heartily at times, but performs his work
all right and with as much dispatch as
could be expected. I would like a
remedy to give him more flesh,' but not
make him sluggish. J. C. H.
For the skin disease, bathe the affected
parts well twice a day with one teaspoon-
ful of thymo cresol or phenalsodique
mixed in one pint of water, and allow
him no preparation of corn, millet or
buckwheat. He is much better thin
than fat for your purpose. Let-him.
have the run of a gra'ss lot. not rank
grass, give oats twice. !a 'day. and ;'-as
much good hay as heP will eat. TrIot hirri
around twice'a diy under-saddle or in
harness if you choose. Give half table-
spoonful saltpetree and a teaspoonful
nux vomica powder every other day.-
Dr. Phares.
What will cure a young cow from suck-
ing herself? Subscriber.
Let her wear a halter and a surcingle,
the two being connected by rope, one
on either side of the body, or pieces of
broom handle may be used instead of
.the rope, or again, shape a piece of sole
leather to the nose band of a halter, and
having driven long, sharp tacks through
it, secure it to the nose band with the
heads of the tacks toward the nose.
The leather should be three inches wide,'
and'corresponding in length to the length
of the nose band.-Farm and Home.
When cows and horses lose appetite,
and refuse food altogether, unless signs
of injury or other cause of depression
are discernible, they may receive
twice a'day a tablespoonful of die "fol-
lowing mixture, which may he given in
corn meal: One pound gentian, one
pound fenugreek, one otince sulphur,
one ounce copperas, one pound black
antfmony, eight :ounces bicarbonate of.
soda. The ingredients are cheap, and
are found in nearly all condition powders.

Bells for Cattle.
Colonel Dennet says, in the New Or-
leans Picayune:
From observation on our own cattle
we are satisfied that bells in a herd of
cattle have a most salutary influence on
them. In our herd of nine milch cows,
besides heifers and steers, we have five
bells. They run at large, but they all
come up faithfully every evening with-
out an exception. We are satisfied that
they are fond of bells. The sound of
bells has a ,',oliing effect, as music has
on wild animals. We have-nevei. had
our cattle keep together -so closely all
S the time as this season; never had them
come home so faithfully at night; never
have seen them so free- from vTicio:usne's
to each other. The moi,.t fierce of them
have become peaceable by the harmoniz-
ing influ-ence of the tinkling bells. We
S are satisfied that if every animal in: the
herd were to carry a bell it would be
still better.- It takes the wild and dev-
ilish nature, the hooking and kicking na-
ture, out of the worst of animals.
Bell the whole herd--twenty, forty or
a hundred cows and other cattle. Treat
them kindly, feed and shelter -them
properly in winter, give them plenty of
pure water, and -we feel confident they
willall become exceedingly gentle, and
dehorning would: not, ber-necessary, as
among other, cattle. .For milch cows we
are satisfied this would bring about im-
provements in their dispositions, habits
and, milking qualities that would add
much to their value.
In some neighborhoods. there are bell
thieves, that walk up to a' gentle cow or
an ox that has a fine bell on, take the
bell and walk off.. We lost two large
bells taken in this way from our Jersey
bull in the pasture. Then bell straps
'and bellropes on cattle, are constantly
wearing, anddin time a'bellis lost. A
great many bells are lost in this 'man-
ner, "
A hell should not be heavy enough to
be burdensome to any animal. No. 10
S galvanized wire makes a good holding
for a bell ot medium size-a cow bell.
Fasten it with clenched ends next to the:
bell, the smooth part onthe top of the
neck. Give ample room for the neck,,
S. and make the wire long enough for
young cattle 1to allow for iuerease in size
of tl-.neck. The flat part of the bIell
should he towards the head aud tlhe
breast. The motion in walking makes
S the bell tongue strike better than side
motion and li:k.
On bulls and oxen light iron hoop. like
that1 used in baling botnon, makes a good
Ssul:,titute for a bell strap. A rivet may
Sbe used for the bull's iron strap: holes
punched in the endsand leather ties may
Sbe used for work oxuen.

.-:. -Flies on Dogs' Ears.
As soou as the fly season begins, niu-
merous flies will collect on the ears of
':. old dogs and bite them so severely that
the earn become very sore. What will
relieve the irritation. and at the same
time prevent fuLther attacks? Sturgeon
'- oil andl tar ointment are alike useless.
-::: L. B. D.
.,. !; ANtvWER-Pennyroyal oil, two ouunes;
!.' *_. alcohol, eight ounces; mix. Wet hair
.../ .'< to keep flies off. Bathe eats with the
: : +. .following lotion twicea day: Tinctureeof
*---., aloes and miyrrh. Io .ounces: water,
'-, " one quart; mix.--Country Gentleman.
. *' '. ,: *. .. .. .
*' : To giv'ea hose medicine, take a long-
necked, bott le,;i'lisei" the" horse's head,
thrust #t.hb bottle it~ *hihf m'ou.th, and
while the.. liquid 'is running i'hto his
throat rub the nose of the bottle vigor-
ously against the roof of the mouth,
pretty--well .baul ..'f -/rhlis', dotf e, -;rt 6st'
h or ies~viw in .a II ,Da cetyiEx. =- E- '*..


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JULY 13, 1887.


C'
1


Live Stock Notes.
Spanish merino wool a century ago
had a fineness of 850 fibres to the inch.
In 1856 measurements of American bred
Spanish merino were the same, and of
American Saxon 840 to the inch, while
in 1878 Vermont merino from ram'e
fleeces measured from 1,005 to 1.81l
fibres to the-inch. ..
In making selections of ewes for breed-
ing purposes, special pains should he
taken to secure good, thrifty animals of
medium size, compact and well formed.
These will be found to be the best feed-
ers and the most satisfactory breeders.
As for are, they should be young, say
from twev' to four year's iold. After ltey
have produced their first lambs, then it
capn be decided whether it will pay to
keep them.
A farmer said: "'I have had merino
sheep iu a flock with coarse wool sheep,
and they gained four pounds more to
the 10), than the corae wool sheep. If
yoru keep a small flock, the coarse wools
will do well, but if you want a large
flock, the line wools will do better every
'time. The more comfort table the quar-
ters you can give the better results you
will have from your sheep. I can keep
eight sheep on the feed that will keep
one milch cow."
Among the causes which produce brit-
tle hoofs in horses and cattle is standing
on rotten manurie heaps or in pools otif
liquid manure. Standing in such tde-
composing organic matter i still more
injurious when the animal is confined in
a stall, for here the injurious effect of
inactivity is added to the other "ondi-
tions. "
If you cau. by all means have box
stalls'for your ho'rsees. The3 will do blet
ter. rest better and be more comforta-
M~e:
Itf an old mare, that is, .from- thil teen
to twenty years otf age, has be-n care
fully treite'1 "andl remains a soun.Il ner-
vous system, 4he may be expected to
raie good colts.
It is within the teach of every farmer
to bieed good horses. In fact not mniny
can afford to breed poorones. The more
poor houses a man raises the worse off lie
is.
See that yourshoer fits the shoe to the
foot. and not the foot t.o the slcoe. It is
the owner's own fault if blacksmiths are
allowed to ruin his horses' feet.-
Do not overfeed, for that is 'oss; do not
underf'eed, for that' is likewise loss.,
Wise discretion' and clbse observation
will inform you about how much to
feed. .
-' Letevdey obetbe'vervy reft'ul in ap-,
,proaching"aniiJals diseased with 'glan-


ally, and the weaning may begin at two
weeks of age. The young pigs will take
a little warm skimmed milk out of a
shallow pan if one is caught and held
with its mouth to the milk, and when
one begins to drink the rest will soon
join it. After this the pigs will come
frequently into a small pen for the feed
itf an opening is made for them, and at
four weeks the sow may be separated
from the pigs. After the first few days
a little boiled bran -and meal may be
added to the milk, but no more than a
quarter of a pint for each should be
given at one meal and four r-eals in a
day. This is ample for pigs up to six
weeksold. when the rations may be in-
creased gradually at intervals of a week
in proportion to the growth. At this
period of a pig's life there is more
danger of overfeeding than at any
other.-[New York Times.

To Keep the Pigss Growing.
A good and cheap feed for young pigs
for the next. five months would be found
in a good grass pasiti'e with plenty of
go,'d purLe water to driulk and a good dry.
shelter in cold storms. I anicipate,
however, that many cannot follow pig
farming in this way, and will suggest the
following: Takeeqiual parts of corn, rye,
bailey, oats and bran by measure, not
weight, and grind them together. '1To
start with, allow 1 to "i qits. adayof thii
feed to each two to tlreii mouths old pig.
Put enough in a barrel to last three oi
four days and scald thoroughly with
boiling water. Stir well andi make it
the corinistenc.y of thin pudding. Let
it stand four ort five hours and thicken.
Then add Rome skinimmed milk or but-
termilk, boiled potatoes or beets, and
whleu cool eno'ughl feed, aod give them
all they 'iill eat and clean up every time.
Keep pleuyt of fresh sodsaud weeds, etc.,
in the peu and your pigs wilt gain an
fast as you wdl care to l avethem.-
fA. A. Soitliwirc k. :
Mlr. C. C. Pearceeafter three eaLrs' trial
is satified that barley inake.s a splendid
winter pasture for stock. On the 16th
of September he put in three aces,
which he has allowed his cows to run on
most of the time since October 02(th.
Barley makes a very rapid growth, lasts
longer than rye, stock are foud of it and
keep fat on it. Mr. Pearce is confident
his parch will yield twenty bushelk to
the acre.-Floridian. -

Breeding sows may be served'at six
months of age, but tl'ey will never make
so,J large hogs as more matured sows.
Eight months is the proper age'. ,


TO TELL A HORSE'S AGE. ders, as the merest trifle of the virus -is
.. ..... liable to inoculate one with this virulent
-- blood poison and result in death.
Changes in the Teeth which In- Thoroughbred bulls of all the good
dicate Age breeds are so bheap there is.no longer an
"iae Age. excuse for a farmer using a- grade or
BY ARGUS. scrub bull.' ,
A horse has forty teeth, composed of It is demonstrated that the purer the
twelve incisors, four tushes and twenty- race of the parent the more certainty
four molars. The mare has correspond- there is of transmitting its qualities to
ing teeth, except the tushes, which are the offspring. Say two animals are
in the mare almost invariably absent; mated, if one is tf purer dlescent than
hence, she has only thirty-six. All the other, he or she will exercise the
teeth are composed essentially of enamel, most influence in stamping the charac-
dentine and crusta petrosa. ter of the progeny, particularly if the
A curious and remarkable fact pre- greater purity is on the side of the male.
sents itself respecting the growth of .
horses' teeth, which is not common to a-v et
other animals, namely, that the teeth Angora Goats..
grow continually from their develop- In connection with an editorial men-
ment to the animal's death. They are tion, we quote the following from a let-
forced up from their sockets to supply ter published in Flint's Amercan Farm-
the material removed by attrition. er, from Col. Robt. W.'Scott, he having
Tushes are never shed. They make had more than twenty years' experience
their appearance between the animal's 'with the Angora:
fourth and fifth years. Hence, if they In size they are superior to the native
ard just protruding, we know, without or common goat. Wethers, when fully
further evidence, the horse's age. grown and fatted, will weigh from 60 to
Either at birth or from one to four 80pounds, live weight. A wether of my
days afterwards the colt has four milk flock, two years old, has weighed, when
teeth called the centrals. The lateral dressed, 544 pounds net-the four quar-
teeth appear between four and six weeks ters 18 pounds, the hind quarters 21
after birth; the corner teeth about the pounds, the saddle 12 pounds, the ren-
eighth month, dered tallow 3J pounds, the tallow much
The centrals, or those which first make more in some other cases. The color of
their appearance, are shed between two 'Jpure bred and full blooded animals is
and a half and three years; the laterals almost invariably whites, though some of
are shed between three and a half and the earliest descendants of imported ani-
four years; the corner teeth between mals were brown; some being gray and
four and a half and five years. About some black in their native country, vary-
that time, or a little before, the tushes ing a little, perhaps, in species or family
are full grown, the animal is said in of species.
horseman's phraseology, to have a full Their gay and intelligent appearance,
mouth, their cleanly habits, active and playful
We now come to the important part disposition make them attractive on a
of the subject-where an animal's age is farm, while in their nature they are so
determined by the appearance of the docile that they may be raised so as to be
black spots, or more correctly, the in- as familiar about the house and yard as
fundibulum. These black marks are the ctt Qr the dog. Though they have
worn out of the superior or smooth snr- great curiosity and enterprise, they also
face of the lower jaw at six years of have strong local attachments, and after
age, and that of the lateral are corn- wandering all day will generally seek
menacing to disappear, and is completed their usual shelter. at night, especially if
at the seventh year. Thus, at this age, the weather be inclement. They do not
we find the wearing surface of both cen- break fences, or clear them at a single,
tral and lateral teeth smooth, the black bound, as most other stock do, but will
marks having been worn away by attri- pass through a hole which is already
tion, and the marks of the corner leeth made, will climb up a rail which leans
begin to disappear, and are entirely gone at about forty-five degrees, or will
when the animal becomes eight years bound on top of, and then over, a low
old. fence. Any good farm fencIe five feet
The horse is'n6w considered "aged," high, except stone fence, will keep them
and no conscientious veterinary surgeon securely. Like other stock;,, they are
or horseman would positively assert the more troublesome after they have ac-
animal's age, only approximately. Some quired roaming and breachy habits;
people assert they can determine the ex- They bear coupling, hobbling and teth-
act age by signs other than the teeth, ering better than any other stock.
but such indications are unreliable. As In their diet they are almost omniver-
the animal advances in age his teeth ous, eating in winter often what they
gradually grow long and appear to be- have rejected in summer. On large
come more horizontal. The mouth, farms much the greater portion of their
which at five years was cup-shaped, now diet will' consist of weeds, bushes, briers,
loses this appearance and becomes elon- fallen leaves, brush, etc., and they are
gated. The teeth,which were, in the truly valuable for keeping lands clear of
age last mentioned, nearly perpendicu- these. In winter short grass and corn
lar, are now slanting, and this process fodder is all that is required, even by the
appears with'advancing age. As a horse breeding flock, and I have never found
becomes old the enamel loses its original it necessary to feed grain tothem of any
beautiful whiteness and assumes a kind, at any season. A dry shelter is
cloudy or smoky-yellow instead, and desirable for them, especially to the fe-
become striated with brown and black males in "kidding season,= tliagh.a my
mat ki;s, and the ttshe;s frequently drop. flocks of males and wethers, ev'n after
This interesting account of the horse's they-have been shorn in April, have
age was given by one, well versed in never had any protection other than
horse lore, and the knowledge contained that they could obtain around a hay or
in it may be worth many dollars to those straw stack.
who often or occasionally buy horse
flesh. Cut this out and paste it in your Weaningl Pigs.
diary, or where you can find it when Y ... n e
needed. Young pigs should be weaned gradu-


Mrs. letAliT A. McCnuaz, Columbus, Kans.,


-~Mrs. M.AR,"A. ..MCO..It, Oolurnous; Kans.,
I LIVER DISEASE i writes: I addressed you in November, 1884,
IU, n |in regard to'my health, being afflicted with
I ND n liver disease,heart trouble, and female weak-
1." I ness. I was advised to use Dr. Pierce's
HEARTTROuBLE. I Golden Medical Discovery, Favorite Pre-
IHURT "nUBLC Iscription and Pellets. I used +one bottle
of the 'Prescription,' five of the 'Discov-
ery,' and four of the Pleasant Purgative Pellets.' My health be-
gan to improve under the usei of your medicine, and my strength
came back. Mydifficulties har, nit al ri pa ni -d. I canworkhar.4
all day, or walk folr or five mi.sa a day, and stand itwell; and when
I began using the medicine I could scarcely walk across the room,
most of the time, and I did not think I could ever feel well again.
I have a little baby girl eight months old. Although she is a little
delicate in size and appearance, she is healthy. I give your reme-
dies all the credit for curing me, as I took no other treatment after
beginning their use. I am very grateful for your kindness, and
thank God and thank you that I am as well as I am after years,
of suffering." ,
Mrs. I. V. W.BBER, of Yorkshire, Cattaraigus G o.;
I I ... ., writes: "I wish to say a few.words in praise
LIVER' of your 'Golden Medical Discovtry' and 'Pleasant
SPurgative Pellets.' For five years previous to
D1ISEAS. taking them I was a great sufferer; I had a
I -' v'severe pain in my right side continually; was
,unable to do my own work. I am hapy to say
I am now well and strong, thanks to your medicines."
Chronic Diarrhea Cured.-D. LzAA, Esq., 6 ani l77
Decatur Street, New Orleans, La., writes: I used three bottles of
the '"Golden Miedical Discovery,' and it has cured me of chronic
diarrhea. My bowels are now regular." .


"THE BLOOD


m .'- |+Mrs. PAaMsixiA BRuNDAGE. of 161 Lock Street,
SiGENERAL Lckport, IT. writes: I" -was troubled with
| n chills, nervous and general debility, with frequent
IE lT I sore throat, and my mouth was badly cankered.
1 UEBILI TY. My liver was-inactive, and I siufferd much from
dyspepsia. I am pleased Io srFy that y':'ur 'Golden
Medical Discovery' and 'Pellets' have cured me of all these
ailments and I cannot say enough in .their praise. I must also
say a word in reference to your 'Favorite Prescription,' as it:
has proven itself a most excellent medicine for weak female.
It has. been used in: my family with deicellent resultss" .. .
Dyspepsia.-J.unrEs L. COLBY. E&4., of riio'intt,. H:'.!.' C.,."
_Min'rn., writes: "i wiu rr>.tur'l-kd with i ,.. t,,r... an, a,:,uldi ,-at
hearlrtly an,- -row-p,;.orat [he 6&tu tave. I exp.,,.tK,,,i bearruts, .
sour stomab t, and many :ottr Oirea eT,.i' symprtcms common
... .. to that djsor.,-r. I ri.tmenc i taking .,:.ur
I> j.. 'Golden Medical Discovery' and 'Pellets.' and
INIGDR&_TES 1 am now enr,tryv free !from the dypepua,. and
a' inami, in fai:t Ufialrhier thrm I have ben lor
Tur SYSTEM. n years.. ', w--h one nunddrcd and seventy-
THE SYS iEM. one ",i on3-haft pcunod6. and bave- done as
much wiork tee rant summer as i have- ever
done in the same length of time In my life. I never took a
medicine. that seemed to tone up the majrcies and invigorate
,the whole system equal to your 'Discovery' and 'Pellets.'-
Dyspepsia.-THERESA A. OAss, of Springfield, Ie., writes-
I was troubled one year with liver complaint, dyspepsia, and
-.sleeplessness, but your 'Golden Medical Discovery' r.ured me."
Chills and Fever.-Rev. H. E. MOELEV. AJr, ntmorcnci, S. C .,
writs: "Lart Augu6tlthought I wouid die itb chbdis and fever.
I toei your Diaevery and it t.ppEd them in a vcr s short time."

IS THE UIFE."-


Thoroughly cleanse .the blood, which is the fountain of health, by using' Dr. Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery, and good
digest;o.n, a fair skin, buoyant spirits, an-] bt."'dly health and vegor will be established .
SGlden M-dical Discovery cures all humr'. frorni the common pimple blotch, or eruption, to the worst Scrofula or blood-
poison.. Especially has it proven its efficacyv in curing Sait-rneum or Tetter, Fever-sores, Hip-joint Disease, Scrofrulous Sores
and Swellings, Enlarged Glands, and Eatiog [Ticers. .
tRt'v F. ASBURY Ht)WrLL. Pm to',IrII, lhe AI E.. and can walk with the help of crutches. He does not suffer any
IlnIGETinN '.'. n, oSi, rwi... j".. e' "I as 'f Ppa1n, and can earit and sleep as well as any one. It has.only been
INDIGESTION I ctd with d atarrh and ndiigaton. Boils and about three months since he commenced using your medicine.
IDnnLS --. hts began to arie ion te sniface of the I can't fnd words Yitan whcla to express my gratitude for the
BOILS, an Iexperiencda tire t ei and benefit he has received through you."
e.BLOTCHES. I began .the urse c Dr Perce's Sinisease.-The"DemocratandNews,"
B L H tjtIen Medical Distver t as directed by A b TERRB h ,Ik h.i, n.- s"Dm rocra. n. dews,"
um .for.such momplatnts. 'and in one Iweek% ti F ANN' PiOL wife of Le',nanrd Poole. of "Wit.-
time I beocan it) feel Like a n.,w man, and am no-w eund and wed. A H TIBU L A1`N Poo .wife oLeoad "* Pol. h' o f i
Tn'- P.-anot. PulrtIlVe Pllets are thebest remedy for bilious or I| i|piTnlrCl I- f E c r C'., Ud..ha 6s been cured*
sick n:ai.aehh. or t ntitn ,-6 about. the.chr.t and bad ta ttc i the I AFFLICTION. a bad ca.e orE. zma. by using Dr.'ierce's
mouth, that I ,ave ever used. My wif could not walh across the Golden M di al c ry j The disease ap .
'r irn ac l l t take.... our G'o; den Medical e'er,..., ,pearer] that in her feet. extended I:. the knees,
o w. ;- she r ;n- an uto take l oury a Gol den iE ali covering the whr- it t If th, owner I limbs from feet to knees, heno
No aattae-i t a little ways, and do some ,U wor.' sheel, s rud ecae so severe as to rrostrate h.
Mrs. IDA M. SIRONO, of itin.'"wth'. Ind., writes: Aiter' being tieat,?lr by several .hycl6Cans lfor a year or two she
I IJIHT "M little bo v ha.d been tro'uJbled with hbp-joint commenced thei uer)f tie meime name a c.ov. She soon
Hir- i ,II diisaee for two vnra. Wh.'- 6e c'mmen'ed tee beean to medfa nd is now well and hearty. Mrs. Poole thinks
"I nC :. f u y- -. ;our lold- n M e dti cal j. &o ery' and toC m edicine u saved her lile a d pri longed her days."
|DISEASE. .liu.'P hbe was cnndn.cdL'o hits i-cd, and could Mr T. A. AYRES. ,f East NeItu Marm', Dr.tie.tcr Countl/,M4.,
Snot be moved without suffering greti pain. But fvouch, f,.,r th,- noee maitas.
now, thankstoyour'Discocery,'he isable to on upiul the tme, 0 .

CONSUMPTION, WEAK LUNGS, SPITTING OF BLOOD.
GOLDeN SILDIncL ItIscOCVsaRY cures-Consumption (which is Scrofulaof the Lunp).by its wonderful bto.d-purf%,ing., nvitora-
tm an.d nut ,ve prop-rtrs. F,:,r Weak L"ungs, Spitting of Blood, Shortness o reatb. Bronchius. Severe C6ugns. Asthma.
and kinr,'ed affeetons, .t is a sovereign remedy. While, it promptly cures the severest Coughs it streetogens the system
and purnd)r- tn,: bo,,in'..]. '' +h nu l d '
It rapidly buld.s up the system, and increases the flesh and weight of those reduced below the usual standard of health by
"wasting rd]seas,:.s."
owstiUmptiOi.-Mrs. EnWv.cD NEW2TON, 6f Harotwsniith, cal Discover' has cured my daughter of a veryvBd ulcer located
r wri You wii c-%r bprsd by me for the k on the thigh: After trying almost ev'ervthing without success, we
t.., rlt..: "u wll evr be prniB.d by meortheremarKa- procured three bottles of your Discovery,' which healed it up
ble ur.' in my ease. [ Iwas sIo reduced that my'friends'had all. proct r o s o t e
geen me up and t nad also been given up. by two doctors. Ithen perfectly. Mr. Downs continues:
went ti the best deot,,r in tbhso p a ti'. le told me that medicine
was only a punishment t in my -ase, and Would uot und ertake to Consomptlio aud Heart Disease.-" I also wish to
treat me. He said t mpht try "Cod liier oil If I thank you for the- remarkable cure you have effected in my case.
I.d. as that was tbo only thiiig that ciuld possi- For three years I had suffered from that tenTi-
GIVEN-N UP I'Ibae anycurntt'vo pawkr oer consutinpt'ono ED hIbie disease, consumption, and heart disease.
far adaennco:.'. I tried the Cod liveioil as a last TOWASTEDT Before consulting you I bad wasted away to
T 0le r 0 ttr.-ar ment, but I wtac sohS eay I could nat keep it 1a skeleton: could not sleep nor rest, and man
to DIE. b tr'~ s tomach. bu y husbau< ot re e ling a pred A SKEL/TONI thnres wished to ie tho be out of my misery.
tht-o -riv-e me upn rt. though hn o had A :,u't ftr me e .sen consulted you, and you told-me- you bar .
tity el .it',br G taden tMe G'l d M Discovery. took ony ur ortles took f e onth treatment in al. 'he first two moths I w
and. to te surprise of evrbody. am to-day doing ty wn work, almost discouraged could not perceive any favorable sym ptoms,
fand a nm ntre y frr:,trim theat terrible cough wheh harrased m but the third month I began to piek up in fleh and strength. I
nightlan'r. I have b.-rn ee b ltd w 'ith rheumatism fora number d cannot now recite bow, step by step, the signs and realities of

igtaodirdav. haveoe beaforeply d whenthreumts foreoD sate umert retuoin heIt grdal bu| surdi e lyc desveloped tbemhel eot
of years,f ant nAw fel so much better that I bclie'c, with a con- returning health gradaly bt surely' developed themselves.
tinter, et our'Goldn Med:al Discovery.' I il be restored Tc-day t rip the scales at one hundredand sixty, and am well



I iultand Co., Jvou'od 11 bP.O Bore)swtes T oldn redi dlcnlrudI.
t,. perfect behilth. I would say to those who are falling a prey to and strong.
that terrible dsei onsumpion. dri nt do as I did, take ecery- Our principal reliance in curing Mr. Downs' terri~ple disease
thing else drstz but tako the Golden Medical Disoiver' in the was the "1ol0den Medical Desovery."t
enatjv staes of the' disease, and thereby save a great deal of suf- in JOSa F. McFA vztsn Esq .',t/'cas .a
ferns" si'] be restored to health at once. Any peroun who is EJDIG writes: "tyHwife had frequent bleeding from
still in doubt, need bit write me. inclosing a stamped, self- AILE I the lungs before she commenced urLIng your
addressed envelope for reply. when the foregoing statement Will th e--ungs b eo re M ine t ut. BFo s e s.ou
be fully substantiated by me." w ill 'FRO 'Golden Medical Discovery.' She has not
Ulce Cued.ICA.O E Do~s. sq. ofSjrig VaFht OML.... S..J had any since Its use. For some six months
Urlcer Cured.--Is&Ao E. DOWNS, Esq.. of Springall llb!, she has been feeling so well that she has
Rockland Co., N. Y. (P. O. Box 28. writes: "The 'Golden Medi- dbsconrrinued it."
Golden Medical Discovery is Sold by Druggists. Price $1.00 per Bottle, or Six Bottles for $5.00.
worldsLDS DISPENSARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, ProprletOrs,
N"0o. 66,j Main Street,.- IU IFFAIO,X N. 'f.


LIVER, BLOOD AND LUNG DISEASES


#odlfry' and eea,

Chicken Mites.
I had never seen or heard of them
when I came to Florida eight years ago.
Accustomed to chickens, I soon had a
chicken yard filled with Florida hens.
It was not long before I was greatly d;is-
turbed by finding there was sonieliing.
I knew not what, more fatal to my com-
fort than mosquitoes. Complaining to
a friend and showing her the pests, she
laughed and said, "They are chicken
mites." I replied, "Well, they have
troubled me once, but they shall not
again."
I lave found that a cupful of kerosene
in a pail of whitewash, used upon the
inside of the coops; sulphur and kero-
sene mixed and brushed over their roosts
once a week, and sulphur sprinkled in
the bottom of their nests, a perfect rem-
edy, and one more easily procured than
the tobacco dust. For seven years I have
not seen one. H. P. W.
[Hens should never be allowed under
dwellings. We have known the mites
to come up, seemingly by the million,
from a hen's nest into the rooms above,
and almost drive the human occupants
out of the house. Neither should hens
be allowed to have nests near stabled
animals, and wherever they be they
should be well looked after, for they are
frequently killed by the mites and found
dead on their eggs.-A. H. C.],

Milk and Fish for Fowls.
These are both good ingredients to
enter into the bill of fare to which we
treat our fowls, when either or both can
be had at economic cost. Upon the
farm, ordinarily, the first may be had
conveniently; but the practice is usual
where there is a surplus of milk to feed
it to the pigs in preference. This is the
old style system. Those who have tried
it hae come to learn that the waste milk
on the farm is doubly valuable fed to
poultry, as compared with giving it to
swine. Mixed with any kind of meal,
milk is an admirable thing for fowls,
young or old, and particularly young
chicks. Fresh fish waste, that may be
had at city markets for taking it away,
is also an excellent thing for occasional
poultry feeding. There is but little
solid nourishment in-this ; but it-is good
by way of a change once or twice a week.
This should also be boiled or steamed
when fed to poultry; but it js not ad-
visable to feed this just before'killing.-
Poultry World.


To Frig'hten Hawks. A quick and neat way of fastening
I have seen in the mountains of North honey comb into section boxes is de-
Carolina a contrivance whichhis said to scribe.d bY B. F Little. in Gleanings in
answer perfectly to keep them off the Bee Culture, as tfu llowe: Paint thle in ide
premises. A stout pole twenty feet -high he section wh hot wax. uing a
is planted. To thissmall slatsor narrow t-atet;, 6tani cthe ceoui where vY. 'want
boards are nailed, which turn in differ- it min the fram, letting it rest on tbe
bord... "r e n he faat udwc tu feather for a second : then draw out the
ent directions. On the flat upper sur-eath and the ax l er t nce and
face of thev slats piee..s of bright mica I t shoulder
Til u^te t i n" is done. The wax should'be".
are nailed, and rroiu the ends of the
", a" d t .h ot enough so th.l, feather d will +lp .Out
slats small bottles are suspended by l i"
ngs. A u lan-on the 3 easily and slick.-F.,rn andi H,-me.
s9rlngs-._A~s line- _31.11 -lanecesoN ;e ea i
mica and on the bottles, it seems to .
frighten the hawks. Small bottles may -Upwards of .1.1 pound, .wool
also be suspended lrou all posts andhave .. e -ma .-ted .t [- Funak Sr.rings
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h y11 t~.ear'. \\ OO1ioIs r,," de rnandihn,J
outlibu ild n '3 .M y inform ant told m e a t i a p." .7 an. is nei s to rna ni nI.:.61a '
iw %% k uLever ventured near a ,_t.l g.. .. .. ..ihi than ee toa.... ..
-,s~ -^; ^ |- LAILII] I[ILL. seU ^
equipped with mica as described.--. '...
Groff, in Farm and Home. If sra-[ e s d r r ntu un d, o,
TeH *f Industy n eglect, t lj-ui. Rai i'. are cheaper
TheHum of Industry. that i, oA-g a h,)r.e by having his legs
Double and strengthen the colonies at I.',:ket).
the beginning of your honey harvest. .
To get straight combs, use 'starters- -or
sheets of foundation, level hives from | IECTURE ON 0
side to side and raise the back higher ,7 -A
than the front. BIlogh on Rats.
By employing an expert a few times I '. ^^^ I
to assist you with your bees, you will -~iM
learn in a few hours what you might Bl UlC J
not learn in several seasons from study B^ l'"
and experience. I -s
Give eggs from your 'L.,st queen to _-- -B'-,,
colonies whose queens- are now missing. |,.- r E(C. 1-
They will at once start queen cells. If --
you have extra queens, destroy the cells his la what illed your poor father. Shun it.
and introduce them. ioid anything contaluin I throughout your
n i.urare useful iei careers. We older heads object.
SQuestions relating in any way to bees ira special ROUGH'NENS.'
or~~~ v~ I rl na rine anid
or honey are cordially welcomed by [DfU T FO UL m futile
Farm and Home, and will be answered ,',vttswith is-CLi powder, borax orm'xtor.J
according to the best knowledge that uenat no.t, used at ran.lom all crer' ld-
experience and science can offer., hI.- b I'I- ge t d BEETLES I
It is found profitable to insert small For two or threeightss Epnnrtkle
frames, to be filled in the hives; frames ..'.U .N .s"drpowd.r. ain,in V
that can be sold at 10c. Many will buy ipe'.F irst t nd g mn the'Mornin, a '
a small amount of honey for tea at only. i.:h it ai away down the in, dialn pipe, whea
Oc. wh6 would not order a pound or Ill the irise,2ts t:.n ,garret to cellar wUll disap-
.... ... ... .. .. .. .. p. .. -ir. The s.-ret is in the fact that wherever inm-
more. .:tiarvithe h.)u;e theft muEL p| U
The distance bees will fly for hony .. .. .. ..ROACH ES
..ear outdi P a th st l i etc eh u-o :. FPie :, 8etle .
has been decided as three miles by .C. "Ro,; C,.N RI. d issoid all around the worid,
Miller of McHenry county, Ill. He thinks n Everv time, L, the mcitextensirelr ai.rrierde,
that large apiaries should be at least 1 r," hnsrt.nirge,st sale of anl a&rticl6 oit skin
this distance apart and that new colonies nF tr. r V1 the gio A DIle.
located should be placed at the corners of DESTROYnUo -UP I/A IBUUo
a square, entagon or hexaonn For Potato DeBr, Insects on Vines, etc.. a table-
a square, pentagon exagon. ...p.,,nnil of th;- pbwdr, wvEIlilbalr ken. i a k.-g of
Every smoker who will quit using'to- ratir. and applied w-ith ssnn"ing pot. s.rary
bacco in any form will be presented by ,r t.,-'r n.Sr-n -t eits...d up.
A.I. Root of Medina, Ohio, with a bee ".nnui oR^ATd -CLEARS OUT--
smoker of the latest improved pattern. 8OUCHOUR E S OUT-
Mr. Root's offer is based upon the con- BED BUGS,
edition that those who take advantage of O w 1' FLM &
it are to pay for the smoker if they break poaches, ants, water-bugs, moths, rats, micqI
their promise not to use tobacco. sparrows, jack rabbits, squirrels, gophers. 15c.








FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JULY 13, 1887.


drfl ,~t iziqilang buy such -a lot at a stated price per pound.
ru l St 1The well washed wool generally sells the
49a half washed lots.


MATTERS OF GENERAL INTEREST
TO AGRICULTURISTS.

The Workings of Underground Drains
Explained-Thle Management of Balky
Horses-Some Interesting Facts About
the Concord Grape and Its Or-ig;nator.
The cut here given represents the origi-
nator of the Concord grape at work in his
Vineyard. In introdnuciiiz the Concord
grape in 1849, Mr. E. W. Bull, of Concord,
Mass., did his :country a great-service, as
is attested by :the fact tha.b today the Coqn-
cord is -"the rape for the mnilon," being
more gener.illy cultivated tIhan nay one
other variety. _. ..




















THE CONCORD GRA-PE AND ITS ORIGINATOR.
The Tatpes generally cultivated at the
time thie Cuicrtil was introduced were the
Isabella, and- in some few localities the
Catawba. The6 grape, owing to rot, mil-
dew1 eic -wa; consilere, i a very uncertu.i
fruit, and not uutdn thA- advent of tlie Con-
cord was it proven that grapes could be
grown in the ui then states. While not
up to the present standard as to quality,
the Co rincnrd comes more nearly to thriv-
ing everywhere and under all 'conditions
than any other variety, a fact that ex-
plains its popularity.
-.. The American Agriculturist, for which
the above cut was originally drawn, says
that a peculiarity of the Concord is that
the. fa' other west it is grown from the
place of its origin the better it is. As
Many readers already know, th. Cn.ucord
was' a h-bance seedling of a v.-lid grape
found by Mr. Bull. in his New En2land
home. Being' of superior quality he
Showed the seeds of this, and one oif the
seedhira.- proving to be of promise, he
christene.l it Concord, in honor of his
home, and proceeded to cultivate it.

SImportant Points in Patbto Culture.
After many years of experimenting, a
S correspondent 'of Live Stock "Journal
gives utterance to the folloa-ming conclu-
Ssions- lit. Whole potatoes will produce
a crop a week -or ten days earlier- than
i-. those which are divided. 2d. Small pota-
- -- toes will produce as good, if not bet-
ter, resilt.s than large ones. d. Thin
Seed end is the better one to plant because
: "it starts with mute vigor anti produces
.; more and larger potatoes 4th. A large
S- piece is better on ordinary soil than small
pieces "or eyes. 5th. Potjtoes nith
sprouts long enough to break off in plant-
ing are not so good as thise with eyes
S,.advanced just enough to indicate \ igor
.'6th;. The f,:,rm cannot, as a rule, be
-i changed by planting in any particular
form. 7th.- Two distinct varieties won't
mix in the same hill. 8th. The more we
investigate the scab the less we know
: about it. .

A Device for Driving Poles.:; r .'
:-' To drive a stake or a short pole into the
ground by striking the top with a heavy
hammer or sledge is an easy matter, but
when the pole is a long one-other means
must he employed. Long poles, such as
hop poles, for instan',:'e, are generally set
by the tedious process of making a hole
with a crowbar and forcing the pole in as
one best can. An improved process is the
following.: Take a bI)lock of hard wood
about a foot long and five inches square at
top and bottom; hollow out one side of it
a little, co as to fit against the pole; bevel
off the othe,- side, to make the block very
thin at the bottom, i. e., wedge shaped,
and drive a staple in this side Holding
the block against the pole, wind a trace
chain around both and hook it on. Then
srrtke with sledge cor ax utipon the ,lock.
The p:lc- will be driven firmly into the
ground.

Of Interest to Silk Growers.
In a iceent circular Commissioner Col-
man calls attention to the. fact that at the
last session uof congress lddcitnonai iappro-
.priations for continuing the work of th
national department for the establishment
of silk cultn-e in the United States were
made. Under the provision of this act
will be continued the experiments in silk
reeling inm Wshington, and the depart-
ment will purchase the cocoons necessary
therefore on terms specified-in a-circular, a
copy of which will be forwarded on writ-
tfen application to any silk grower inter-
ested. This circular contains in addition
to directions for shipping cocoons, etc.,
advice about the stifling of cocoons, a sub-
ject 6n which amateurs are sadly ignor-
ant. Address' "The Commissioner of Ag-
riculture, Washington, D. C."

Of Interest" to Wool Growers.
On the subject of washing wool The
Wool Journal says more than nine-tenths
,fbthe domestic clip now comes to marker
inwashed. The quotarionh-are-' mostly
aode for "unwashed wool. Shrinkages
re more accurately estimated on wool in
,s-natural state than when it has.been'
'ashed. There is no uniform standard-
mong growers as to how muh'hor hown'
tthd it shall be washed. So it' happens
mat.a miscellaneous-lot- of washed wool
o called, c,6llec.ted .i:-any o4 the sections
here the old practice'of sheep irkahing
ill. pievilsa, varies ,so-widely i n-condi-
j that.anything lake a correct 'estimate
The shrinkage of the entire lot is impos-
ile; .It.i' little better-than guessing to

.- .- r -' -: .


HOW U tNDEUOROIUND DRAINS ACT
when a heavy rainfall continues for s,.mne
days, the porouas sul.bsoil above the tiles
becomes filldl to a higher point, anud the
volume of water increases. If the tiles
are small in proportion to the waiter they
must carry away, the water fills up above
them, and then running full tley[ cannot
keep the level down. In many cases
where the tiles are small the porotus earth
is tilled entirely to the lsulface-, and several
days are required after the rain ce.ases to
allow the di.rins to redluce, it. Three or
four feet of -porous earth will hold a
great amount of water, and drink tip "a
heavy rain like fta spone, giving it out
sidewise into the dramis at its leisure.

Conclusions About Potatoes.
After many years of practical experience
Edmund Hersey, well known Massachu-
setts cultivator, has arrived at the follow-
ing conclusions:
-1. Whole potatoes will produce a crop a
week or ten days earlier than those which
are divided.
2. Small, whole potatoes will produce
results as good, if not better,, than large
lines.
8. The seed -und is the better one to
plant, because it starts with more vigor
and produces more and larger potatoes.
4.. A large piece is better, on ordinary
soil, than small pieces or eyes
5. Potatoes with sprouts long enough-
to break off in planting-are not so good as
those with eyes advanced just'enongh- to
indicate vigor. .. : -
6. .The f6ria c'au'not, as.- a rule,-be
dianged by plaftinig any particular form;
7. Two dcisihct"varieties won't mix'-In
the same hill:- -, '.-.. -- .
8. The more'we-investigate the scab the
less we know about it. ,
The government tea farm, aboluttwhich
there has been so':mucb-talJ.k;.- will be abah-:
doted and revert to its owner, according
to the terms ofthe lease, at-the hegiunning
of the new f lscal year, cong-ess having
provided for the closingout of the int4ir-'
wts of the government. .


223


Six Ways to Treat Balky Horses.
The following different waysof treating
balky horses have been recommended by
various horsemen as efficacious, in their
experience, with balky animals; First-
Pat the horse on the neck, examine him
carefully, first on one side.and then the
9ther; if you can get him a handful of
grass give it to him. Then jump into the
wagon and give the word to go, and he will
generally obey. Second-7Talcing the
horse out of the shafts and turning him
.around in a circle until he is giddy will
generally start him. Third-Another
way to cure a balky horse is to place your
hand over his nose and shut off li& wind
'until he wants to go. Fourti-Theu,
again, take a couple of turns of stout
twine around the fore legs, just below the
knee, tight enough'for the bo-se to feel it;
tie in a-bbw knot; at the first click lie .will
probably- go dancing off. After going a
short distance. you can get out and remove
the string to prevent injury to the ten-
dons. Fifth-Again, you can try the fol-
lowing: Take the tad of the horse be-;
-tween the lindlegs and tie it.by a cord to
the saddle girth. Sixth-Tie, a- .string
around the horse's ear, close to the head
this will divert his attention and start
him. .
Underground Drains. '
Water la; a tleiulvncy to s-eek the lowest.
level and to doso by the niost direct, route
available Rain falling on a lhill of corn,
midway between two rows ot ti.Ule, does
not go, as some Imagine, in a-diagonal di-
rection, along the line A in the illustra-
tion, to the-tile.- .
The tile, explains Prairie Farmer, has
no attraction for the water, which, obeys
the law of gravitation, and ,goes down-
Sward, as shown by the vertical dotted
lines. Suppose that the soil represented
in the engraving held water at tie sur-
face, pre ,ius to living tilts, and that the
tiles are sixty feet apart The water fill-
ing the soil above and between the rows
of tile will gradually seep -toward the
tiles, enter at openings between them, and
flow off.- The excess of water will thus
flow off to the level of the water in the
tiles, except that there will be a rise of
the water line toward the center between
thefdrains. This water line is represented
by the curved line B. The difference be-
tween the soil above and below the line B
is that the interspaces above are filled
with anr, while below they are filled
with water. In other words, the sur-
face o.f the wet subsoil, or the plane
between the water logged and arable part
of the subsoil, is at B. Rain water,
melted snow, etc., which enters this
drained soils percolates directly down-
ward, and raises the level of the writer
line. The water escapes into the tiles by
flowing in a horizontal direction. That
nearest the tiles fows in just as water
runs over the edge of a dish. "
There is a general impression that water
enters the tiles from the top, while in
fact it enters mainly from the sides and
bottom since only that which 'enters the
soil immediately over the tiles does dlown-
ward into the tiles, the rest all flowing in
laterally. It is clitimed that where the
tile is entirely submerged, most of the
water c-nte'rs from belmo the middle.
When ,only a moderate rain falls, the
water level will be ouly slightly raised,
and the volume of water flon iug through
the tiles only slightly increased. But


~ *in lost to him foriver-knowing how deeply
m n" tct ? + and devotedly she loved her brother
w Eustace-knowing the disgrace which
hung over his own name, he saw no other
E 1 way to prevent utter ruin than to enter
FOR HONOR'S AKE. into this fataltengagement and to marry a
woman whom he did not love. But, with
T a full consciousnriess of the disrE'putabl.e
By B. IA. FARJEON, connection he was about to form, he laid
Author of "Great Porter Square," "The no pressing injiucton upon his father to
Bright Star of Life,"' Etc. recognize 'the uiIhappy anion; and, in-
-- deed, old Mr. Layton, aware that he was
(CONTINUED.)- in Mr. Beach's power, was by no-means
desirous to meet him. Love lost, honor
SHecoveretl its lface %iti hisliands, and lost, the sword hanging over his head,
I juclged intiitiv-:. thlit there sat before Edward Layton submitted to the sacrifice.
me a young man who, weak minded and Therewas ino duplicitvon his part.A X.es
easily led for evil as hlie might be, was not Beach klnew full well'that lie did not hlove
devoid of the true instincts of affection, her. IHe received, -as he believed, tIe
"Did you know of her condition?" I, whole of the forced bills which Mr. Be.ch
asked. held, and it was-m not until some time aftdr
"No," he replied, in a trembling voice, his inarriaue that lihe discovered that three
"Is it true? Is it true?" of those fatal acceptance had been "ith-
"It is unhappily true, and it maybe ,l,1 truin him. At the Lime lie made this
that it lies in your power to rescue from discovery he was leading a most unhappy
the grave the innocent young girl who life with his wife, and on more thaim ote
hIas ,levted her lifea nd lappine to you." occaiuon sli he iaunted him with the power,
'My Gol inmy G.i l!". site held over him. -- --- .:.-.-
"1 will not deceive you. Such happi- It was shoi:tly after the marriage that
neos eano,:,t come' to. pass if you are weak mind:-il Eusta-:e made the acquaint-
guilty." auce of Ida White. Shie wasan attractive
'1 ant not, guilty!" ie cricud, starting to woman, well versed in the wiles of her
his feet. -'God knows I ant not. guilty" sex, and'she played upon him nnd en-
"Swear it," I exclaimed, sternly!' tangled luam to such an extent tl ,it. there
"By all iny hopes of hlappiness," -he ex- was no escape for him It. is unnecessary
claimed, falling upon his knuees-"by mty here to enter -4nto the details of this conl-
dear Mabel's life, by"-my dear mother's iiection. It is sufficient to say that Ida
life-I swear that I ain innocontl Whlt,- held Eustace Rutland completely
He was grovelling on the floor, and I in lier power, with a fGrm conviction that
assisted him to rise. if she could induce him to marry her she
S"And being not guilty," I said sol- could, 'aftr the marriage, obtain the for-
"emnly, "you were, content to treita in ingivenes of Eustace's father-which would
hiding while another man was, a- iiused of insure l er a'life of ease and luxury. But
the crime which neither he nor you cr:m- there was still a certain firmnineess in the
mittedi And being not guilty, you would young man.'. .
have waited until he'was done to death "Marry me,"- she said. .-
before yoxu emerged -once more into the.. '.I will marry you," Eustace cre-plied,
lightof dayl I believe you when you say "when I aet back the forged acc ptanes."
you' did, not know of your sister's peril, Where-weroe -thley? In Mrs Lrivtou's
butyoul;nrewoftheiperil in which Edward posses-ion. W '
Laytonstood. Don't deiy it.. Remember, Close as was the Intimacy which ex-
the time of evasion hus passed."? isled between the unhappy lady and her
"Yes, "lie murmured, "I knew it." rihil,.Mrs. Layton retained so jealous a
"Why. did you not come forward," I po-izeci.io of these Incriminating docu-
said indignantly, rushing as if byaninspi- ments that 1l'a White was not able to lay
ration of reasoning to the truth, "to affirm her hands updn them. In the company of
that yoi rild Ida White wete' in Prevost's Eutatiie -tutlaud she was supping in Pre-
restaurant, in the very room in which Ed- vost's restaurant on the night of the-'5th
ward Lay tou andt youur sister entered, on of March. ,he had slipped away from
the night ,uf March 25. IWhy did you not Mrs. Layton's house, as shIe had often
come forwiad to affirm that it was you done before, to0me6t her young anuil fool-
who-by a devilish prompting-took Ed- ish lover. She-saw her master' and Mabel
ward Layton's ulster, unknown to him, enter the room, 'and observed Layton
froti thIe jieg upon which it was hanging hiking off his ulster.* Then the idea
and went outt with your paramour to the suddenly entered her head that Eustace
carriage in which he and your sister had and she should personate her master and
arrived? Answer me. Why did you not the young lady-with a full knowledge
do this, to-prevent a noble and innocent how deeply those two were compromised
manfrom beilg condemned for a murder by their being together-and arrive home
which he 'lid not colrtmit'," before then, l:y which time, doubtless,
"It w-as no mumrderl" cried Eustace. Mrs. Layton would be asleep. She knew
"It was no murder' She died by her own that under her pillow Mrs. Layton kept
hand!"" the docuiments which Eustace frantically
"She died by her own hand!" I echoed, desired to obtain, and the possession of
bewilder- d by this sudden turn in the which would make her, Ida White, his
cornplexion of the case. .'- wife. If Mrs. Layton awoke and resisted
"Yc-s," si.l Eustace, "by herownu hand. while the forged bills were being ab-
Upon the table by her bedside there was so'acted, Eusface would be at hand to use
written evidence of it." f o r.,e, mr uec,:ssary; and it was princi-
,"Whichyou.removed1" Icriud. pally from the wish to compromise her
"No, t I, nriot II Of which she took lover so deeply that he would not 'dare to
possessionuI" break his pronidse to marry her that. she
"Speak plainly. Whom do you mean had determined to put her idcea into exe-
by she-Ida White"'' '_ (.ution. tShe knew that ordinarily Edward
"Ycs." Layton kept the latch key of the st-reet
I paused .-Truth to tell,'I was over- door in thus pocket of his ulster,. She
wheeled by these disclosures. diAclosed the scheme to Eustace, and
'"Bear tlis steadfastly in mind," I said, Ithreatened himwith exposure if he did not
presently, in a calm, judicial tone.:, '";l.ou do as she desired. It was she who took the
are in the presence of a man who has ulster from the wall, of the restaurant,
sworu to 'escue the innocent.' You-are and it was slhe who, secretly and expe-
in the presence of a man who has sworn ditliously, assisted Eustace to put, it on;
to bring the guilty to justice. Upon me then.r thc-y stole onut together and entered
depends your fate. I c-an save or destroy the carramge. Before acquainrting Eustace
you. If by a hair's breadth of duplicity with her design she had ascertained that
and evasion gou. attempt to deceive me, Edward Layton's carriage was waiting
your dest.ru:rion is certain. This is- the for him and Mabel. She trusted to her
tluit,inma point of your life. Upon your' own res-eu,.Lis to keep her master out of
truthfulness rests your fate. Open your his house after she and Eustace had
heart to ier, not as to your enetmy but as entered it.
to your friend, and relate to me, without
equivocation, the true story of your life Here a word is necessary as to the true
from the time you commenced to plunge m-eannrag of Edward Layton's proceedings
into dissipation and disgrace." during the diiy and mnght of March 25.
Awed aind conscience stricken, he told Auandoned as were the hopes in which he
me the story. In the course of his narra- antId Mabel had ouce fondly indulged, she,
tion I was coiiinpelied freluentlly to prompt stil relied uponi his efforts to save her
and encourage him, but that, in the result, brother rrom harm. Eustace had lost
it wNas truthfully told I have not a shadow heavily upon certain races. He had made
of douiibt, a despi-iring appeal to her, and she .called
I-Is ca-rer at c,.,le-pe eriled, lie came to upo'u L:,y.toi to assist the erriug lad. It
Londhon. There he made the acquaintance was hi the endeavor to discover Eustace
of Edwinr-i Layton's father, a nman who, that Edward Lavtcu had driven from
faltlhi'ich w.:-l o:.n in years, Was as weak place to place to ,:itain from him tb's in-
ilinded as he was himself. They entered formation nrecessaryv to rescue him from
into a lind of partulnership, in hichi, no his peril. Mabel hadl, by letter, enga.iged
'doubt, th, elder ni an, now in fils grave, to meet Edward Lavton in Bloonlsbury
was tlie 1,.-aer and promnpter. From Eu- square at 1) o'clock. on the night, of' that
stance's dc.-cription tuf Edward Layton's day, in order that he might relieve her
father I'lrc-co.;ihzed a man weak imliltdcdais atinxiety wiLth respect to her h-brother.
Eustace ltius-if Was, ed wh'ise inherent HI-ow they uetL atd what transpired after
honor and honesty were ..warped by his they miet, hate been already asulflciently
fatal passior, for gambling. Old Mr. detailed. -
Layton for a long time kept his uifatua- Ida White's maneuvers were stuccess-
tion fr-rm the knowledge of his son, and it, ful up to .. certain point. She and
wans not unul be was actualUy involved in -Eustace entered the carriage, wtere driven
crinie aind disgrace that Edward became home, anrid, unsuspected, olbtainemd en-
aware of it. Long before this- Edward trace into the house.' The correspon-
had, through hiqs engagement, with Mabel deuce between, Eustace and Mabel had-
Rutland, been employed in the hopeless been for sonub time conducted through the
task of endeavoring to save her be- niedium 'of the system of the nine of
loved brhi-ther, but v hen the knowledge hearts, and It was either by an oversight
of his own. father's disgrace was forced or by accident that Eustace, during the
upon him he knew that all hope of Ma- 'drive fr6m Ptovost's restaurant to Edward
bel's father consenting to his mar- Layton's house took from his owu pocket
miage Was irretrievably gone. It was not one of those cards and let It drop Into the
only that the young and the old inan had pocket of the "ulster. But when they
lost money in betrn--it, was that they were safely ih Layton's house, and crept
had actually been guilty of forging bills, stealthily and noiselessly into Mrs. Lay-
which Mr. Beach, thexlatheroft he woman ton's bedroom, thely made the horrible
whom Edwahi Layton afterward mar- discovery that Mrs: Layton, in a moment
ried;-held in his possession. It was this of frenzy,, had- emptied the bottle of
that flrs took Edwarch Layton to Mr. poisonous narcotics, and had by her own
Beach's' house. Mabel had implored him will destroyed herself. 'The proof was
to save her darling brothers aghitst whom, at her bedside. Wben she had swallowed -
Mr. Beach had threatened'to take criminal .the fatal pills, the horror of the deed
proceedings.' I do not at.-this moment overwhelmed her. 'She 'summoned up
knowe-whether Edward Layton hadl re- ,sufficient strength to' rise in' her bed,
;'ealed to Mabel -the_ disgrace which hung to tako-paper and the pen from the ink-
also above hisfather; but that is Imma. stand, and-before- the death agony com-
tefial: -.-Agnes Beach;-hfMr: --Beach's -"only menced im her sleep, to write upon that -
child, '.-it and fell in love with Edward paper thecof'essldn which fixed upon her -
Layton,'aud. her father, disreputable as he the cuet'c of luiclde.
was, being devoted to his daughter, was saving reached this point of the stra'age
guided by .her-in all that subsequently story,-l-tldmaffded td knot fromEustace
transpired. The bills he held he deter- Rut-land ',hat had become of that. confes=
minedly 'refused to part with, unless. Ed-. sion.
ward Laytoiu-marnmed his chil.d "Ida took possession of It," he said, 1
"In the ter-ible position In-wlich he was "and I have not seen it from that moment 1
placed, knotwilg that Mabel.B utlaud was 'to this." 1


.- =
"Why did you -not come forward and and when inquiries are made about -it I -
make this public?" I cried, shall have a story to tell.
"Becai-.-.," was his reply, "'Ida told tue "With a full appre'i.tion of your rare
that, if wlihat we had done becnrine known, generosity I remain, d'ar sir,
nothin,Iaouldh save us from the hangman."' '"Yours faithfully,
'Di-i h- ,:.lbtnin possession ,ot the fored "'I-ion.E BAINnRID'r-c."
accept taliCeS,"'' '. .. THE END.
"Yes." ..
'.'How was it that the tumbler from Iobes de Null In Germani.
which thie latl draughtwastaken wa on Before I went abroad I was of the opin-
the mantelshelf?" ion that the use of robes de ntit was
'"Ida placed it there." nearly nildversal in all civilized communi-
-,It was enough. The entire facts ot this ties, but .in cident that happened while
mysterious case were clear to me. I fe- I was in Germany taught me that ry sup-
quired nothing more to prove Edward position as a f:ilse .one I h v.d f.,r ome
Laytcii's innocence that the possession of nm.onth.- ii, a ho-ue where- i.,'ot twenty
the document written alm,.-t in her death Germani students had tlieir rooms,, and '
thro'es by the unhappy wife. fouttd th,-,n a ve'ry gentlemanly set",of fel-
I itloc cked the door and called up Fow- hn-s :and apparently quite snffirciently
ler. -Briefly and swiftly I told:him what civilized. -For sometime I hal noticed
was necessary,: and, said. it was not at all, that my supply of night shirt seemed -
improbable thIat this documenIt was in Ida, to be smialle-r than it .hitidl be,
White', lodgings at Briton; rnd I lad anid finally took nvu washe-rwman to ""
scarcely uttered the words before a rat- task. She declared that she had rettu-rned
tat-tit cattle at the street door evc-ry garment that had r:.me into her
"It is sin h" cried Eustace. hband,. I S"Who:'" I asked, in great excitement. were ns,-ing, and suggested that she
Ida," he replied, might have by mistake sent tuy night
"It serves our turn exactly, sir," mit- shirt- to soune of the boarder. "Oh no,
tered(l Fowier to nie, aiid then addresre ug sir," ihe rcplrd. "'That rannun.t hi, for
Eustiee,. he said: "Is that, .your- led. you are the only gentleman [in the house
room?' .pointing to a communicating that. ever- wear- them." I could scarcely
door. ":*- believe this statement, but wias ccOitlnced
"'Yes.'' of its truth ,.-xt day, when I toiin,. that.
"We will go iin there. Let the lady scarcely a shop in the city kept this article
comeup;": t..* :_ : ..- u for -le, the m:,rn eiren hein, i.I.at the
We disappeared, leaving the comimuni- deIrmand Was vel si.lit. I h.v(- 1ome to
eating door, partially open, and the next the con(ilusion that either night shirts atoe-
minute I heard Idi \\White's oii.0. rinAt nece,-ar,? t civiiization or that the
-Curei -luck!" shlie tried. "I'v.-e l-,st German- cannot yet be recaltll as en-.
5 to-day. I tell you what t is, Ens- tirely effete.-S. T. Hawley in Globe-
L'tce-if wc- can't wheedle your oll Ccv- Dem.iocrat. -
err'r iiito iforaiving ius after we are mar-
r;ed, we shall liave to turn liuookni.,kers At time Aztec rair.
oursc-ives. You shall take the bets, and I A stylishly ildresed yunng lady, leaning
will do thi: clerking. It will l.e a novelty, on- thle .arn :f a aeritlilnan, tr..o.- the"
and we siehall rake p.ts of money.'' other nirdhr arig intntlv y:,. n ,':. ,.iark-
Eustace.did not reply.: skinneil Mexican' gir-I as they worked,
"Why don't you speak?" she continued, rapidly lollhrin backward a:nd forward
"Are you struck dumb?" .with a stone rollin : pin on an inclined
Then came Eustace's voice, like the cry stone a putty like substance, over which
of a despairing soul: at intervals they would sprmnkle a 1ew
"'Yo:ui are a derU!t Why havy.you grains :f corn.. : -
driteim Ine to this? I hate you, lhate.you, "I didn't know that bread was made in
hate you! You fiend, you have kiled miay that way," remarked the young lady to
sister!" her company i:on, and the gentleman, prob-
Fowler (lid not wait for me to act. He ably through fear of displaylie his igno-
seized me by the tarm and pulled me after race, made no reply. The Mexicarii girls,
him into the room. however, pail no attention to the remarks
"Whit!" screamed Ida; "you twol" that were made, but continued rolling .
"Yes," said Fowler-and in the midst the grain and making it into dough by
of hny own excitement I could not h-void sprinkling water over it, and the crowd
observing thie expression of calm satisfac- of spectaturs watched them until, finally
tion onhisface--"wetvwo." realizing that life was too short to wait
"Wharare you here for?" for any practical results from so slow and
"For reasons, Ida White," rephed laborious a process, they wandered off to
Fowler, "which may or may i.,t be examine the products of Aztec civiliza-
fatal to yourself. Follow what I am tion.-Phdadelphia Tim-s. .
about to say. We have here: a con-
femssii, frcm tlis young gentleman vhich, A Balky Horse. .
if true-that is, if it can be proved by doe- "I always lose my patience when I see
umentar.y evidence-will bring undoubted a man beat a balky horse," said a driver
disgrace upon you, but neither death by the other day. "The horse has a little
the hangman's hands nor penal servitude sense and the man not quite as much.
for life."' There are a dozen ways to make a balky -
She recoiled, and echoed- horse pull without beating him; such as
"Death! Penal servitude fr-iffe!" putting a handful of dirt in his mouth, -
'It i exactly us I have said. Death by tying a handkerchief around his front leg, ..
the liangnmin's hands or penal serv-itude etc. Anything. will do that attracts a :
for life. All Is know-a. Your theft of the horse's attention, for it seems he hasn't
ulter at Prevost's restaurant, and every- the faculty Iof fixing it upon more than
thing else. Your liberty at this moment, one thing at.a time."-Philadelphia Call. .
rests upin a written document. If it.
never existed, or if you have destroyed it, Soft Soap. Wash for Trees.
you are doomed. If it exists yott are Professor Lazcuby, of Columbus, 0.,
saved." approves of soft soap wash for trees. He
"You are a madman" '.she cried, hut says: "I am acquainted with an orchard
her face was blanched and her figure ex- of fifteen apple trees,' now 26 years old,
pressed the nost abject, terror, that has leen regularly and systematIcally
"I amn an officer of the law," said Few- treated to a wash of soft soap about May
ler. "Now do you understand? If the 21) and again June 20 each' year. Less
confession written by Mrs. Edward Lay- than half a dozen borers have been found-.
ton, and which, after her death, you took in this orchard, and the trees are all in' a
from the table by her bedside, is in exist- thrifty, vigorous condition. In neighbor-
ence, you have nothing to fear. If it is i ag orchards, where this precaution has
not. you are a lost woman. No words, no not been taken, the trees have been killed
parleying! It is life or death for youl by scores, while many that remain are so
The moment has come. Decide." Which much injured as to be worthless. Lye is
wayP?" sometimes used in the place of. soap, but
Utterly overpowered, Ida Whitereplled, the latter is a much more effective pre-
with hands tremblingly raised, as if for ventive. It cal be readily applied with
mercy: an old broom. Besides making the tree
"I have the paper." obnoxious to the borer, the soap keeps the.
"Where:" bark in a healthy condition. This remedy
Her hands wandered to her pocket, and may be applied to all trees or shrubs liable
she took a purse from it. to be attacked."
'"Here!" --
"There is something else, lady bird." Facts Fa'rmers.Onght to Kno6w.
paperss you stole from undersea Thorough weeding is a most important
"The papers you stole from underneath point in ouion culture.
your mistress' pillow. Ahl you have
those also! I-land them over. Thank The earlier fruit is thin'the more proflt-
you, lady bird. Very satisfactory-very able the operation.
satisfactory indeed. A happy terinina- Sbeep multiply fast and returns conde
tion to a most remarkable case!" front them quickly. The owner of a well
.managed flock 'as wool to sell in the
"I latter part of spring, lambs in midsummer
"August 27, 1885. and mutton at, other times of year, besides
"DE.P.A Mu. LAtNG-My intermediate supplying his own table.
letters will have placed you in possession
of all that has occurred. Edward Layton A little more care for the ornamental
is releasedwith honor, and it has been the trees would add greatly to the beauty and
subject of hundreds of leading articles value of the farm homestead.. -- .
that. tho obstinacy of one juryman, who The land. planted with early peas and
refused to be guided by circumstantial beans may be made to carry a late crop of '
evidence, saved a noble young fellow from squashes of cucumber pickles. '
an unjust death. ,A great blow has been
struck against the jury system. Eleven Early cut hay, cured green, gives color
men wrong, and one man rightl-people and flavor to butter.
could hardly believe it. But it was so in
this instance, and I have no doubt It has No Fourth for Him.
been so in others. You being now a mar- A small scion of a Cass avenue family
tried man, domestically happy and con- went to church- the other Sunday and
tented, the news I have to impart will heard the minister make a stirring appeal
give you pleasu.e. .Edwai-d Layton is in for funds.to build a new church.. : .- 1
Switzerland. He has gone upon a. long The next day his -motker overhbard a .- -
summer and autumn tour. Alone? No. dialogue in which her youngster was the --
Mabel Rutland, restored to health, is with first speaker.... .
him. Well, but tliat is not enough? I "Whatcher goin' to buy Fourthof July, ...
take a satisfaction in prolonging the in- Jimmy?" .
terest. I could almost fancy myself a "Oh, lemmins, an' .l cream, an'-.fie- .
novelist. Mr. and Mrs. Rutland are also crackers. Whatchool" .
af the company, and it is Mr. Rutland "Nawthin'.-ain't''goin' to have'-'eit "-'
himself who invited Edward Layton Fourth;.goin' to save'me,money, Mnidbuy' .' :
to travel with them. In less than a a church."-Detroit:FreeiPresa.... f-,i .-.'. i-.;-'. '-.
year from this date the lovers .will be '- .' -. '-.-*"'
united and faith and sell sacrifice will be ^A Point-iaJnii,- i4'lng -
rewarded. Mi'. James Rutland, Mabel's .. A workmanuat fhe.d'a..oninIntihas dis- -
uncle, to whsoe obstinacy Edward Lay;ton covered that drll ul, 6nt ated to .chei!-- .
undoubtedly owes his life, and before ry red.and teupered-by.'beii-d& ve.^4%tps., "
whose obstinacy justice should bow, is a bar otfleadw.l11bbrte'tphoughfthie.ba lu --..
also traveling with them. No one else? strel o"'t, gl..s-w.thout. perep.4bly -""
Y es. M abel's brother, E ustace, repent-' -blu nti ng6-5 h lca wO. H er .ld. .- r ,- .. .- .
ant, hum bled, reform ed. :'" .. 'j" :. .. ',-5 !' ^- .T, '., .'* *t ,. .'.- +:. --. '
"I have ha~d painted for me a v.erjr' I'..Thbmas cQun~jykan., sll the towntr>"-- -.
simple picture .on' a large canvas .-rt Is e.hlpl.-are named: afterCsolde.is [0t- bt%,-1--.-'-"
the nine of hearts, which :I .ntend:'sh'aI [Eight'hKansad'who were V'l;lle-atChisek-,"- ..:-.-:.
always occupy the place' of honored in my amauga, the battle at whichh Gen. Tlhofiia'>*-$..
house. It cannot fall to attract attention, won his greatest fame...- ". *,*''..- .-. -..i.C-
,*.: _-, .< '- .. '_- ,-:...* *. -. ,-^ A "1 .= :-'.
*-..- .... -. .. ........ -,. ,


? .


223








FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. JULY 13. 1887.


-" s' a have any
flaridian +storekeel
-from the
houses, a
State Newsin Brief, what he
--The contract for rebuilding and re- before bh
storing the old cathedral at St. Augustine farmers'
has been let to. a South Florida builder, of seventh:
-Iron for the extension of the Orange last Janu
Belt railroad is expected daily. It has twelve
all been purchased and will be shipped as monthly
needed. : necessary
needed. wholesale
-Thirty bushels of corn per acre is re- We have
ported from Geneva, Orange county, on saved fr
high hammock land without an ounce dred and
of fertilizer. included,
-A carload of Government tents have farmers t
arrived at Tampa, to be used at the Gov- to each o
eminent quarantine to be established on ble for us
Egmont Key. produce,
-The engine for .the Sanford wire have ass
fence factory arrived this week, and is several d
being put in place. The works will now the const
soon be in running order. of Florid
-Two years ago Mr. James E. Earnest, dence fr
of Tallahassee, grafted an apple on to a ied.
Le1onte pear stock, and now he is
picking fine red apples off the tree. "
-A Key West firm is soon to start a; THE
large cigar manufacturing establishment
at the Punta Gorda wharf, and a street
railway will be built from Trabue to the The Mc
manufactory.
-The new board of Volusia county
commissioners will assume adminlstra- On the
tion of the county government, with cln o
nearly $12,000 in the treasury and prac- cony o
tically no outstanding indebtedness, of Jean
.. river.
-A new artesian well is now being sailed n(
sunk at Oakland. It has reached a depth stopped i
of 750 feet, and is still going down at the in what:
rate of fifteen or twenty feet per day, lina. He:
the projected depth by contract being leaving
1.000 feet. returned
-Large shipments of cattle are being return w
made from the county, and are bring- supplies.
ing good prices. Levy county has the The be
reputation of raising the finest beef in new fori
Florida, and is well sustaining her repu- all the el
station in that direction.-Levy County- ure. T
.Times: : soldiers,
-In the Pensacola Ice Company's pen station, a
is a large logger-head-turtle, captured in of private
Dillon's pond, which weighs about of violet
three hundred and fifty pounds. The men ut n
huge fellow is thought to be one hundred left iu
years old, and lie has barnaclets on hbis tuhse mr
shell as long as a man's finger. do any s
in a short
-Umatilla's vegetable shipments have and lived
been running from 200 to 400 crates per As i A
day, one day numbering 961 packages.., th
From one and one-third acres of toma- co man
toes $830 has been realized, with the bilmm a.
returns of 125 boxes yet to hear from, After a
and from one-third of an acre of straw- patcin
berries 3,000 quarts have been picked and po atg
sold at a good profit. after ds
-The disease prevailing here is dif- their sn
ferent in many respects from the yellow Tliev thil
fever of which old citizens and nurses thing on
at this place have been familiar It as- at last tl
S sumes a typho malarial type and con- one of tt
S tinues, in some cases, several weeks. It One had
S has been pretty generally believed that provider
in genuine yellow fever the patient glish veE
would be beyond recovery in seventy- The w
two hours or convalescent. With the guenots
-present type of fever, patients linger vented l
: E.. eeral weeks and then die, although colouvny.
s supposed to be convalescent.-Key West mated a:
SEquator. the folio
-Captain Rose,. of Kissimmee Cify, Florida,
returned.yesterday fron Philadelphia Laudoni
*laden with big news for Florida. A perience
Syndicate of which Hamilton Disston After
and a son of the late ('ol. Tom Scott are at last
the principal members, has purchased river, w
Sthe famous Rio G(rande sugar mills and Fort L'a
refinery at Rio Grande, New Jersey, a King C
plant that at enormous cost and aided thiswor
by munificent bounties from the State, quarters
was established to develop the sorghum and diss
industry, and made a colossal failure, cal corn
It is said to be the finest sugar machinery better it
in America, It was bought by the country
syndicate for only ] 70,i)00. "It will re peaceab
quire very many cars to transport it, and were so<:
the freights are likely to be about $3,01)1. action of
The syndicate also bought Captain Rose's ing don't
famous St. Cloud plantation, on which these mi
he has an immense cane farm. The new the New
factory has a capacity of about 65,0"i0i despised
pounds of new sugar per day.-News- provision
Herald,. soon exl
be disco
Farmers Clubs. the assa
Letters like the two following, which trepid L
appeared in a recent, numberofthe Times- At nie
Union, will alwavsbe welcome toaspace Ctubs. '
in the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER: Spanish
LAKE BuIrLER F.ARNIERS CL'B. were, llh
LA&KE BUTLER. Fla., June *25. Havana
As I'notice many articles in your valu- knowle,:
lile paper about farmers' unions, and line can
their interests, etc., and as your paper and was
has such a widespread circulation ip this Spain.'
section. I would beg space in your col- At thi
umns to say for the benefit of the farmers, an expe
about two months aeoa'few of the farm- Goveini
ers met for the purpose of perfecting an Florida
organization, known as Five Mile-Farm- Avile4;
ers' Club. We did so with some seven age of F
or eight members, and to-day our mem- ty of Ne
bership numbers twenty-six, and is still dez atm
increasing. To-day 'being our regular upon hi.
meeting we had quite a large turn out:; the Chr
among those present were J. H. Wilson, etics all
C. K. Ray, R. W. J'nesind C.- F. Parker. The n
from Osccola. members of Cleveland object fi
Clubof.Alachua county., ibo gave us was in.
much ,valuable information.by their well French
timed speeches. We' have .een c called tics. It
upon lo assist'in organizing two more forceur
clubs in our county. -We-would uigethe doubled
farmers in all sections to a speedy' or- Menend
ganizarion. Very' 'espectftdly, '.eleveni
J.'M. MOTT, President. 'men.
H. E; STOKE-SSedret.ary' "' Durin
THE;.CLEVELAND F~ARMEES CLriB. .,engaged
O'SC'OLA, Fla.,'June 23, 1887. day of .
In reading your valuabIl paper I see a the mou
great many letters' from different sec- seven st
"-ions urging the' organ'iztiohn f farm- supplies
- '-ers' ci.15s!:.'ai 6'royer-thie Sta~te. A.s all. condition
other ti-a'des bave- tflc&i -dnicfii, it is here ha
- : reasonable to 'suppose that they have the ecution
controlling power also..'1 would urge feeling!
all secti6s.t6 ofganize at once and form had gro
-dlubh.naid ee how many'of'us can send Jimad tak
"-a delegate to the Jdcksbrlvill"1onvention, "had the
o be hbld in July. Th'i'far~ners club', is supplies
no swntidling speculatin,- _'Wedo not -diapsar


y stores, nor we don't have any
per. We order our goods direct
manufacturers and wholesale
and every man knows exactly
is going to get for his .money
e sends it off. The Cleveland
club at this place is composed
y-two members. We organized
ary and went to work with only,
members. We hold regular
meetings and oftener when
y. We are trading with a
e house in Savannah at this time.
made several large orders, and
om one hundred to. one hun-
Sfifty per cent. thereby, freight
, But without uniting and all
cbming together for a protection .
other, it will be utterly impossi-
s ever to control the price of our
labor or anything else. We
listed in the organization of
different clubs, and I will furnish
titution and by-laws of the State
da on application. Correspon-
om any club respectfully solic-
C. F. WILSON,
Corresponnding Secretary.

FRENCH IN FLORIDA.

ost Tragic Episode in
Florida's History.
BY DR. G. A. DWELLEY.
First day of May, 1562, a French
f Huguenots, under command
Ribaut, entered the St. Johns
Not liking the location, they
northward along the coast and
it a place they called Port Royal,
is now the State of South Caro-
re they erected a small fort, and
a garrison of thirty men, Ribaut
d to France, expecting soon to
ith a new colony and plenty of

ody of men left in charge of the
t contained within themselves
elements of discontent and fail-
hey were mostly common
uneducated men, full of super-
and ready at the first approach
ion or danger, to do any deed
ice. 'There were two or three
ohible birth with them, who were
'.barie of affairs. Not one of
en knew how to till the soil, or
killed labor. Hence they were,
rt time reduced to starvation
A on the charity of the Indians.
nger began its dreadful work,.
grew desperate and killed their
ader. They then resolved to
vessel and return to France.
long time they succeeded in
Together a very-poor imitation
ip, in: which they embarked.
ays of agony and hardship,
.all supply of food gave out.
ern ate their shoes, and every-
a board that could be eaten, and
iey were forced to cast lots for
ieir number to be killed for food.
A been killed and eaten when
ntiaiv they were taken byaniEn-
sel to Londou.
'ar in France between the Hu-.
and the Guise party had pre-
he return of Ribaut and hisi new
In 1563 a truce was consum-
nd brought peace for a time. In
owing year a colony set sail for
under the direction of Rene de
oiere (a friend of Ribaut an ex-
d and brave commander.
a long and stormy voyage, tlhy
found haven in the St. Johns
here, near its mouth, they built
roline, so named in honor of
harlea IX. Having completed
k and being in very comfortable
a, they fell into habits of idleness
ipation. The moral and physi-
position of this colony was: no
ian the first. They explored the
for gold and found none. The
Ie relations with the Indians
:n destroyed by the treacherous
f the French There was noth-
e in the way of agriculture by
iiguided men. They looked upon
, World as an El Dorado. They
d labor and the laborer. The
ns brought from France were
hausted, and the men began to
tented, and mutinous plots for
situation of the brave and in.
audonniere were rife.
ght the mutineers stole two of
els and sailed for the island of
They succeeded in capturing a
-vessel near the coast. They
however, apprehended, taken to
and tried for piracy, Thus the
Ige of the colony at Fort Caro-
ie to the authorities at Havana,
Communicated to the'King of

is time Philip II was fitting out
edition to Florida to convey his
or-General or AdelaitdadO to his
possessions-Pedro Menendez de
a man with the ferocious cour-
'izarro and the treacherous cruel-
ero. The old King gave Menen-
oat absolute power, hut enjoined
m to convert all' the Indians to
istian religion and to burnas her-
who refused to receive'it. .
ews from Cuba found a special
or immediate'actibn. .enehdez
structed .to extermiua'te Ibis
colony as trespassers and here-
a view of the work to.b done the
ider Menende'z was ordered, to be
On the;29th day of June, 1565,
ez set sail" from Cadiz .with
ships "and over one thousand

g this interval Ribaut ,ad. been
I in-raising a 'hew expedition to
e Fort Caroline.&':On tie "2i3t.h
tugust, 1565,. he cast anchor at-
ltb of the St John's river, with
lips and 30 _s61'dierfs,. anDd ample
. Meanwhile affairs.were in bad
in at. Fort Carjline.. -Laudon-
.d checkedthe mutiny by the ex-
of four of 'the leaders:. The ill.
between the fort and the Indians
wn worse..- Several .encounters
en place" in'which the Indians.
-advantage. No 'corn or. other
could now be had, from the. In-.
md.gaunt farite sat embroned at
L.. -


Fort Caroliue. The arrival of Ribaut
was timely acd was hailed with loud a:-
clamation s.
On the 4th of Sept-iLuber. ear n mid-
night, the guai< at the fort dE-:ric-l a
sail, *hichl proved to: be the -quadron ot
Menendez. He hai eucount'retl ieanvy
weather, .but ithad escape, i tott. i v-.: tk.
Not knowing thie streicth or po-ition ot
the Fren.hm Meneivdez was too. good a
soldier to risk au attack, aud sailed down
the ,ooa ,t until they came Ito the ite t ,f
St. Aigtiiuie. Haviug -.onie hundreds
of negro slave on the fleet, lie at once
landed and et to work thro'.ing up in-
trenchmecnts. "Sucih waE tie birth of
the olest ct th e olttittIhe Uinited States, and
such the introducti,on ot slave labor upou
their soil."
Ribaut seut a vc..,el t, observe the ac-
tion of Menendez. Tihey soon returned.
with informant ion that tle Spani-lh were
erecting fortifications. After due con-
sideration it. was decided that Ribaut
should make an attack on the Spanish
with his fleet and destroy them before
they could complete their intrencih-
ments. On thie 10th day of September
Ribaut with his entire fleet bore down
upon the astonished Spaniard., who
were not expecting an attack from the
French. Misfortune, however, sat ripon
the fortune of Ribault. Before hIe coulld
bring on action there arose a tremendous
gale, which drove time entire fleet far out
to sea. Thie storm lasted for several
days.
Menendez knew the fleet could not re-
turn to Fort Caroline, and so he decided
to make ani attack ou thie fort before tihe
return of Ribaut. On the 17th day of
September he, with five hundred soldiers,
with an Indian guide, started through
the almost impassable forest. For three
long, weary days these men, with mur-
der in their hearts, waded through
swamps, and forded rivers, and, blinded
by the driving rain, they still struggled
on ; and at last, maddened with hunger
and the privations and sufferings of this
dreadful march, they came in sight of
Fort Caroline. With.the yell of demons,
they threw themselves upon the feeble
defences, which' they took on first at-
tack. Laudonniere, with a few others,
escaped, and after incredible hardship
and suffering, returned to France.
The number who fell into tlie lands of
the Spanish were about tmb hundred
men, women and children. All of these
were-put to death at once, except about
fifty women and children, and some of
these were reserved for a worse fate.
Menendez afterwards expressed sorrow
for extending this clemency. After
burning the fort and destroying every-
thing belonging to the French, Menen-
dez, with his army and prisoners, re-
turned in triumph to his fortifications,.
Meanwhile Ribaut's fleet hadall been
wrecked on the coast south of Matanzas
Inlet. Fortunately, or unfortunately,
most of the men were saved, and, col-
lect.iung in two detachments, endeavored
to return to Fort Caroline. Thes&epoor
men, hungry, nearly naked and almost
exhausted by their hardships by- land
and.sea, came at .last.to that broad arm
of the sea, Matanzas Inlet, which they
had no means of crossing. ,
Thie Spaniards were on a reconnoisance
and soon found these poor Frenchmen
in this helpless condition, and by prom-
ises of friendship and protection, these
poor men consented to trust themselves
to the mercy of Menendez. A boat was
sent across the river and,- all the arms
were sent over, and then the men, ten
at a time. On their arrival' they were
taken back some distance from the river,
where they could give no alarm to their
companions; and here these men were
murdered. Thus slowly passed the
hours of this bloody day, and not till the
sun hid his face behind the western hills
did the slaughter cease. So- perished
two hundred- brave men, sacrificed to
treachery, bigotry and superstTiohn.
Two days later, Ribaut, with three
hundred and fifty men, arrived at the
Matanzas River, and the artful Menen-
dez was waiting for him, and with much
courtesy and great show of friendship,
lie sent over a hoat load of bread, meat,
and wine, with solemn promises of pro-
tection on condition of surrender. Some
two hundred of Ribaut's men declared
they would rather risk their livesamong
the Indians and wild beasts of the forest,
than to trust the honor of aSpaniard.
So they went into the wdilds;.- Tihe re-
maining men, with thie brave and intre-
pidl Ribaut., were taken over in small de.
tachments and murdered in thIe same
atrocious manner as their comrades.
Menendez lost no time in sending an
armed force in pursuit of the detach-
ment which refused to surrender, and
succeeded in killing nearly all, for no
historical account is to be found, and
they probably perished, either from star-
vation, or at the hands of the Indians, or
both. -.' 4 I
jln tthis treacherous, iuiumatfi nner,
King Philip II put an end to-'the-'French
colony in Florida. .This wanton massa-
cre was perpetrated during a time of en-
tire peace between thie French hf'd Span-
ish governments. It was a'0 insult to
the Crown of France. King Charles IX,
however, was in no condition t6 engage
in war with Sp'ain. Although time whole
Freich nation .was'stung by this atro-
,cious, wholesale mu'lder of tier people,
and the blood'of these 'unfortunate vic-
tims alled"' loudly f6r vengeance, 'the
government' was poiverle'ss to take any
decisive action.
'Theinjury did. not; however, go with-
out redress." DUominiique die. Hourges, a
man of unmqitstioned brave,', and vast
experiencetim continental wars, resolved
to avenge the.death1 of 'hiis countrymen.
At hls'ow'n expense, he fitted out an ex-
- peditibn consisting 6Ef"brce' vessels and
two hundred and tft.y experienced sol-
dhiets' nd sailors, with .plenty -0o1 war
muniti9os and provisions for a-'ong- voy-
age. Er:om.the King he obtained a.com-
mission to.,sail for Africa 'to engage hi
the slain v'tade.- After somenmhths were
spent in 'cruising about, he revealecL his
plans this mentwho, wJth .one v6ioei
decided.,to go at opce to. Florjdt- to exe-
cute vengeancfe on. the. Spaniards at St.
Augustine.
. _On the jth :day of March, 1568, they
'--" 1; =- r -... "" 1 ,. --+ '- .


reached thie coast of Florida about thirty
miles niorith :,f the Sr. Johns River. They
at on,-e opened communication with the
Iiiili an and fiom them learned all par-
ti Cilai1s ,Of the Spauish c:-olony at St.
Auaustlice. Time craft ah,.i tre.'icher'y of
tlhe Spaniard- tovwaid the Iuiia:nsi had
i lil enl the iti, vinditive mualh'?e
gtjiiit the Spanish. When the Irndliaus
ii-arued that DeGoiirees intended to at-
tack thie foit at St. Augustiun. tleirL joy
ine% no:,'' ,Iouni-;i. Ti 'ev offelrel their
sei',l:e-. in such uitimi.er' that [lei-,uige-s
sou had quite an armirn at lIescomuiaud.
He decided to attack Iy lfani. Tlihe
muarchli was coi.iductedi witli ecir'eciy atmi
,:iiepatcli. The weather "ai ; faorable,
and bv the- aid of hie uIndiian allies he?
found'an easy r.uIte, aitl did not enu-
counter thie obstacles met with by Me-
nenlez. two years and a lhaif betore. on
Ins inarch to'Fort Caroline
The Spanish had almost forgotten the
mniassacre of the friendless French. so
lightly bail it rested on their bigoted
consciences. They had received the
comminendation of their King, and abso-
lution from thie Church, so gave the sub-
ject no more thought. Not fearing an
attack from the Inldians, the Spanish had
uo- guard posted. At midday the French
and Indians made an assault on the fort
in great force a'nd carried all the works.
Thie victory was complete. DeGourae:.
in his hour of triumph, knew no mercy.
Not one'of the Spanish fort:e eecapid.
All were slaughtered, and [he fort was
then totally demolished.
It is said that DeGourges reserved
fifteen pri-:ounrs for especial retaliation.
At the capture of Fort Caroline, Menen-
dez hanged fifteen French, with the in-
scription, "Not as to Frenchmen, but as
to Heretics." DeGourges took these
menri to the same trees at Fort Caroline
and hanged them with the inscription,
"Not as to Spaniards, but as to liars,
traitors, and murderers." Unfortu-
uately for the demands of strict justice,
Menendez escaped this favor at thehands
of DeGourges, being at the time in Spain,
from whence he returned to rebuild his
fort. So ends the romance of the French
in Florida.
-The directors for south Florida of
the coloredState Fair, J. A. Qiarlterman,
R. Seabrook and J E. Clark, aie in the
city in the interest of the proposed fair.

Ocala, Winter Park, and several other
towns have offered inducements to be
selected as the site' of the exhibition.
The directors favor Orlando, and-if the
proper grounds are obtained it will be
held here in -February, 1888.-Orlando.
Record.
4.
Nearly one-half of the Delaware
peach crop has been destroyed by freez-
ing. Rain filled the blossom cups and,a
cold night succeeding froze each into a
tiny ball of ice. -

A.patented remedy for hogcholera is
composed of equal proportions of man-
drake, sulphur, bicarbonate -of soda,
charred coffee and chlorate of potash.
J' ULY WEATHER." :
Thec tU,[iig table, cmpiled f-r.'m the records
of the Jack onville S'na[ station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents tlh" renmperature., condition
of weather, rainfall ad duwection ol wind for
the month o( July, as obeerred at tnhe Jack-
sonvllle stati'c duringF the past 15 years:


any paper we nave seen, for Florida
especially. Send to Jacksonville for it.
Addre- as above, and read it awhile and
lie ooniviiuced.
IfFrom the Tiiues-Denmo,.'rat.]
"Editor Curtiss. -if the FARMER AND
FRti'-T.iR>'wEr. evidently struck tihe
popular fi-ncv when h-e established that
journal. Its'success is phenomenal, and
altlotglh only a few montbis old. has al-
ready taken the lead iu all mnatters- per-
tainiuig to Southern ltloric-ulture."
[From the Texas Farmnier.]
"Florida is not behind hersister SouLIth-
ern States in material progress. It
ought to he called the land of fruits and
flowers. for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
heie. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics.', to'j which we referthereader
for further information."
[ From the Southern Cultivator.]
-"The Success of the FLORIDA FAR-
MER AND FRUtir-G1ROWER. of Jackson-
ville, surpasses that ot any similar
publication in America. The publishers
seem to be over-liberal in giving the
mechanical part every attraction possi-
ble, while Editor Curti.s is doing the
best work of his life. It is a combina-
tion that cannot fail of abundant, success.
Thie Cultivator is never sorry to see such
enterprise rewarded, as we have no
rivals to be jealous of, but wish all suc-
cess."
IFrom the Gardeners' Monthly]
'"We are continuaUlly receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest
to the intelligent class of horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
cater. We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence, and one which. must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
ests."
[From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number [of
.the FARMER AND 'FRUIT-GROWER] failed
to reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, while the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. Many of our
readers are iote-re-te:.l directly and sec-
ondarily iun everytltiiug .,nnecti-d, with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best wishes
for its success,, we welcome this uew as-
pirant for public favor and patronage.
feeling assured of the0good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida."




JACKSONVILLE MAARKETS.

SWll'holesale.
IJ.ii': SuNVILLE,Jll.T J Ni lS`7.
S Pro%,lisions.
MEAT---. S. .-on rtr.i-, rrhxd, $ ';, D. S.
long ti-ar sldi. 8 1 77,1; Di. <. 'tLiesm-. .'S:i;
smoked Euort rbi.?':i 12}L;"ism:oked bellie-, 1^<;
S". c. nars,, canv% si.,-d ifancy, 2;r; S. ('. shoul-
der,can vasi:eI-d, T/:', aliJfrn a .r picnic a"ham,
",I4'. Larl'-reB.-,d l rire-, 7c. Mt- bee-
ba e-icE, I'109); half b 'rie-ls, &7-5; mei-" piP lk,
t 16-n. Th,:.se ,ioiattons aii .: Or hitLnd liot-
from flrst hand-. .
BctriERE-B t table-, '..l-.$c per pound; cook-
iag, 15,'4)c per ptouid.
GrainI. FI'lour. Hay. Feed. Hides. Etc.
ORA[N--Corn--Thb. martlet i- w.-ak aul
duhl. Tb- following flnurn.> i'epi-seet to-dav's
value: We quo-ti whitei- corn, Job lotI, 6ce
per buih-l; imr 'ad lot, 62ir,. per buh'bel
mixed, oni, job loL,ec ,pel btuhel; car load
Iot-r. .t p.: r biihEbiL. O il quj-t and finat
Mhb 'otl'n-w n," d ti-'. Mix'-i. in jot) ,i.- .
40,:; fe r led-lot..=- SidC; while oat. are 21, "
all around. Bran teadv. ind i ow,-r, .l'1.1.--6
pet' ton.
BL1-Th- neMar'uet is fim arnnd good eradez
hi ,l 'ir. ;, ,r- .t' ..h..o iri .i.l bal 1. J
per ou; car i>- ioti-. 017 -A per tn; Erit-rn
iy SJ'1|i et m.on.
PEA.L i RITS AND M"AL-$;tlta(.:it'3 per bor-
re 1.
FrLUTR-Weake; besl parienhi., S. i5 5;
.uOd faityv, 4i1 -)-i)) or'niom mtn, 8425.
PEA--Black Eyve Wi 5 per tuIShel.
(RcL rrtD FEE[f-PerI ton. 824 tkt.
r'OFFS.E-Gr-reen Rio, 2i'),&'-2e per pound; Java
roasted.32,.5ec; Mocha, roasted, .-3c; Rio,
rOasted, 2.S'2-lc.
(':ir.oN SEED rttEAL-De',uand ljrbt. ',ea
l1iard or dark me-cl, .t "i' (i w per ton;
bright or short cotton mrueai,821 5.i-2-5') per
ton.
'TOBAeCO E-EM-tl-Market qluiet bi L drmn a
$13 of -.i1 ci ) per Ion.
LitwE-Eaitrn, lob iot, SI t(0 per bane],
rAlabama inme -1 I. tement-American 8'2 ();
Eneihcn 4 7.6 per bari,-l.
R-ICE-Tte quoiations vary, according to
quantity, from l ^.5SA ;cenl. per poun,.
A'.-LLTiverpoo[r, pter ,ack, Ju, per car
load, 5,,a,'e ,en[t..
iE.'--DI| v clint, cow, 1r pound, firzi class,
Ili.ent:; ana co,it'r drI' ihttd 1 I1 "cur.s:
bir'hrs: di ha~itv-d 0 cents Skins-fieerBiit,
2) cen..; salted 13 cents. Furs-COLter, winter,
each 2 W;,i$t ratceoon 109il5 cents; wild cal
i0'lI ce.-nLts; rfox f1'V15 centl. Beeswax, per
pound i, ,ents: wool, free from buts, IS_28
ceLl[.: ritiry, i'1J 5 enL.3; go, t skins O10cent)
Saplece.
COiillry Produce
CHEE5E-Fine Creamery license per pound,
LIVE PouLrRY-Linilted supply. and good
demand as follows. Hens 40 cents; mixed 3O
Ucntk:tt; hlf grown IS Cenuts. They are ti-sarcc
and In greas demand.
Eaos--Duval Cointy, 15 cenis per dozen
with good demand and Umlted supply.
IRhISH PorAroEr--Northern potatoes$300eh
3 2*5 per barrel.
')NIoN,-Bermuda.s, 82 00 per crate; Egyp-
tlani,.!3 .per crt-ate.
FlorIda Cabbage: StL 75i5)2 00 per barrel. They
are a diag-on the. market.
NaW BEEmS-Florida, por orane, $20.
.ArjLiFLOVwERis-Pef barrel, 8.i00, and 1 75
ps-n atre.
'.'oAos--Flnorlda, per crate, t'.
NonTHERJN Te'RBia--Good supply at$2 2S
per barrel.
SQOASH--Per crate, $1 25.
SN A P BEANS-Per crate,'l -n. -
ltic.'m- asa-Per bos, 800. '"
Foreign aud Domestic Frnits.'
PaROES- -FPepch, 12c. .. "
PiN-aP.ps-'l 75d,200 per dozen...
'LEHoNs-Measlnas, S- 60>,g 00 pe' box.
FIQs- -In layers Je."c ": i """' *
D'ATES--Pi.etana,-B-lxes, tic; PraUB'7c. _.
,BttAjNAiAPoorsntip1y'76c<#200perbttn~cb.
N.UTS- Aimon'ds'lSe; uraziis 12o; Fbert
Siclly) l'2c" EngUtsh walnuts, Grehobles; 18c;
Marbiae;, )c;- Pecaosl2c; .Pean'ta;e6c; 'Cocoa.
nunte550 pebr)undSred".,*i -, h.
SRisrNS--Lbndon layers, 50 per box.
CRANBERRrES-$ 76 per crate; h.l 01 perbar-
Stel.-,'" 2,7 ,- 1
'-- BuirsR.M BOreaniery.20q; ExtraDalry 16o;

Ca~aESE'-Bhlfskini?~c~creiii I~e per phu-nd.
PEAcCHEa-Peeii-To,-75'i'2.50 per'erate;" Geot
gla, 50@75o pen rate. "
Arp'P L -eorg1as, 6c p.ercra.te. :. .

.- .. .. ". : -. .


224


POWDER

Absolutely Pure.
Thfi povtdL-r ev,- r Nva r oes. k nei m 1
rtmrt~v, :lii-'ib and wbou-sr-merie- More
e.'tnoiiitait [an ihe Corilnar3 kini'q and
cannot be -ioid In >'ompeiltlon wirh tue
nuiiidliude of'i lo61. Ebori Wri;h[ clUm or
pho-iphat p.:m wde rs. S'dd. od. in CalS,
RYVAL BAKING PowDER C.", ? i0 Wall St..
New Y,:,i K.


TOMP WEA7iBER. Mn ^
CA RS ,g 'd ni'I
g a a ,, g =" ..h.d.

172 103 7F, Sl .i 1 v u'! SW
1873 9. 74 S 3 ; S 1 ; 7C. SE
1874 9 '' O) .i I; 1 7.48 S
1i '6 l 7u t ".37 S. 0 .t S E
187t 1,"' 71 3-' .i 1 ,b '2.5'i S
16,77 I" :,6 8K2 17 8 i 1 I .E
&1878 37 7 22 l, 4 i.' NE
1 0;t 1H 6, l'i 4 ISN 4 f II SW
18 680 7 ;" Sd I 14 s I 'i 3 SW
I1881 91' 7' 84 1t; 1-" I SW
IS62 91 71 81 6 18 ; W
Il:w :6 ;9 4 1 17 I i 88i SW
1 %.e1 ,1 1.9 8b e 18 ; 6..)2 .W
165 9 ; 1 628 i; 4 7 1. .iW"
1 I6 "1 7u 81 2 i i 1 I t<7 SW
J. W. SIITH,
Sergt. Signal (or,',. U. S. A.

S(roves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
looking finely.
WILLI.AMS, CLARK & Co.

Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying thIe bLest facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
179 GatesAve.. Brooklyn. N. Y.

"We Know by Experience."
For three years. we have.used Brad-
1ey's Vegetable" F1rtilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sA61d in' Florida. We shall use it again
this year.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience wvoat we say regarding
this fertilizer.
SWOFFORD t& WILDER.
Ft. Mason. Fla.

Opinions of the Press.
Froni'riteGainesville Morning Recoid.)
"We.are in receipt of the FLORIDA
F.sn&m1R 1AND FRtnT-GROWER, published
by'G. H. Jones & Bro., at the Times-
Union office, and edited by Prof. A. H.
Curtiss. IE is first-class in every respect,
and is a paper which every farmer and
fruit grower should .have. Its articles
are full of plain,'gooii, common sense.
: We hfiope 1b give our readers thebenefit
of many of its articles. Success to .the
enterprise." : -. .. .
.kRF'0om the Florida Baptist Witness:)
' The" FAIM R-:-AD FRUIT-GROWER
comes to our .table regularly and
promptly, and is full of interesting and
Snstructive matter. It certainly excels


Reins ii.


Retail.
The- I'oll.f1n-,i, ; ,ir.t.>t,' :s are carefully re- '
vSmd for W-driay n'a -, i atlrd.M v' ,apr
irouli quo-:ttionn i- 'rnf hb.. rcv d-.& lt's-, in the .
CI.t% MalK.-t.
m it i aI Fo tnI l' hIi.
i ,r,'-i ''iT .r:. ii~ i.l-i, lltL .11 SO r:]ij- i.-er bdnr-
dir-d, and I',. I., i .15 ,' -I z 'er 1'Inin :-In .
Fl,-,rida Ca'irjti:, w.h,:,h:. ,L:- i-,'n !:,.r b tr-L
u ,d r,:I ,t -I w.I rkn t '. l-.nt r
lP .li'.- nwrri-uAn.l at D*" a- iz r.ir
h -l I 1 I'tll t .,1 '1 L.,*:e l P T. :l I t [ : ..... '
L 1u>: wni,- ,l,'.: ait it-'i'. >.' it- r--,' d amz
br;''l's Iad rc >i 1:itls, Ai p.r 0.',.d .1 rn '."
p arui, -5 .:,!' -. t I .? ,,ii a :.m i'',nt. r ht ld'iLuldr 'd,
nt,. .: [ tl Lit ]'. ,ir ;ir t ho r l .:.nn r. !'' ,' -
E --," *"1,1 i" f,'nir d-1.ru tDi. -_'Ir"- r <::uUt:( I
h- =; lI u .ij r L.'I .:.n : I-i lt 1,. 15 i, .. .d l .i
pit' diz r, ,u ". t a t ', d.i t -'A .int,. .
B.-,i.:.n Lati!r,',."t':t I 5 'h ? s-'m"',h flet rt -
each. [ t ; : m l il".n
N 'ew Y.Irk 'b i I,:,-.,-, t. '.-. -T -i,:.n- a q,7a ;
peti rrEih!, .i 'ri 1. l .'i- 1, *,,:1 i t ,w '4r.'Im, or
'( ) ,l10i '. ri t ', I -, L! 1 ,:.
g,-, Pi tz "i wn z ,i tn ruvi .-.t z. `it,21' I5 per5dtai ,,p r
sniu rZ'ra FU '4v. p d._ tn. 1 .JI' LI. Th.'
,tIINii '.- t! J,' -ib Th,:U r o rr,ic hur.,th.:o
f.m r 1ICI:--, r. ..
Li'-,- p.,:,IIIr.7--,.ti- k,ni -r-LAzi-0!1 "N'S, 3-41)
C Te rl n' Ir.' ir ,'. ,:,-Int. :n. 're.:-edt
p o rm'v, 1'e" 1',,n.in'l-,:ient- rhal-ti, Kpi,'-











SEA 5LADrifri)
- h: 1 o f,
N .,, [t ,,I 13 rn ,'.t_[ l tI, .'l ,3- !',.l':, i i'.: i': =Dii 'O~i
PO-W t -Ml' 1An- 1 F,,D-i' p,:uQ ; FI,)-:t ,J; b :.i',l1
l.er p,.,id;d v^.il 2,:,,'."!, ,:icul.-_; P.:,.i Lc 1l,.isi'=, ,:.-[il-_;
. r -itiea t j:,-' n,:,d t ',, ," 1i'i l. 1c- l-.









T-ne mrkr t quet nd ,,lc~ ma
m \&ti I I n I I"'I> L`r- 11 F~:>i7.1:n Ilcc a 25 .: .1 i i : r Fin
Witto, m,:h,r.n wnol,-:iwale 51Li ,'i5,i I per bun-
1hlnd, iand r.t-loi i,.r L., J i t irl.. ie natnr-












E Lir IFnme2 :El ~
le],:,n i :' A I. >L.'t'. l .
C rI. i C- ...I ti ij :."'>: *:t it 2 n' tp l per z.
h.Zru--, ,'lh,'l l'it.ll- [t i:.,.,-'" *.'-hti. 4.
i L e tin'd|,: 1 =-+'at .:'i- .i-r i 'i a t S e n ts p ,-r d r.zi n
nIe-.-,d Q r .t oil t or''iorr l aeru.
,-,kr;' w-holiefil at 7.aiS e,*nts pc-r quarl,
. d r, nii ,' ~ :'Q^ j r: i~ i '' 2
E.?t. Piaijt w-h,:,i=t!, ,itr 1 Sl ,i:")i.j Iper dozen., .
and iii a Sanl "i, peri dozen.
SA4i 'AtNNAH oCOTrTON MARKET.
SAVANNAH, Juiy ,:.--The Trriand 'iroton
ma'k,=t trloed 'dry a .t mtae bleii, -i qani.A.o
M rtlfl? li'r .... ................ ........... .. iV.i
Good nidr d nIn o..... .. ....... om
M utll i ag ..... ..... ..... .... .. .... h
L w- _ruiliPiMg ........ ... ... .. .
Good ordinary ... .. ................. .
The net rJu.-eip -t were I bbale-i: -ro-s re-
I t"ii' I baii; sale- o baes; sI,'k aI tbrs
por 104O ainei-ict'.
Fxportn to te -'nortiraentc- baler exports
ICoa_nnie tA5 hale-;.
SE.\ ISLA- D (OTTON.
Then markeIt ii qltuiet and nominal at un-
rchaneed quotItioi-. Litle stoi k for nad Sand
mci v any ar.i'iug.
C mmiion Fioridas ....... .......... 15
M -1ediam ...... ...... .. ..... ...... ... 16
Good Medim .a ...... ............. 17
M ed u niu ne............ ........ ........ .... i
F in e ............. .. ................ ... .. .. l'r, 2
E xtra Finei .. ... ... ...... .... .
( ar'_ i e. ................. ....... '
: OUR SPECIAL& L MLA KETS. .
Latles Qnotations of dIorida Fruits
aVI Vegetiables.
Sprcial to tbeTiONEa-UNA0N:]
NEW YORK, July 9.-Lair arrivals of to-
watoes are nearly all lansaleable -nd mostly
SoAd ior7a0cwCtLD 0f the steamnship company.
Would advise the stopping of all shipmenw.
W'atermeioni iar,, in larger reeipt and lowEr
at1., 5 .
G. O- PALMESP
LEAF TOBACCO MARKETS.
NEW YORK, July O.--There Lha been miien
&,ntvitv iu W\\itern i,,af" tobacco fCl'several
da, rnd an advance in prizs in conse-
C( iCrie O1 ofnfa'orable clop sports. The
niarket is still strong,aud ithe.speculative ten-
deercv indlictes iitherr advance. There is
prailaill;., ,no chang," in Havana and Sutm-
matra.
L'lUiISVILLE, July 9.-The hil.hest prices
ofC th. season have been obtained during the
past week, and tll grades we firm and Iook-
ln a upwards, leaf and lugs selling at r'om 85
to 13 I) per I"O) potidi: .
ST. LOULS, July' .-The market Is stron
and advancing. The bull element i6 evlden,-
ly in thej eaic d.e.nde % 5.. '.. .
R CHt(_'ONDI;Jffly 9;-;T-he iparket. Isflively;-"
but thr tenclency to'a advance is checked' by
the larg6 stock 6n 'H rfd at the principal
markets. ..44.. .-; .* -! .

"DILET, GROVERA CO;, 1,
SitATH *AGETS FOR -.. -.'.-
r. '. ;- .- -. ',
P BASIN FERTILIZER" CO'S ::

SOLUABLE SE& ISLA-.D;G.AN_0i

-DISSOLVED BONE'ii4D'ARK~iX


S .AND W HOL .SAT DEAL .ls i. _. "

....I. A FRO, 6S A ..P Uoi .i. ;. .-
~ 7 .Y' : .. ':
Get our Prices before.bu.yfig. ".. ^.,

_NUWA Y.-+ D.q.-.;.At
SSOL-OTBD'BY- A.:'
-" o .- co ~ ssm :.. =':
OCEAN ST R ""z, '-
, .. ... j o* a.fT.r =,.[h --
"*' ,:... ; .,. J .'i-;--V? S^, ^s.-M@=

.." :.*' "* .: :' .; ." .: ::. ':" '
--

': ... ".+;:. It, '